Citation
Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Creation Date:
1974
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

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This item has the following downloads:


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WE ENCOURAGE JOB HOPPING.
In fact at Sun Oil we've just adopted a new system
that promotes it. Internal Placement System.
SHere's how it works. Say you're in Production
and you decide to take a crack at Marketing.
Next opening in Marketing we'll tell you. You can
apply and be considered. First. You have freedom
to experiment and move around at Sun. You
learn more and you learn faster.


SWhy do we encourage job hopping? Because
we happen to believe our most valuable corporate
assets are our people. The more our people
know, the stronger we are. Now-you want to
know more? Ask your Placement Director when
a Sun Oil recruiter will be on campus. Or write
for a copy of our Career Guide. SUN OIL
COMPANY, Human Resources Dept. CED.
1608 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.


An Equal Opportunity Employer M
An Equal Opportunity Employer MIF









EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien

Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
(904) 392-0881

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Chairman of Publications Board
Clemson University
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
SOUTHWEST: J. R. Crump
University of Houston
James R. Couper
University of Arkansas
EAST:G. Michael Howard
University of Connecticut
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES
UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers
University of California, Santa Barbara


FALL 1974


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME VIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1974


GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES

162 Digital Computer Control of Processes
Armando Corripio

164 Process Technology of Solid-State
Materials and Devices
Lee F. Donaghey

168 Multivariable Control and Estimation
Thomas F. Edgar

172 Chemistry of Catalytic Processes
B. Bates, J. Katzer, J. Olson and
G. Schuitt

176 Multi-Purpose Video-Taped Course
in Data Analysis
R. Greenkorn and D. Kessler

180 Advanced Thermodynamics
Kraemer D. Luks

184 Wastewater Engineering
P. Melnyk and R. Prober

188 Enzyme and Biochemical Engineering
L. L. Taclarides

194 The Science of Synthetic and
Biological Polymers
Curt Thies


DEPARTMENTS
159 Editorial
214 Division Activities


FEATURES
204 Review of the History of Mass Transfer
Thomas K. Sherwood



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division. American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $6 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright () 1974. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.
157







What we're doing for your health

is a lot more comforting

than a bowl of chicken soup.


Little things at home relieve a lot
of your misery. But we offer human
solace too.
Many medicines you find at a drug-
store are made with our chemicals.
Aspirin to bring down your burn-
ing fever, lozenges to soothe your
poor sore throat, sedatives to let you
fall asleep at last.
We're also involved in more
serious things.
We make radioactive diagnostic
materials that pinpoint cancer.
And plastic for heart valves
human beings can live with.
We invented an Oxygen Walker. It
helps people with emphysema move
freely around again


Our CentrifiChem blood analyzer
helps a hospital make more than 20
vital blood tests with up to 300
chemical analyses an hour.
Much of the life-saving oxygen in a
hospital is ours.
And we constantly experiment.
We are 123,000 involved human
beings who work all around the world
on things and ideas for every basic need.
So today, something we do will
touch your life.
And may even help save it.



Today, something we do
will touch yourlife.

An Equal Opportunity Employer














dait&i*al


A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS

As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school.
In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in
your growth toward confidence, independence,
and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. Previous issues
included articles on applied mathematics, trans-
port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics,
particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional
operations, computer aided design, statistical anal-
ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and
certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio-
medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in pre-
vious years. If your department chairman or pro-
fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before
you read the articles in these issues we wish to
point out that (1) there is some variation in
course content and course organization at different
schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en-
gineering that we have not been able to cover, and


(3) the professors who have written these articles
are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize
that particular area of study.

Where should y/ou go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many very fine
chemical engineering departments and each of
these has its own "personality" with special em-
phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in
choosing a graduate school you might first con-
sider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If
you have a specific research project in mind, you
might want to attend a university which empha-
sizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if
you are unsure of your field of research, you might
consider a department that has a large faculty
with widely diversified interests so as to ensure
for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department
with a small enrollment of graduate students. In
any case, we suggest that you begin by writing
the schiils that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue.
You will probably also wish to seek advice from
members of the faculty at your own school.
But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.
Sincerely,
RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Note to Department Chairmen, See Page 179.


FALL 1974








letters



Fire Destroys
ChE Library
Dear Sir:
Due to a fire, we lost our Chemical Engineering
Building; the worst consequence was the loss of
our library. The total losses are evaluated in the
order of $400,000. We have already received help
from various departments of Chemical Engineer-
ing in our country and from U.S.A. as well.
This letter is to ask you to publish an appeal
in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION to
those departments of Chemical Engineering that
might have books or journals which they'd be
willing to donate. These would be most useful to
our students and to our research staff.
Faculty of Engineering
National University of LaPlata
LaPlata, Argentina


Compliments for
Carberry Commentary
Dear Sir:
I just finished the Winter 1974 Issue of
Chemical Engineering Education and felt com-
pelled to compliment the authors of the sketch of
Professor Carberry.
I thought it informative, as are most of your
articles, but more importantly, it was good
writing. In turn light and humorous and con-
taining scholarly references, it presented a pic-
ture of a truly professional teacher who is clearly
a man to be admired and respected. A good
change from the dusty picture of a equally
dusty professor.
Cordially,
R. J. Wall
Industrial Relations Administrator
Westvaco


ARE YOU APPLICATIONS ORIENTED?


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industry-oil refineries, gas processing plants, and
petrochemical installations. We are very active in
liquefied natural gas, methyl fuel, coal conversion, and
nuclear fuel processing.


If you want to find out about opportunities, loca-
tions you can work in (world wide) and why Fluor is
the best place to apply what you have learned, meet
with the Fluor recruiter when he comes to your campus
or contact the College Relations Department directly.

Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc.
1001 East Ball Road
Anaheim, CA 92805


U ENGINEERS AND
V FLUOR CONSTRUCTORS, INC.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES



Twelfth Annual Lectureship
Award to Elmer Gaden


The 1974 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer was Dr. Elmer L. Gaden, Jr., of Columbia
University. The purpose of this award lecture is to
recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in an
important field of fundamental chemical engineering
theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering
educator who delivers the Annual Lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and
an engraved certificate. These were presented to this
year's Lecturer at the Annual Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Meeting June 28, 1974 at Rensselaer Polytechnic In-
stitute, Troy, N.Y. Dr. Gaden spoke on "Biotechnology-
an Old Solution to a New Problem."
Elmer L. Gaden, Jr., was born and raised in Brooklyn,
New York. He attended the Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and transferred to Columbia University through
enlistment in the naval training program of World War
II. He graduated from Columbia during the war and later
received the Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the same
school.
Professor Gaden worked for Chas. Pfizer & Co., in
biological process development, before returning to Colum-
bia. He has had subsequent industrial experience with
Biochemical Processes, Inc., a company which he founded
and directed from 1958 to 1971, and with Radiation Ap-
plications, Inc.
With a primary technical interest in bioengineering,
especially the analysis, design, and control of processes
based on the activities of microbial populations, Professor
Gaden has made important contributions to the understand-
ing of aeration and oxygen transfer and to the kinetic re-
lationships in such processes, microbial process design
and control, and air sterilization by filtration. Dr. Gaden
has also been the editor of the journal Biotechnology and
Bioengineering since its inception. In 1970 he was the
first recipient of the Food & Bioengineering Award of
the AIChE.
Since 1949, Professor Gaden has been a member of
the faculty at Columbia University with teaching
responsibilities in chemical engineering, bioengineering,
and, since 1966, history. He has also been responsible for
initiating interdisciplinary undergraduate instruction in
"technology and society." From 1960 to 1969 and again
from 1971 he has been Chairman of the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. In 1971
he received the Great Teachers Award and in 1973 the
Harold C. Urey Award of Phi Lambda Upsilon,


PREVIOUS LECTURES
1963, A. B. Metzner, University of Delaware,
"Non-Newtonian fluids."
1964, C. R. Wilke, University of California, "Mass
transfer in turbulent flow."
1965, Leon Lapidus, Princeton University, "As-
pects of modern control theory and applica-
tion."
1966, Octave Levenspiel, Illinois Institute of Tech-
nology, "Changing Attitudes to Reactor De-
sign."
1967, Andreas Acrivos, Stanford University,
"Matched Asympototic Expansions."
1968, L. E. Scriven, University of Minnesota,
"Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces."
1969, C. J. Pings, California Institute of Tech-
nology, "Some Current Studies in Liquid State
Physics."
1970, J. M. Smith, University of California at
Davis, "Photo chemical Processing-Photo
Decomposition of Pollutants in Water."
1971, William R. Schowalter, Princeton Univer-
sity, "The Art and Science of Rheology."
1972, Dale F. Rudd, University of Wisconsin,
"Synthesis and Analysis Engineering."
1973, Rutherford Aris, University of Minnesota,
"Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Catalysts
-a Chemical Engineering Symphony."


FALL 1974










4 Gouse ont


DIGITAL COMPUTER CONTROL OF PROCESSES


ARMANDO B. CORRIPIO
Louisiana State University
Baton PRIuI Louisiana 70803

COMPUTER PROCESS CONTROL, as space
travel, is no longer a dream but a reality. The
time when every new plant of significant size will
be equipped with a control computer is rapidly
approaching. Recognizing this fact the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at LSU initiated
six years ago a course on the use of digital com-
puters in process control. This graduate course is
one of four offered by the department in the
area of automatic process control:


Course Title


Level


Introduction to Automatic Control
Theory Senior/Graduate
Process dynamics and adaptive control Graduate
Optimal control of processes Graduate
Digital Computer Process Control Graduate
The first of these courses is a pre-requisite to
the other three which are independent of each
other. Each of the graduate courses covers differ-
ent aspects of modern control theory with actual
or potential application to chemical processes. As



Computer process control, like space
travel, is no longer a dream but a
reality; the time when every new plant
of significant size will be equipped with
a control computer is rapidly approaching.



a matter of historical interest, two of these
courses were initiated over two decades ago by
the late Arthur G. Keller, as survey courses in
process instrumentation and control.
The objective of the course is to familiarize
the student with the control capabilities of the
digital computer and with the techniques he will
need to design the control routines to be executed
by the computer. The course outline given in
Table I is a list of the topics covered.


Table I
COURSE OUTLINE
I. Introduction
1. Review of automatic process control theory
2. Description of the computer hardware
necessary for real-time operation
3. Programming the computer for real-time
operation
1. Economic justification
II. Design of Sampled-Data Control Systems
1. The algebra of z-transforms
2. Stability of sampled-data systems
3. Effect of noise and digital filtering
III. Feedback Control Algorithms
1. Synthesis of control algorithms
2. Discrete equivalent of standard two- and
three-mode controllers
3. Process models and tuning techniques
4. Effect of sampling interval
IV. Advanced Control Techniques
1. Feedforward control
2. Cascade control systems
3. Interaction index and decoupling of multi-
variable systems
I. On-line identification and adaptive control
.. Compensation of transportation lag
V. Optimization of Process Operation
1. Formulation of the optimization problem
and the performance index
2. Linear programming and constrained optimum
3. On-line search methods

CONTROL LOOP ANALYSIS

A REVIEW OF AUTOMATIC control theory
is given in the form of an analysis of the
different components of the typical control loop.
Special attention is devoted to the conventional
two- and three-mode analog controllers for later
comparison with the digital version of the feed-
back controller. As part of the introduction the
student, who is usually familiar with pro-
gramming the computer for "batch" solution of
scientific problems, is exposed to the special hard-
ware and programming considerations required
for "real-time" operation, i. e. continuous atten-
tion of a process that takes place in actual time.
The significant factors involved in economically
justifying a computer in a process control appli-
cation are also presented.
The course as taught at LSU uses z-transform


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























I
Armando B. Corripio is Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He attend-
ed the University of Villanueva in Havana, Cuba until closed by the
Castro regime in April 1961, on the day of the Bay of Pigs in-
vasion. He holds B.S. (1963), M.S. (1967) and Ph.D. (1970) degrees
in Chemical Engineering, all from L.S.U. His industrial experience
includes five years of process simulation and control systems design
with Dow Chemical Company. Member of AIChE, ISA, SCS and
COED, his main interest lies in the areas of computer simulation
and automatic control theory. He is author or co-author of over
thirty articles and presentations, is married and has four children,
ages 1, 7, 9 and 10.

algebra as a tool in the analysis of the sampled-
data control loop, and in the synthesis of digital
control algorithms. Pulse transfer functions and
their use in the determination of the stability
of the loop are given particular attention, as are
the most common forms of data holds on the
computer output signals. The effect of noise on
the sampling process and its attenuation by digital
filtering are also presented.
The synthesis of digital control algorithms is
illustrated by the presentation of the deadbeat,
Dahlin and Kalman algorithms. These algorithms
will, under certain conditions, cause excessive
switching of the control valve, a phenomenon
known as "ringing". As a result of a term project
assigned to one of the students in the course, a
demonstration of ringing utilizing the Chemical
Engineering Hybrid Simulation Laboratory has
been developed. The demonstration consists of a
continuous stirred tank chemical reactor, simulat-
ed on the analog computer and controlled by the
digital computer through the hybrid interface.
(See Table II). Given this set-up the student is
able to obtain a model of the process, synthe-
size a digital control algorithm which is pro-
grammed on the digital computer, and observe
the effect of ringing. He is also able to identify
and remove the ringing poles in the control al-
gorithms and observe the performance of the


Table II
HYBRID) COMPUTERR HARDWARE
Analog Computer
Electronic Associates Model 680
75 operational amplifiers
30 integrator/summer networks
20 multipliers square/square-root cards
2 adjustable function generators
Assorted parallel logic: AND gates, FLIP 'FLOPS,
etc.
Hybrid Interface
Electronic Associates Model 693
24-channels of analog-to-digital conversion
12 channels of digital to analog converters
16 digital output lines (logic levels)
8 digital input lines (logic levels)
6 interrupt lines
Digital Computer
Xerox Model Sigma-5
20,000 words, 32 bits per word
Hardware floating-point unit
750,000 bytes of bulk storage (disk)
Card reader
Line printer
Operator's console
6 levels of priority interrupt
Software
Sigma Macro-symbol assembler
FORTRAN compiler
SL-1 Simulation Language
Hybrid subroutine package (FORTR'AN callable)




A demonstration of ringing using the ChE
Hybrid Simulation Lab has been developed.
It consists of a continuous stirred tank chemical
reactor simulated on analog computer, controlled
by digital computer through hybrid interface.



"ringing-free" algorithm. The set-up can also be
used to test the different methods of obtaining
simple models of a process, and to observe the
effect of varying the computer sampling interval.

OBSERVING COMPUTER RESPONSE

M ANY OF THE INDUSTRIAL applications of
digital control computers involve the use of
discrete equivalents of the conventional analog
two- and three-mode controllers. A number of
methods to tune the parameters of the analog con-
trollers have been adapted to their digital counter-
parts. These include Zeigler-Nichols, Cohen and
Coon, and a number of empirical formulas de-
(Continued on page 203.)


FALL 1974









41 Q4,Ut i44 9kct4wauc M&&eid:


PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

OF SOLID-STATE MATERIALS AND DEVICES

LEE F. DONAGHEY
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, Calif. 94720


T HE CHEMICAL ENGINEER is making an in-
creasing number of contributions to solid
state industries, from ultrapurification and single
crystal production to process engineering in semi-
conductor integrated electronics. The rapidly-
evolving technological requirements of the highly
competitive electronic materials and device in-
dustries are creating new horizons for well train-
ed chemical engineers with specialization in solid
state engineering: a working knowledge of solid
state chemistry, basic device physics and process
chemical engineering. In response to the im-
portance of contributing to solid state engineer-
ing education, a new course has been introduced
into the chemical engineering curriculum at the
University of California, Berkeley.
The foundations of the modern solid state
industries developed slowly in the early 1900's.
Among the most important concepts was that of
crystal lattice defects introduced by Frenkel in
1926. Schottky and Wagner, Fowler and others
then developed the statistical mechanics of
crystals to describe states of disorder in a nearly
perfect lattice. Wilson also contributed to this
development with the band theory of solids which
was based on quantum mechanics. The recogni-
tion of the importance of defects in solids has had
a profound influence on our current understand-
ing of many diverse phenomena including solid
state reactions, heterogeneous catalysis, semicon-
ductor electronics, photography and laser physics.
The defect chemistry of solids is of such continu-
ing importance in solid state engineering that
this subject, including the supporting basics of
solid state chemistry were chosen for the basis
of the new course.
The beginning of electronic device technology
began in earnest with the disclosure of the
Schottke-barrier field-effect transistor in 1940. At


Lee F. Donaghey received the B.A. degree in Physics from Har-
vard College, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Science
from Stanford University. His industrial experience has been in the
semiconductor and microwave electronics industries. Following a
postdoctoral appointment at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stock
holm, he joined the Chemical Engineering faculty at the University
of California, Berkeley in 1970. His research interests are concerned
with the synthesis, thermochemistry and process kinetics of elec-
tronic materials.


that time the device operated at a net power
loss, and it was evident that new experimental
technologies were needed for ultrapure single
crystal production and device processing. New
purification procedures such as zone refining were
introduced, as well as techniques able to control
surface defects. The new approaches ultimately
climaxed in power gain with the Bardeen-Brat-
tain point contact transistor in 1947. Since that
time advancements in process technology of solid
state devices have appeared at an ever accelerat-
ing rate. In recent years, planar processing, large
scale integration, and single crystal film process-
ing have expanded the techniques and needed ex-
pertise of the process engineer. The basis for
understanding these developments in process
technology, and techniques for applying them in
current applications, form the latter part of the
new course.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








COURSE OBJECTIVES

T HE MAIN PURPOSE of this course then is
to provide students with an introduction to
and working knowledge of (a) the chemistry of
the solid state, (b) theory and practice of single
crystal growth and (c) process operations and
technologies for solid state device fabrication. An
important theme is that the attainable physical
properties of electronic, magnetic and optical
materials are often limited by process-induced de-
fects, and as a consequence, fabrication processes
must be designed to control materials properties
so as to optimize the performance of the final
device. The student acquires an understanding of
the methods for control of electrically, mag-
netically and optically active defects and gains in-
sight into the effect of processing variables on
materials and defect-related device properties.
The course is a chemical engineering elective
designed for senior and first year graduate stu-
dents of chemical engineering who are interested
in a materials engineering option. Nevertheless,
this one-quarter course has attracted students
from departments of electrical engineering,
chemistry and materials science. A prerequisite
for enrollment is a basic course in materials
science or materials engineering; most of the
chemical engineering seniors at Berkeley, and
many entering graduate students have completed
this prerequisite. In addition, some chemical
engineering students concurrently enroll in an
electrical engineering course in Electronic Cir-
cuits designed specifically for non-majors.
The new course complements several elec-
tronic materials and related curricula within the
university. The chemical engineering courses in
Mass Transfer, Transport Phenomena and
Chemical Processing of Inorganic Compounds co-
ordinate with the sections on crystal growth,
chemical vapor deposition, oxidation and diffu-
sion. The course treatment of silicon is extended
in the electrical engineering courses Processing
and Design of Integrated Circuits, and Semicon-
ductor Devices; also, the treatment of point defect
thermodynamics provides a basis for advanced
physical property studies offered in Physics and
Chemistry of Semiconductors. Two complemen-
tary courses in physical properties are offered in
materials science: Thermal and Optical Proper-
ties of Materials and Electrical and Magnetic
Properties of Materials. Nevertheless, the treat-
ment of the defect chemistry of solids and rela-


Table I.
OUTLINE OF COURSE ON
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
Ref.
1. Introduction: Solid-State Engineering; 1, 2
Materials and Devices; Process
Technologies.
2. Crystal Chemistry: Crystal Structures 1, 3-5
and Bonding; Energetics of Defects; Point
Defect Equilibria; Laser Crystal Chemistry.
3. Electronic Defect Structure: Equilibria 1, 3, 4
with Impurities; Transport Properties and
Lattice Defects.
I. Ultrapurification: Purification Schemes; 6, 7, S
Halide Transport; Zone Refining.
5. Crystal Growth: Use of Phase Equi- 1, 9, 10
libria; Czochralski Crystal Growth;
Growth from Solution.
6. Chemical Vapor Deposition: Kinetic 11, 12
Mechanisms; Chemical Transport; Vapor
Phase Epitaxy of Silicon and Gallium Ar-
senide-Phosphide.
7. Processing of Silicon Devices: Photoresist 2, 11
Technology; Chemical Etching; Oxidation;
Diffusion.
S. Discrete Component Processing: MOS 11, 13
Technologies; Packaging.
9. Electro-optical Device Processing: 14, 15
Solar Cells; Light-Emitting Diodes; Hetero-
structure Devices.
10. Magnetic Device Processing: Magnetic 16, 17
Thin Films; Garnet Film Memories.


The main purpose of the course is To
provide a working knowledge of solid-state
chemistry, theory and practice of single
crystal growth and process operations
and technology for solid state device fabrication.


tion to chemical phenomena in solid state
materials and device processing remains unique
to the new course.

COURSE CONTENT

T HE TEN TOPICAL sections shown in Table
I comprise the course content. The student
is introduced to the field of solid state engineering
and shown how materials purification, crystal
growth and select processing steps influence the
performance of solid state devices. Single crystals
and working devices serve as in-class examples:
3" dia. germanium crystals, ultra-high purity
compound crystals, and silicon memory chips,
light-emitting diodes and magnetic thin film
memories in different stages of fabrication.


FALL 1974








The fundamentals of crystal chemistry are
explored in the next section beginning with a
review of Bravais lattices and bonding. Magnetic
and ferroelectric crystal structures are examined
from an ion-centered approach, while optical,
semiconducting and superconducting crystals are
examined in terms of bonding and band structure.
Defects in solids are introduced, and mass action
relations between point defects solved by matrix
methods to obtain defect equilibria. Factors in-
fluencing substitutional ion solubilities in laser
crystals are explored. Defect equilibria between
electronic defects and impurities are then in-
troduced and related to electronic transport pro-
perties.
Section four presents ultrapurification schemes
for elements and compounds. The selected removal
of electrically active impurities is emphasized.
Two purification processes are examined in de-
tail: halide transport purification and zone re-
fining, using a case study approach for silicon and
group III-V compounds.
Crystal growth fundamentals are presented in
Section five, where phase equilibrium require-
ments and non-stoichiometry consequences are
explored for different growth methods. Interface
attachment kinetics and defect densities are re-
lated to crystallization driving forces for different
growth mechanisms. Czochralski crystal growth
of silicon and III-V compounds and solution


are explored. An illustrative problem treated is
described in Homework Example 2.
Section seven is devoted to unit processes for
solid state device fabrication. For several process-
es, chemical etching, oxidation and diffusion, there
exists a wealth of literature, and easily identified
rate dependence on lattice defects. Consequently,
these processes serve to exemplify the influence
process variables have on physical properties of
solid state materials.
In Sections eight through ten, process tech-
nologies of selected devices are presented: bipolar
and metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) transistors, solar
cells and light-emitting diodes and magnetic thin
film memories. For each, the sequence of process
operations is identified and the process conditions
and critical properties are outlined. The unit
processes examined earlier in the course are
drawn on as a basis for this section. In home-
work problems the processing conditions needed
to achieve a final device of given characteristics
are sought in terms of rate processes and process
alternatives.
Demonstrations supplement the lecture and
reading material, and provide closer contact with
industrial processes.* Czochralski crystal growth
is demonstrated, and melt convection simulated.
Chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated with
a graduate research reactor. The current-voltage
characteristics of electronic devices are demon-


The rapidly evolving technological requirements of the highly competitive electronic
materials and device industries are creating new horizons for well-trained chemical
engineers with specialization in solid state engineering: a working knowledge of
solid state chemistry, basic device physics and process ChE.


growth of garnets are treated as extended
examples. Interesting interactions are explored
between crystal growth phenomena and lattice
defects which influence both impurity solubility
and growth rates. A typical problem is shown in
Homework Example 1.
Reactor design and chemical reaction pro-
cesses of chemical vapor deposition are presented
in Section six, beginning with a discussion of
kinetic mechanisms and rate control regimes.
Closed system chemical transport crystal growth
fundamentals are explored. Finally, commercial
reactors, chemical reactions and growth condi-
tions for silicon and gallium arsenide-phosphide


strated with a semiconductor curve tracer.
A term paper was an integral part of the
course during the first two years of development.
This project served to integrate the course ma-
terial with a specific topic of interest to each
student. The conditions and deadlines for this
assignment were presented at the beginning of
the course, with a topic approved and abstract
written by mid quarter. The most successful
topics chosen are listed in Table II. In the last

*Supported in part by the U. S. Atomic Energy Com-
mission through the Inorganic Materials Research Division
of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Table II.
TERM PAPER TOPICS
MOS Processing Techniques.
Ion Implantation Techniques for the Manufacture
of New Semiconductor Devices.
Recent Innovations in Zone Relining.
Ihotoresist Properties and Use in Semiconductor
Processing Operations.
Light Emitting Diode Processing.
Laser Crystals: How they work and Some Pre-
parative Methods.
Modification of Solvent Compositions for Liquid
Phase Epitaxial Growth of Magnetic Thin-
Film Garnets.

year, this assignment was omitted to allow great-
er development of device process technologies
with illustrative, extended homework assign-
ments.
There exist no comprehensive text able to
cover the broad subject matter treated in the
course. Consequently, an extensive set of course
notes is provided. The book Solid-State Chemistry
by Hannay' has served as an introductory text,
with reading assignments drawn from the
reference list. Slides are used as a part of many
lectures to present examples from the reading.
Although the course material appears extensive,
experience has shown that well directed home-
work and reading assignments enable the con-
scientious student to handle the material without
difficulty.

SUMMARY
IN THE THREE YEARS during which this
course has been given the emphasis has ex-
panded from the fundamentals of solid state
chemistry and control of electrically active defects
toward a fuller explication of unit processes and
technologies for currently important electronic
devices such as bipolar and MOS integrated cir-
cuits, light-emitting devices, and "Illl.k- domain"
magnetic memories. Whereas the former
emphasis is more important for materials engi-
neers, this subject causes chemical engineers the
most difficulty. The exploration of basic processes
such as crystal growth, oxidation and diffusion
provides students with a better understanding
of the effect of process variables on defect-related
physical properties. Coverage of the process
technologies for specific solid state devices tends
to kindle the most interest and is more important
for preparing chemical engineers for roles in solid
state industries. Many alumni of this course have


already launched successful careers in local
electronics and solid state materials industries,
where the demand for the chemical engineer with
specialized skills in materials is increasing. rF

HOMEWORK EXAMPLE 1:
Neodemium Distribution in Czochralski Grown CaWO,

The addition of NaO to the melt significantly
affects the solubility of Nd- ions in CaWO,
through charge compensation with Na+ ions. In
this problem the distribution of Nd-' along a
CaWO, crystal grown by the Czochralski method
is to be calculated from distribution coefficients
for Nd and Na and from properties of the diffu-
sion boundary layer at the crystallizing inter-
face. The instantaneous ion concentrations in the
crystal are calculated by solving mass action rela-
tions for Schottky defect formation, Nd substitu-
tion on a Ca site with Ca vacancy formation, Na
substitution on a Ca site with formation of an
oxygen vacancy, and the time-dependent NaO
and Nd.0,: concentrations in the melt. This prob-
lem demonstrates the interdependence of defect
mass action relationships with crystal growth
conditions.

HOMEWORK EXAMPLE 2:

Chemical Vapor Deposition of GaAS ,P,

Phase equilibrium temperatures and deposi-
tion rates are explored within a barrel reactor
in which gallium arsenide-phosphide solid solu-
tions are deposited from GaCl, As,, P, and HC1
source vapors transposed by H_. The vapor-solid
reaction equilibria are solved simultaneously to
deduce the equilibrium temperature and solid so-
lution composition for the overall reaction. Side
reactions are omitted in this simplified analysis.
The deposition rates at lower temperatures are
determined by solving the set of component molar
flux equations for a film boundary layer. This
problem provides useful criteria for understand-
ing commercial reactors for electro-optical film
deposition.

REFERENCES
1. N. B. Hannay, 'Solid-Statl Chemisltry, Prentice-Hall.
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1!(;7.
2 I. 1. Baker, I). C. Koehlcr, W. O. Fleckenstein, C. E.
Roden and R. Sabia, Ph/!,sical I)e.ign of Electronic
S!stem.s, Vol. 3, Integratcdl Dccire a nd Connection
(Continued on page 198.)


FALL 1974










4 MoULTIVARIAE CL e iE


MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL AND ESTIMATION


THOMAS F. EDGAR
University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712

IN THE 1970 Graduate Education Issue of
Chemical Engineering Education, Lowell
Koppel lamented that advanced control techniques
had not been considered to be practical or effec-
tive in spite of the significant number of engineers
with graduate level training in process control.
Today, however, it appears that there is a real
opportunity for advanced control techniques to
have a significant impact on the practice of pro-
cess control in the chemical industry. Concomit-
antly, graduate education in control theory can
contribute to the emergence of the new control
methods.
Let us examine the current situation in more
detail. First, the dedicated process computer has
been made a reality via the development of inex-
pensive process control software and hardware.
Second, some of the ideas which have received
theoretical attention in the control literature have
now been subjected to experimental verification.
For example, the increase in effectiveness of
multivariable control, where the controller is fed
information from all outputs, over single loop
control (single measurement feedback) has been
clearly demonstrated by several investigators"-
Third, increased energy costs have caused super-
visory personnel to re-examine the economic
trade-off between energy consumption and pro-
duct specifications, both for steady state and
dynamic operation. Fourth, the use of the com-
puter for data acquisition and supervisory con-
trol as well as in single loop DDC has been ac-
cepted in the process industries-a development
which clears the way for further advances in
sophistication.
Given the current industrial situation, how
does one attempt to structure the graduate cur-
riculum in control so that it will present the im-
portant concepts but also eventually have some
impact on control practice? There are a number
of relevant facts to consider here:


Today there are fewer graduate students
specializing in process control, most of them
M. S. candidates with relatively short holdup
times. This situation together with faculty
logistics usually permit the offering of only
one graduate control course.
A chemical engineering graduate course in
control should not and need not duplicate
other engineering control courses. It should
emphasize theory and application indigenous
to the chemical process industry.
Since a classical control course based on
frequency domain analysis is traditionally
taught undergraduates, the graduate course
should interface with that background. In
order to communicate with a practicing con-
trol engineer, the graduate must be able to
speak in terms of transfer functions and PID
controllers. Unfortunately these subjects have
not been addressed in most advanced control
theory books based on time domain analysis.











__7
L .





Tom Edgar is an assistant professor at The University of Texas
at Austin. He came to Texas from Princeton University (Ph.D. 1971),
where he specialized in control theory and collision and trajectory
analysis, the latter two topics mainly applied to intercollegiate
competition ;n rugby and volleyball. His B.S. degree is from the
University of Kansas, and he has worked as a process engineer for
Continental Oil Company. At Texas he is engaged in teaching and
research in the fields of multivariable control, optimization, process
modeling, and energy systems.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Experimental computer control facilities,
if available, should be integrated into the con-
trol course. This is the surest way to lend
credibility to advanced control concepts. The
1970 survey of universities by the CACHE
Real-Time Task Force has shown that nearly
fifty chemical engineering departments had
acquired or were planning to acquire com-
puters for use in their laboratories.


COURSE PEDAGOGY

GIVEN THE ABOVE considerations, the
graduate offering in modern control theory
at the University of Texas has evolved into a
course on multivariable control and estimation.
The course emphasizes the development of con-
trol strategies based on state variable models but
not necessarily limited to the use of optimization
theory. The concepts of transfer functions, both
continuous and discrete, are introduced, and the
design of feedback control laws for single input-
single output systems is shown to be a subprob-
lem of the multiple input-multiple output design
problem. The majority of the course material is
based on linear (ized) systems, for which many
useful mathematical results have been developed.
Coverage of basic mathematical concepts, es-
pecially those of static optimization and matrix
techniques, is minimized in the interests of time.
Variations in the mathematical background of
the students can be rather wide, but it has been
found that most students will accept the scale-up
of a two dimensional example to a matrix expres-
sion. By later studying a higher order example,
they do obtain an appreciation for the power of
matrix notation.
An important ingredient of the course is the
providing of experience via computer simulation
and real-time computer control experimentation.
The experiments require knowledge of computer
programming (Fortran, Basic) ; however, the
student does not need to learn details on instru-
mentation or computer hardware although that
option is available.
As part of a large project on computer-based
education at the University of Texas, modulariz-
ing of certain portions of the course has been at-
tempted to strengthen the learning process, with
good success. A module consists of explanatory
material (both theory and application) on a
specific topic in which the student behavioral ob-
jectives or goals are clearly defined by the in-


structor. The student then proceeds to inde-
pendently learn the concepts via conjunctive use
of textbooks and material written by the instruc-
tor. Study questions are used to reinforce the
understanding of the module. By formulating the
module as a project with many options and alter-
natives and requiring the student or group of
students to write a report on their results, the
students' creativity in thought and expression is
stimulated. This procedure along with several
examinations indicate whether the student has



S. modularization of certain portions of the course
has been attempted to strengthen the learning
process, with good success... student eval-
uation has shown that this definitely
enhances the quality of the course.



attained the desired behavioral objectives. If the
students do not learn the specific concepts, then
the module should be altered so that they do.
Modules also provide additional experience in
independent study; the capacity for self-study
is a valuable trait for continued professional
development.
Student evaluation of the module approach
has shown that it definitely enhances the quality
of the course. The mathematics of modern con-
trol theory are rather difficult to master, and
supplementary information as well as study ques-
tions on the various subjects prove to be helpful.
The modules can sometimes stand in place of a
lecture; less than twenty percent of my lectures
have been displaced by this medium. In those
cases the lecture time is used for informal dis-
cussion of the concept or experiment under
study. The transferability of a module to another
school is another important consideration, and
great care has been exercised to design the
modules so that they could be implemented else-
where.

COURSE CONTENT

A GENERAL OUTLINE of the course is
given in Table I. A heavy emphasis is placed
on linear system theory, both for control and
estimation, since these topics have a much higher
probability of near-term application in the
chemical industry.


FALL 1974









Table I
COURSE OUTLINE
I. Review of Static Optimization
II. State Representation of Dynamic Systems
A. State Equations
B. Eigenvalues, Modal Analysis, Modal Control
C. Controllability, Observability
III. Dynamic Optimization-Continuous Time
A. The Variational Approach
B. The Linear Quadratic Problem (LQP)
C. Constrained Control, Minimum Time Control
I). Nonlinear System Control
IV. Dynamic Optimization-Discrete Time
A. State Equations
B. Discrete Dynamic Programming-LQP
V. State and Parameter Estimation
A. Observer Theory
B. Kalman Filtering
C. Nonlinear System Estimation
Modules have been written on the following
subjects:
IIB: modal analysis and control
IIIB: optimal multivariable control of a distilla-
tion column
IIIC: minimum time control of linear systems
(phase plane analysis)
V: sequential parameter estimation in a stirred
tank
The parameter estimation module has been used
with real-time computer data acquisition and
computation, while the other modules have used
simulation (digital and analog) for demonstrat-
ing the concepts. Equipment limitations have
previously prevented the application of actual ex-
perimentation to the first two modules, but this
problem has recently been resolved.
The textbook used is Modern Control En-
gineering by Maxwell Noton; the text more or
less covers the topics listed in Table I. The book


The course emphasizes the development of control
strategies based on state variable models but
not necessarily limited to use of optimi-
zation theory an important ingredient
is providing experience via computer sim-
ulation and real-time computer control experimentation.


is interdisciplinary in its presentation, although
not as extensive in scope as those books used for
additional study in the course3-". After a short
review of static optimization using the book, the
study of linear continuous system dynamics is
undertaken. Such subjects as eigenvalues/eigen-
vectors and their relationships to transient re-


sponse, canonical forms, state variable notation,
multivariable Laplace transforms, the transition
matrix, and the modal equations9 are presented
here.
At this point the student is prepared for the
first application of multivariable control. Pro-
portional control of the states is assumed to be
the most practical strategy for process regulation.
It can be easily shown that the addition of feed-
back control in effect shifts the eigenvalues of the
open-loop model. The proposed controller should
realize a quick-responding closed-loop system
where the eigenvalues have large negative real
parts. Thus the so-called pole placement or modal
control technique offers one multivariable con-
trol approach. One can adjust the elements of
the feedback matrix, K, to obtain the desired
closed loop behavior. This can be done intuitively,
by optimization techniques, or by other meth-
ods','', 1. The students are cautioned, however,
that the system eigenvectors can cause un-
predictable behavior. These factors are studied in
the first module.


TYPICAL PROBLEM
A PILOT SCALE distillation column system
in the laboratory can be introduced at this
juncture as a typical multivariable control prob-
lem. Since most multivariable systems are derived
from physical principles (black box multivariable
modeling techniques are not yet well-developed),
this approach is used for the column model de-
velopment. The Huckaba modelP2 for a column
with n trays and reboiler and condenser yields a
set of n + 2 nonlinear ordinary differential equa-
tions. The derivation is explained in detail in a
student handout. This model has been experi-
mentally verified and thus assumes some credibili-
ty. By linearizing the equations, a state space
model of the form,
x = Ax + Bu + Cd
is derived, where x, u, and d are the state, con-
trol, and disturbance vectors. This system can
be used as the focus of various linear multi-
variable control strategies, such as the modal
control technique mentioned above.
The second major approach for design of
multivariable controllers utilizes the the mini-
mum principle applied to the linear state equation
with quadatic objective function, the well-known
linear-quadratic problem (LQP). The basic op-
timal control structure for the LQP is linear feed-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








back; if the disturbance, d, is non-zero, the LQP
solution consists of proportional feedback plus
feedforward control. Thus the notion of feedfor-
ward control to anticipate the effect of the dis-
turbance, a concept which is now well-established
in control practice (via transfer function
analysis), arises in optimal multivariable con-
trol. By proper choice of the objective function,



One of the more interesting applications is the
control of a fluid catalytic cracker system ...
the distributed parameter version of the LQP
is briefly treated in class by discretization
of the spatial variable-"if you don't like it, lump it."



an optimal PID controller can be computed. For
simple systems this correlates closely with the
PID controller tuned using classical control
theory.'3 Optimal control theory clearly demon-
strates the effect of the integral model; it only
makes the controller more sluggish, but its ad-
vantages include compensation for model errors
and the smoothing of the control action.
The computation of multivariable control via
the LQP is rather straightforward, and there are
"canned" computer programs available for con-
troller design. Such a program, VASP" (Variable
Dimension Automatic Synthesis Program), links
available Fortran subroutines (e. g., integration
of Riccati equation, formation of transition
matrix, etc.) and requires a minimum of pro-
gramming effort, thus permitting the student to
concentrate on the interpretation of his results. In
the second module the student applies the LQP
computation to the distillation column model. The
articles on optimal feedforward feedback control
by Hu and Ramirez'" and Newell et al.' serve
as good supplementary papers.

THEORY VERSATILITY

EXTENSIONS AND APPLICATIONS of the
LQP are also discussed. The recent survey
article by Edgar et al.'" has reviewed the versatili-
ty of LQP theory and its applications; one of the
more interesting applications is the control of a
fluid catalytic cracker system." The distributed
parameter version of the LQP is briefly treated
in class by discretization of the spatial variable
("if you don't like it, lump it"). The discrete


version of the LQP is solved using discrete dy-
namic programming, which permits the discus-
sion of Bellman's principle of optimality. The
discrete LQP is discussed in conjunction with
digital control, and the conversion from con-
tinuous time to discrete time and the definition
of discrete state variables are covered here.
In the third module the subject of continuous
time dynamic optimization is continued with dis-
cussions of the linear minimum time problem and
various algorithms for solving it. Phase plane
analysis is an important tool for understanding
control synthesis, and real-time simulation of the
phase plane on an analog computer readily shows
how difficult it is to perform minimum time con-
trol. While minimum time control is open loop
control, it does exhibit a multivariable feedback
nature in that a switching function based on the
adjoint variables is defined via the minimum
principle.
The final section of the course is state and
parameter estimation. This area is relatively
difficult for the student because of the need to
use probability theory. For no noise in the sys-
tem, the Luenberger observer is used; for noisy
systems, the Kalman filtering algorithm must be
introduced. In order to show how a simple se-
quential linear least squares algorithm is de-
veloped (vs. a non-sequential algorithm), the
fourth module utilizes an experiment where the
computer sequentially estimates a single para-
meter in a linear discrete-time equation. This
equation is derived from an energy balance de-
scribing heat transfer in a stirred tank. The
theory follows the presentation of Young.'" This
experiment demonstrates many of the conver-
gence features of sequential estimators while in-
cluding real-life features such as process and
measurement noise as well as modeling errors. It
is simple enough (one unknown parameter, first
order o. d. e.) that the student can interpret the
experimental and computational results. The dis-
crete-time filter is then extended to continuous-
time systems; the analogy to the LQP is pointed
out. The experimental testing of state estimation
by Hamilton et al.'" at the University of Alberta
is a good applications paper for this section.
Due to a lack of time, the course does not
cover topics such as Lyapunov functions (particu-
larly as applied to suboptimal control and model
reference adaptive control), non-interacting con-
trol, or multivariable frequency response design.
(Continued on page 199.)


FALL 1974









4 Cau&e in tae


CHEMISTRY OF CATALYTIC PROCESSES


B. C. GATES, J. R. KATZER,
J. H. OLSON, and G. C. A. SCHUIT
University of Delaw'are
Newlrark, Delaware 19711

M OST INDUSTRIAL REACTIONS are cataly-
tic, and many process improvements result
from discovery of better chemical routes, usually
involving new catalysts. Because catalysis plays
a central role in chemical engineering practice,
it is strongly represented in chemical engineering
teaching and research at Delaware. A graduate
course entitled "Chemistry of Catalytic Processes"
is designed to present a cross section of applied
catalysis within the framework of detailed con-
sideration of important industrial processes. The
course brings together the subjects of chemical
bonding, organic reaction mechanism, solid-state
inorganic chemistry, chemical kinetics, and re-
actor design and analysis. There is no stronger
evidence of the value of integrating chemistry
and chemical engineering than the industrial
successes in catalytic processing.
Five classes of industrial processes are con-
sidered in sequence: catalytic cracking, catalysis
by transition metal complexes, reforming, partial
oxidation of hydrocarbons, and hydrodesulfuriza-
tion. Each class is introduced with a description
of the processes, which is followed by details of
the catalytic chemistry and process analysis and
reactor design.
To the extent that each subject allows, ties are
drawn between the reaction chemistry and process
design. For example, the new zeolite cracking
catalysts are used primarily because they have
high selectivity for gasoline production, but they
also have such high activity compared to the
earlier generation of silica-alumina catalysts that
they must be used diluted in a silica-alumina
matrix to prevent overcracking. Their application
has required redesign of catalytic crackers to ac-
commodate rapid reaction predominantly in the
riser tube (located upstream of what was former-
ly the fluidized-bed reactor) ; redesign must also
accommodate a changed energy balance resulting


from the reduced coke formation on zeolite
catalysts and must promote more complete coke
removal in regeneration. The reactor design may
based on a simplified series-parallel reaction net-
work, on the assumption of a small deviations
from piston flow in the riser, and on a balance
between the energy required for the endothermic
cracking reactions and the energy produced in
coke burn-off from catalyst particles in the re-
generator.



There is no stronger evidence of the value
of integrating chemistry and chemical
engineering than the industrial
success in catalytic processing.


The processes are introduced in an order leading
roughly from the simplest to the most complex chemical
concepts and from the best understood to the least well
understood catalytic chemistry (Table 1). Cracking is the
first subject presented because the zeolite catalysts have
known crystalline structures and relatively well defined
acid centers; the cracking reactions proceed via carbonium
ion intermediates, giving well characterized product dis-
tributions. The second subject, catalysis by transition
metal complexes, also involves well defined species and
is unified by the idea of the cis-insertion mechanism,
which is discussed on the basis of ligand field theory and
exemplified in detail by Ziegler-Natta polymerization.
Reforming introduces metal catalysis, the con-
cept of bifunctional reaction mechanism and ties
with acid catalysis. Theory of metal catalysis is
incomplete although solid-state theory and
molecular orbital calculations on small metal
clusters provide insight; a tie still remains to be
drawn between catalysis by metal complexes and
catalysis by clusters of metal atoms. The con-
cluding topics of partial oxidation and hydrode-
sulfurization involve solid state and surface
chemistry of transition metal oxide and sulfide
catalysts; there is a thorough understanding of a
few oxidation catalysts (for example, bismuth
molybdate catalyzing ammoxidation of propy-
lene) but for the most part the chemistry is not


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








well understood, and the ties between the
chemistry and the process design cannot be well
developed.


COHERENCE VIA CHEMICAL CONCEPTS

T HE COHERENCE of the course is provided
by the chemical rather than by the engineer-
ing concepts, and the latter are interwoven as
dictated by their practical value to the various
processes. For example, interphase mass transfer
is considered in analysis and design of the gas-
liquid reactors used in the oxo, Wacker, and vinyl
acetate processes, which involve homogeneous
catalysis by transition metal complexes. Mass
transport in catalyst pores is important in hydro-
desulfurization (affecting rates of the desired re-
actions and rates of reactions giving pore-blocking
deposits) ; the unique phenomena of mass trans-
port in the molecular-scale intracrystalline pores
of zeolites are introduced with catalytic cracking
and form the basis for an introduction to shape-
selective catalysis. Analysis of reactor and
catalyst particle stability is central to the dis-
cussion of catalytic oxidation processes, for which
catalysts are selected and reactors designed to
give high yields of valuable partial oxidation
products and low yields of CO,.
Instrumental methods of analysis essential to
catalyst characterization are introduced as they
are appropriate to the process, giving a represen-
tation of the breadth of their usefulness. For
example, chemisorption measurements, electron
microscopy and x-ray line broadening to deter-
mine metal surface areas and crystallite sizes are
introduced in discussion of catalytic reforming,
which involves supported-metal bifunctional
catalysts. Infrared spectroscopy is useful for
probing the detailed structures of transition metal
complexes (for example, the rhodium complexes
used as oxo catalysts) and for indicating the struc-
tures of acidic centers on zeolite surfaces. Elec-
tron spin resonance and magnetization studies
have provided essential information about oxida-
tion and hydrodesulfurization catalysts contain-
ing transition metal ions.
The course is an attempted synthesis of
chemistry and chemical engineering; the synthesis
is traditional in practice, but not in teaching, and
there is a lack of appropriate secondary literature
sources. Consequently we have prepared a
thorough set of typewritten notes (portions of
which have been published as review articles


(1, 2)). The notes are based largely on primary
literature, and since the literature of industrial
processes does not give a good representation of
current practice, the interpretations may some-
times be out-of-date and erroneous.
Many improvements in the course have re-
sulted from criticisms given by practitioners, and
we have attempted to include students from in-
dustry in classes with first-and-second-year gradu-
ate students. The course has been offered in the
4:30 to 6:00 P.M. time period, which is convenient
to many potential students who are employed
nearby. Response has been favorable enough that
the course is also offered yearly as a one-week
short course. Those attending have been pre-
dominantly industrial chemical engineers and
chemists (in about equal numbers), some travel-
ing from as far as the west coast and Europe. Li

REFERENCES
1. Schuit, G. C. A., "Catalytic Oxidation over Inorganic
Oxides as Catalysts," lMeloires de In Societe Royale
dtes Sciences de Liege, Sixieme Serie, Tom I, 227, 1971.
2. Schuit, G. C. A., and Gates, B. C., "Chemistry and
Engineering of Catalytic Hydrodesulfurization," AIChE
J.lo, al 19, 417 (1978:).
TABLE. 1
Course Outline
I. ZEOLITE-CATALYZED CRACKING AND RELATED
PROCESSES
A. Processes
1. Catalytic Cracking
a. Process Conditions
b. Reactor Operation
c. Regenerator Operation
2. Hydrocacking and Isomerization
B. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Chemical Bond Theory
a. Atomic Orbitals and Energy Levels
b. Molecular Orbitals
i. Linear Combinations of Atomic Orbitals
ii. Symmetry Aspects
iii. The Secular Determinant
c. Multiple Atom Systems
i. Hybridization Theory
ii. Electron-Deficient, I)elocalized Molecular
Bonds
2. Carbonium Ions
a. Electron Deficiency Properties
b. Classical and Non-Classical Carbonium Ions
c. Reactivity and Characteristic Reactions
3. Cracking Reactions
a. Thermal Cracking
b. Acid-Catalyzed Cracking
C. Catalysts
1. Amorphous Catalysts
a. Preparation
b. Structure and Surface Chemistry
c. Acidity: Measurement and Correlation


FALL 1974











George Schuit received his Ph.D. from Leiden and worked at
the Royal Dutch Shell Laboratory in Amsterdam before becoming
Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at ihe University of Technology,
Eindhoven, The Netherlands. His research interests are primarily in
solid state inorganic chemistry and catalysis, and his recent publica-
tions are concerned with hydrodesulfurization and selective oxida-
tion of hydrocarbons. He has been on organizing committees for
the Roermond Conferences and the Third International Congress on
Catalysis, is a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences and
is on the editorial board of the Journal of Catalysis. In 1972 he was
National Lecturer of the Catalysis Society and Unidel Distinguished
Visiting Professor at the University of Delaware; he now holds joint
appointments at Eindhoven and Delaware.
Jon Olson obtained a Doctor of Engineering degree at Yale
and worked for E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company before
joining the faculty at Delaware. With wide ranging interests in


2. Crystalline (Zeolite) Catalysts
a. Structure and Surface Chemistry
i. Primary and Secondary Structural Units
ii. Type Y Zeolite
iii. Mordenite
b. Acidity
i. Chemical Probes
ii. Instrumental Probes
iii. Explanation from Structural Considera-
tions
iv. Active Sites and Activity Correlations
I). Reaction Mechanisms
1. Reaction Chemistry Related to Surface Structure
a. Amorphous Catalysts
b. Zeolite Catalysts
2. Hydrogen-Transfer Activity of Zeolites
3. Activity and Selectivity Comparison of Zeolites
and Amorphous Catalysts
4. Reaction Network and Deactivation: Quantitative
Models
E. Influence of Catalytic Chemistry and Mass Trans-
port on Choice of Processing Conditions
1. Superactivity of Zeolites
2. Mass Transport Effects in Zeolites; Shape-
Selective Catalysis
3. Effect of Zeolite Cracking Chemistry on Reactor
and Regenerator Design
F. Quantitative Reactor Design
1. Riser-Tube Cracker Design
2. Regenerator Design
II. CATALYSIS BY TRANSITION METAL
COMPLEXES
A. Processes
1. Wacker Process
a. Reactions, Product Distribution, and Kinetics
b. Processing Conditions
c. Reactor Design
2. Vinyl Acetate Synthesis
3. Oxo Process (Hydroformylation)
4. Methanol Carbonylation to Acetic Acid
5. Ziegler-Natta Polymerization: Transition from
Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Catalysis
B. Chemical Bond Theory
1. Ligand Field Theory
2. o- and 7r-Bonding in Complexes


chemical engineering, he has recently done research concerning
analysis of fixed-bed catalytic reactors, fouling of chromia/alumina
catalysts, partial oxidation, and automotive emissions control.
Jim Katzer received a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from MIT
and has been at Delaware since 1969. His primary research interests
are catalytic chemistry and mass transport in catalysts. His recent
work has emphasized applications of catalysis to pollution abate-
ment, particularly catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, supported
metal catalysis, catalyst poisoning mechanisms, and transport and
reaction in zeolites.
Bruce Gates received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington.
He did postdoctoral research with a Fulbright grant at the University
of Munich and worked for Chevron Research Company before join-
ing the Delaware faculty in 1969. His current research concerns
hydrodesulfurization, catalysis by transition metal complexes and
design and evaluation of synthetic polymer catalysts.


C. Catalysts
1. Wacker-Pd Chloride
2. Hydroformylation-Co and Rh Carbonyls
3. Carbonylation-Rh-Phosphine Complexes
4. Ziegler-Natta Polymerization-Transition
Metal Chlorides and Metal Alkyls
D. Reaction Mechanisms
1. The General Cis-Insertion Mechanism
a. Experimental Evidence
b. Molecular Orbital Explanation
2. Detailed Mechanisms of Particular Reactions
a. Ethylene Oxidation
b. Hydroformylation
c. Carbonylation
d. Stereospecific Polymerization
E. Quantitative Process Design
1. Design of Gas-Liquid Reactors; Mass Transfer
Influence
2. Preparation and Characterization of Solid
Catalysts
a. Transition Metal Complexes Bound to
Inorganic Surfaces
b. Complexes Bound to Organic Matrices
III. CATALYTIC REFORMING
A. Process
1. Principal Chemical Reactions
2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics
3. Supported Metal Catalysts
4. Process Conditions and Reactor Design
B. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Mechanisms of Metal Catalyzed Reactions
a. Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation and H-D
Exchange
b. Isomerization and Hydrogenolysis
c. Cyclization
d. Aromatization
2. Chemical Bond Theory
a. o-- and 7r-Bonds
b, Delocalized Bonds
-c. :Bands in Metals
d, d-orbital Contribution to Transition Metal
Bands
3. Metal Catalysis
a. Electrons and Metal Bond Strength
b. Electrons and Adsorption on Metals


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I I ~


I









c. Theoretical Calculations of Electronic Pro-
perties and Surface Bond Strength
d. Catalytic Activity: Surface Compound
Correlations
e. Alloys
i. Miscibility Gaps and Surface Composition
ii. Catalytic Activity: Ligand and Geometric
Effects
C. Dual-Functional Supported-Metal Catalysts
(Pt AlIO.)
1. The Metal, Practical Considerations
a. Preparation and Characterization
b. Effects of Crystallite Size on Activity
c. Sintering and Poisoning
d. Alloys
2. The Alumina Support
a. Preparation and Properties
b. Structure
c. Development and Control of Acidity
I). Reaction Networks and Reaction Mechanisms
1. Dual-Functional Nature of Catalyst
a. Reaction Steps and Relation to Catalyst
Functions
h. Studies with Physically Separated Func-
tions, Mass Transport Considerations
c. Effect of Support Acidity on Reforming
Reactions
d. Poisons and Poisoning Studies
2. (yclization Reaction Network and Reaction
Mechanism
3. Overall Net work
E. Relation of Processing to Catalytic Chemistry
1. Balancing the Strengths of the Catalyst
Functions
2. Mass Transport Effects on Selectivity
3. Optimum Design of Dual-Functional Catalytic
Systems
1. Regeneration Procedures Related to Catalyst
Structure and Stability
5. Lumping in Fixed Bed Reactor Design for
Many Reactions

IV. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS
CATALYZEI BY METAL OXIDES
A. Processes
1. Phthalic Anhydride
a. Reactions
h. Process Conditions
2. Maleic Anhydride
3. Acrolein and Acrylonitrile
I. Ethylene Oxide
II. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Chemical Bond Theory
a. Electrostatic Bonds in Solid Oxides
I. Changes in Cation Oxidation State
2. Allylic Intermediates
3. Mars-van Krevelen Mechanism
I. Reaction Network for Naphthalene Oxidation
C. Catalysts
1. Composition and Structure
a. V. ,O and MoO -V,,O
b. Bi..O -MoO
c. Fe.O -MoO
d. UO -Sb. O
e. Cu.O


f. Ag
2. Oxidation Selectivity
a. Correlations
i. Oxygen Bond Strength
ii. Metal Oxide Structure
b. Oxygen Interchange with Metal Oxides
c. Microscopic Considerations, Active Sites
I). Detailed Reaction Mechanisms involving Olefins-
Examples Based on Solid and Intermediate Com-
plex Structures
1. Solid Structures. Bismuth Molybdate and
Uranium Antimony
2. Surface Chemistry
3. Reactant-Surface Interactions
1. Reaction Mechanism
E. Quantitative Reactor Design-The Hot Spot Prob-
lem
1. Influence of Catalytic Chemistry on Choice of
Processing Conditions: the Need for Selective
Catalysts
2. Fluidized Bed Reactors
3. Fixed Bed Reactors
4. Heat and Mass Transfer in Catalyst Particles
5. Catalyst Particle Stability
V. HYDRODESULFURIZATION
A. Processes
1. Sulfur-containing compounds in Petroleum and
Coal-l)erived Liquids with Hydrogen
2. Compositions of (o Mo and Ni Mlo Catalysts
3. Processing Conditions
a. Petroleum Distillates
b. Petroleum Residua
c. Coal
I. Reactor Design: Fixed and Fluidized Beds
B. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Model Reactant Compounds
a. Desulfurization Reaction Networks of
Thiophene and Benzothioprenes
b. Kinetics of Hydrodesulfurization of
Thiophene and Benzothiophenes
2. Petroleum Feed Stocks
a. Composition of Feed Stocks
b. Simplified kinetics for Petroleum Feed
Stocks
C. Catalysts
1. Structure of Cobalt Molybdate and Nickel
Molybdate Catalysts
2. Texture
3. Interaction of Catalyst with the Support
1. Effects of Promotors
5. Catalytic Sites
a. Monolayer Model
b. Intercalation Model
I). Reaction Mechanisms of Model Compounds
E. Process I)esign
1. Relation of Process Design to Catalytic
Chemistry of Hydrodesulfurization and Side
Reactions
2. Influence of Intraparticle Mass Transport on
Catalyst Effectiveness
3. Catalyst Aging: Pore Blocking and Interstitial
Deposition
1. Hot Spots and Reactor Stability; Analysis of
Trickle Bed and Slurry Bed Reactors


FALL 1974












MULTI-PURPOSE VIDEO-TAPED COURSE

IN DATA ANALYSIS


R. A. GREENKORN and D. P. KESSLER
Pairdu/e Un irersit I
West Lafa!lette, Indiana 47807

The iteratire process of formulating a mathe-
matical model, design of experiments to test that
model, amaliysis of the data from these experi-
ments, the use of the experimental ,results to
modify the hypothesized model, and the in corpo-
ration of the model in larger systems is one wChich
is fundamental to all branches of engineering.
Although this process s basic to the engineering
a(natlsis of problems and design procedures, there
exist feI' courses in irhich the complete cycle is
treated. The difficulty with teaching the complete
loop by usual methods is that typically the back-
ground of the students is relatively disparate,
therefore one is seldom able to teach to a body
of students with uniform backgrounds. Nonethe-
less, wre feel that such a course is important to
engineering graduates so re hare attempted to
approachh the problem .;,i'i rideo tape.
A significant adranta(ge in treating this type
of subject, where backgrounds may not all be the
same, is offered by! rideo-tape and rideo-tape
cassette capabilities. These tools permit different
stadeInts to use different portions of the same
course, and also permit these students to progress
(it raryi'U rates as theY so desire. We attempted
to design a course which, for educational
( r, ... ,, ire tried to fit to the needs of both con-
tinui!ng education students and full-time students
on the campus, and, in aIddition, created the
course in modular form so that it could be taught
(s rariouss series of self-contained ,mini-courses
to students who wanted onlyi a portion of the
o rerall material.
The 'course is multi-purpose basically in tcwo
different irays. One, there is a combination of sub-
/nits which cat be selected to accomplish the
educational objective of each student, and twro, the
course applies to a Irariety of educational situa-
tions. The rariet!Y of path choices /Iwas accomplish-
ed by designing the course (is a, series of self-con-
tiined minii-courses which can be assembled to


One is, in effect competing with a program like
Sesame Street (with a 6 million dollar budget) in
production and entertainment value while trying to
present a much more sophisticated level of
concepts to a much more critical and
discriminating audience.



form a maxi-course in a variety of wrays, depend-
ing on the education background of the particular
student and his particular educational objective.
The variety of educational situations which the
course can be applied are: a) normal or self-paced
classroom use, b) continuing education use, c)
broadcast TV to larger segments of the com-
munit y. An important but not prim.a/r purpose
of this course is also to furnish a pilot effort
toward a rideo correspondence Master's degree
program which would permit a student (it a re-
mote location to complete requirements for a
Master's degree by selection of tan appropriate
series of rideo courses. The course consists of 43
thirty-minute rideo tapes wIhich are as shoin iv
Table I.


Table 1-Course Content


Introduction
Curve Fitting
Nomography
Statistical and Numerical Errors
Differences and Lagrangian Methods
Least Squares
Population Characteristics
Probability
Sample Characteristics
Analysis of Variance
Regression
Matrix Regression
Dimensional Analysis
Model Building
Time Series
Inference
Factorial Designs
Systems Networks


Parts
1
I

3
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
2


3
2


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








COURSE CONTENT


T HE COURSE IS ORGANIZED in 17 units.
Each of these units has from two to four
parts with the exception of Unit 1 which is a
single part introduction. Each part represents a
30-minute lecture. At Purdue the remaining part
of a 50-minute period is used for discussion. In
each of the units about half of the material pre-
sented is actual examples taken from practice.
UNIT 1 is the introduction and it sets the objective for
the course, which is to interface theory and data. The use
for the interface is to build models, plan experiments,
process data, interpret data, and design data systems.
UNIT 2 is concerned with curve fitting and nomogra-
phy, to permit summarizing data so that it can be inter-
polated and extrapolated, to check theory, and for em-
pirical prediction of new data. The two parts to the curve
fitting problem are: First, to determine the form of curve.
This is usually accomplished by plotting the data in various
ways until a straight line results. Second, to determine
the parameters by fitting a straight line to the rectified
data using the method of selected points, method of
least squares. One of the parts of this unit discusses
nomography, a graphical representation of the function-
al relationship among variables. We give a brief introduc-
tion to methods of constructing nomographs emphasizing
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
UNIT 3 is concerned with statistical and numerical
errors. The object here is to identify and separate sta-
tistical error, those random errors that are associated with
measurement; and systematic error, those that are not
random errors; and further errors that result from ope-
ration on the data numerically. We end the unit with a
discussion of the meaning of accuracy and precision both
in the statistical sense and in the sense of relating these
concepts directly to the numbers involved in experiments.
UNIT 4 treats differences and Lagrangian methods.
One often has to interpolate between data points, es-
pecially when data is in tabular form, and it is also often
necessary either to differentiate or integrate tabulated
data. We discuss the divided differences, backward, for-
ward and central finite differences. We end with a dis-
cussion of Lagrangian methods specifically applied to
numerical differentiation and numerical integration.
In UNIT 5 the principle of least squares is considered
in detail. Also we begin an early discussion of how least
squares and linear regression are related, since we use
linear regression to predict statistical behavior. The
principle of least squares is usually used to fit the data
in regression analysis. We give a discussion of the use of
least squares to identify important variables and con-
sider the more complex polynomial least squares and
nonlinear least squares.
In UNIT 6 population characteristics are discussed so
that we can use statistical models of the various distribu-
tion functions to describe sample spaces. We discuss some
of the simple distributions-the uniform distribution, the
normal distribution-and the meaning of these distribu-
tions in a probability sense.
UNIT 7 is more detailed discussion of probability and
investigates the meaning of experiments, outcomes, sample
spaces and elements of sample spaces, and how these


Robert Greenkorn, after five years as a naval aviator, returned
to Wisconsin to obtain B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering
from the University of Wisconsin, 1954, 1955, and 1957 respectively.
He spent the academic year 1957-58 at the Norwegian Technical
Institute in Norway as a past-doctoral fellow. From 1958 ;o 1963 he
was research engineer with Jersey Production Company in Tulsa and
lecturer in evening division of University of Tulsa. From 1963 to
1965 was Associate Professor of theoretical and applied mechanics at
Marquette University. Associate Professor in ihe School of Chemical
Engineering at Purdue University from 1965 to 1967. Professor and
Head of the School of Chemical Engineering 1967-1973; Acting Head
of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, .une 1973-Aug. 1973.
Asst. Dean for Research, Director, Institute for Interdisciplinary
Engineering Studies, and Associate Director of the Engineering Exp.
Station, Aug. 31, 1972-present. (LEFT)

David Kessler has taught at Purdue University sincee 1964. Prior
to his academic career, he was employed in process engineering and
statistical quality control by the Dow Chemical Company and in
process and product development by ihe Proctor and Gamble Com-
pany. He did his undergraduate work at Purdue and received his
graduate degrees from the University of Michigan. His current re-
search interests are flow in heterogeneous, non-uniform and aniso
tropic porous media, momentum transfer in multiphase flow, and
bioengineering (artificial blood, cardiac contractility, and hemorrhapic
shock). He is co-author with Professor Greenkorn of ihe undergradu-
ate text "Transfer Operations" (McGraw-Hill, 1972). (Right)








B t,' *' ,. .i,










various concepts are utilized in probability formulations.
A short discussion of probability in terms of logic and
Venn diagrams is included. Marginal and conditional
probabilities and the Bayes theorem are also discussed.
In UNIT 8 we discuss sample characteristics, con-
centrating on utilizing the normal distribution from a
designed experiment, look at the probability meaning of
distribution functions in terms of the normalization of
these distribution functions and the relationship to
probability. We discuss the use of various kinds of tabu-
lated probability distribution functions and the distribu-
tion of sample characteristics. The unit ends with a dis-
cussion of confidence intervals and a preliminary treat-
ment of hypothesis testing and type I and type II errors.
These last topics are repeated in more depth in Unit 15.
In UNIT 9 we begin our discussion of experimental de-
sign by introducing the analysis of variance technique-
dissecting total variation in such a way that various kinds
of experimental effects are eliminated. The analysis of
variance allows us to show how experiments may be de-


FALL 1974


























Professors Greenkorn (left) and Kessler (right) on the set for ilming
a unit of their multi-purpose video ;ape.


signed so that we can get the most information from the
data. We discuss the one-way classification and two-way
classification (and randomized complete block designs).
The linear models associated with these kinds of designs
are discussed as are the short-cut methods of calculating
the analysis of variance table.


R EGRESSION IS I)IS(C'SSEI) in UNIT 10 based on
the units on least squares and analysis of variance.
Analysis of variance is used to interpret the meaning of
regression coefficients in the various kinds of regression
models. The "extra sum of squares" principle is introduced
and methods for analyzing the meaning of the various re-
gression coefficients in models that have more than one
independent variable are considered.
In UNIT 11 regression analysis is viewed from the
standpoint of matrix manipulations. There is a short re-
view of linear algebra and matrix theory and then the
matrix approach to regression is discussed with use of
the Doolittle method for determining regression co-
efficients.
In UNIT 12 we enter a discussion of dimensional
analysis, a systematic way in which the number of
variables required to describe a given experimental situa-
tion is reduced, since normal model building uses dimen-
sionless forms. We also investigate the relationship be-
tween dimensional analysis and the differential equations
which are the models for various experiments.
Model building is considered in UNIT 13 in a philo-
sophical sense and we try to answer the questions: What
is a model? How does it relate to the real world? How
do we build models? Mathematical and physical analogs
are discussed. Example models are formulated through
use of an entity balance.
In UNIT 1-1 we treat time-dependent stochastic process-
es, that is, processes where the parameters of the proba-
bility density and distribution functions are lime-depen-
dent. Much of what we do in engineering is time-depen-
dent and we cannot ignore this time-dependence. Ways
and means of investigating the statistical properties of
systems that do depend on time are considered. The
ergodic assumption is also discussed.


T HE PROBLEM OF INFERENCE and the estimating
of population parameters from experiments in a
detailed manner is discussed in UNIT 15. The meaning
of inference is investigated in terms of the various kinds
of distribution functions. The meaning of hypothesis test-
ing and multiple-hypothesis testing are discussed and
the operating characteristic curve for various kinds of
hypothesis tests is introduced.
In UNIT 16 we consider factorials which are posed as
experimental designs--randomized block and Latin square.
The meaning of factors in experiments is analyzed using
the linear hypothesis and is based on the discussion of
inference and hypothesis testing in the previous unit. We
consider multi-factor experiments and how one confounds
data in a factorial experiment. The use of aliases in de-
signing fractional factorial experiments is also discussed.
In UNIT 17 we look at the total data acquisition and
analysis system. Network models and graph theory are
discussed. Information flow as related to executive pro-
gramming is also considered.

USE OF COURSE

E PRESENTLY TEACH the course in its en-
tirety over the Purdue closed-circuit video
facilities. As can be seen from the network dia-
gram, a number of ways to trace out either the
total course or selected sub-sets are available.
Typical mini-courses might be Units 9, 10, and
11 in Regression or Units 9 and 16 in Experi-
mental Design. Most of the individual Units also
stand alone without reference to other units.
In the future we hope to incorporate all seg-
ments of this course on video cassettes which
can be played over monitors equipped so that the
tape may be stopped without erasing the picture
from the screen. This will permit much greater
economy in presenting graphical material, in that
the student can simply stop the monitor and hold
the picture on the screen rather than wasting
several minutes of tape for a static display.

DIFFERENCES FROM CONVENTIONAL COURSES

T IS INTERESTING to observe the reactions
of students when viewing a course on what
looks like a conventional television set. They react
to the course much as one observes groups of
people reacting to television programming in



In the future we hope to incorporate
all segments of the course in video
cassettes which can be played over monitors
equipped so that the tape may be stopped
without erasing the picture.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








their home-that is, there is far less reluctance
to create a disturbance, much as one will carry
on a conversation in one's own living room while
the TV set is on. There also is a much greater
need for entertainment value to hold the student's
attention than in an ordinary class room lecture,
because the students, seeing the material on the
television set, expect a far more professional de-
gree of treatment than is true in the ordinary
lecture. One is, in effect, competing with a pro-
gram like Sesame Street (with a six million dollar


FIGURE 1. Network Diagram
budget) in production and entertainment value,
while at the same time attempting to present a
much more sophisticated level of concepts to a
much more critical and discriminating audience.
It is also interesting that the students do not
perceive the pace at which the course is going.
At times they feel that the material is coming
quite slowly when, in fact, because of the compact-
ness of the presentation, material is being pre-
sented at a far greater rate than was ever
possible in an ordinary classroom lecture. Stu-
dents are also far more critical of mistakes that
appear on a television tape than mistakes that
appear in an ordinary classroom lecture. (The
preparers of the tape, of course, should also be
extremely critical of such mistakes because these
mistakes will be perpetuated from .year to year.)
It is interesting that the television tape
prompts a far greater need on the student's part
to be supplied with All the material than does an
ordinary classroom lecture-students appear to
feel that since a course is taught on TV there
should be no need to consult outside references.
Again, this seems to be a psychological set in-
duced by commercial TV viewing. In the future
we may attempt to remedy this by calling for
more response from the class during the television
taping via short questions, etc. This, perhaps, is


one of the strongest reasons why television tapes
must be entertaining-the student cannot parti-
pate by talking back to a television screen in the
same way that a good lecturer can stop and ask
questions at a pertinent point in the presentation,
and listen to feedback from students. At present
there is no practical possibility of branching or
changing pace in a television presentation as there
is in the ordinary classroom lecture. We hope
to circumvent this difficulty to some extent by
keeping individual presentations short and thus
permitting the student to select among a variety
of short presentations so that if the pace becomes
too slow or too fast he can alter the pace to suit
himself. In the future we also hope to tape a
greater variety of example problems so that the
student can go directly to an example problem if
he has difficulty with the theoretical concept which
has been presented on the tape.
In taping the course we used a producer/director and
three cameramen, with visual material on rear-projection
slides and newsprint. The set is shown in the photo. One
of the major difficulties is the preparation of visual ma-
terial (about 1000 items for this course). We hope to do
some work soon on automating much of this with the
computer. Our current production costs (exclusive of
authors) is about $300 per Unit. D
TO DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN:
The staff of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA-
TION wishes to thank the 72 departments whose
advertisements appear in this sixth graduate issue.
We also appreciate the excellent response you gave
to our request for. names of prospective authors. We
regret that, because of space limitations, we were not
able to include some outstanding papers and that
certain areas are not represented. In part our selection
of papers was based on a desire to complement this
issue with those of the previous years. As indicated
in our letter we are sending automatically to each
department for distribution to seniors interested in
graduate school at least sufficient free copies of this
issue for 20"(, of the number of bachelor's degrees re-
ported in "ChE Faculties." Because there was a large
response to our offer in that letter to supply copies
above this basic allocation, we were not able to fully
honor all such requests. However, if you have definite
need for more copies than you received, we may be
able to furnish these if you write us. We also still have
some copies of previous Fall issues available.
We would like to thank the departments not only
for their support of CEE through advertising, but also
through bulk subscriptions. We hope that you will be
able to continue or increase your support next year.
Ray Fahien Editor


FALL 1974


1il~
,alirlr

,.!.,,,,,.,, t
l~lr, I~lL \









47 C'oae eoaM e i


ADVANCED THERMODYNAMICS


KRAEMER D. LUKS
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556

THE COURSE TO BE discussed here is Engi-
!ring 510 "Advanced Thermodynamics," which
is a "core" course in the College of Engineering at
Notre Dame. The only prerequisite is one
semester of undergraduate thermodynamics, so
that engineering graduate students of all
disciplines can qualify for the course. The course
is required for graduate chemical engineers and
is often taken as an elective by engineers of other
disciplines. The latter group of students generally


The challenge is to substantially enlighten and
expand the knowledge of the chemical engineers .
and provide a strong fundamental unit of thermo-
dynamics for the non-chemical engineers who
may compose as much as half of the class.



has a one-semester background from, say, Hol-
man' or Reynolds and Perkins,2 while the chemi-
cal engineers are more thoroughly schooled in
undergraduate thermodynamics, usually having
two semesters of formal study, covering both
physical and chemical thermodynamics, as well as
additional exposure in "material and energy
balances" and in physical chemistry.
The challenge is to present a course that will
substantially enlighten and expand the knowledge
of the chemical engineers, while at the same time
will provide a strong, fundamental unit of
thermodynamics for the non-chemical engineers,
who may compose as much as one-half of the
class. That thermodynamics, a discipline based on
a few fundamental laws and their application, is
taught at the graduate level to chemical engineers
is probably an honest reflection of the fact that
chemical engineers, despite their background, ac-
cept their bachelor's degree with a foundation in


thermodynamics that can be shaken without ex-
cessive effort.
The discussion that follows maps out the ma-
terial covered in the course in its chronological
appearance. The objective is to stress the aspects
of the course that are given the most emphasis
during the semester as well as to give a sense of
the continuity of the topics treated. The several
sections that follow form a rough syllabus of the
course, covering approximately 14 weeks, or 42
meetings.

1. Review of Concepts (2 weeks)
Before starting a formal presentation of
thermodynamics in a postulationall" manner, a
review of the traditional "inductive" thermo-
dynamics is performed. To make this review at-
tractive, it is presented in a historical context,
much in the spirit of Tisza,3 starting with Galileo
and Torricelli, presenting the caloric theory and
its shortcomings, continuing with the contribu-
tions of Carnot, Kelvin, Mayer, Joule, and finish-
ing with the resolution of thermodynamics into
its laws which occurred in the middle of the nine-
teenth century. Besides providing a review of this
"thermodynamics of cycles," these initial lectures
are designed to show the student that the difficul-
ties that were encountered in the development of
thermodynamics, historically speaking, are the
same difficulties that trouble the contemporary
student of thermodynamics. Besides treating the
laws of thermodynamics and their function, lec-
tures are presented on the concepts of reversibili-
ty and irreversibility, and the temperature con-
cept and its measurement.

2. The Postulational Development of Thermodynamics
(5 weeks).
The only text required for this course is
Callen.4 Lectures structured about the first seven
chapters of Callen are employed with the follow-
ing philosophy: Take away the "laws" of thermo-
dynamics from the student and develop a self-con-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























Kraemer D. Luks was educated at Princeton University (B.S.E.,
1963) and the University of Minnesota (Ph.D., 1967). He has been
at the University of Notre Dame since 1967 and is presently Associate
Professor and Director of the Graduate Program in the Department
of Chemical Engineering. His research interests in thermodynamics
are broad, extending from theoretical and applied statistical mechanics
to experimental phase equilibria studies of petroleum and natural
gas systems.


sistent, self-contained mathematically structured
discipline which can be shown to provide the user
with analytical tools equivalent to the "laws."
One drawback to inductive thermodynamics is
that the laws evolving from it are based on ex-
perimental observation (specifically, "thought"
experiments), and the tendency of students is to
develop "rules-of-thumb" which are not complete-
ly general. Consequently, the use of these rules-
of-thumb can often lead to difficulties, much in
the way paradoxes, or apparent contradictions,
arose in the historical development of thermo-
dynamics. A primary function of this develop-
ment is to demonstrate that postulational thermo-
dynamics is applicable to any thermodynamic
problem, including those from which inductive
thermodynamics evolved. Key points of emphasis
in this section are:

The informational content of thermodynamic funda-
mental relationships and the equations of state that
come from them. The roles of the Euler and Gibbs-
Duhem equations in providing the link between equa-
tions of state and fundamental relationships are de-
tailed. The fact that one observes an incomplete set
of equations of state in the laboratory is used to demon-
strate the need for a basis, or reference, for the family
of thermodynamic energy functions (internal energy,
enthalpy, etc.).
* The equivalence of the extremum principles for entropy
and internal energy and their extension by Legendre
transformation to non-isolated systems. The Gibbs
minimum principle for systems at some given (P ,To)
is used later as the starting point for handling complex
chemical systems. (See Section 3.)


The Jacobian transformations in concert with the Max-
well relations, presented as a system for handling ihe
expression of process derivatives in terms of measur-
able quantities such as specific heat at constant pres-
sure CP, isothermal compressibility Ki, and the co-
efficient of thermal expansion a, i. e., the three inde-
pendent derivatives of the P-T basis.

The utility of the third point above can be
accentuated by having the student demonstrate
his capability at developing an H-S diagram for
some substance, or at least the necessary formal-
ism to do so. Generating formulae for isobars and
isotherms in H-S space is fairly straightforward,
but deriving a formula for the coexistence curve
of, say, the saturated vapor is a bit more opposing
(Denbigh"' has a related problem in which an ex-
pression for the specific heat at coexistence for
a phase is desired.):


,d d," +


Along the coexistence curve,
ron equation states


and so
and so


(2-1)


(2-2)


the Clausius-Clapey-


(2-3)


S... ) (2-4)
since



and where C,, a, v are evaluated for the saturated
vapor phase, and Ah and Av are the enthalpy and
volume changes upon vaporization respectively.


One drawback to inductive thermodynamics is
that laws evolving from it are based on
experimental observation and students
tend to develop "rules of thumb"
which are not completely general.


Mastery of thermodynamic manipulations for
pure substances, such as Jacobian transforma-
tions and Maxwell relations, is essential to de-
veloping confidently the complex expressions that
are required, e.g., to describe mixtures (See Sec-


FALL 1974


`,I r t d t vapor o ti I l"


t -p.









tion 6) while a firm basis of the thermodynamic
extremum principles is necessary to realize the
stability criteria for pure and multicomponent
systems (See Section 5).

3. The Application of the Gibbs Minimum Principle to
Complex Chemical Equilibria (2 weeks).

Zeleznik and Gordon" have applied the Gibbs
minimum principle to a general system of p phases
and m species at some fixed (Po,To), and it is my
experience that incorporation of their derivation
into the course provides a quick, powerful method
for the student to set up a complex chemical
equilibria problem in a form amenable to comput-
er solution. The derivation is lengthy and only the
results will be presented here with accompanying
comments.


That thermo is taught at the graduate
level to ChE's is probably a reflection
of the fact that they accept their B.S.
degree with a foundation in thermo that can be
shaken without excessive effort.


For the reacting system above, one solves the
following set of equations:
S. -. (3-1)

I L. t (3-2)
where ai is a chemical subscript for element j in
species i, a is the phase superscript, Ni is moles of
species i, bj" is the total number of gram-atoms of
element j in the system, and Air is a stoichiometric
coefficient for reaction r. The problem thus be-
comes mp equations in mp unknowns, namely, the

set (N) i = ,.... m; a = 1,....,p. Each member
of Equation (3-2) is called a reaction affinity.
If the reaction mechanism is unknown (or
unspecified) the problem enlarges somewhat as
Equation (3-2) is replaced by
+ I o foc 1= ,.....,m. = l,.....,p (3-3)
I J.
The problem is now (mp+l) equations in (mp+l)
unknowns, namely N} as before, and [Xj], j =
1,....,1, which are a set of Lagrangian multipliers
introduced in applying the Gibbs minimum
principle.
An important point brought out by this ap-
proach is the equivalence of problems, with and
without a reaction mechanism, as the final equi-


librium state does not depend on the choice of a
particular mechanism but rather on the choice
of permissible species in the system. Elimination
of [hXj from Equation (3-3) will yield Equation
(3-2), i. e., a possible set of reactions.
There are several difficulties inherent in adopt-
ing the Zeleznik-Gordon treatment directly for
instructional purposes:
o Charge must be treated as an "extra" element, to be
electroneutralized rather than conserved. Furthermore,
free electrons are a species as well as a charge. The
definition of species becomes "any entity for which
the concentration at equilibrium is desired."
* In phase equilibria problems, where there are no re-
actions, conservation of elements, Equation (3-1), can
either provide too many or too few constraints. One
must replace Equation (3-1) with a set of equations
conserving species rather than elements. If one has
a problem in which only some of the species are re-
acting and some are not, and they have common ele-
ments, the statement of the problem becomes even more
complicated. It is not satisfactory to consider all re-
actions permissible by stoichiometry as some will have
rates so slow as to be disregarded. For example, in the
phase equilibria of a natural gas system containing
CH,, CH,, and C H,, it is of no interest to consider
the possible reaction:
Q' i + ("311 2C ,Ir
In other words, good judgment must be exercised in
applying the Zeleznik-Gordon scheme.
* A traditional way of describing a m-component vapor-
liquid phase equilibria problem is (See p. 47 of
Reference 9, e.g.):
m + 2 equations:
S= i1,..... ,m



( T, yi])
n 2 unknowns:


The demonstration of the equivalence of this problem
to that of Zeleznik and Gordon is made intricate by the
fact that the Zeleznik-Gordon scheme, by virtue of
solving for {N"), suggests a batch process with finite
phases, while the above problem makes no specification
of phase size. The comparison of the two descriptions
is presented in the course.
4. The Phase Rule (1 week).
The phase rule, written as


(4-1)


S c +


or
S- c- i. n, (4-2)
where R is restrictions is one of these rules-of-
thumb that most students feel they understand


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








by the time they reach the graduate level. Be-
cause this is often not the case, I generally start
with an example complicated enough to produce
a myriad of answers for the degrees of freedom
f, and then backtrack, beginning at the beginning.
Rather than deriving the rule as given above, I
state the phase rule as:
"the number of degrees of freedom in the intensive phase
variables = the number of independent intensive phase
variables-the number of restrictions"

For example, consider the 3-component, 3-phase system
(solid-liquid-vapor) where the components will be speci-
fied as A, B, C. The independent intensive variables are
12 in number

and the restrictions are 10:

I ^ i

s =, i A,B,C
Thus f = 2, as can be readily obtained from Equation
(4-1). The difficulty arises interpreting R in Equation
(4-2). Consider the restrictions:
I) I Pr
and
4, ^ .^= o
In the first, logic dictates that f reduce to 1, and the form
of analysis suggested introduces

or
i.! 1
The restrictions (2) above do not affect f as there occurs
a "balance":
:x, g are removed from the independent intensive
variables and and can be removed from
the restrictions. Thus the problem is
f = 10- 9 = I
Experience has shown that this detailed approach
increases the student's confidence.
Since the phase rule makes no specification
concerning the size of the phases (indeed, they
could be considered infinite), the effect of "Batch-
ing" or, in a flow process, the setting of flow
rates to a vessel can require careful examination.
For example, consider the single (liquid) phase
esterification reaction of ethyl alcohol and acetic
acid at fixed To,P,,. If one applies the phase rule
Equation (4-2) directly


where R = 3: P
(mp-1 = 1), or f
one batches the


C 4 I + 2 K
= P,, T To, and 1 reaction
= 2. But one recognzies that if
system identically each time,


i. e., fixes [Ni] = [Nio], one gets the same equili-
brium composition in the vessel. Thus, the batch-
ing constitutes 2 restrictions. It can be seen by
noticing that
or r s


for reactants and




where, in this particular case, EQUATION, as
moles are conserved. Thus, e. g.,
S (1 r. I m ti)


and the single variable z replaces the 3 indepen-
(lent variables of the set [x,] (Zxi = 1), and batch-
ing in this case constitutes 2 restrictions.
Furthermore, the quantity (mp-1) used to de-
note reactions in the Zeleznik-Gordon scheme is
really more general than that. One should con-
sider it as representing the number of indepen-
dent affinities, including those whoch describe a
phase transformation:
S- for species i and phases a and p
Care must be taken not to count such a transfor-
mation twice, once as a reaction (transformation)
in the set (mp-1) and once as a chemical equi-
librium. For example, consider a vapor-liquid
equilibrium between CH,, CH,,, C1H,, CO,, typical
of a natural gas mixture prototype. For this
system, mp-1 = 8-3 = 5, yet common sense sug-
gests 4 phase equilibria. The fifth "reaction" is
the one cited in (2) of Section 3. The point here
is not only should that reaction possibility be dis-
carded but also that mp-l includes that 4 chemical
equilibria, i. e., phase transformations.
Applications relating to how many variables
in a real process must be specified to produce a
unique experiment (i. e., reproducible) can as-
sume many forms and can be both interesting
and challenging.


5. Stability Phenomena (2 weeks).

A brief introduction to phase stability
(thermal and mechanical) and diffusional stabili-
ty is presented. Phase stability is discussed in
many texts, e. g., Callen,' and can be demonstrated
easily with the van der Waals equation. Some
mention is made in passing of the fact that the

(Continued on page 198.)


FALL 1974









4 Cauwe in


WASTEWATER ENGINEERING

FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


PETER B. MELNYK and RICHARD PROBER
Case Western Reserve UniversitY!
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
IN THE PAST FIVE YEARS, the areas of re-
search and development interest for chemical
engineers have expanded to include environmen-
tal topics. To see this, one has only to look at ad-
vertisements for industrial positions in our trade
journals or at the listings of active research
areas in graduate programs in the fall issue of
this journal. Yet, coverage of wastewater topics
in most chemical engineering programs is limited
to a few specific examples introduced by instruc-
tors with experience in the field.
This paper describes "Wastewater Engineer-
ing," a graduate course oriented for the specific
needs and backgrounds of chemical engineers. It
evolved under the somewhat unusual circum-
stances that in the 1965-1970 period there were
no active teaching or research programs in En-
vironmental Engineering (or, as it was known
then, Sanitary Engineering) at Case Western
Reserve University. This vacant niche in the
ecology of the School of Engineering has been
occupied by a Graduate Chemical Engineering
Wastewater Program built around the subject
course and a complementary program on Water
Resources in the Systems Engineering Depart-
ment. Further development of "Wastewater Engi-
neering" was fostered by hiring of faculty with
specific background in the field and by a training
grant (jointly administered between Chemical
Engineering and Systems Engineering) from the
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
Manpower and Training.
The graduate chemical engineering course on
wastewater originated in response to a wide ap-
peal for environmentally oriented courses. Many
others enrolled besides chemical engineering
graduate students, including undergraduates
(mainly chemical engineers), graduate students
in other fields and part-time students already
employed in industry. The initial offerings in 1969


and 1970 were as a seminar or special-topics
course. This was followed in 1971 by a structured
course devoted principally to wastewater analyses
and treatment technology. That course also dealt
with water quality criteria and air pollution topics,
hence its title "Environmental Quality: Measure-
ment and Improvement." At the time, it was the
only substantial environmental course, graduate
or undergraduate, available in the engineering
school.
"Wastewater Engineering," the present gradu-
ate course, was first taught in 1973. Now, an
undergraduate course on wastewater or an intro-
ductory Sanitary Engineering course is a pre-
requisite. We assume that the students are
familiar with water quality criteria, units of


Richard Prober received his B.S. from Illinois Institute of Tech-
nology and his M.S. and Ph.D. (1962) from the University of Wis-
consin. His industrial experience includes work with ihe Shell
Development Company and Sybron Corporation Research Center.
He is a member of the American Chemical Society and AIChE. He
is presently an associate professor of chemical engineering at Case
Western Reserve University. (LEFT)

Peter B. Melnyk received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. (1974) from
McMaster University. His technical experience includes work with
the Ontario Pulp and Paper Company and Pollutech Advisory Ser-
vices. He has participated in the Association of Professional Engineers
of Ontario, the Pollution Control Association of Ontario and the
Water Pollution Control Federation. He is presently an assistant
professor of chemical engineering at Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity. (RIGHT)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









measurement, wastewater analyses and the com-
mon schemes for municipal wastewater treat-
ment.
The discussion here covers both the lecture
topics and associated laboratory experiments. Be-
cause adequate references have been provided,
we only list the lecture topics and discuss the rea-
sons for their selection. In the lectures, Chemical
Engineering methods applied to wastewater tech-
nology take away some of the mystique. Still, em-
pirical methods play a large part in characterizing
wastewaters and their treatment. Hence, the
laboratory is an important complement to the lec-
tures. Since no published laboratory manual is
available, we have consolidated our experience
over the last few years by providing details on
the objectives and suggestions for carrying out
the experiments. Finally, we touch briefly on the
relationship of "Wastewater Engineering" to
other courses in our program.

COURSE CONTENT

T ABLE 1 LISTS THE SPECIFIC topics
covered. Each topic is presented starting
with fundamental considerations and proceeding
to rational methods for design specification or
process analysis. Comprehensive problems are as-
signed, based on actual wastewater treatment ex-
perience whenever possible. Table 1 includes
recommended texts. Locating suitable books was
a problem, since environmental engineering texts
generally devote considerable coverage to funda-
mental physical chemistry, transport phenomena
and reaction kinetics.
"Wastewater Engineering," as a course for
specialists in the field, concentrates on the widely
used minimum-operating-cost "workhorse" pro-
cesses, which can remove many pollutants togeth-
er. Biological treatment heads the list of these
Topics, as the unit process of choice for removal
of biodegradable organic pollutants from munici-
pal or industrial wastewaters. It is difficult to con-
ceive of other treatments which could be
economically competitive to biological treatment.
Sedimentation also is stressed, as an integral part
of biological waste treatment processes and, in its
own right, as the unit operation of choice for re-
moval of settleable pollutants. Precipitation is
widely used in municipal and industrial waste-
water treatment for removal of inorganic pollu-
tants by conversion to insoluble forms and sedi-
mentation or other liquid-solid separations. Oxida-
tion-reduction processes are used principally in in-


Topics

1. Biological Waste Treatment
(15 lectures)
a. Basic microbiology.
b. Stoichiometric and kinetic
relations of mixed cultures,
including both organic and
inorganic substrates.
c. Biodegradability and respi-
rometric measurements.
d. Biological treatment pro-
cess configurations, includ-
ing auxiliary facilities for
aeration, mixing, and sedi-
mentation.
e. New developments includ-
ing unsteady-state analy-
sis, use of purified oxygen,
rotating fixed-surface
growth, etc.
2. Sedimentation, Clarification and
Thickening (9 lectures)
a. Flow regimes for gravity
settling, including free-
falling particles, hindered
settling and zone settling.
b. Solids flux concepts and de-
sign methods.
c. Differentiation between re-
quirements for clarifica-
tion vs. those for thicken-
ing.
d. Integration of sedimenta-
tion vessel design with the
biological treatment re-
actors.
e. Tube-settler operation.
3. Precipitation (9 lectures)
a. Physical chemistry of ionic
equilibria.
b. E If e c t of completing
agents.
c. Use of pH-solubility dia-
grams.
d. Statistical approaches for
application of laboratory
or pilot data to design.
I. Oxidation-Reduction
(6 lectures)
a. Stoichiometry for common
oxidants and reducing
agents.
b. Reaction rate concepts.
c. Oxidation-Reduction Poten-
tial and relations to electro-
chemical processes.


TABLE 1

Topics In Wastewater Engineering


Textbooks

Busch'


WVeher,-
Ch. 11


Weber,
Ch. 3, 12

















Weber,'
(h. 2
Stumm and Morgan
(h. 5. S, 10







Weber,-
(h. 8
Stumm and Morgan,'
Ch. 7


FALL 1974









dustrial wastewater treatment, to change in-
organic pollutants either directly into innocuous
forms (e. g., conversion of cyanides to CO, by
chlorine oxidation) or into another form more
tractable for treatment by conventional processes
(e. g., reduction of chromates to trivalent
chromium ions prior to precipitation of the in-
soluble Cr(OH),).

LABORATORY PROGRAM
FOUR EXPERIMENTS ARE OFFERED with
"Wastewater Engineering" on Biological
Waste Treatment, Biological Respirometry, Sedi-
mentation and Thickening, and Precipitation
Processes. They have been selected and developed,
based on the following criteria:
The experiments must complement and relate directly
to the course material.
They must be realistic in the sense that data obtained
from the experiment can be applied to design problems
discussed in class.
It is important that the experiments are carried out in
a manner that allows students to participate and, thus,
obtain "hands on" experience.
The experiments should be organized into laboratory
sessions no longer than about three hours.
The students should be able to operate all necessary
equipment without extensive training.
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
This experiment provides students with the
opportunity to measure the reaction rates and
stoichiometry of the bio-oxidation of a particular
waste. They obtain the data by monitoring
changes in organic substrate and suspended solids
concentrations occurring for a mixed culture in a
batch reactor. This permits the experiment to
be completed in one laboratory period. A con-
tinuous reactor at steady state would provide
only a single rate measurement during the same
time span.
Careful preparation is needed beforehand to
assure that the rates measured in this experi-
ment approximate those of a full scale system.
The mixed culture must be acclimated to the
waste and mode of operation, and the average
bacteria floe size should be similar to those found
in full scale systems. Both acclimatization and
classification of flocs by size can best be carried
out in a continuous system in which bacteria
are recycled." These steps require a separate re-
actor and consume more time and attention than
the experiment itself. For example, during ac-
climatization care must be taken to avoid filamen-
tous growth on the walls of small reactor vessels.


Such growth represents an active bacteria popula-
tion which is significant on the laboratory scale
but negligible in full-scale operation.
The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) or Total
Carbon analyzers are the most efficient means of
measuring substrate concentrations. Indeed, this
experiment would not be feasible if we had to
use the difficult, inaccurate and time-consuming
B. O. D. or C. 0. D. tests. Suspended solids (a
measure of bacterial culture concentration) are
monitored gravimetrically.
Students calculate yield factors and rate


Wastewater engineering concentrates on
the widely used minimum-operating-cost
"workhorse" processes, which can remove
many pollutants together; biological treatment
heads the list of these topics.


constants for substrate oxidation directly from
the data obtained here. Usually the change in
microbial mass during the batch experiment is
not large enough to obtain a good estimate of the
culture's specific growth rate. This can be better
determined from measurements of sludge wasted
in a continuous system (i e., either full- or bench-
scale). With this additional information, students
are able to: 1) select the operating level of bac-
teria and specify the hydraulic residence time, 2)
specify sludge waste rate, and 3) determine
theoretical aeration requirements for a full scale
reactor.

BIOLOGICAL RESPIROMETRY
EXPERIMENTS IN RESPIROMETRY illustrate
a number of points pertinent to biological
waste treatment. A sample of waste is seeded
with bacterial culture and then isolated in a
stirred container with air or oxygen in the gas
cap. Pressure changes resulting from the absorp-
tion of evolved carbon dioxide and uptake of
oxygen by the culture indicate the extent of
oxidation. Inexpensive, direct-reading apparatus
is available commercially. (Hach Chemical Co.
Model 2173), as well as more elaborate electrolytic
equipment which log the data automatically.

*For experiments involving industrial wastes, a com-
mercially available bench scale reactor-settler is recommend-
ed. (Cole Parmer: Bio-Oxidation Reactor). A more ex-
pedient approach is to use samples of a waste (e. g., pri-
mary effluent) and culture (activated sludge return) ob-
tained from a local treatment plant.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









This experiment takes a number of days to
run, 3-6 days for carbonaceous oxidation only and
up to 10 days for nitrification. Students are or-
ganized into teams to carry out monitoring around
the clock over the desired period.
Tests carried out simultaneously on a number
of containers demonstrate the effects of bacterial
seeding, stirring, substrate concentration, etc. on
the shape of the uptake curves. This experiment
illustrates the relationships among B. O. D.,
C. O. D. and T. O. C. The students complete this
study with a comparison of the observed uptake
curves to the ideal characteristics proposed in the
lectures.

SETTLING MODES
Students observe the characteristics of hinder-
ed and zone settling modes, and measure the rates
of settling at each condition. The major apparatus
is simply a 6" I. D. x 7 ft. high plexiglass column
which is equipped with sampling ports. The batch
settling tests are carried out with actual waste-
water samples, (e. g., primary influent and aera-
tion "mixed liquor"). An investigation of each
condition occupies one laboratory period.
The settling rates are determined from
changes in suspended-solids concentration profiles
during settling. In hindered settling studies, the
concentrations are measured directly. In zone-
settling studies, the concentration is estimated
indirectly from the sludge blanket height.
Graphical methods introduced in the lectures are
used to calculate the rates from these profiles.
This permits students to specify the basin areas
required in continuous operations. Comparative
studies with and without flocculation aids would
illustrate their effects on the design specifications.

PRECIPITATION PROCESS
A precipitation process of considerable local
interest is removal of phosphates. Both stages
of precipitation, nucleation and flocculation, can
be readily investigated in a simple batch reactor
in which mixing is controlled, (i. e., a jar test).
Stirring equipment designed especially for this
experiment is available commercially (Phipps &
Bird Stirrer). Students investigate the effects
the following variables on treatment efficiency:
* Wastewater composition (e. g., solution pH, alkalinity,
particulate concentration, and initial phosphorous con-
centration),
* Ratio of ortho- to poly-phosphates,
* Type and dosage of precipitant (e. g., lime, alum or
ferric salts),


* Type and dosage of flocculant aids (e. g., anionic and
cationic polymer), and
* Turbulence level (i. e., mixing intensity).
Though each test can be completed in 30
minutes, a large number of tests are required.
The present state of the art is empirical, and
thus the effects of the above variables must be
determined for each particular waste. Also, as
the composition of a waste usually varies with
time, there is a further problem of determining
chemical dosage which results in the desired re-
moval over a specified percentage of the time.
Both problems require that the students apply
statistical techniques discussed in class. An
efficient approach to experimental design permits
the relative importance of independent variables
to be sorted out in a minimum number of tests.
The problem of specifying suitable levels of the
chemical dosage is solved by a frequency-of-oc-
currence analysis. Because each problem requires
at least 8-10 tests to be carried out, the chemical
analysis must be efficient. For example, an auto-
mated system (Technicon Autoanalyzer II) is
used here to carry out phosphorus measurements.

RELATION TO OTHER COURSES
"Wastewater Engineering" is one of three graduate
chemical engineering courses which deal primarily with
wastewater topics. "Separation Science" deals in part
with the more costly selective membrane and packed-
column processes, which find application for industrial
wastewater treatment either to meet stringent effluent
quality requirements or for recovery byproducts. "Colloidal
Systems" deals with fundamental considerations on co-
agulation and flocculation and on the nature of turbidity.
This adds to understanding of sedimentation and precipi-
tation processes.
These three, plus courses on "water Resources" and
on "Legal, Economic and Political Aspects of Water
Pollution" available through Systems Engineering pro-
vide a core program for chemical engineers specializing
in wastewater. Added to traditional chemical engineering
graduate courses in thermodynamics, transport phenamena
and chemical reaction engineering, this provides a unique
background for professional careers in development and
design of treatment facilities for industrial wastewaters
or for advanced municipal wastewater treatment. A mea-
sure of our success with this program is that all of our
graduate students who have completed it to date are
active in the area.D

REFERENCES
'Busch, A. W., Aerobic Biologic(l Treatment of Waste-
waters, Oligodynamics Press, Houston, 1971.
'Weber, W. J., editor, Pihysiochemical I'rocesscs for
Water Quality Control, Wiley, New York, 1972.
:iStumm, W. and Morgan, Aquatic Cliemistry, Wiley,
New York, 1970.


FALL 1974










$1 Qo44^de io


ENZYME AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


L. L. TAVLARIDES
Illinois Institute of Technology!
Chicago, Illinois 60616


T HE CURRENT INTENSE interest in novel
methods of enzyme applications in the food,
pharmaceutical, biomedical and waste treatment
processes obviated the need to augment the food
technology program in our department with a
graduate level course in Enzyme and Biochemical
Engineering. The title implies all engineering as-
pects; however, the essence of the course focused
upon kinetics and reactor design with emphasis on
immobilized enzyme systems. The course was
structured to expose the graduate student and re-
searcher to basic concepts, methodologies, and
techniques in enzyme technology which would
permit rational design and analysis of immobilized
enzyme reactor systems and fermentor reactor
design.

I. Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Action, Preparation and
Immobilization and II. Enzyme and Biological Reactor De-
sign. An attempt is made to develop an appreciation of
how enzymes function, the sensitive and specific nature
of enzymes and the immobilization methods recently de-
veloped which promise to make enzyme utilization in
large scale process feasible. (see Table I).

The course is presented towards a first level
graduate chemical engineering student with
undergraduate transport phenomena, reaction
engineering and mathematics through partial
differential equations desirable. Preferably the
student should have a background in biology
and/or biochemistry. Advanced level biology and
biochemistry students fare reasonably well but
deficiencies in chemical engineering and mathe-
matics courses made aspects of the second part
of the course disconcerting.
Several problem assignments and a term paper
with an oral presentation were the student re-
quirements. Readings in the various topics were
encouraged.


Lawrence L. Tavlarides received his B.S. (1963), M.S. (1964) and
Ph.D. (1968) degrees in Chemical Engineering at the University of
Pittsburgh. Several years of industrial experience were gained with
Gulf Research and Development Company. He pursued postdoctoral
research studies at the Technische Hogeschool in Delft Holland for
one year prior to joining the Chemical Engineering Department at
Illinois Institute of Technology in 1969 as an Assistant Professor.
His research and teaching interests include enzyme kinetics, reactor
analysis and transport phenomena and mixing effects in dispersions.


DISCUSSION OF COURSE MATERIAL

Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Action, Preparation
and Immobilization

T HE FIRST THREE sections of Part I intro-
duces the student to the biochemistry of
enzymes, the classes of reactions which enzymes
catalyze and the kinetic mechanism postulated to
describe the enzyme action. The biochemistry of
proteins is discussed starting with the amino
acids and how enzyme specificity is determined by

TABLE I

Enzyme and Biochemical Reaction Engineering
Course Outline
Part I. Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Action, Preparation
and Immobilization
A. Structure of Enzymes
B. Classes of Enzyme Reactions
C. Enzyme Kinetics
1). Enzyme Production
E. Enzyme Isolation and Purification
F. Enzyme Immobilization Methods
Part II. Enzyme and Biological Reactor Design
A. Ideal Batch, Tubular and CSTR Reactors
B. Ideal Reactor Concepts with Enzyme Kinetics
('. Fermentation Kinetics and Reactor Design
1). Physical and Chemical Rate Processes in
Heterogenous Immobilized Enzyme Systems
E. Diffusional Influences in Hollow Fiber
Catalysts
F. Immobilized Enzyme Deactivation and Para-
meter Determination
G. Design of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors
Parl III. Student Presentation of Term Papers.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








its particular sequence of amino acid residues and
higher order structure. The primary, secondary,
tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins
are discussed with some detail given to the geo-
metry of the peptide bond, a-helix and pleated
sheet structures, and the various types of bonds
which determine higher order structures.
Classes of enzyme reactions such as oxidoreductases.
transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases and ligases
are then presented. Appropriate time is devoted to
enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme sub-
strates complex is presented and then applied to derive
the reaction velocities for competitive, noncompetitive, sub-
strate and product inhibition kinetics. Temperature, pH
effects and enzyme inactivation effects are delineated.
Methods of the determination of rate coefficients are
illustrated. Examples of starch hydrolysis, glucose iso-
merization, and lypase glycerolysis are employed to indi-
cate enzyme kinetics of current interest. Various references
(1-8) were helpful in the preparation of the material.
Methods of enzyme production, isolation and
purification then followed. Examples of the
various plant, animal and micro-organism sources
of enzymes were presented with specific atten-
tion given to the last source. Specific examples
(9-11) illustrated how optimum yields were ob-
tained in these fermentations. Isolation and puri-
fication was presented in three stages of (a) cell
removal, disruption or extraction, (b) initial frac-
tionation techniques, and (c) high resolution
techniques (see Table II). Adequate references
exist (12-30) which delineate specific aspects and
entire enzyme production schemes.
Immobilized enzymes was the last section dis-
cussed in Part I. Excellent reviews are available
(31-36). The methods discussed were covalent
attachment to water insoluble supports, covalent
intermolecular crosslinking, adsorption, contain-
ment within devices and entrapment with cross-
linking polymers.

Enzyme and Biological Reactor Design
Material and energy balances for ideal homo-
geneous batch, CSTR and plug flow reactors with
enzyme and fermentation kinetics are presented
in the first three sections. Michaelis-Menten
kinetics with and without substrate inhibition are
employed. Effects of nonideal flow and possibili-
ties of multiple steady states for substrate inhibi-
tion kinetics are introduced. The Monad model
for fermentation kinetics is presented. Batch and
continuous fermentations are discussed with some
attention to washout phenomena, multistaged
reactors, nonideal flow and micro-mixing effects.
Models of hydrocarbon fermentation are present-


TABLE II
Enzyme and Biochemical Reaction Engineering
Enzyme Isolation and Purification
(Subsection E of Part 1).
Introductory Comments, Enrichment, Yields, Lab. Results.
Solid-Liquid Separation
Centrifugation
Filtration
Disi option of Microorganisms
Nonmechanical
Mechanical
Initial Fractionation Procedures
Salt Precipitation
Solvent Precipitation
High Resolution Techniques
Electrophoresis
Ultrafiltration
Gel Filtration-(el Chromatography
Affinity (hromatography


The course introduces the student to
the biochemistry of enzymes and merges the
techniques of chemical reactor engineering
with immobilized enzyme and biochemical
kinetics and exposes methods
of reactor design for these systems.


ed which consider microbial sorption to from
droplets, growth on the droplet surface and within
broth, droplet size distribution and mixing, and
oxygen absorption. Chemical reaction engineer-
ing texts and various other references were em-
ployed (15, 37-42).
The interaction of chemical and physical rate
processes are presented for the single particle.
Various limiting cases such as external mass
transfer with surface reaction, diffusional re-
sistances and reaction within the particle are
discussed and isothermal effectiveness factors are
introduced. Diffusional influences in membrane
catalysts for planar, cylindrical (hollow fiber) or
spherical geometry are also formulated for
Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Overall rate expres-
sions for single particles and membranes are
formulated. Various references employed are
(43-45). To complete the discussion, a formula-
tion of enzyme kinetics with inactivation is pre-
sented for various modes of deactivation. Deacti-
vation parameter estimations for various fluid-
solid reactor configurations as discussed in Leven-
spiel (37) are extended to Michaelis-Menten
kinetics and examples are presented.
The performance equations are employed with the
rate expressions developed to predict conversion for fixed


FALL 1974









bed immobilized enzyme reactors, slurry reactors with
dispersed immobilized enzyme, and tubular membrane
reactors. Modes of reactor operation for deactivating im-
mobilized enzymes to maximize production are discussed
for the glucose isomerase reaction. A fixed bed reactor
with plug flow of fluids is considered and varying tempera-
ture policy (44) or substrate flow rate is employed to
maximize yields and/or maintain constant product
quality. F]


REFERENCES

1. M. Dixon and E. C. Webb, Enzymes, 2nd Ed., Academic
Press, Inc. New York, 1964.
2. S. Bernhard, Thie Sl rucre ind FVimnction of Enzymes,
W. A. Benjamin, Inc. New York, 19(8.
SH. Gutfreund, An Introdutio to the Study of
En zuics, John Wiley, Inc. New, 1965.
4. J. M. Reiner, lhlichioor of Enz!tme Systems, Burgess
Publishing Company, Lib. of Cong. Cat. No. 59-8042
Minneapolis 15, Minn. 1959.
K. J. Laidler, The Kinetics of Enzyme Action, Oxford
University Press, London, 1958.
(. John Westley, Enzimel ('otolysis, Harper and Row,
New York, 1969.
7. Notes from CES 7001, Enzyme Technology and its
Enginecring/ A !plir ntions, June 1-5, 1970 Univ. of
Penn. Phila., Pa.
8. L. L. Tavlarides, "Enzyme Kinetics Lectures," pre-
sented at Mof'et Technical Center, CPC, International,
Argo, Illinois.
9. W. W. Windish, N. S. Mharte, "Microbial Amylases,"
Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 7, p 273-304,
(19(65).
10. K. Mizusawa, E. Ichishima, F. Yashida, "Production
of Thermostable Alkaline Proteases by Thermophilic
Shtrptom ces," Applied Microbiology, V17n3, 366-371,
(1969).
11. L. Nyiri, "Manufacture of Pectinases," Process Bio-
chemistry, V:Mn8, 27 (19(;8), Morgan-Grampian (Pub-
lishers) Ltd.
12. S. Schwimmer, A. B. Pardee, "Principles and Pro-
cedures in the Isolation of Enzyme," Advances in
Enzymology, V14, p 373.
13. S. Aiba, S. Kitai, N. Ishida, J. of Gen. and App.
Microbiol. VS, 109 (1962).
14. N. C. Mahoney, Process Biochemistry, V3n9, 19
(19(68).
15. S. Aiba, A. E. Humphrey, N. F. Millis, Biochemical
Engiiocrring, Academic Press, N. Y., 1965.
16. C. Ambler, J. of Biochem. and Microbiochem. Tech.
!nd Engr., V1, 185 (1959).
17. Nepperas, E. A., 1). E. Hughes, Biotech. & Bioeng.,
V6; 247-70 (1964).
18. J. W. T. Wimpenny, Process Biochem. V2n7, 41
(19(;67).
19. J. T. Edsal, "Plasma Proteins and Their Fractiona-
tion," Adv. in Protein Chem. V3, 408 (1947).
20. M. Dixon and E. C. Webb, "Enzyme Fractionation by
Salting Out: a Theor. Note," Adv. in Protein Chem.,
V17, 197 (1963).
21. B. A. Askonas, Biochem. J. V'48, 42 (1951).
22. M. Bier, Elctronphorcsis Theory, Mlethods ndl A Ippli-
trtiols Academic Press, Inc. New York, N. Y. 1959.


23. M. Bier, Electrro cations, Academic Press, Inc., New York, N. Y.
(1967).
24. M. K. Joustra "Gel Filtration on Agarose Gels,"
Modn. Scpn. Methods of Nacsomolecules and Porticles,
Proy. in Sepon. and Piurification, Vol. 2, 183 (1969).
25. T. C. Laurent, B. Ohrink, K. Hellsing A. Iaosteson
"On the Theoretical Aspects of Gel Chromotography,"
.lodni. Selp. Methods of Manoc.roolrecies and P rticles,
Prog. inl Sepnl- aml Pirification Vol. 2, 199-218,
(1969). Wiley.
2(. P. Cuatrecasas, Adv. in Enzymol. V3.i, 29 (1972).
27. P. H. Clarke and M. D. Lilly, "Enzyme Synthesis
I)uring Growth," in 19th Symposium of Society for
General Microbiology, (1969).
28. R. Davies, "Microbial Extracellular Enzymes, Their
Uses and Some Factors Affecting Their Formation,"
Biochemistry of Industrial Microorganisms ed. by C.
Rainhow and A. M. Rose, Academic Press, 1963.
2!0R.R. Luedeking, "Fermentation Process Kinetics," Bio-
chemical and Biological Engineering Science, Vol. I,
ed. by N. Blakebrough, Academic Press, 1967.
30. J. W. Richards, "Economics of Fermentation Opera-
tion, Parts I and II," Process Biochemistry, Vol. 3,
Nos. 5 & 6 1968.
31. I. H. Silman, and E. Katchalski, Ann. Rev. Biochem.
35, 873.
:32. L. Goldstein, In Methods of Enzymology XIX. G. E.
Perlman and L. Lorand Ed., Academic Press, New
York, p. 935, (1970).
33. E. Katchalski, I. Silman anid R. Goldman, Adv.
Enzymol. 314, 445, (1971).
34. K. Mosbach, Scientific American 224, 26, (1971).
35. R. Goldman, L. Goldstein, and E. Katchalski, In Bio-
chemical Aspects of Reactions on Solid Supports,
Stark, G. R., Ed., Academic Press, New York, p. 1.,
(1971).
:6. O. R. Zaborsky, Immobilized Enzymes. CRC Press,
Cleveland, Ohio, (1973).
37. O. Levenspiel, ('Chelical Reactioti Eng/inccring, 2nd
Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y. (1972).
38. R. Artis, Introdliutio to the Analysis of Chemic l
Retclors, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J.,
(1965).
39. J. M. Smith, C(lIicatl Engineering Kinetics, 2n Etl.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y. (1970).
40. L. T. Fan, B. I. Tsai, and L. E. Erickson, "Simul-
taneous Effect of Macromixing and Micromixing on
Growth Processes," AIChE, J. 17 (3), 689 (1971).
41. M. Stamatoudis and L. L. Tavlarides, "Model of
Hydrocarbon Fermentation," paler presented at 75th
National AIChE Meeting, Ietroit, Mich., June 1973.
42. S. P. O'Neill, M. I). Lilly, P. N. Rowe "Multiple
Steady States in CFST Enzyme Reactors," Chem.
Eng. Sci. V26i, 173 (1971).
43. R. Aris Chem. Eng. Sci. Vti, 282 (1957).
44. J. Crank, Matlh. of Diffitsion, Clarendon Press. Ox-
ford, England, 1956.
45. P. R. Roney, "Multiphase Catalysis II Hollow Fiber
Catalysis," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, V13,
431, (1971).
46. W. R. Haas, L. L. Tavlarides, W. J. Wnek, "Optimal
Policy for Reversible Reactions with Deactivation:
Applied to Enzyme Reactors," AIChE, J., July, 1974.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The inside word on the outside world.


AIR POLLUTION: PHYSICAL AND
CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS
JOHN H. SEINFELD, California Institute of
Technology. 1975, 400 pages (tent.), $18.50
(tent.).
Here is a quantitative and rigorous approach to
the basic science and engineering underlying the
air pollution problem. The most comprehensive
single book available on the subject, it provides
an in-depth treatment of air pollution chemistry
atmospheric transport processes, combustion
sources and control methods.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
EMIL CHANLETT, University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill. 1973, 608 pages, $17.50. Solutions
Manual
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION is man-
centered. This book describes the rationale for
the management and protection of our land, air,
water, and energy resources. The consequences of
mismanagement of the major environmental com-
ponents are examined at three levels: 1) effects
on health; 2) effects on comfort, convenience, ef-
ficiency and esthetics; and 3) effects on the bal-
ance of ecosystems and of renewable resources.
Although scientific and engineering principles are
stressed, the material covered is presented in a
clear, non-mathematical manner to facilitate a
broad understanding by relatively divergent
groups.

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
ENGINEERING
LINVIL G. RICH, Clemson University. McGraw-
Hill Series in Water Resources and En'iron-
mental Engineering. 1973, 405 pages, $17.50.
Solutions Manual
While covering a broad spectrum of environ-
mental topics, the focus is on the system as a
whole and how its components interact rather
than the components themselves. This systems ap-
proach is used in formulating and analyzing en-
vironmental phenomena, as well as in the selection
and design of engineered facilities needed for con-
trolling the environment. Although water environ-
ment is considered in greatest detail, also included
are air pollution and its control, solid waste man-
agement and radiological health. The mathematics
of systems analysis and computer solutions is used
extensively.


SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND WATER
QUALITY MANAGEMENT
ROBERT V. THOMANN, Manhattan College.
1972, 286 pages (tent.), $19.50 (tent.)
Using both mathematical models of environmental
responses and management and control schemes,
the text provides a series of analytical tools for
describing and forecasting the effects of the sur-
rounding environment on the water quality of a
stream or estuary, presents information on water
quality criteria and wastewater inputs, estab-
lishes a point of departure for evaluating the
worth of water quality improvement projects and
discusses the benefits of applying cost benefit
analysis to engineering.

SOURCE TESTING FOR AIR POLLUTION
CONTROL
HAL B. H. COOPER, JR., University of Texas at
Austin, and AUGUST T. ROSSANO, JR., Uni-
versity of Washington. 1971, 278 pages, $13.50.
A discussion of principles and methods used for
testing of gaseous and particulate materials being
emitted from industrial, combustion and other
sources is presented in this informative text.
Organized to give the reader a logical presentation
of the steps taken in source testing, the book in-
cludes an extensive examination of the equipment,
methodology, sampling, and analytical techniques
in use for gaseous and particulate particles.

AIR POLLUTION
H. C. PERKINS, University of Arizona. 1974,
407 pages, $15.50. Solutions Manual
To date, this is the only truly engineering-oriented
text on the subject that draws upon the student's
background in analyzing and solving problems in
air pollution. The treatment is sufficiently detailed
to enable chemical, mechanical, and sanitary en-
gineering students to solve a variety of problems.
A complete discussion of the global effects of air
pollution is included along with numerous ap-
plications-type problems.

Prices subject to change without notice.


McGRAW HILL BOOK CO.
1221 Avenue of the Americas
N.Y., N.Y. 10020


FALL 1974


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Strengthen the



McGRAW-HILL Texts Reinforce


BASIC ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS,
Second Edition
MARK W. ZEMANSKY, Emeritus, City College
of the City University of New York, MICHAEL
M. ABBOTT and H. C. VAN NESS, both of
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 1975, 448 pages
(tent.), $15.00 (tent.). Solutions Manual
Important changes in this revision include a con-
solidation and unification of material resulting in
fewer chapters, the addition of a large number of
worked examples, extensive use of SI units, and
use of the same sign conventions for both work
and heat. Also featured are an expanded treat-
ment of refrigeration and power cycles and ex-
tension of the discussion on flow processes to in-
clude adiabatic flow processes, especially transonic
flows.

SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES
MERTON C. FLEMINGS, Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology. 1974, 580 pages, $19.50. Solu-
tions Manual
Professor Flemings has written the only book that
treats the engineering side of solidification proc-
esses in depth. Unique in its application of solidi-
fication theory, SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES
builds on the foundation of heat flow, mass trans-
port and interface kinetics. Similarities as well
as differences between processes are highlighted,
and among the processes considered are crystal
growing, shape casting, ingot casting, growth of
composites and splat cooling.

MASS TRANSFER
THOMAS K. SHERWOOD, ROBERT L. PIG-
FORD, and CHARLES R. WILKE, all of the
University of California, Berkeley. 1975, 512
pages (tent.), $18.50 (tent.).
Compared to the 1952 version Absorption and
Extraction, this volume is substantially more
sophisticated, providing a much broader coverage
of mass transfer. Emphasis is on the practical
aspects and real problems that demand an under-
standing of theory. Yet, theoretical derivations
are minimized by explicit citation of over 1,100
contemporary references.


PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS
JUI SHENG HSIEH, New Jersey Institute of
Technology. 1975, 500 pages (tent.), $16.50 (tent.)
A clear and unified treatment of various thermo-
dynamic systems, this new text illustrates the
wide range of applicability of the basic laws of
thermodynamics. Beginning with a comprehensive
review of the first and second laws, the text ex-
amines thermodynamic relations for single- and
multi-component compressible systems; stability;
phase and chemical equilibrium; thermodynamics
of elastic system, interfacial-tension system, mag-
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the third law and negative Kelvin temperatures.

INTRODUCTION TO METALLURGICAL
THERMODYNAMICS
DAVID R. GASKELL, University of Pennsyl-
vania. McGrair-Hill Series in Materials Science
and Engineering. 1973, 550 pages, $19.50.
Here is a modern text which details the thermo-
dynamics of high temperature systems encoun-
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of the criteria governing equilibria in metal-
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trate the thermodynamic principles involved.


INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS,
Third Edition
J. M. SMITH, University of California at Davis,
and H. C. VAN NESS, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute. McGrawr-Hill Series in Chemical Engi-
ineeriing. 1975, 672 pages (tent.), $16.50 (tent.).
Including a new chapter on solution thermody-
namics, the third edition of this successful funda-
mentals text maintains a unified treatment of
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









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SEPARATION PROCESSES
C. JUDSON KING, University of California,
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neering. 1971, 736 pages, $19.50. Solutions Manual
This text stresses the many common aspects of
the functioning and analysis of different separa-
tion processes, such as distillation, absorption, and
extraction. Modern computational techniques for
single and multistage separations are considered
with the emphasis on an understanding of the
various conditions which favor different computa-
tional approaches.


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RATE DATA
STUART W. CHURCHILL, University of Penn-
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ual
Professor Churchill offers a completely new and
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MOMENTUM, HEAT AND MASS
TRANSFER, Second Edition
C. O. BENNETT, University of Connecticut,
Storrs and J. E. MYERS, University of Cali-
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Solutions Manual
Combining a rigorous approach to fundamentals
with an extended treatment of practical problems,
this revision illustrates basic ideas by applications
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JACK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Uni-
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JACK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Uni-
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AUGUST T. ROSSANO, JR., University of Wash-
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THE SCIENCE OF SYNTHETIC

AND BIOLOGICAL POLYMERS


CURT THIS
Washington ULnirersit!/
St. Louis, Missouri 63130

T HE SCIENCE OF SYNTHETIC and Biological
Polymers is a one semester (15 weeks) in-
troductory graduate polymer course offered at
Washington University that consists of three
hours of lecture per week and carries three hours
of credit. The material presented is designed to
be of value to a range of engineering students in-
cluding those in the materials science and bio-
medical engineering programs. For many stu-
dents, this is the only polymer course they take.
Accordingly, I try to cover a reasonably broad
spectrum of material. The depth of presentation
is designed to be sufficient for the students to
appreciate the theoretical principles of polymer
science, but it is not sufficient for them to be
polymer specialists.
Because the scope of contemporary polymer
science has become so broad, a one semester
course can never cover more than a small frac-
tion of the knowledge available. Thus, I am high-
ly selective about what is presented. The choice
of subject matter is prejudiced by my industrial
research experience. Regardless of where today's
students ultimately work, I am convinced that
they will encounter many of the same types of
problems that I encountered. These include prob-
lems associated with selection of polymers for a
specific application, deterioration or change in
polymer properties with use, pushing a polymer
product to the limits of its capabilities, and as-
suming lot-to-lot reliability of polymer-containing
products. All of these problems constantly plague
polymer users. Accordingly, I slant the course
material toward polymer characterization, selec-
tion, properties and weaknesses. Being a physical
chemist, I take a physico-chemical approach to all
material presented. The fundamental principles
discussed are kept as simple and logical as I can
make them. I try frequently to introduce practical


examples into the lecture material thereby illus-
trating the various topics discussed. My entire
goal is to maximize long-term retention of useful
knowledge of polymers by the students.

COURSE CONTENT

T ABLE 1 CONTAINS an outline of the course
material. I start with polymer nomenclature
and follow this with a discussion of the chemistry
involved in preparing various polymers. I then
cover polymer characterization and polymer struc-
ture property relationships. Polyelectrolytes and
proteins are treated after polymer solution pro-
perties. In addition, I deliberately try to include
illustrative examples of biological or water-soluble
polymers throughout the course. This is done pri-
marily for the benefit of the biomedical students,
but the other students benefit too, since industrial
uses of water-soluble polymers are steadily in-
creasing. As noted previously, all topics are ap-
proached from a polymer user viewpoint. Basic
principles are stressed constantly, but the course
has a definite practical orientation. In order to
visualize the subject matter given, it is appropri-
ate to discuss in more detail the sequence of topics
listed in Table I.


Choice of subject matter is prejudiced by
my industrial research experience ... I slant
the material toward polymer characterization,
selection, properties and weaknesses ... a physical
chemist, I take a physico-chemical approach to all
material presented.


The first topic is nomenclature. At times, one
tends to look upon this as a trivial topic. However,
consistent with my efforts to stress fundamentals,
I spend several lectures on nomenclature. These
introductory lectures also enable me to introduce
the basic concepts of polymer structure.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Table 1
COURSE OUTLINE
I. Nomenclature
II. Polymer Chemistry
A. Kinetics of polycondensation reactions
1. Kinetics of free radical polymerization
(. Copolymerization kinetics
1). Ionic polymerization reactions
E. Epoxy and urethane curing reactions
III. Polymer Characterization
A. Solution Properties
1. Solubility Behavior
2. Fractionation
3. Molecular Weight Determination
B. Polyelectrolytes and Proteins
C. Bulk Properties of Polymers
1. The Glass Transition and Crystalline
Melting Point
2. Viscoelasticity
3. Rubber Elasticity
IV. Polymer Structure/Property Relationships
A. Factors That Affect the Glass Transition
B. Factors that Affect Crystallinity
C. Structural Analysis of Widely Used Plastics

The students are exposed to the difference be-
tween linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers,
the meaning of stereoregularity, etc. I do my best
to cover a broad spectrum of polymer terms in
common use. The beauty and complexity of
biological polymers from a structural viewpoint
is introduced too. I also expect the students to
learn the chemical structures of a number of
widely used commercial polymers (e. g., polyethy-
lene, poly(vinyl chloride), etc.). To me, knowing
the chemical structures of a number of polymers
provides a mental picture of how various polymers
differ structurally and lays the groundwork for
more meaningful discussion of polymer properties
later in the course.

PREPARING POLYMERS

FOLLOWING NOMENCLATURE. I spend con-
siderable time going over the chemistry in-
volved in preparing various types of polymers.
This takes about 25'0 of the total semester lec-
ture time. I feel that spending so much time on
polymer chemistry is easily justified, because
polymers are constantly used under conditions
where they depolymerize, oxidize, and or cross-
link. All of these reactions cause profound
changes in polymer properties and occur when
polymers deteriorate with use. By stressing to the
students how polymer molecules are assembled, it
is logical to point out simultaneously how various
polymerization reactions can either be reversed


Curt Thies has been an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at Washington University since January 1973. He is a native of
Michigan. He received a B.S. in Chemistry from Western Michigan
University (1956); M.S. from the Institute of Paper Chemistry (1958);
and Ph.D. in rhe Physical Chemistry of Polymers with a minor in
Chemical Engineering from Michigan State University (1962). Prior
to joining Washington University he had an industrial career cul-
minating with the position of Head of the Polymer Microencapsula-
tion Research Section of NCR. His research and teaching interests
are in the areas of colloid and surface behavior of polymers, microen-
capsulation, and polymer mixtures.

to cause deploymerization or altered to cause
crosslinking.
Much of the chemistry discussed relates to
condensation, free radical, and ionic polymeriza-
tion processes. However, I also discuss the various
mechanisms by which epoxy and urethane resins
are cured. I spend time on these latter two
families of polymers because: 1. they are widely
used in situations engineers are likely to en-
counter (e. g., adhesives, foams, and composite
materials) ; 2. it gives me an opportunity to go
over the concept of crosslinking and thermoset
resins in some detail. The level of organic
chemistry presented is always relatively elemen-
tary, but I feel that it suffices to indicate to the
students how the major types of polymerization
reactions differ. I stress polymerization kinetics.
From the kinetic approach, the students learn to
appreciate that polymer chain length, rate of
chain growth, etc., differ for the various poly-
merization process. I try to note how these im-
portant parameters can be controlled to thereby
give the polymer producer a great degree of con-
trol over tailoring polymer molecules for specific
end uses.
The kinetic expressions developed for free
radical copolymerization reactions are also dis-
cussed. Many copolymers are of significant com-
mercial importance and the students should have
a grasp of the fundamental principles that poly-


FALL 1974








mer producers use to minimize or avoid formation
of compositionally heterogenous copolymers. The
discussion of copolymer kinetics also helps the stu-
dents to appreciate the sequence in which
monomers are added to a growing polymer chain
and how differences in the sequence of monomer
addition lead to gross changes in polymer struc-
ture with concomitant changes in properties.

POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION

F FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION of poly-
merization reactions, I devote a number of
lectures to polymer characterization. The tech-
niques discussed fall into two broad categories:
those that utilize polymer solution properties and
those that are based on polymer bulk properties.
I begin with the former. One of the first points I
try to make is that few commercial polymers are
pure. Polymer manufacturers inevitably add to
their products a range of additives like light
stabilizers, anti-oxidants, processing aids, etc.
Toxicity of these additives is of critical importance
to those interested in biomedical applications be-
cause they can be leached from the polymer
matrix duringg use. Thus, I stress that the first
step to take in characterizing a polymer sample
is to find out what is present, including the
additives. Infrared spectroscopy is a convenient
means of doing this. In the case of complex mix-
tures, the various components are separated by
differences in solubility. This then leads into a
general discussion of polymer solubility behavior.
I stress that solubility in a range of solvents and
over a range of temperatures not only enables one
to separate complex mixtures and fractionate
polymers into different molecular weight frac-
tions, but also provides insight into the molecular
structure of a polymer (e. g., crystalline polymers
are more insoluble than noncrystalline polymers,
crosslinked polymers are insoluble in all solvents,
etc.).
After discussing polymer solubility, I swing
into the theory underlying the commonly used
methods of determining polymer molecular weight
and the meaning of the various molecular weight
averages. Included in the presentation is an in-
troduction to gel filtration and gel permeation
chromatography. I spend only about three to four
lectures on these topics, because I am simply
trying to get the students to appreciate how
polymer molecular weights differ from those of
non-polymeric species. I also am constantly warn-
ing them always to specify what molecular weight


average they mean when they quote the molecular
weight of a polymer.
At this point, I begin to discuss what addi-
tion of ionic groups to a polymer chain does to the
polymer and thereby develop the concept of poly-
electrolytes. The discussion of polyelectrolytes, in
turn, serves as a lead into a discussion of pro-
teins. I spend several lectures presenting proteins
and glycoproteins from a polymer chemist's view-
point. The reactions that proteins undergo are not
considered. I focus exclusively upon their primary,
secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure and
the influence that intra-or inter-molecular bond-
ing has upon each of these structures.
After proteins, I treat bulk polymer proper-
ties. The concept of glass transition (T,) and
melting point (T,,) is stressed and attention is
focused upon how these events affect polymer
properties. This involves showing how a polymer's
modulus changes as one passes through T,,, and or
T,. The influence of crosslinking, crosslink density,



The students are exposed to the difference
between linear, branched and crosslinked
polymers, the meaning of stereo-
regularity, etc. The beauty and
complexity of biological polymers
from a structural viewpoint is introduced.



and degree of crystallization on the modulus
temperature curves is used to illustrate how
structural and or morphological changes in a
polymer influence its properties. At this point, the
structural requirements for a polymer to develop
crystallinity and the concept of folded-chain
polymer crystals are also treated. This is followed
by a discussion of the viscoelastic properties of
polymers which involves going through the Voigt,
Kelvin, and four-parameter models of viscoelastici-
ty. The thermodynamics of rubber elasticity is
also covered. Particular emphasis is placed upon
the key structural features of polymers needed for
elastic behavior.
The final portion of the course is devoted to
a discussion of polymer structure property re-
lationships. Structural factors that favor in-
creased T, or T,,, of a polymer are considered. The
effect of copolymerization upon T, or T,, of a
polymer are considered. The effect of copolymeri-
zation upon T, and the degree of crystallinity


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









exhibited by a polymer is also discussed. I try to
show how polymer structure plays a key role in
determining what properties a polymer has. This
then determines the applications for which a
polymer is suited. In order to drive this point
home, I like to list the T, and T,, values for a
number of widely used polymers. I then go over
the structural features of each polymer and indi-
cate how these have affected its applications.

SOURCE MATERIAL

The required text for the course is Billmeyer's Text-
book of Polymer Science (Second Edition, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1971). I also have developed
a set of lecture notes for parts of the course and pass
these out to the students. The sequence of lecture ma-
terial presentation that I favor differs significantly from
that used by Billmeyer. Since a wide spectrum of sub-
jects is covered, I also find that I like to supplement Bill-
meyer's text with additional material taken from the
reference texts listed in Table II. Thus, I either formulate
by own problems, turn to the example problems in Rosen's
text, or give the homework problems in Rodriguez's book.
My supply of problems is steadily increasing, but I never
have enough. I favor assigning a range of problems that
require relatively little time to solve rather than giving
a limited number of problems that require considerable
time to solve. This exposes the student to a broader range
of problem situations.

CLASSROOM APPROACH

NSOFAR AS THE LECTURES are concerned,
I try to provoke class participation by routine-
ly asking lots of questions during the lectures.
These are addressed to the class in general (i. e.,
anyone can volunteer an answer) and tend to be
practical in nature. The questions are designed
to establish dialogue between the students and
myself during class. In this manner, I become
more aware of what concepts they are not grasp-
ing well and can then spend more time on these.
I also try to constantly relate my own experiences
with polymers to them and warn them of some
of the polymer problems that they are likely to
encounter.
This past year, I was assisted in the course
by Dr. Lawrence Nielsen, a Senior Scientist in
the Corporate Research Department of the Mon-
santo Company and Affiliate Professor in the
Chemical Engineering Department at Washington
University. He is an experienced polymer physi-
cist specializing in the mechanical properties of
polymers and handled the lectures that dealt
with this aspect of polymer science. During his
lectures, the students were exposed to a concise


Text
Flory, P. J., "Principles of
Polymer Chemistry," Cornell
University Press, Ithaca,
New York, 1953.
Saunders, K. J., "Organic
Polymer Chemistry," Chap-
man and Hall, London,
England, 1973.
Rosen, S. L., "Fundamental
Principles of Polymeric
Materials for Practicing
Engineers," Barnes and
Noble, Inc., New York,
N. Y. 1971.
Tobolsky, A. V., "Properties
and Structure of Polymers,"
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
New York, N. Y., 1960.
Neurath, H., "The Proteins,"
Second Edition, Academic
Press, New York, N. Y.,
1965.
Rodriguez, F., "Principles
of Polymer Systems," Mc-
Graw-Hill Book Co., New
York, N. Y., 1970.
Miller, M. L., "The Structure
of Polymers," Reinhold
Publishing Corp., New York,
N. Y., 1966.


Supplemental Material Used
Kinetics of polycondensa-
tion plus rubber elasticity.



Organic polymer chemistry,
including ionic polymeriza-
tion processes and cure of
epoxy and urethane resins.
Primarily viscoelasticity. I
also make extensive use of
the example problems given
throughout the text.



Factors affecting the glass
transition, viscoelasticity.



Structure of Proteins.




Homework problems.




Polyelectrolytes and free
radical polymerizations.


survey of the mechanical property behavior of
polymers. The choice of relevant material pre-
sented was something only a seasoned expert
could do and greatly strengthened the overall
content of the course.

CONCLUSION

Before concluding, I wish to note that the content and
arrangement of a course like this one is subject to con-
stant modification. I am trying to increase the learning
efficiency of the students without forcing too much
knowledge on them too quickly. One means of doing this
involves improving my style of delivery, especially for
those topics which the students seem to consistently have
greatest difficulty. My approach is to simplify the presen-
tation as much as feasible. Furthermore, I am increasing
the number of notes to be handed out before a lecture is
given. In this manner, I hope to devote more of the lec-
ture to class discussion. Only time will tell how success-
ful these efforts are. n


FALL 1974


Table II
TEXTS FROM WHICH SUPPLEMENTAL COURSE
MATERIAL IS DRAWN









SOLID-STATE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY: Donaghey
Continued from page 167.


Technology, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,
N. J., 1972.
3. R. A. Swalin, Thermodynamics of Solids, John Wiley
and Sons, New York, N. Y., 1962.
4. N. N. Greenwood, Ionic Crystals, Lattice Defects and
Nonstoichiometry, Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New
York, N. Y., 1970.
5. K. Nassau, "The Chemistry of Laser Crystals," in
Applied Solid State Science, Advances in Materials
and Device Research, R. Wolfe and C. J. Kriersman,
eds., Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, N. Y., 1971,
PP. 173-299.
6. M. Zief and R. Speights, eds., Ultrapurification,
Methods and Techniques, M. Dekker, New York, N. Y.,
1972.
7. H. Schafer, Chemical Transport Reactions, Academic
Press, New York, N. Y., 1964.
8. W. G. Pfann, Zone Melting, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., New York, N. Y., 2nd Edition, 1966.
9. R. A. Laudise, The Growth of the Single Crystals,
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1972.
10. R. L. Parker, "Crystal Growth Mechanisms: Ener-
getics, Kinetics and Transport," in Solid State Physics,


Advances in Research and Applications, H. Ehren-
reich, F. Seitz and D. Turnbull, eds., Vol. 25, Academic
Press, New York, N. Y., 1970, pp. 152-299.
11. R. M. Burger and R. P. Donovan, eds., Oxidation,
Diffusion and Epitaxy, Prentice-Hall, New York,
N. Y., 1967.
12. S. A. Shaikh, "Chemical Vapor Deposition of
GaAs,_Px, Reactor Design and Growth Kinetics,"
M. S. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Sep-
tember 1972.
13. H. R. Camenzind, Electronic Integrated Systems De-
sign, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, N. Y.,
1972.
14. I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish and F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl.
Phys., .t2, 1929 (1971).
15. H. C. Casey, Jr. and F. A. Trumbore, Mater. Sci.
Eng., 6, 69 (1970).
16. A. H. Bobeck and H. D. E. Scovil, Scientific American,
June 1971, pp. 78-89.
17. 1972 Wescon Technical Papers, Session 8, Magnetic
Bubbles, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engi-
neers, San Francisco, Calif.


ADVANCED THERMO: Luks
Continued from page 183.


occurrence of a van der Waals "loop" in the re-
gion of coexistence is a manifestation of the ap-
proximate nature of the equation of state.-
Diffusional stability, or immiscibility phenome-
na, is presented in a manner abstracted from
Prigogine and Defay.6 Margules solution models,
starting with the "regular," are adequate to
demonstrate a broad spectrum of possible im-
miscibility behavior. Prausnitz's discussion of the
subject" is a good complement to this topic.

6. Thermodynamics of Mixtures (2 weeks, or whatever
time remains).

Obviously, two weeks is not enough to do any
justice to the practical aspects of the thermo-
dynamics of mixtures, such as the fugacity and
activity concepts. Often, these few lectures are
given in a qualitive way to provide an overview
of what is presently relevant in chemical thermo-
dynamics. This is generally all that the non-
chemical engineers will desire while the chemical
engineers have refuge in a second course for
which this course is a prerequisite. The second
course is a course in phase equilibria and uses
Prausnitz9 as a text. It will not be discussed here.
In closing, it is satisfying to note that Equa-
tion (3.1-8)-(3.1-14) and Equation (3.4-9)-


(3.4-17) of Prausnitz,' equations for the proper-
ties of mixtures with independent variables (P,T)
and (V,T) relative to an ideal gas basis (T =
T, P = 1 atm absolute), are derivable by stu-
dents of the core course without recourse to the
work of Beattie.'0 D

REFERENCES

1. Holman, J. P., "Thermodynamics," McGraw-Hill, Inc.
(1970); 2nd Edition (1974).
2. Reynolds, W. C., and H. C. Perkins, "Engineering
Thermodynamics," McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1970).
3. Tisza, L., "Generalized Thermodynamics," M. I. T.
Press (1970), ps. 5-38.
4. Callen, H. B., "Thermodynamics," John Wiley and
Sons, Inc. (1960), ps. 3-130.
5. Denbigh, K., "The Principles of Chemical Equi-
librium," 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press
(1971), See prob. 8, p. 213-214.
6. Zeleznik, F. J., and S. Gordon, I. & E. C. 60(6), 27-57
(1968).
7. For example, see Appendix 9 of T. L. Hill's "Statisti-
cal Mechanics," McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1956), ps. 413-
423.
8. Prigogine, I., and R. Defay, "Chemical Thermody-
namics," Longmans (1954), ref. Chapters XV and
XVI.
9. Prausnitz, J. M., "Molecular Thermodynamics of
Fluid-Phase Equilibria," Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1969).
10. Beattie, J. A., Chem. Rev. 44, 141-192 (1949).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


--- I I








MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL AND ESTIMATION: Edgar


Continued from page 171.
This latter approach is an interesting extension of
classical single loop design.20

SUMMARY
The course stresses those elements of modern control
theory which appear to have the most promise of eventual
applications and economic justification. The usefulness of
the proposed techniques is tested via simulation and ex-
pel imentation. A pilot plant distillation column has been
chosen as a prototype system for testing multivariable
strategies; focusing on a real system seems to enhance
the students' interest. There is no question that use of a
computer control laboratory strengthens the overall
course, and hopefully the experience will motivate the
students to use multivariable control and estimation to
solve the difficult problems of process operation.
REFERENCES
1. Newell, R. B., Fisher, D. G., and Seborg, D. E.,
AIChE J., 18, 976 (1972).
2. Smith, F. B., "Dynamic Modeling and Control of a
Fluid Cat Cra-ker' 76th Natl. AIChE Meeting, Tulsa,
OK, March, 1974.
3. Sage, A.P., "Optimum Systems Control," Prentice-
Hall, England, Englewood Cliffs (1968).
4. Bryson, A. E., and Ho, Y. C., "Applied Optimal
Control," Blaisdell, Waltham (1969).
5. Lapidus, L. and Luus, R., "Optimal Control of Engi-
neering Processes, Blaisdell, Waltham (1967).


6. Koppel, L. B., "Introduction to Control Theory,"
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1968).
7. Ogata, K., "State Space Analysis of Control Systems,"
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1967).
8. Denn, M. M., "Optimization by Variational Methods,"
McGraw-Hill, New York, (1969).
9. Ellis, J. K., and White, G. W. T., Control, April-193,
May-262, June-317 (1965).
10. Topaloglu, T., and Seborg, D. E., Proc. JACC, 309
(1974).
11. Jameson, A., IEEE Trans. Auto. Cont., AC-15, 345
(1970).
12. Huckaba, C. E., Franke, F. R., May, F. P., Fairchild,
B. T., and Distefano, G. P., CEP Symp. Ser., 61, No.
55, 126 (1965).
13. O'Conner, G. E., and Denn, M. M., Chem. Engr. Sci.,
27, 121 (1972).
14. White, J. S., and Lee, H. Q., "User's Manual for
VASP," NASA TM X-2417, Washington, D. C.,
October, 1971.
15. Hu, Y. C., and Ramirez, W. F., AIChE J., 18, 479
(1972).
1(. Edgar, T. F., Vermeychuk, J. G., and Lapidus, L.,
Chem. Engr. Comm., 1, 57 (1973).
17. Schuldt, S. B., and Smith, F. B., Proc. JACC, 270
(1971).
18. Young, P. C., Control Engr., October, 119, November,
118 (1969).
19. Hamilton, J. C., Seborg, D. E., and Fisher, D. G.,
AIChE J., 19, 901 (1973).
20. MacFarlane, A. G. J., Automatica, 8, 455 (1972).


FALL 1974


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ENERGY ENGINEERING



C. E. HAMRIN, JR., R. I. KERMODE,
and J. T. SCHRODT
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506

T HE COURSE BEGAN BEFORE the students
went home for the Christmas holidays. We
asked them to find the cost of energy sources
such as coal, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas, and
electricity in their hometown. In addition to
passing out the course outline and reading assign-
ments, the first class period was spent tabulating
the students' data. It was interesting to learn
that two students from Kentucky came from
homes heated by coal, and the cost of this coal
was $29 and $31.50, ton. This was quite a jump
from the 1971 national average of $7.07/ton! A
student volunteered to summarize the data on
ditto masters along with the latest national
averages and on the common basis of ('/10 BTU.
Another assignment in this first part of the
course was to find an energy forecast for U. S.
consumption in 1985 or 2000. It was an eye-open-
er for all of us to see the difference in Inter Tech-
nology Corp.'s prediction of 99.3 x 1015 (a com-
posite of 56 predictions) and Chase Manhattan
Bank's 135 x 10'" BTU year for 1985. The hazards
of forecasts were further spelled out by the re-
quired reading of Doan's article (see references
at end of article).

PRIOR ENERGY RESEARCH
K ENTUCKY WITH VAST COAL reserves re-
lies heavily on mining for a large fraction
of its gross State product. In the interest of pre-
serving these markets the University of Kentucky
(UK) received State funding starting in 1972
for coal research. This money was to be used for
economic and technical studies related to Ken-
tucky coals.
Projects in the department of chemical engi-
neering included such topics as high temperature
sulfur removal from gases, certain aspects of high
and low BTU gasification, sulfur removal from
coal, and a study of the agglomerating character-


istics of coal. Thus in the Fall of 1972 four
graduate students, three undergraduates and
three post doctoral fellows were carrying out
coal research under the direction of four faculty
members. These numbers were augmented the
following October when the department received
an NSF-RANN grant in conjunction with the
Ashland Oil Corporation. The focus of the re-
search was liquefaction, and four separate proj-
ects in this area were initiated at that time.
During the summer of 1973 it became apparent
that an increasing number of students and
faculty would be involved in energy research. It
was decided that two courses should be offered,
one being an advanced undergraduate-M. S.
level course, the other an M.S.-Ph.D. level
course. The first was to be a complete survey of
all types of energy and energy conversion pro-
cesses. The second would be a course in funda-
mental chemical engineering principles applied to
energy engineering.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

T O PROVIDE THE BROAD background needed
to understand the nature of the problems we
designed the first course as a series of lectures
and class discussions that would accomplish the
following:
* Familiarize the learners with the scope of the energy
problem.
* Refresh them with the basic engineering principles
needed to ferret out those energy problems requiring
engineering skills for solution from those that require
other skills for solution.
* Provide the opportunity to review in a systematic
fashion certain facets of interest, opportunity and
promise in the energy area.
* Educate them to the energy based raw material needs
of commerce and industry, particularly the CP1.
* Evaluate the short and long term potentials of es-
tablished and novel energy conversion and conservation
processes and practices.

In the short time in which we instigated this
first course we foresaw that a consort of teaching
faculty would be needed to handle both the broad-
ness and depth of the course. Prerequisites were


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Charles E. Hamrin, Jr. received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering from Northwestern University. He worked
at the Y-12 Plant of Union Carbide for six years before joining ihe
faculty of the University of Denver. He has been at the University
of Kentucky since 1968 where his teaching has emphasized student
involvement and discovery. (BELOW)
R. L. Kermode received his undergraduate education at Case
Institute of Technology, and an M.S. and Ph.D. (1962) from North-
western University. He has teaching experience at Carnegie-Mellon
University and the University of Kentucky. His research interests are
in the areas of process control and coal liquefaction. (LEFT PHOTO)
J. Thomas Schrodt is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at the University of Kentucky. He received the B.Ch.E. degree
in 1960 and a Ph.D. in 1966 from the University of Louisville and
a M.S. degree in 1962 from Villanova University. Dr. Schrodt worked
as a Senior Research Engineer for the Tennessee Eastman Company
prior to joining the faculty at U.K. His teaching and research interests
in fundamental thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer.
(RIGHT PHOTO)


established for this faculty; each had to have a
proficiency in the basic principles and each had
to have an expertise in one or more of the elected
areas of energy conversion or consumption. This
required in several cases that faculty from other
departments-Professors Cremers, Hahn, and
Stewart from the ME Department-had to be
called into the association. The prerequisites for
students taking the course for credit amounted
to an understanding of classical thermo, fluids
and process principles or some equivalent thereof.
Students from other disciplines desiring to audit
the course were welcomed to sit in. The final class
makeup consisted of 15 undergraduates, 14 Ch.E's
and 1 Ag.E. and 16 Ch.E. graduate students.

COURSE CONTENT

T HE COURSE CONTINUED as shown in the
course outline. Thermodynamics was sum-
marized in a handout of 20 important equations
for energy conversion, conservation, entropy flow,
and material transport. Sample problems were
worked using a steam turbine to illustrate energy


balances and a chemical equilibrium problem with
three simultaneous reactions occurring. Three
homework problems covering a steam turbine,
compressible fluid flow, and gasifier reaction
equilibria were assigned and represented the
quantative portion of the course.
Flow sheets and gasifier design for low-BTU
and pipeline quality gas, and for liquefaction,
were presented during the next several weeks.
Data from the Morgantown Gasifier of the USBM,
for the first time using a caking coal (Kentucky
No. 9), were presented to the class. The outlet
gas composition was shown to compare favorably
with a simple model of an adiabatic reactor in
which the water-gas shift reaction was at equi-
librium and methane was being produced by the
reaction

C + 2H, CH,

Details of gas cleanup processes including liquid
absorption, dry oxidation, and dry adsorption
were also discussed. Current research at UK in
this latter area was also detailed.
In addition to the text, Newc Energy Tech-
nology (by Hottel and Howard), a key reference
to processes for producing pipeline quality gas
was that of Bituminous Coal Research (see
references). Gasification processes essentially con-
sist of five major units: gasifier, water-gas shift
reactor acid-gas removal system, methanator, and
dryer. Discussion of the various AGA-OCR-USBM
pilot-plant processes emphasized the unique fea-
tures of each in terms of these five units. Lique-
faction coverage was limited to the Sasol plant in
South Africa and the H-Coal process.
In many instances novel learning techniques were
used to draw the students into class participation. For
example, the group process technique of role-playing was
used to discuss solvent refining of coal. Five groups were
formed with leaders being chosen based on highest first
exam scores. In 'z hour, each group was asked to come


FALL 1974








up with a process to remove sulfur from Western Ken-
tucky coal (4% S, about half organic sulfur and half
pyritic sulfur). A 2-minute presentation was to be made
to the Governor and his aides trying to sell them on this
process as part of his $50 million energy package. (This
bill was eventually signed in the Chemical Engineering
Department's Unit Operations Laboratory.) Having re-
ceived the assignment, one group left the room, and we
wondered if they would return. The groups in the room
became actively engaged in discussion, and those stu-
dents doing coal research projects were particularly vocal.
It was the first time for many to verbalize their ideas
of coal processing based on class lectures and outside read-
ing. No new processes evolved but a valuable learning ex-
perience occurred.
The remaining course topics were covered in
one or two sessions except for nuclear which was
presented in three lectures. Professor Bill Conger
of our department covered the hydrogen economy
concept based on his research in collaboration
with Dean Funk.
Two special classes were those led by dis-
tinguished visitors to the Engineering College.
Professor Jimmy Wen, Chairman of the Dept. of
Chemical Engineering at West Virginia, gave an
excellent overview of the short and long term
solutions to the U. S. energy problem. Near the
end of the semester, Professor Jack Howard, co-


author of the text, gave an extemporaneous talk
on tar sands and oil shale which supplemented
the heavy emphasis on coal during most of the
course.

Table 1
ENERGY ENGINEERING COURSE OUTLINE
I. Energy Consumption, Demand, Transportation,
Storage, and Costs (CEH)
II. Thermodynamic Laws Governing Conservation and
Availability of Energy (JTS)
Ill. Fossil Fuel to Fuel Conversion
A. Low-Btu Gas (JTS)
B. Pipeline Quality Gas (RIK)
C. Synthetic Crude Oil (RIK)
1). Solvent Refined Coal (CEH)
IV. Dependence of Industry on Hydrocarbon Feedstocks
A. Petrochemical (JTS)
B. Steel, Glass, Fertilizer, etc. (RIK)
V. Electrical Power Generation
A. Non-Nuclear (OWS)
B. Nuclear (OJH)
VI. Other Energy Sources
A. Geothermal (JTS)
B. Magnetohydrodynamics (CJC)
C. Solar (CEH)
D. Fuel Cells (RIK)
E. Hydrogen economy (WLC)


CACHE

COMPUTER

PROBLEMS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, in cooperation with the CACHE (Computer Aides to Chemical
Engineering) Committee, is initiating the publication of proven computer-based homework problems as
a regular feature of this journal.
Problems submitted for publication should be documented according to the published "Standards for
CACHE Computer Programs" (September 1971). That document is available now through the CACHE
representative in your department or from the CACHE Computer Problems Editor. Because of space
limitations, problems should normally be limited to twelve pages total; either typed double-spaced or
actual computer listings. A problem exceeding this limit will be considered. For such a problem the article
will have to be extracted from the complete problem description. The procedure to distribute the total
documentation may involve distribution at the cost of reproduction by the author.
Before a problem is accepted for publication it will pass through the following review steps:
1) Selection from among all the contributions an interesting problem by the CACHE Computer Problem
Advisory Board
2) Documentation review (with revisions if necessary) to guarantee adherence to the "Standards for
CACHE Computer Programs"
3) Program testing by running it on a minimum of three different computer systems.
Problems should be submitted to:
Dr. Gary Powers
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Penn. 15213


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








DIGITAL CONTROL: Corripio
Continued from page 163.

veloped under the project THEMIS research
grant at LSU. Formulas for all of these methods
have been programmed as a subroutine that com-
putes the parameters of the control algorithm
given the modes, the sampling interval and the
parameters of a first-order plus dead-time (trans-
portation lag or time delay) model of the process.
The students use this subroutine, also the sub-
ject of a former term project in this course, to
observe the responses produced by the different
formulas on systems simulated on the hybrid
computer.
The justification of digital control computers
is usually based on the ease and economy of im-
plementing control techniques more sophisticated
than simple feedback. The advanced techniques of
feedforward control, cascade control, elimination
of loop interaction through decoupling, on-line
identification for adaptive control of nonlinear
processes, and dead-time compensation are covered
from the point of view of digital versus analog
implementation. Term projects in these areas are
assigned to individual students. Although use of




S illiill
iI llt ][J l, r

A lint L,[ II,"
imiriiriiii


the hybrid computer is encouraged with views to
the development of demonstration problems, the
students do not always comply.
The optimization of steady-state process ope-
ration was the first type of computer control ap-
plications and is still one of the most popular.
20-CHEM. ENGINEERING 12281 Jerry
Although the subject of optimization is covered
in detail in another graduate course, an over-
view of the problem is presented from the point
of view of on-line application to processes.
The text used in this course is "Digital Com-
puter Process Control," published by Intext
(1972) and authored by Dr. Cecil L. Smith, Chair-
man of the Department of Computer Science at
LSU and originator of the course. In addition, a
collection of articles covering specific topics is
used as reference material.
In summary, this course offers fairly complete coverage
of the subject of digital computer control of chemical
processes, plus a working control of chemical processes,
plus a working experience through the use of hybrid
simulation of digital control loops. Since the subject matter
is in a state of rapid development, the course itself is in
a state of evolution. The students contribute to this
evolution through their term projects and through con-
structive criticism of the subject matter and methods of
presentation.





I"I
B;J


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FALL 1974









$ Review o4


THE DEVELOPMENT OF MASS TRANSFER THEORY


THOMAS K. SHERWOOD
University of California
Berkeley, Calif. 94720
Mass transfer has always been a central theme in
chemical engineering. We have developed a special com-
petence in the design of separation processes from batch
distillation to diffusion plants for enriching uranium-
235-and have had little competition from other branches
in this area. Perhaps chemical engineering would not have
been developed as it has if mechanical engineers had
studied physical chemistry.
The basic tools available to the engineer in the design
of a separation scheme are three: the laws of conserva-
tion of mass, energy, and the elements; data and theory
pertaining to phase equilibria; and knowledge of rates of
transport from one phase to another. The usual plan is to
accomplish a preferential enrichment of a desired species
in a second phase, followed by inexpensive mechanical
separation of the gases, liquids, or solids. It is my in-
tention to talk about the third tool of the design engineer
-knowledge of mass transfer between phases-with a
critical review of the research over the years which has
led to the present state of this art.
This is not only the twentieth anniversary of
the department at Houston but the fiftieth an-
niversary of the publication of "Principles of
Chemical Engineering" by Walker, Lewis, and
McAdams in 1923. That book was a milestone, for
it established chemical engineering as a separate
and unique branch of engineering, and stimulated
the proliferation of chemical engineering depart-
ments in many universities. Its focus on the
quantitative treatment of the unit operations was
challenging and exciting, and the "unit opera-
tions" concept served the profession well for some
twenty years.
The name "chemical engineering" had been
coined by Davis in England some fifty years
earlier, and there was at least one curriculum


labeled "chemical engineering" by 1888. The
early four-year curricula generally consisted of
two years of mechanical engineering and two
years of chemistry. By 1923 the new approach
had much to start with. Physical chemistry was
well developed; multiple effect evaporation and
rectification had been invented in Europe; and
the ideas of reflux and countercurrent staging
had been recognized and analyzed.
The concept of staged operations appears to
be unique to chemical engineering. Several years
ago a well-known mechanical engineer told me
that he had visited Oak Ridge and had been as-
tounded by the plant's capacity to produce
uranium 235. I told him that I had understood
the productive capacity to be an extremely well-
guarded secret, and asked how he had learned
what it was. He answered that it was simple
he had seen the sizes and estimated the r. p. m.
of the circulating gas compressors. I asked him
if he had ever heard of reflux. His reply was "No,
what is reflux?"
There were not many chemical engineers in
the twenties and early thirties, but much was ac-
complished in the development of the unit opera-
tions. McCabe and Thiele, working within a few
feet of each other at M. I. T., independently con-
ceived their graphical representation of Sorel's
algebraic analysis of binary rectification. The
now-familiar friction factor graph was imported
from England and publicized in this country by
chemical engineers. The simpler staged operations
were analyzed, and the McCabe-Thiele diagram
adapted for gas absorption, solvent extraction,
and leaching. The humidity chart had been in-
vented by Grosvenor in 1908 and was published


Professor Sherwood's paper is reproduced by permission of the copyright owner, and was taken from:
Proceedings of the 20th Anniversary Symposium on "Mass Transfer and Diffusion," of the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, University of Houston, held April 5-6, 1973. Other lectures presented at the Symposium were:
"Tomorrow's Challenges," by H. L. Toor; "Today's Problems and Some Approaches to Their Solution," by P. V.
Danckwerts; "Industry Problems in Mass Transfer and Diffusion," by J. R. Fair. In addition the lecturers partici-
pated in a panel discussion on "Developments-Past and Present." Copies of the Symposium are available at a
cost of $5.00 by writing to: Herbert Kent, Executive Officer, ChE Dept. of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








in Volume 1 of the Transactions of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, greatly simplify-
ing analyses of drying and air conditioning.

EARLY PERIOD
IN THIS PERIOD OF some twenty years prior
to World War II the emphasis was on the
collection and correlation of data intended to be
of direct use by the practicing design engineer.
Industry had few such data and published little,
so schools felt a responsibility to fill the need.
This urge to be immediately helpful to industry
has largely disappeared today; research in schools
is now along more scientific and theoretical
lines, hopefully of value to industry a generation
hence. Our rapport with industry has suffered.
Research on mass transfer between phases
was strong in the twenties and thirties, even as
it is today. Then, as now, the research was mostly
by academics. The film model had been invented
by Nernst in 1904, and by others around the turn
of the century. This was elaborated by Whitman
and Lewis [20, 37] through the concept of additivi-
ty of resistances of two phases in contact. Murph-
ree [221 defined a useful plate or stage efficiency,
which was shown to be related to rate coefficients.
The main variables affecting plate efficiency-
contactor design, fluid properties and the nature
of the phase equilibria-were elucidated in
numerous thesis investigations by graduate stu-
dents. But the most remarkable thing about this
period was the obsession with studies of packed
towers. Most of the experimental work was
carried out in 2- and 3-in. columns, much too
small to provide useful design data for the in-
dustrial process engineer. Data were obtained on
flooding, holdup, and pressure drop as well as
mass transfer rates, and correlations based on
dimensionless groups were developed, without
much reference to any valid theory. The profes-
sion seemed to have a one-track mind, and the
AIChE was referred to as "Packed Tower Insti-
tute." Important as packed towers were, and con-
tinue to be, it appeared that academic investi-
gators had lost their sense of perspective, neg-
lecting other problems of similar relevance and
importance.
Let me turn now to a review of the develop-
ments of the theory of mass transfer processes,
with a few critical comments as to which of
these seem now to be of importance, and which
do-not. Even in the twenties we were in moderate-


ly good shape as to how to deal with diffusion
within a single phase. Physical chemists had pro-
vided us with an understanding of diffusion in
gases, and by 1934 we had semi-empirical cor-
relations of diffusion coefficients in binary gas
systems. The classical kinetic theory has since
been developed to allow for interactions between
unlike molecules, and the modern kinetic theory
is adequate for most engineering purposes. There
still is no adequate theory of the liquid state,
however, and we must rely on inadequate em-
pirical correlations of diffusion coefficients in
liquids. Chemical engineers have been major con-
tributors to the development of the useful corre-
lations now available.

T HE MAIN THRUST of the theoretical studies
has been quite logically on mass transfer be-
tween phases, since the understanding of the
factors which determine the rate of transfer is
the basic objective.
If the flow past the interface is laminar,
analysis is often possible by combining the trans-
port relations with equations describing the flow
field. This has been done successfully for laminar
flow in tubes, rotating disks, falling liquid films
on inclined or vertical surfaces, over spheres, and
creeping flow around spheres. The theoretical
analyses for such cases are sometimes better than
the experimental data.


Perhaps ChE is emerging from an era of
empiricism .we have much concern with complex
physical phenomena, and we have not yet arrived
at the point where all can be left
to the computer.


In industrial practice, however, the flow past
the mass-transfer interface is usually turbulent,
and attempts at theoretical analysis have been
frustrated by the lack of an adequate under-
standing of turbulence-especially of turbulence
near a phase boundary. What progress has been
made is due as much to chemical engineers as to
specialists in fluid mechanics. The early approach
was to develop empirical correlations relating
dimensionless groups, such as the mass-transfer
Nusselt number, and the Reynold and Schmidt
numbers. This was hardly a theoretical approach
in any real sense, but has served a useful purpose
over a period of many years.


FALL 1974








One theoretical approach which has fascinated
so many workers is the development of the so-
called "analogies" between mass, momentum,
and heat transfer. If these could be successful,
they would provide a way to use the accumulated
body of knowledge regarding turbulent flow of
fluids for the prediction of mass and heat transfer
coefficients. The first of these was the Reynolds
analogy, which stated that the Stanton number
for heat transfer should be equal to one-half the
Fanning friction factor. This came close to
fitting experimental data on heat transfer in tubes
with gases in turbulent flow, but not for water or
oils. It made no allowance for the different mole-
cular properties of the fluids.
Attempts to clarify the situation focused on
transfer from a turbulent fluid to a solid surface,
as in the case of fully-developed turbulent flow
in a round tube. Consideration of transfer be-
tween two fluids, as from gas to liquid, or be-
tween two immiscible liquids, came later. It was
well established that in pipe flow there is no slip
at the wall, so it seemed logical that turbulent
mixing could play no part in the transport
mechanism as the distance from the wall ap-
proached the mathematical limit of zero. In this
limit the mass transfer flux should be propor-
tional to the flux power of the molecular diffu-
sion coefficient, D. The main turbulent stream is
so well mixed that solute is transported radially
at fluxes much greater than can possibly be ex-
plained by molecular diffusion. In the two limits
of the wall and the main flow the radial flux is
proportional to D' and D", respectively. It is not
surprising that most of our mass transfer corre-
lations show the mass transfer coefficient to be
proportional to D", where n is between zero and
unity.
The spectrum of motion from eddies to mole-
cules is suggested by this little verse-authorship
unknown:
Big size whirls have little whirls
That feed on their velocity


And little whirls have lesser whirls
And so on to viscosity.
It seems logical to assume that molecular and
eddy diffusion take place in parallel, and that the
flux toward the wall can be expressed by a ver-
sion of Fick's law in which the "total diffusivity"
is the sum of the molecular diffusion coefficient,
D, and the eddy diffusion coefficient, E. The first
is a property of a binary mixture, but the eddy
coefficient E depends on the nature of the flow
and the distance from the wall.
By the late twenties the early "stagnant film"
model was realized to be a gross oversimplifica-
tion. Whitman, who is often mistakenly quoted
as having applied it rigorously, noted in 1922
that a sharp boundary was assumed between the
stagnant film and the turbulent core, but that
"actually no such sharp demarcation exists."
Whitman and Lewis did not advocate the film
model; their papers developed a way to add the
resistances of two fluid phases in contact.

ANALOGIES
INCE MASS TRANSFER at a phase boundary
depends on the varying eddy diffusivity it is
evident that any theory of the overall process will
necessarily require a theory of the variation of E
with the flow conditions and the distance from
the wall. The first attempt to allow for the large
variation of E with distance in the vicinity of the
wall was made in 1932 by a well-known chemical
engineer, the late E. V. Murphree [22]. Murphree
assumed the total diffusivity to vary as the cube
of the distance from the wall, y, up to some limit
y,, beyond which the parabolic velocity deficiency
law determined the nature of the flow in the bulk
or turbulent core. This semi-empirical approach
correlated data on heat transfer in pipes over a
limited range of Prandtl numbers, which the Rey-
nolds analogy had failed to do.
1939 saw the publication of Von Karman's
elegant analysis [34] of the possibilities of de-
veloping a unified theory of mass, heat, and mo-


Professor Sherwood joined the Berkeley faculty in 1970, after spending most of his professional life at M.I.T.
After five years with the O.S.R.D. during the war, he was Dean of Engineering at M.I.T. from 1948-1954. Many
of his publications have dealt with various aspects of mass transfer, and "Mass Transfer" is the title of a new
book now in press, written jointly with R. L. Pigford and C. R. Wilke. He is the recipient of the Walker, Found-
er's, and Lewis awards of the AIChE, the Murphree award of the A.C.S., and the Presidential Medal for
Merit.
II I r ~ llar ~ lI '


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







mentum transport from a turbulent stream to a
solid wall; this had been a fascinating idea since
Reynolds' time. Eddies appear to transport mass,
heat, or momentum by similar if not identical
processes, so it seemed logical that E could be
equated, or related to, the eddy viscosity. The
similarity of the three processes is suggested by
comparing the Reynolds modification of the
Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in the
x-direction:

Momentum:
aOy + + Ua +zxa
S ux dU aux / ] 9g a
ay \y P uay]u + z J z -l u uz ] p ax
Heat:
-aT -T aT I /a T PC
UX +UY +Uzz =pc-- Ldx -pcpxt
S ((2)
+ (k-pp t)+ (k pC
ay aT -- az aT --


Mass:
aYA aA aA A
x + Uy + Uz aX Dx
^^^-^, -
+ -D -uyYA ) + ( A zY')
ay ayY A dz -auY

It is noted that the similarity is not comply
momentum is a vector but temperature and i
fractions are scalars. The first equation has
extra term involving pressure gradient. Furt
more, as Beddingfield and Drew [1] have she
the equation for mass transfer is valid as wri
only for low concentrations of the species b,
transferred if diffusion velocities are to be
lated to a plane of no net molal transport
order to gain the advantage that D in bir
gas systems is then independent of concentrate
A remarkable general correlation of velc
profiles for turbulent flow in pipes had I
developed by workers in fluid mechanics, f
which the eddy viscosity could be obtai
Velocity profiles for both gases and liquids
a wide range of Reynolds numbers were re
sented by a single curve of u' vs. yl, w]
u* is a dimensionless local velocity, and y+
dimensionless distance from the wall. The E
viscosity is obtained from the slope of this cu
Von Karman wrote simple equations for t]
segments of the u' y' function, and different
ed these to obtain the eddy viscosity as a f
tion of y He then assumed the eddy diffu
coefficient to be equal to the eddy viscosity,
integrated the heat flux equation from wal


bulk fluid. The result was an equation relating
the Stanton number for heat transfer to the fric-
tion factor and the Prandtl number, which agreed
quite well with data on heat transfer data for
gases and various liquids. The corresponding equa-
tion for mass transfer is easily obtained and has
the same form.
Von Karman's publication precipitated a
minor avalanche of variations of the analogy
idea, and these are still coming out (33, 35, 36).
Von Karman's analysis can be understood by
noting the basic equations employed, here written
for mass transfer:


d d(Op) 12r
Tg = -(Z+Ev) = f p 2 -
c Tg )dy 2 Av r
u+ = f (y+)


+ U + (ro-r) UAv
u v
UAv f_


(5)


f
2


(3) E rwz dy-' D
"w du

ete: A = kc (CAv -Cw) = -(D +E dc
mole


I Av 2
St kc f


A, f(Sc)


The function of the Schmidt number stems from
the assumed relation between u' and y+; the
variation of St with the Reynolds number appears
in the friction factor.
Various simplifying assumptions are involved
in arriving at the last equation by the derivation
outlined. Most of these are reasonable, though it
is now known that Ej, and E, may differ sub-
stantially. In fact Von Karman's analysis, and
later modifications of it, represent heat transfer
data for turbulent flow in pipes quite well. Most
of the heat transfer data involved Prandtl
numbers in the range of about 0.5 to 35. The
theory failed, however for heat transfer to liquid
metals, which have very small Prandtl numbers.
Of more importance in chemical engineering, the
analysis failed seriously for high Schmidt num-
bers. In the liquid systems of interest to chemical
engineers the Schmidt numbers range from
several hundred to several thousand. Much re-


FALL 1974








search has been directed towards improving this
situation by modifying the analogy approach.
In liquid systems with high Schmidt numbers
the concentration boundary layer is exceedingly
thin, that is, almost all of the concentration drop
occurs within a few microns of the wall, generally
at y from zero to perhaps 2. There are essentially
no data on the velocity profiles in this region; it is
too close to the wall for measurements by Pitot
tubes. Furthermore, since in this region u' and
y' are very nearly equal, the precision in getting
E, by Eq. 6 is very poor. It appears now that it
may be some years before we have a quantative
understanding of this region very near the wall;
current research using optical techniques indi-
cates that the flow patterns there are quite com-
plicated.
In this dilemma, numerous analysts have
simply assumed the needed function. Anyone can
develop a new "analogy" by doing this. It doesn't
matter whether one assumes a new u+ y+ re-
lation, or E, as a function of y-, or, more directly,
E,, as a function of y or y By trial and error one
can find a basic function which will lead to an
integrated final equation fitting the data over a
wide range of Prandtl and Schmidt numbers.

IT SEEMS TO ME that there have been more
"analogies" developed in this way than we
have any need for. Most involve too much of an
aspect of assuming the answer to be called
theoretical accomplishments. What we seem to
need is new and better techniques for studying
the wall region. Nedderman [231 and Fowles [291
have employed optical methods to record direc-
tion and speed of particles flowing very near the
wall. Interferometric and laser techniques may
work, and Kline's photographs [18] of dye streaks
and tiny bubbles are fascinating. Already the
idea of a laminar sublayer has been made obso-
lete-by observation, not by theory.
Now let me go back to 1934 and comment
on the remarkably simple and useful Chilton- Col-
burn analogy, which may be expressed in the
form

kc Sc2/3 h Pr2/3 f (9)
UAv Cpp UAv 2

I suspect that this was based on (a) the observa-
tion that the simple Reynolds analogy held for
heat transfer when Pr was near unity, (b) the
fact that Pr'' had been shown theoretically to


apply to transport through a laminar boundary
layer, (c) the apparent validity of the simple
empirical function 1.0 Pr'2/ to represent heat
transfer data over a limited range of Pr, and (d)
an intuitive guess that because of the similarity
of the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer k,.


SSt 3 87 xld3 at Sc 1.0
.a
F dO-n Mez
i Fie. and Metner


1 0o-<


o Heat Transfer
AI Mass Transfer
SMcAdams Heat
Transfer to Gases


Re= 10,000


/.Deissler
Chilton and Colburn

Von Karman

Wasan and Wilke
Io0 1000 10 000


s r X Pr -Cp,
FIG. 1 Plot of Sc vs Pr for Re 00.
FIG. I Plot of Sc vs Pr for Re=10,000.


should vary with Sc in the same way that h does
with Pr. In any case it has been found to agree
surprisingly well with a large amount of subse-
quent data. The first equality seems to be general
for turbulent flow; and second when there is only
"skin friction" with no form drag. It is interest-
ing that the proper choice of constants in
Murphree's analysis will make it agree with Chil-
ton and Colburn [5].
Let me summarize this review of the analogies
by showing how several of them compare with
data on heat and mass transfer for fully de-
veloped turbulent flow in a tube. Figure 1 is a
graph of St vs. Sc or Pr for Re=10,000, with
lines representing five of the better-known analo-
gies. The open circles represent data on heat
transfer to gases, water, oils, molten salt, organic
liquids, and aqueous solutions of sugars. These
were collected from the extensive literature by
Friend and Metzner [11I. The solid points at large
Sc represent the excellent data of Myerink and
Friedlander [21] and of Harriott and Hamilton
1141 on the dissolution of tubes of slightly soluble
solid organic acids. The solid points at 0.6 are Gilliland's data 112] for vaporization of
liquids into air in a wetted-wall column. McAdam's
correlation for heat transfer to gasses is shown
as line A-A.
At Sc=l, all of the lines shown pass near
St = /.f 3.87 x 10:, which the Reynolds analogy
requires. Friend and Metzner's line passes
through the data points, as is perhaps to be ex-


In o0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







pected, since their analogy is based on the data
points represented by the open circles. The
recent analogy developed by Notter and Sleicher
1241, based on carefully selected heat transfer
data, agrees closely with Friend and Metzner.
The Von Karman line, based on the general cor-
relation of velocity profiles, does poorly. This is
because Von Karman took the eddy diffusivity to
be zero from the wall to y- = 5; it is now clear
that a very small amount of eddy diffusion at low
values of y' can be quite important at large Sc.
The most remarkable thing about this comparison
is the fact that the Chilton-Colburn analogy does
as well as it does; their equation was proposed at
a time when there were no data on heat transfer
above a Pr of about 20, and no data on mass
transfer at Sc greater than 2.6. It is also notable
that this graph represents an enormous range
of flow conditions and of physical properties of
the fluids.
I have discussed these analogies at some
length because they constitute a major effort to
develop a theory of mass transfer between phases
in the important turbulent regime. There are
also the "models," of which the first was the
"stagnant film" model. It implies that the trans-
port rate should be proportional to the first power
of the molecular diffusion coefficient, which is
not true, but it can still be successfully employed
for a variety of purposes. It gives reliable pre-
dictions of the ratio of the mass transfer flux
with simultaneous chemical reaction to that at-
tained without chemical reaction under similar
conditions. It does equally well in predicting the
effect of convective fluxes in the direction of
diffusion on the rates of mass or heat transfer.

INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER
NUMEROUS MODELS OF the conditions at a
phase boundary have been proposed to pro-
vide a basis for a theory of interphase mass
transfer. The three best known are the stagnant
film model, the penetration theory, and the turbu-
lent boundary layer model. The allowance for the
variation of eddy diffusivity with distance from
the wall, as in the analogies, is the basis of the
turbulent boundary layer model.
The penetration model pictures small fluid ele-
ments contacting the phase boundary for brief
periods during which transient diffusion occurs,
and then being replaced by fresh fluid from the
bulk. This was suggested by Higbie in 1935 [161


as applicable to bubbles moving in a liquid, and
to gas-liquid contacting in packed towers, where
freshly mixed liquid is supplied to successive
packing elements. It lead to the conclusion that
the transport flux should be proportional to the
square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient.
This has been found to be approximately true in
a wide variety of flow systems, including the ab-
sorption, of sparingly soluble gases in packed
towers.
An important extension of the penetration
theory was proposed by Professor Danckwerts in
1951 [71. Whereas Higbie had taken the exposure
time to be the same for. all of the repeated con-
tacts of the fluid with the interface, Danck-
werts employed a wide spectrum of contact
times and averaged the varying degrees of pene-
tration. Like the Higbie model, this concept leads
to the conclusion that the transport flux should
be proportional to the square root of D. It is not
generally believed that fluid eddies reach a fixed
interface, such as the wall of a tube, but there is
increasing evidence that this may be so. The
model makes particularly good sense when applied
to conditions at the interface between a gas and
a stirred liquid. Watching the surface of a swift
but deep river, or of a well-stirred liquid in a
laboratory vessel, it is not hard to discern fluid
elements which come up from below and then
appear to move back down after brief periods
of contact with the air at the surface.
As applied in the simplest cases, these four
models lead to the following equations for the
mass transfer coefficient k,.:


D
Fil y
SVr,-


Percil oyik


(10)



( 11)


(12)


kc = 2 '-t
C V77T


Surface-Renewal: kc = D


Turbulent Boundary Layer:

U Av
kc 2 fs
f+A f(Sc)


(13)


The first three, to be useful, require knowledge
of the effective film thickness, y,,, the contact


FALL 1974








time, t, or the fractional rate of surface renewal,
s. The last requires that f, (Sc) be specified, which
could be done if the variation of eddy diffusivity
through the boundary layer were known. Little
is known about y,,, t, s, or f, (Sc), so as theories
all four models are incomplete.
It is interesting that the models described per-
haps owe their origin to Osborne Reynolds [27]
who wrote in 1874 that the heat flux to a wall "is
proportional to the internal diffusion of the fluid
at and near the surface," and states that the heat
flux depends on two things: "1. the natural in-
ternal diffusion of the fluid when at rest, and 2.
the eddies caused by the visible motion which
mixes the fluid up and continually brings fresh
particles into contact with the surface. The first
of these causes is independent of the velocity of
the fluid. The second cause, the effect of the
eddies, arises entirely from the motion of the
fluid. ."
SIMULTANEOUS CHEMICAL REACTION
T IS NOT POSSIBLE for me to cover much of
the development of the various theories used
in practice by chemical engineers, even in the re-
stricted area of mass transfer, but let me com-
ment on two other important theoretical develop-
ments. The first is mass transfer with simul-
taneous chemical reaction, the subject of
numerous papers in our journals. This started in
1929 by Hatta [15], who employed the film model
to develop a theory of gas absorption followed
by reaction in the liquid, as in the absorption of
CO, by alkaline solutions. Following Hatta there
has been a proliferation of theoretical analyses of
all kinds of cases thought to be of practical im-
portance, and useful generalizations, notably by
Hoftyzer and Van Krevelen [17] and by Brian
[3, 41. Hatta's use of the film model was suspect,
but Danckwerts and Kennedy [8] have shown
that the penetration model gives essentially the
same results in many instances.
These theories do not predict rates of mass
transfer, but generally lead to equations express-
ing the enhancement of the rate by the simul-
taneous reaction, that is, the ratio of the rate
with chemical reaction to that for physical ab-
sorption. Professor Danckwerts' recent book 191
summarizes the whole subject, with special
reference to the absorption of acid gases by alka-
line solutions, so important in the manufacture of
hydrogen and of synthetic natural gas.
It might seem that some of the cases analyzed


will never find practical application, but one can-
not predict. When I recently had occasion to
analyze the process of SO. absorption by a sus-
pension of limestone particles in a stack gas
scrubber I was surprised and pleased to find this

It is not generally believed that fluid
eddies reach a fixed interface, such
as the wall of a tube, but there is
increasing evidence that this may be so.


case analyzed in a published paper (26). How-
ever, it may be that we are running into the law
of diminishing returns in pursuing these analyses,
and that more experimental studies are in
order. There is nothing like a surprising new fact
to stimulate the development of better concepts
and theories.
Another area in which we have made great
progress is that of diffusion and reaction in
porous catalysts. This subject is of great practical
importance because of the enormous success of
catalytic processes in the chemical and petroleum
industries. The pioneering papers of the U. S.
chemical engineer Thiele [32], and the Russian
Zeldowitsch [38] in 1939, started a flurry of ex-
perimental and theoretical studies. We have now
learned a lot about bulk and Knudsen diffusion in
pores of simple geometry, and are beginning to
tackle the much more difficult problem of sur-
face diffusion. All kinds of cases have been
analyzed, assuming both power-law and Lang-
muir-Hinshelwood kinetics, heat effects, and
various geometrics of the catalyst particle. The
decrease in the effectiveness factor with increase
in particle size is understood at least qualitative-
ly, although I find highly successful catalyst re-
search people in industry who use the theory
so little that they think a low effectiveness factor
indicates a relatively inactive catalyst.
Apart from the present mystery regarding
surface diffusion, the stumbling blocks to better
development of the theory would appear to be
inadequate understanding of the mechanism of
surface catalysis, and the difficulty of describing
the complex structure of a porous solid by one or
two numbers.
Many industrial processes involve the absorp-
tion of reacting gases by a liquid containing sus-
pended particles of a catalyst. This operation was
described quantitatively in 1932 by three chemists
[6], who showed the merit of plotting the recipro-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







cal of the rate vs. the reciprocal of the catalyst
loading in the slurry. The intercept, correspond-
ing to infinite catalyst loading, is a measure of
the mass transfer resistance to the absorption of
the gas. The situation has been generally under-
stood by chemical engineers for 40 years, but
there are still some chemists who attempt to
analyze such processes by power-law or other
kinetics when the controlling factor is actually
the rate of gas absorption.

THE MARANGONI EFFECT
FINALLY, LET ME COMMENT briefly on the
phenomenon of interfacial turbulence, or the
Marangoni effect. Spontaneous emulsification of
two liquids has been known for many years, but
the important role of interfacial turbulence on
mass transfer at an interface was brought
forcibly to the attention of chemical engineers
by Lewis and Pratt in 1953 [19], and by Jim Wei
[28] in the course of his doctorate research in
1957. As mass transfer takes place, the solute
concentration, and consequently, the interfacial
tension vary from spot to spot over the surface.
This causes spreading and contraction of the sur-
face elements, which "is so rapid that the mo-
mentum of the spreading liquid is sufficient to
break the center of the point source and expose
subjacent liquid drawn from below the surface
(10)." The result is surface renewal, usually with
development of ripples, and an increase in the rate
of mass transfer. The effect depends on the direc-
tion of the mass transfer flux, and the phenome-
non obviously introduces new and difficult prob-
lems in attempts at theoretical analyses of mass
transfer between two fluid phases.
Research directed to an understanding of the
role of interfacial turbulence on mass transfer
has proliferated in the last twenty years. This is
proper, since the effect can be quite large, and re-
quires major adjustment of the simple two-film
picture. Excellent pictures of the phenomenon
have been published by Dr. H. Sawistowski of Im-
perial College, London, and by others. The first
important theoretical attacks appear to be those
of Pearson [25] and of Sternling and Scriven [30];
Brian's recent introduction of the Gibbs layer ad-
sorption extends the theory and is evidently a
major contribution [21. But the theory of this
phenomenon, of real practical importance, is still
in its infancy. Its development to the point of
practical application in design presents a
challenge to chemical engineers inclined towards


theoretical studies. Do not tackle it without a
thorough background in physical and colloid
chemistry.
Chemical engineers can be proud of the de-
velopment of the profession since Walker, Lewis,
and McAdams in 1923. The chemical and petro-
leum industries have prospered, with the help of
U.S.-trained chemical engineers. Plants have been
built and operated successfully, usually at a profit.
But our contributions to the theory of mass
transfer between phases have not been remark-
able, at least within the definition of a theory as
being valid for quantitative a priori predictions
useful in design. A major difficulty is that we
desire theories applicable in turbulent flow, and
not much basically new has been learned about
turbulence in the last 40 years.
However, chemical engineers have developed
a unique skill in using the form of a theory. A
modest theory is better than no theory at all.
Even the simple equation q = UAAt for heat
transfer enables us to eliminate two variables and
concentrate our attention on the manner in which
the heat transfer coefficient varies with the
geometry and the fluid flow. There are many
examples of this. The Van Laar equations for
binary vapor-liquid equilibria were rejected by
scientists because the theory did not work in the
prediction of the constants. But chemical engi-
neers found the form of the theory to be remark-
ably good--two data points are enough to provide


It may be that we are running into the
law of diminishing returns .and that more
experimental studies are in order. There is
nothing like a surprising new fact to stimulate
the development of better concepts and theories.


the Van Laar constants, and make it possible to
predict complete y-x diagrams for complex
binaries, including azeotropes.
Similarly, the models of the mechanism of
mass transfer between phases provide the form
if not the substance of a theory, and make it
possible to develop correlations of experimental
data on a rational and useful basis.
It is too much to expect that in fifty years we
would have developed a fundamental and quan-
titative theory which would enable us to predict
rates of mass transfer in turbulent flow. That
is a goal for the future, probably requiring more


FALL 1974







progress in understanding turbulence. Such a
theory would be a feat comparable to the develop-
ment of the kinetic theory of gases, and these are
not frequent.

THEORETICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

T HERE HAVE, OF COURSE, been a number
of theoretical accomplishments about which
chemical engineers can be proud. The wet-bulb
thermometer is a fascinating example. This de-
vice was not understood until about 100 years
ago, when Maxwell, using what amounted to our
film theory, explained the dynamic equilibrium
established when the rate of heat transfer from
air to wet wick just equalled the latent heat of
vaporization of the water evaporating at the wet-
bulb temperature. About 1910 it was noticed by
Willis Carrier that the wet-bulb temperature
coincided with the calculated temperature of
adiabatic saturation. Why should this be? It was
some years later that W. K. Lewis and J. H.
Arnold explained this. The ratio of the heat trans-
fer coefficient, air to wet-bulb, to the mass trans-
fer coefficient determining vaporization, depends
on the molecular properties of air and water, and
these just happen to have values such that the
equations for the wet-bulb depression and for
adiabatic saturation become quantitatively identi-
cal. Carrier's observations for water wet-bulbs
were explained, but were shown to be based on a
remarkable natural coincidence, and not general
for other gases and liquids.
These studies established the ratio of heat
and mass transfer coefficients for air and water
vapor. This led to Merkel's ingenious analysis of
cooling tower operation and the engineering de-
sign method used today. It is remarkable that a
theoretical analysis of the wet-bulb thermometer
provided the basis for a simple and practical de-
sign procedure for cooling towers. Merkels'
method also applies in the design of dehumidifiers.
I am sure that G. I. Taylor does not think of
himself as a chemical engineer, but we need people
like him in chemical engineering. In 1954 he de-
veloped a theory of longitudinal dispersion in
open pipes, based on a generalized correlation of
velocity profiles in turbulent flow [31]. Figure 2
indicates how well the theory works. The points
and dotted curve show the dispersion of a radio-
active tracer pulse after flowing 43 miles in an
oil pipe-line in hilly country [13]. The solid curve
is predicted by the Taylor theory. The agreement
seems only fair, but is really quite remarkable in


view of the fact that the tracer took 85,000
seconds to travel the 43 miles to the test station.
The predicted dispersion coefficient was 594 cm'
sec.; the value required to fit the data is about
twice that. The Taylor theory did not allow for
pumps and elbows in the line.


20--


400 200 0 200 400
Time (sec)
FIG. 2. Comparison between theory and experiment.

FUTURE NEEDS
E HAVE COME A LONG WAY in fifty
years, but we have much yet to do. It would
seem that new complications, such as interfacial
turbulence, are appearing more frequently than
theory advances. In my judgment the major goal
is a basic theory of the mechanism of mass
transfer between phases in turbulent flow. To at-
tain this we shall need a better understanding of
flow conditions at a phase boundary. I believe
chemical engineers are as likely to provide this
as specialists in fluid mechanics, but it seems that
it may be some years before we have it.
Of perhaps equal importance is a theory of
mass transfer with simultaneous chemical re-
action at a catalyst surface. The mass transfer
elements of such theory are in fair shape, but
surface catalysis is still an empirical art. Realiz-
ing this, chemical engineers are joining chemists
in a growing program of research on catalysis.
Many chemical engineering departments now
have strong programs of basic research on
catalysis. Perhaps the reason for this trend is the
realization that the chemical reactor is the heart
of the industrial chemical process, and that the
unit operations are often peripheral.
Perhaps chemical engineering is emerging from an
era of empiricism. Electrical engineers need only the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I I I I
Pipe Line: L = 43 miles; d = 10 in.;
Re = 24,000



Taylor Theory

0\
0
Tracer Pulse Test
/
/







physical properties of their components; from there on de-
sign is a job for the computer. We have much more con-
cern with complex physical phenomena, and we have not
yet arrived at the point where all can be left to the com-
puter. In a way I hope we never will, for chemical en-
gineering is so much more fun when we don't know very
much.
Pending the ultimate development of theory, we con-
tinue to do well. Very large plants are designed, on the
basis of empiricism or half-formed theory, and operate.
There are no more failures than encountered by bridge
designers, who have a complete theory of stresses in a
structure. Some of our industrial processes even make
money, and provide our profession not only with a liveli-
hood but satisfying careers for chemical engineers. E


SYMBOLS AND NOMENCLATURE

C = concentration, g moles/cm:
C, = heat capacity, g cal/(g mole) (K)
I) = molecular diffusion coefficient, cm"/sec.
E = eddy diffusion coefficient, cm" sec.
E, = eddy diffusion coefficient for mass transfer,
cm'/sec.
E,. = eddy viscosity, cm-'/sec.
f = Fanning friction factor
= conversion factor (=32.2 in English system of
units)
J. = molal diffusion flux of A in absence of super-
posed convection, g moles/(sec) (cm2).
k = thermal conductivity, g cal/(sec) (cm2')
( K/cm)
k. = mass transfer coefficient, cm sec.
P = pressure, g/cm"
IPr = Prandtl number, = Cp /k
r = radial distance from axis of tube, cm.
r, = tube radius, cm.
s = fractional rate of surface renewal, sec-'.
Sc = Schmidt number, = p/pD = p/D
St = Stanton number = k,./U,,
t = fluctuating temperature, -K
T = time-mean temperature, K
u = fluctuating velocity, cm/sec.
u, = dimensionless velocity, defined by Equation 5
U = time-mean average velocity, cmisec.
= time-mean velocity at a point, in x-direction,
cm, sec.
x, y, x = coordinates, cm.
y = distance in direction of diffusion, cm.
y, = film thickness, cm.
y+ = dimensionless distance from wall, defined by
Equation 5
Y.\ = time-mean mole fraction
Y' = fluctuating mole fraction
= viscosity, g/(sec) (cm).
v, = kinematic viscosity, = p p, cm-'/sec.
p = density, g'/cm:.

REFERENCES

1. Beddingfield, C. H. and T. B. Drew, Ind. Eng. Chem,
42 1164 (1950).
2. Brian, P. L. T., et 0l., A.I.Ch.E. J., 17 765 (1971) ; 18
231, 582 (1972).


:. Brian, P. L. T., J. F. Hurley, and E. H. Hasseltine.
A.I.Ch.E. J., 7 22(6 (1961).
4. Brian, P. I.. T., A.I.Ch.E. J., 10 5 (19(;4).
5. Chilton, T. H. and A. P. Colburn, Ind. Eng. Chem.,
26 1183 (1934).
6. Iavis, H. S., G. Thompson, and G. S. Crandall,
J. A. C. S., 5., 2340 (1932).
7. Danckwerts, P. V., Ind. Eng. Chem., 43 1460 (1951).
8. Danckwerts, P. V. and A. M. Kennedy, Trans. Inst.
Chem. Eng. (London) 32, Suppl. S 49 (1954).
9. I)anckwerts, P. V., "Gas-Liquid Reactions," McGraw-
Hill Book Co., New York, 1970.
10. Ellis, S. R. M. and M. Biddulf, Chem. Eng. Sci., 21
1107 (1966).
11. Friend, W. L. and A. B. Metzner, A.I.Ch.E. J., 4
393 (1958).
12. Gilliland, E. R. and T. K. Sherwood, Ind. Eng. Chem.,
26 516 (1934).
13. Hull, 1). E. and J. W. Kent, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44,
2745 (1952).
14. Harriott, P. and R. M. Hamilton, Chem. Eng. Sci., o0
1073 (1965).
15. Hatta, S.. Tech. Rept. Tohoku Imp. Univ., S 1 (1928-
29).
16. Higbie, R., Trans. AIChE, 31 365 (1935).
17. Hoftyzer, P. J. and D. W. Van Krevelen, Trans. Inst.
Chem. Eng. (London), 32 Suppl., 560 (1954).
18. Kline, S. J., and P. W. Runstadler, ASME Paper 58-
A-64 (1964).
19. Lewis, J. B. and H. C. R. Pratt 171 1155 (1953).
20. Lewis, W. K. and W. G. Whitman, Ind. Eng. Chem.,
t1 1215 (1924).
21. Meyerink, E. S. C. and S. K. Friedlander, Chem. Eng.
Sci., 17 121 (19(;2).
22. Murphree, E. V., Ind. Eng. Chem., 24 726 (1932).
2:. Nedderman, R. M., Chem. Eng. Sci., 16 120 (1961).
24. Notter, R. H. and C. A. Sleicher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 26
161 (1971).
25. Pearson, J. K. A., J. Fluid Mech., 4 489 (1958).
26. Ramachandran, P. A. and M. M. Sharma, 24 1681
11969).
27. Reynolds, 0., Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc., 14 7
(1874) ; reprinted in "Papers on Mechanical and
Physical Subjects," Vol. 1, p. 81, Cambridge Univ.
Press (1900).
38. Zeldowitsch, J. B., Acta Physicochim, U.S.R.S. 10
1030 (1957).
29. Sherwood, T. K., K. A. Smith, and PI. E. Fowles,
Chem. Eng. Sci., 2.? 1225 (1968).
:0. Sternling, C. V. and L. E. Scriven, A.I.Ch.E. J., 5
514 (1959).
31. Taylot, G. I., "Scientific Papers," G. K. Batchelor,
ed. Vol. II, p. 466. Camhridge Univ. Press, 1960.
32. Thiele, E. W., Ind. Eng. Chem., 31 916 (1939).
33. Vieth, W. R., J. H. Porter, and T. K. Sherwood, Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fund., 2 1 (1963).
:4. Von Karman, Th., Trans, ASME 61 705 (1939).
:5. Wasan, 1). T., C. L. Tien, and C. R. Wilke, A.I.Ch.E.
J., 9 568 (196(;3).
36. Wasan, D. T. and C. R. Wilke, Int. J. Heat and Mass
Transfer, 7 87 (1964).
37. Whitman, W. G., Chem. and Met. Eng., 29 146 (1932).
38. Zeldowitsch, J. B., Acta Physicochim, U.R.S.S. 10
583 (1939).


FALL 1974






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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further


advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor J. H. Seinfeld
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1975.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; plasma chemistry; bio-
medical engineering; air and water quality.
SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution;
biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif-
fusion and membrane transport.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
CORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor,
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical
mechanics.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.
FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.

NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.

W. HENRY WEINBERG, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.










UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

The chemical engineering department at the University of Arizona is young and
dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and MS and Ph.D.
Graduate Programs. Financial support is available through government grants and
contracts, teaching and research assistantships, traineeships, and industrial grants.
The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engi-
neering.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


WILLIAM P. COSART, Asst. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1972
Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering, Energy and
Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re-
action-Applications to the Minerals Industry.


DON H. WHITE, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation


Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow-
ing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.












For further information,
write to:

Dr. J. W. White, Chairman
Graduate StudY Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
TH.cson, Arizona 85721 L










UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA

Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering


Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $5,000/year.
M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to $4,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Costs.
Tuition: $535/year.
Married students housing rent: $140/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $115/month.
Ph.D. Degree
Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year
courses, thesis.
M.Sc. Degree
5-8 half-year courses, thesis.
M.Eng. Degree
10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project.
Department Size
12 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows,
30-40 Graduate Students.
Applications
Return postcard or write to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6

Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Process
Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applica-
tions, Process Design.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer
Design of Separation Processes, Environmental Engi-
neering.
D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Math-
ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory.


D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
dynamics.
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.
D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Ad-
aptive Control, Estimation Theory.
F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
tics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns.

Department Facilities
Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre.
Excellent complement of computing and analytical
equipment:
-IBM 1800 (real-time) computer
-EAI 590 hybrid computer
-AD 32 analog computer
-IBM 360/67 terminal
-Weissenberg Rheogoniometer
-Infrared spectrophotometer
-Research and industrial gas chromatographs

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
schools.
Enrollment of 18,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
non-denominational.
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river
valley.

Edmonton
Fast growing, modern city; population of 440,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper National Park.


FALL 1974







UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA


~r r~;

.
..r-- .,-_in _
II 1. .il
... ..I'
k' *Ii?'l: :1~.'
~i~:'~i~~'*~sT".,*E~;"?E:r -.:;U


RESEARCH

ENERGY UTILIZATION

ENVIRONMENTAL

KINETICS AND CATALYSIS

THERMODYNAMICS

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESS DESIGN
AND DEVELOPMENT

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

MATERIAL ENGINEERING

FLUID MECHANICS
AND RHEOLOGY



FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE:


FACULTY
Alexis T. Bell
Lee F. Donaghey
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
Robert P. Merrill
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
Robert L. Pigford
John M. Prausnitz
Mitchel Shen
Thomas K. Sherwood
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermeulen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams



Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720



















NEW ENERGY








Write- Graduate Chemical Engineering
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15213


FALL 1974















UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

Newark, Delaware 19711


The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and
practice in the art and science of chemical engineering:
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.

A Ph.D. degree.





The regular faculty are:


Gianni Astarita (1/2 time)
C. E. Birchenall
H. W. Blanch
M. M. Denn
B. C. Gates
J. R. Katzer
R. L. McCullough
A. B. Metzner

The adjunct and research f
dustrial practice are:


L. A. DeFrate --
W. H. Manogue _
E. L. Mongan, Jr.
F. E. Rush, Jr.
R. J. Samuels
A. B. Stiles -
K. F. Wissbrun


J. H. Olson
C. A. Petty
T. W. F. Russell
S. I. Sandier
G. C. A. Schuit ('/2 time)
J. M. Schultz
James Wei


faculty who provide extensive association with in-


-Heat, mass and momentum transfer
--- Catalysis, reaction engineering
-Design and process evaluation
--Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction
-Polymer science
-Catalysis
-Polymer engineering


For information and admissions materials contact:
A. B. Metzner, Chairman










UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

DEPARTIENr OF

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING
M.S. & Ph.D. Programs
Including Intensive Study in

ENERGY ENGINEERING
Energy supply and demand
Fuel combustion processes
Coal liquefaction and gasification processes
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Process and system control, and gas cleaning
Diffusion, and modelling of urban atmospheres

WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
Advanced waste treatment and water reclamation
Design of physical and chemical processes
Biochemical reactor design

STIPENDS:
Excellent financial support is available
in the form of Environmental Protection Agency
Traineeships, fellowships & assistantships.
OTHER PROGRAM AREAS:

Electroichemical engineering React r design
Process control Transpirit
WRITE TO: R B Grie.es, Chjrnman
Dept. oI Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY\ OF KENTUCKY
LEXINGTON, KENTUCK' 41u0506









DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


CLARKSON

PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORAL DEGREE IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE


On the southern brow of the Hill Campus, Clarkson's massive new Science Center now stands complete, its laboratories, classrooms, and corridors
teeming with student activity. The $5.5-million structure is the first educational building to be constructed "on the hill."


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY


R. J. NUNGE-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University)
Transport phenomena, multistream forced convection transport proc-
esses, structure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through porous
media, atmospheric transport processes, transient dispersion.
D. T. CHIN-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1969, University of Pennsylvania)
Electrochemical engineering, transport phenomena, mass transfer at
electrodes.
R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. and Exec. Officer. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson College
of Technology) Boiling heat transfer, bubble dynamics, boiling nuclea-
tion.
D. O. COONEY-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of Wisconsin)
Mass transfer in fixed beds, biomedical engineering.
E. J. WOVIS-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington) Heat trans-
Fer and fluid mechanics associated with two-phase flow, convective dif-
fusion, aerosol physics, transport phenomena, Mathematical modeling.
J. ESTRIN-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation phenom-
ena, crystallization.
E. W. GRAHAM-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of California,
Berkeley) Chemical reaction kinetics and related theoretical problems,
catalysis, fuel cells, air pollution.
J. L. KATZ-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago) Homo-
geneous nucleation of vapors, homogeneous boiling, heterogeneous
nucleation, aerosols, nucleation of voids in metals, thermal conduc-
tivity of gases.


R. A. SHAW-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967, Cornell University) Nuclear en-
gineering, reverse osmosis, radioactive tracers, environmental effects
of power generation.
H. L. SHULMAN-Prof., Dean of Eng. and Vice Pres. of the College.
(Ph.D., 1950, University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, packed col-
umns, adsorption of gases, absorption.
R. S. SUBRAMANIAN-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, Clarkson College of
Technology) Heat and mass transfer problems, unsteady convective
diffusion-miscible dispersion, chromatographic and other interphase
transport systems, fluid mechanics.
T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)
Process control, nuclear engineering, ceramic materials.
G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of Illinois)
Adsorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous media.




For information concerning Assistantships and
Fellowships contact the Graduate School Office,
Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New
York 13676


CLARKSON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY / POTSDAM, NEW YORK 13676








university offlorida


offers you


Transport
Phenomena &
Rheology
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.


rrr
.E:
"
....,
Is~t~


Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.


and muclL more...


A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports


H
I lTh






Optimization
& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.


Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.


Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


I

















Petrochemical
Industry

Medicine

Space


Faculty


Department


Facilities


Financial Aid


Houston



INQUIRIES
ARE DIRECTED
TO:
Head, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004


The Real World

of Chemical

Engineering
The University of Houston is located in the midst of the
largest complex of chemical and petrochemical activity in
the world. This environment provides unequalled oppor-
tunities for graduate students in .... THE REAL WORLD
OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING.
Houston is the national center for manufacturing, sales, research and
design in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. Most of the major
oil and petrochemical companies have plants and research installations
in the Houston area. The headquarters of many of these organizations
are here.

The world famous Texas Medical Center is located in Houston.

The NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is located in the Houston area.


There is continuous interaction through seminars, courses and
research between the faculty and graduate students of this depart-
ment and the engineers and scientists of this large technical community.
The research of 14 faculty members encompass a wide range of
subjects in chemical engineering. Faculty members are active in the
interdisciplinary areas of biomedical, environmental urban and
systems engineering.
The department is one of the fastest growing in the nation. The
current enrollment includes 50 seniors and 45 full-time graduate
students; a 200% increase in the enrollment over the past 5 years.
Research grants and contracts currently in progress exceed 1.2
million dollars.
Over S900,000 of modern research equipment is located in 50,000
square feet of research and office space.

Fellowship stipends are available to qualified applicants.

The temperate Gulf Coast area with its year-round outdoor weather
offers unlimited recreational opportunities. An equal number of
cultural opportunities exist in the sixth largest and fastest-growing
city in the country. Houston has an outstanding symphony orchestra
several theatre companies, fine museums, and a stimulating intellect-
ual community.






GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH



The Department of Energy Engineering



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICAGO CIRCLE




Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


Faculty and Research ,ctitities in
CHEMICAl. EN;INEERING(
lDaid S. Hacker
Ph.D., Nnrthwestern University, 1954
Associate Professor
James I'. Hartnett
Ph.D.. University of ('lifornia at Berkeley. 1951
Professor and Head of the Department
Larry M. Joseph
Ph.D.. UIniverritn of Michigan. 1971
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.lI.. Cornell Uiniversit). 1961
Professor
(. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D.. University of Oklahoma, 1969
Associate Profe,-sor
Irsing F. Miller
Ph.D.. I'niter-ity of Michigan. 1960
Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D.. Calcutta Llniversity, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Insi;tule of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor


chemicall kinetics; combustion, mass
t' ansport phenomena; chemical process design,
particulate transport phenomena
Forced convection, mass transfer cooling,
non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and heat transfer

Process dynamics and control, simulation
and process analysis

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer
processes, molecular lasers

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of
fluids, solids, and solutions; kinetics of liquid
reactions, cryohioengineering
Chemical engineering, bioengineering, membrane
transport processes, mathematical modeling

Transport properties of fluids and solids,
heat and mass transfer, isotope separation,
fixed and fluidized bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, optimiza-
tion, environmental and pollution problems


The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:


Professor Harold A. Simon. Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago. Illinois 60680




























IOWA STATE
UNIVERSITY


PROGRAMS


FACULTY


FACILITIES


First Land Grant school (1862). Largest College of Engineering west of the
Mississippi River and fifth largest in the U.S. Ranks ninth in Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering. Current enrollment of 250 undergraduates and
50 grad students in Chemical Engineering.

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Five year integrated program for M.E.

Graduate faculty of 13 in Chemical Engineering having a variety of back-
grounds and interests.

New, fully equipped Chemical Engineering building with 50,000 square
feet of laboratory, office, and classroom space. Adjacent to computer
center and to library. Excellent technical support from Engineering Research
Institute and technical service groups. Affiliation with the Ames Laboratory,
the only National Laboratory of the U.S. AEC located on a university campus.


RESEARCH


International reputation in the following areas:


Biochemical Engineering (Tsao)
Biomedical Engineering (Seagrave)
Coal Research (Wheelock)
Crystallization (Larson)


FINANCIAL AID


LOCATION


TO APPLY


Fluidization (Wheelock)
Polymer Kinetics (Abraham)
Process Chemistry (Burnet)
Simulation (Burkhart)


Outstanding programs also in electronic instrumentation, computer appli-
cations to process control, air and water pollution control, extraction, thermo-
dynamics, kinetics and reaction engineering, liquid metals technology, fluid
mechanics and rheology, heat and mass transfer, and interfacial and surface
phenomena.

Teaching and research assistantships and industrial fellowships available.

Ames, a small city of 40,000 in central Iowa. Site of the Iowa State Center
(pictured above), which hosts the annual Ames International Orchestra
Festival and athletic events of the Big Eight Conference.

Write to:
George Burnet, Head
Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering
Iowa State University of Science and Technology
Ames, Iowa 50010
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS


Department of Chemical


and Petroleum Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
in
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program
in
Petroleum Engineering
also
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
and
M.S. in Petroleum Management



The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.



Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena

Fluid Flow in Porous Media

Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies

Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems


Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design

Nucleate Boiling

High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior


For Information and Applications write:

Floyd W. Prestun, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922







CORNELL UNIVERSITY


Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering








Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
rj-ear-h-orenled course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
s: phy or Maater of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
/AIs'er of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Eng;neering (general)
Thermodynam-is; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
micchhnics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations.
Bioengineering
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and
r,'ated sub e:ts in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of
processes in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.

Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Catalysis
Homogeneous k:netics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation;
sl.nu:tcneou mass transfer and reaction; optimization of reactor design.
Chemical Proces-es and Process Control
AdJanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and
chemistry

Faculty Members and Research Interests
John L. Anderson, Ph.D. Membrane transport, bioengineering.
Kenneth B. Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi-
cal reaction engineering.
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. Light and electron microscopy, properties of materials,
solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation, agitation and aeration, pro-
cessing of biochemicals, electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons.
Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion in mem-
branes and porous solids.
J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D. Economic analyses and forecasts, new ventures deve-
lopment.
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. Polymerization, properties of polymer systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid mechanics
of liquid drops and jets, convection-distorted flow fields.
Michael L. Shuler, Ph.D., Biochemical engineering.
Julian C. Sm;th, Chem.E. Conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing,
mechanical separations.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. Chemical engineering applications to biomedical
problems; rheology.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics of poly
marization.
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. Liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics, effect of
radiation on chemical reactions.
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline-water
conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding,
filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis.
Robert York, Sc.D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco-
nomics, process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATION. Write to Professor K. B. Bischoff, Olin Hall of Chemical
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850




























* ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY


* BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


* BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING


* TRANSPORT PHENOMENA


* CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS


* SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY


* POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES


* ENERGY


Massachusetts

Institute

of Technology




DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING










For decades to come, the chemical engineer
will play a central role in fields of national
concern. In two areas alone, energy and the
environment, society and industry will turn
to the chemical engineer for technology and
management in finding process related so -
lutions to critical problems. M.I.T. has con-
sistently been a leader in chemical engineer-
ing education with a strong working relation-
ship with industry for over a half century.
For detailed information, contact Professor
Raymond F. Baddour, Head of the Depart -
ment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.


Raymond F. Baddour
Lawrence B. Evans
Paul J. Flory
Hoyt C. Hottel
John P. Longwell
James E. Mark
Herman P. Meissner
Edward W. Merrill
J. Th. G. Overbeek
J. R. A. Pearson


FACULTY
Robert C. Reid
Adel F. Sarofim
Charles N. Satterfield
Kenneth A. Smith
J. Edward Vivian
Glenn C. Williams
Clark K. Colton
Jack B. Howard
Michael Modell


C. Michael Mohr
James H. Porter
Robert C. Armstrong
Donald B. Anthony
Lloyd A. Clomburg
Robert E. Cohen
Richard G. Donnelly
Samuel M. Fleming
Ronald A. Hites
Jefferson W. Tester









Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA

ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman

Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies
-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson

(2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W.
Johnson

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.

(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek

(5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K.
G. Mayhan


In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:
(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Prof. J. L.
Gaddy
(b) Evaporation through non-Wettable Porous
Membranes-Dr. M. E. Findley
(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr.
R. C. Waggoner

(d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim-
rose

(e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice

(f) Process Dynamics and Control-Drs. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-
kamp

(g) Transport Properties, Kinetics and enzymes
and catalysis-Dr. O. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E.
Poling
(h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley


Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and

Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid

is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO

YOUR GRADUATE WORK

IN THE CULTURAL CENTER

OF THE WORLD?


F I U pl ll
_. **-*p:3- "'-m -i


I,'1
.I :4


Nil


FACULTY
R. C. Ackerberg
R. F. Benenati
W. Brenner
J. J. Conti
C. D. Han
M. A. Hnatow
R. D. Patel
E. Pearce
E. N. Ziegler


RESEARCH AREAS
Air Pollution
Catalysis, Kinetics, and Reactors
Fluidization
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical Modelling
Polymerization Reactions
Process Control
Rheology and Polymer Processing


Polytechnic
Institute

Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science


Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to c'a.te .. Engineer rnd
Doctor's dereasc A eai- of 5:udy and research:
chemical englrcc'ing, polymer r clone and
engineering biorq eyyr, rinr and rnv ronmienta
studilc


Fellowships and Research Assistantships
are available.
For further information contact
Professor C. D. Han
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201


mrIl


"rL
.i












LOOKING for a
graduate education

in

Chemical Engineering ?

Consider


PENN STATE

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In

Separation Processes

Kinetics and Mass Transfer

Petroleum Research

Unit Processes

Thermodynamic Properties

Catalysis and Applied Chemistry

Air Environment

Bio-Engineering

Nuclear Technology

Transport Properties

Lubrication and Rheology

And Other Areas

WRITE TO
Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Chemical Engineering Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























PHILADELPHIA


The cultural advantages and historical assets of
a great city, including the incomparable Phila-
delphia Orchestra are within walking distance
of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety


of college and professional sports at hand. A
complete range of recreational facilities exists
within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the
New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive.


UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA


The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League
School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex-
cellence in graduate education. A unique feature
of the University is the breadth of medically
related activities including those in engineering.
In recent years the University has undergone


a great expansion of its facilities, including
specialized graduate student housing. The De-
partment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineer-
ing has attracted national and international atten-
tion because of its rapid rise to excellence.


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL
ENGINEERING


The faculty includes two members of the Na-
tional Academy of Engineering and three recip-
ients of the highest honors awarded by the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Every
staff member is active in graduate and under-
FACULTY
Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan)
Elizabeth Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins)
William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia)
Ronald L. Klaus (R.P.I.)
RESEARCH SPECIALTIES
Energy Utilization and Conservation
Enzyme Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Electrochemical Engineering


graduate teaching, in research, and in profes-
sional work. Close faculty association with in-
dustry provides expert guidance for the student
in research and career planning.


Mitchell Litt (Columbia)
Alan L. Myers (California)
Melvin C. Molstad (Yale)
Leonard Nanis (Columbia)
Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale)
John A. Quinn (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider (Michigan)

Environmental and Pollution Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques
Biochemical Engineering


For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to:
Dr. A. L. Myers, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 19174.








Princeton
University


Department of
Chemical
Engineering












Faculty
R. P. Andres-Molecular beams, intermolecular
forces, microparticles, nucleation phenomena.
R. C. Axtmann-Fusion reactor technology,
environmental studies of fusion and geothermal
power, synthetic fuel production.
R. L. Bratzler-Bioengineering: cardiovascular
transport phenomena, extra corporeal devices.
John K. Gillham-Mechanical spectrometry of
polymeric solids, synthesis, characterization
and pyrolysis of polymers.
E. F. Johnson-Fusion reactor technology, moltei
salts (kinetic and thermodynamic properties,
catalysis), process control.
M. D. Kostin-Chemical kinetics, bioengineering,
transport phenomena, applications of quantum
theory.
Leon Lapidus-Numerical analysis in chemical
engineering, computer-aided design techniques,
identification and control of reaction systems.
Bryce Maxwell-Shear-induced crystallization of
polymers, melt structure recovery, polymer mixir
and blending.
D. F. Ollis-Heterogeneous and homogeneous
catalysis, biochemical engineering.
William B. Russel-Fluid mechanics, dynamics of
colloidal systems.
D. A. Saville-Fluid mechanics, behavior of
particulate systems, electrical phenomena in fluid
W. R. Schowalter-Fluid mechanics, rheology.
N. H. Sweed-Fixed bed sorption processes,
chemical reactor engineering, honeycomb catalys
coal processing (gasification and liquifaction).
G. L. Wilkes-Morphology and properties of blocl
and segmented copolymers, crystallization of
polymers, biopolymers and biomaterials.


Princeton offers two programs of graduate study,
one leading to the degree of Master of Science
in Engineering, the other to that of Doctor of
Philosophy. Students are admitted to either
program but the first year is arranged so as to
accommodate changes from one to the other
without difficulty. Work for the MSE can be
completed in one year. Three to four years beyond
the baccalaureate is the usual length of study for
the PhD. Because of the faculty's varied research
interests the incoming student has considerable
flexibility in choosing a research topic. Financial
support is available in the form of fellowships
and research assistantships for the academic year
and summer months. For detailed information
contact:


Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










RPI





RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE


offers graduate study programs in Chemical Engineering leading
to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with opportunities for specialization in:

THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER MATERIALS
HEAT TRANSFER POLYMER PROCESSING
REACTION KINETICS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
FLUIDIZATION PROCESS DYNAMICS
ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICES BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, established in 1824
"for the application of science to the common purposes
of life," has grown from a school of engineering and
applied science into a technological university, serving
some 3500 undergraduates and over 1000 graduate
students.
It is located in Troy, New York, about 150 miles
north of New York City and 180 miles west of Boston.
Troy, Albany, and Schenectady together comprise the
heart of New York's Capital District, an upstate metro-
politan area of about 600,000 population. These his-
toric cities and the surrounding countryside provide the
attractions of both urban and and rural life.
Scenic streams, lakes and mountains, including the
Hudson River, Lake George, the Green Mountains of
Vermont, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions
of the Adirondack Forest Preserve, are within easy
driving distance, and offer many attractions for those
interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hunting, fishing,
etc.

For full details write Mr. R. A. Du Mez, Director of Graduate
Admissions, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
12181.


FALL 1974










Graduate Study


(-. in Chemical Engineering


at Rice University


Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in
the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the
student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary
proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various
areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint
program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available.

The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several
post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers
12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio,
outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in
keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer-
ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent
evaluation by the American Council of Education.


MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Chromatography
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
Blood Flow and Blood Trauma
Blood Pumping Systems
Biomaterials

Rice University
Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca-
tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac-
tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine
residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston.
There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800
graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a
complete university with programs in the various fields
of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer-
ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings.
The academic year is from September to May. As there
are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly
four months for research. The school offers excellent
recreational and athletic facilities with a completely
equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes
outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year-
round activities.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT
Full-time graduate students receive financial support
with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of
$333-400 per month.


APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION
Address letters of inquiry to:
Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

Houston
With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

AT COLUMBIA




between the mountains and the sea

Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineer-
ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemistry, physics, math-
ematics, materials and computer science.

Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are
available.

For particulars and application forms write to:
Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman
Chemical Engineering Program
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, S. C. 29208



THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY
B. L. Baker, Professor, Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process
design, environmental problems, ion transport)
M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951
(Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treat-
ment)
J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer,
fluid mechanics)
P. E. Kleinsmith, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1972
(Transport phenomena, statistical mechanics)
F. P. Pike, Professor, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in
liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria)
J. M. Tarbell, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1974 (Thermo-
dynamics, process dynamics)


FALL 1974



























Programs

Programs for the degrees of Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy are
offered in both Chemical and Metal-
lurgical Engineering. The Master's pro-
gram may be tailored as a terminal one
with emphasis on professional develop-
ment, or it may serve as preparation for
more advanced work leading to the
Doctorate. Specialization in Polymer
Science and Engineering is available at
both levels.



Faculty

William T. Becker
Donald C. Bogue
Charlie R. Brooks
Edward S. Clark
Oran L. Culberson
John F. Fellers
George C. Frazier
Hsien-Wen Hsu
Homer F. Johnson, Department Head
Stanley H. Jury
Carl D. Lundin
Charles F. Moore
Ben F Oliver. Professor-in-Charge
of Metallurgical Engineering
Joseph J. Perona
Joseph E. Spruiell
E. Eugene Stansbury
James L. White


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF TENNESSEE


Graduate

Studies in

Chemical &

Metallurgical

Engineering


Research

Process Dynamics and Control
Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of
Packed Beds
Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge
Studies of Macromolecules
Development and Synthesis of New
Engineering Polymers
Fiber and Plastics Processing
Bioengineering
X-Ray Diffraction. Transmission and
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Solidification, Zone Refining
and Welding
Cryogenic and High Temperature
Calorimetry
Flow and Fracture in Metallic and
Polymeric Systems
Corrosion
Solid State Kinetics


Financial Assistance

Sources available include graduate
teaching assistantships, research assis-
tantships, and industrial fellowships.



Knoxville and
Surroundings

With a population near 200,000, Knox-
ville is the trade and industrial center of
East Tennessee. In the Knoxville Audi-
torium-Coliseum and the University
theaters, Broadway plays, musical and
dramatic artists, and other entertain-
ment events are regularly scheduled.
Knoxville has a number of points of his-
torical interest, a symphony orchestra,
two art galleries, and a number of
museums. Within an hour's drive are
many TVA lakes and mountain streams
for water sports, the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park with the Gatlin-
burg tourist area, two state parks, and
the atomic energy installations at Oak
Ridge, including the Museum of Atomic
Energy.

Write

Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916


CHEMICALL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CHEMICAL


ENGINEERING




DEGREES: M.S., Ph.D.
RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE:
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
PROCESS MODELING
IN: COAL GASIFICATION, WOOD PYROLYSIS, METHANATION, ECOSYSTEM
ANALYSIS, AND THEORETICAL STUDIES
CONTACT: DR. WILLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD
P. O. Box 6312
University, Alabama 35486


AUBURN UNIVERSITY
% A Land Grant University of Alabama


GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES


CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS:
LIQUID FUELS FROM COAL PROCESS CONTROL
POROUS MEDIA P-V-T RELATIONS
CRYSTAL GROWTH KINETICS SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT TRANSPORT PHENOMENA



Financial Assistance: For Further Information, Write:
Research and Teaching Assistantships, Head, Chemical Engineering Department
Industrial Fellowships Are Available Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830


FALL 1974









BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
Chemical Engineerinq Department
M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS
Areas of Interest
Transport kinetic processes
Thermodynamics
(Center for thermochemical studies)
High pressure technology
Environmental quality control
Energy resources
(Combustion Research Center)
Nuclear Engineering
Catalysis
Fluid Mechanics
Faculty
Dee H. Barker
Calvin H. Bartholomew
James J. Christensen
Ralph L. Coates
Joseph M. Glassett
H. Tracy Hall
Richard W. Hanks


Location
45 miles south of Salt Lake City in
scenic Provo at the base of the
Wasatch Mountains
Financial Assistance Available
Fellowships
Research Assistantships
Teaching Assistantships
Scholarships
Available up to $6,500 yr.

M. Duane Horton
James F. Jackson
John L. Oscarson
Bill J. Pope
L. Douglas Smoot
Grant M. Wilson


FOR INFORMATION CONTACT:
Dr. Richard W. Hanks
350G ESTB, Chemical Engineering
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84601



DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY
LEWISBURG, PENNSYLVANIA 17837

For admission, address
Dr. Paul H. DeHoff
Coordinator of Graduate Studies




* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Some courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
* Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis-
tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; reaction kinetics; catalyst deac-
tivation; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of materials; mathematical model-
ing; numerical analysis; statistical analysis.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS


Faculty


R. L. Bell:
R. G. Carbonell
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:


Mass Transfer, Bio Medical Engineering
Enzyme Kinetics, Quantum Mechanics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reactor Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena


To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA


CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING


Henri J. Fenech
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp
John E. Myers


G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker
Orville C. Sandall


For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106


FALL 1974








Case Institute of Technology

CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Current Research Topics
Environmental Engineering Crystal Growth and Materials
Coal Gasification Engineering Applications of Lasers
Simulation and Control Process Development
Catalysis and Surface Chemistry Biomedical Engineering
General Information
Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed institution with a tradition
of excellence in Engineering and Applied Science since 1880. In 1967 Case Insti-
tute and Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment, endowment
and faculty make Case Western Reserve University one of the leading private
schools in the country. The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's Uni-
versity Circle, an extensive concentration of education, scientific, social and cultural
organizations.
For more information, contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106







CINCINNATI

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING

M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES

-Major urban educational center
-New, prize-winning laboratory building and
facilities-Rhodes Hall
-National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent
to campus
-Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid
-Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control,
polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction-
ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen-
eration, heat transfer.
Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head
Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CLEMSON UNIVERSITY

Chemical Engineering Department

M.S. and Doctoral Programs


THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS

Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Air Pollution, Unit Operations
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U., Chemical Kinetics, Hybrid Computation
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena
Edie, D. D., Ph.D., U. Virginia-Polymay
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Chemical and Biological Kinetics, Design
Littlejohn, C. E., Ph.D., V.P.I.-Mass Transfer
Melsheimer, SS., Ph.D. Tulane-Process Dynamics, Applied Mathematics
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
Contact:
C. E. Littlejohn, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631




THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY


, ST4., MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


1964 rO
AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION


Thermodynamics


Pollution Control


Transport Processes


The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study
leading to the doctorate at another institution. Financial assistance is available.



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT:
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street
Cleveland. Ohio 44115












I-I



I
---------------L*the *-

un^^^lll ,T/*iversi* *,ty^^

^^^^^^^^^ ofn

fcoT 1 l t^ icu1


faculty
J. P. BELL
C. O. BENNETT
M.B.CUTLIP
A. T. DiBENEDETTO
G. M. HOWARD
H. E. KLEI
R.M.STEPHENSON
L. F. STUTZMAN
D. W. SUNDSTROM


financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England


We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268


ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60616

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas
of Polymer Science, Biochemical and Food Engineering, Gas Engineering, Bio-
medical Engineering, and Particle Technology.


Faculty
W. M. Langdon
R. E. Peck
B. S. Swanson
L. L. Tavlarides
J. S. Vrentas
D. T. Wasan
H. Weinstein


Environmental Control and Process Design
Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics
Process Dynamics and Controls
Biochemical Engineering and Reactor Engineering
Polymer Science and Transport Phenomena
Mass Transfer and Particle Dynamics
Biomedical Engineering and Reactor Engineering

For inquiries write to: D. T. Wasan, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Department
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd Street
Chicago, Illinois 60616


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


programs
M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL








Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Uo to $5,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER
HEAT TRANSFER
FLUID MECHANICS
THERMODYNAMICS
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS
SOLID MIXING
DESALINATION
OPTIMIZATION
FLUIDIZATION
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM


FALL 1974


Lehigh University

Department of Chemical Engineering



M. CHARLES Center for
C. W. CLUMP Surface &
R. W. COUGHLIN Catal
A. S. FOUST Coatings
W. L. LUYBEN Research
A. J. McHUGH
G. W. POEHLEIN
W. E. SCHIESSER
L. H. SPERLING
F. P. STEIN
L. A. WENZEL
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015















Graduate Enrollment- 80


McMASTER UNIVERSITY

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS

THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS


R. B. Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) Ca
M. H. I. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) Os
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) W
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) Po
C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) .. Op
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) Bic
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) Po
J. W. Hodgins (Ph.D., Toronto) Po
r. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) He
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Sta
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) W
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) M
W. J. Snodgrass (Ph.D., U. of N. Carolina, Chapel Hill) Mc
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) Po
T. W airegi (Ph.D., McGill) Flu
D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Int
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) Prc
DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL
RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST


talysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
cillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
istewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
lymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
timization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simulation
logical Fluid and Mass Transfer
lymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
lymerization, Applied Chemistry
at Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
itistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control
wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
ss Transfer, Corrosion
idelling of Aquatic Systems
lymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Processes
id Mechanics, (Bubbles, drops and Solid Particles)
erfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
ocess Simulation and Control, Computer Control
CONTACT: Dr. J. W. Hodgins, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Faculty- 19








Bioengineering
Pollution Control
Process Dynamics
Computer Control
Kinetics and Catalysis
Thermodynamics
Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department Suear Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803


U-














MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

7 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY

u AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Ui HOUGHTON, MICHIGAN 49931


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY
L. B. HEIN, Ph.D., Department Head


DEGREES GRANTED: M.S.


M. W. BREDEKAMP, Ph.D. Instrumentation, Process Dynamics and Control
E. R. EPPERSON, M.S. Phase Equilibria
D. W. HUBBARD, Ph.D. Lake Studies, Mixing Phenomena, Turbulent Flow
J. T. PATTON, Ph.D. Biosynthesis, Waste Treatment, Petroleum Recovery
A. J. PINTAR, Ph.D. -Energy Conveision, Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics
J. M. SKAATES, Ph.D. Fluid-Solid Reactions, Catalysis, Reactor Design
E. T. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. Improvement of Pulpwood Yield


Financial assistance available in the form of Fellowships and Assistantships.


For more information, write to:


DR. L. B. HEIN, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
HOUGHTON, MICHIGAN 49931


THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS

on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS


The University of Michigan awarded its first
Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D.
in 1914. It has moved with the times since and
today offers a flexible program of graduate
study that allows emphases ranging from fun-
damentals to design.
The Chemical Engineering Department, with
21 faculty members and some 65 graduate stu-
dents, has opportunities for study and research
in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor
design, transport processes, mathematical and
numerical methods, optimization, mixing, rheol-
ogy, materials, bioengineering, electrochemical
engineering, production-pipelining-storage of oil
and gas, coal processing, and pollution control.


The M.S. program may be completed in 10
months and does not require a thesis. The Pro-
fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond
the Master's and a professional problem. The
Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to
expedite entry into a research area as early in
the program as possible.

For further Information and applications,
write:
Prof. Brice Carnahan
Chairman of the Graduate Committee
The University of Michigan
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104


FALL 1974









MONASH UNIVERSITY

CLAYTON, VICTORIA
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIPS


Applications are invited for Monash University
Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering. The awards are
intended to enable scholars to carry out under
supervision, a programme of full-time advanced
studies and research which may lead to the
degrees of Master of Engineering Science and/
or Doctor of Philosophy.

Facilities are available for work in the general
fields of:
Solid-gas Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Packed Tubular Reactors
Crystal Nucleation and Growth
Fluidisation
Rheology
Computer Control and Optimisation


Gas Absorption with Reaction
Waste Treatment Engineering
Process Dynamics
Biochemical Engineering
Fluid Particle Mechanics
Mixing of Liquids
Submerged Combustion

Scholarships carry a tax-free stipend of $A3,050
per annum. Detailed information about the
awards and the necessary application forms may
be obtained from the Academic Registrar. Tech-
nical enquiries should be addressed to the
Chairman of Department, Professor O. E. Potter.
Postal Address: Monash University, Wellington
Road, Clayton,
Victoria, 3168, Australia.


UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA


OFFERING (R\l)l ATE S'I I)\ \ I) ISEh\IICIl
I1\1)11\( TO THtI ,11 .S. 01H Ph.I). I THlE \11\S OF:


Iiochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Crystallization
Food Processing
Kinetics


Mixing
Poly meriza tion
'Ihermodynamics
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas


FlR) \PICPL I(. \Ti\S \Ni) INIO(I, \TIO\ ON
I1\ \ (N I \I. \SSIST\NCi Il'I'iK TO:


Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508








Tired of pollution, traffic jams and the big city life?
That is one reason why you might consider spending the next two or three years in Fredericton, working
for an M.Sc. or Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering at
THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK
Here are some more reasons:
Small, friendly department with a well established research record and an active social life.
Variety of interesting research projects in fire science and molecular sieve technology as well as in traditional areas of chemical
engineering.
Financial support ($4800-5500) including payment for some easy but interesting teaching duties.
Fredericton is situated in the scenic Saint John river valley. Excellent recreational facilities including sailing, skiing, hunting and
fishing are all available within a few minutes drive from the campus.
The Faculty and their Research Interests


D. D. Kristmanson (Ph.D. London)
J. Landau (Ph.D. Prague) .
K. F. Loughlin (Ph.D. U.N.B.) .
C. Moreland (Ph.D. Birmingham)
D. R. Morris (Ph.D. London) .
J. J. C. Picot (Ph.D. Minnesota) .
D. M. Ruthven (Ph.D. Cambridge)

F. R. Steward (Sc.D. M.I.T.) .
For further information write to:


Mixing, pollution control
Mass transfer, liquid extraction
Molecular sieves
Fluid-solid systems, process dynamics
Electrochemistry, Corrosion
Transport phenomena in liquid crystals
Sorption and diffusion in molecular sieves; adsorption separa-
tion processes
Combustion, radiation, furnace design and fire science
D. M. Ruthven
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, N.B.
Canada


FALL 1974


THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Enqineering

Offering Research Opportunities in
.. Coal Gassification
., Desalinization
Polymer Science
Hydrogen Economy
WMini Computer Applications to
Process Control
Process Simulation
ilHydro-Metallurgy
S r Radioactive Waste Management
... and more

Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque!

For further information, write:
Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131










STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Faculty and research interests:


J. A. Bergantz
D. R. Brutvan
H. T. Cullinan, Jr
P. Ehrlich
W. N. Gill
R. J. Good
J. A. Howell
K. M. Kiser
P. J. Phillips
W. H. Ray
E. Ruckenstein
J. Szekely
T. W. Weber
S. W. Weller


energy sources, gas-solid reactions
staged operations
multicomponent mass transfer, transport properties
polymeric materials, thermodynamics
dispersion, reverse osmosis
surface phenomena, adhesion of living cells
biological reactors, waste treatment
blood flow, turbulence, pollution in lakes
polymer morphology, structure and properties
optimization, polymerization reactors
catalysis, interfacial phenomena, bioengineering
process metallurgy, gas-solid and solid-solid reactions
process control, dynamics of adsorption
catalysis, catalytic reactors


Financial aid is available

For full information and application materials, please contact:
Dr. Harry T. Cullinan, Jr.
Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, New York 14214


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY AT RALEIGH

offers programs leading to the M.S., M.Ch.E. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engi-
neering. Active research programs leading to approximately 50 journal publica-
tions per year are offered in all classical and contemporary research areas of
chemical engineering. The proximity of a large number of polymer-related re-
search facilities at the nearby Research Triangle Park and the various offices and
laboratories of the Environmental Protection Agency in and near the Park stimu-
lates strong research programs in polymers and air pollution technology at North
Carolina State University. Graduate students are further stimulated by beaches
and mountains, an early spring and a late fall, and the sister universities of Duke
and UNC Chapel Hill. Our distinguished senior faculty of K. O. Beatty Jr., J. K.
Ferrell, H. B. Hopfenberg, Warren L. McCabe, E. M. Schoenborn, E. P. Stahel and
V. T. Stannett join their colleagues in inviting your application to study chemical
engineering in North Carolina.







GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


THE OHIO


STATE


UNIVERSITY


M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS


* Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control
Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Rheology Unit Operations
Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Sir
Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request
WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210


emulation


iHE

The UNIVERSITY

OOF

OKIAHOA,1A


WRITE TO:
THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069


* CATALYSIS
* CORROSION
* DIGITAL SYSTEMS
" DESIGN
e POLYMERS
* METALLURGY
* THERMODYNAMICS
* RATE PROCESSES


FALL 1974








ENERGY RESOURCE RESEARCH
POLLUTION CONTROL
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
PROCESS DYNAMICS
These are some of the challenging specialties
Syou can follow in graduate programs
leading to degrees of M.S. in chemical/petroleum engineering
or Ph.D. in chemical engineering.
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical/Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261


[nIlilT Lirsil)
0I

! Pitislibu.h








KINETICS
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
BIOENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

write to Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
Lafayette, Ind. 47907
















Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering
MSc and PhD Degree Programs


D.W. Bacon "ii \,,,ns
H.A. Becker ,n ii
D.H. Bone h ,,i,,,n,,,
S.C. Cho ih.), .n t.iun
R.H C lark Imii), i >,i, i ,,I ,>,
R.K. Code rii) ..mi
J. Downie n'i) i,,, ,,
J.E. Ellsworth ,h
C.C. Hsu I, I,...,
J.D Raal > ir .
T.R. W arriner i,,i- .i, nk .
B.W. Wojciechowski i, m ).1..


* Waste Processing
water and waste treatment
applied microbiolog,
biochemical engineering

* Chemical Reaction
Engineering
catalysis
,tatistical design
polymer studies

* Transport Processes
com butllon
fluid mechanic,
thermodynamics


Write:
Dr. B. W. Wojciechowski
Department of Chemical
Engineering
Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario
Canada


UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER

ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 14627

MS & PhD Programs


T. L. Donaldson
R. F. Eisenberg
M. R. Feinberg
J. R. Ferron
J. C. Friedly
R. H. Heist
F. J. M. Horn
H. R. Osmers
H. J. Palmer
H. Saltsburg
W. D. Smith, Jr.
G. J. Su


Mass Transfer, Membranes, Enzyme Catalysis
Inorganic Composites, Physical Metallurgy
Formal Chemical Kinetics, Continuum Mechanics
Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics
Process Dynamics, Optimal Control & Design
Nucleation, Atmospheric Chemistry, Solids
Chemical Processing Theory, Applied Mathematics
Rheology, Polymers, Biological & Ecological Processes
Interfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes
Surface & Solid-State Chemistry, Molecular Beams
Kinetics & Reactor Design, Computer Applications
Glass Science & Technology, Thermodynamics


For information write: J. R. Ferron, Chairman


FALL 1974


I








GRADUATE STUDY IN
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY


RESEARCH AREAS
Water Renovation Transport Phenomena
Biomedical Engineering Separation Processes
Membrane Processes Mathematical Modeling
Desalination Rheology


FACULTY
Wayne S. Amato
Allen J. Barduhn
James M. Mozley
Philip A. Rice


S. Alexander Stern
Gopal Subramanian
Chi Tien
Raffi M. Turian


Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among
the hills of Central New York State. A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering,
science, the social sciences, and the humanities exists at the university. The many diversified activities
conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both specific and general
educational goals.
As a part of this medium sized research oriented university, the Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of the
faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research, independent study and the general
atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation.
FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE
FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1974-75


For Information:
Contact: Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science
Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York 13210


Stipends:
Stipends range from $2,000 to $4,500
with most students receiving $3,400-
$4,000 per annum in addition to remit-
ted tuition privileges.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


THINKING ABOUT GRADUATE STUDIES IN
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING?

Think about a meaningful study program in chemical engi-
neering at Texas A&M University.
TAMU's graduate program is designed to produce engineers
who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac-
tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry
and society.
Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl, there is
an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally
warm Texas friendliness, enabling you to get the very best
guidance and instruction possible.

For an information packet and application materials, write to:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Texas A&M University
College Station,
Texas 77843




Full Text
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PAGE 2

WE ENCOURAGE JOB HOPPING. In fact at Sun Oil we ve just adopted a new system that promotes it. Internal Placement System. Here s how it works Say you're in Production and you decide to take a crack at Marketing. Next opening in Marketing we 'll tell you. You can apply and be considered. First You have freedom to experiment and move around at Sun You learn more and you learn faster. ,. Why do we encourage job hopping? Because r we happen to believe our most valuable corporate assets are our people. The more our people .. know the stronger we are. Now-you want to know more? Ask your Placement Director when a Sun Oil recruiter will be on campus Or write ,. for a copy of our Career Guide SUN OIL COMPANY Hum a n Resources Dept. CED. 1608 Walnut Street Philadelphia Pa 19103. A n E qua l O ppo r tunity E mployer M / F

PAGE 3

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville F l orida 32611 Editor : Ray Fahien Associate Ed i tor : Mack Tyner Business Manager : R B Bennett ( 904) 392-0881 Editorial and Business Assistant : Bonn ie N ee land s (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives : SOUTH: Cha r l e s L i ttl e john Chairman of Publications Board Cl e mson Univ e rsity Ho me r F. Joh n so n Univer s ity of T e nn. essec Vi uc e nt W Uhl Univ e r s ity of Virginia C ENTRAL: L es l ie E. Laht i Univ e rsity of Tol e do C a m d e n A. C ob er ly Univer s ity of Wi s consin WEST: W i ll ia m H. Corcoran Californ,ia Ins t itute of T e chnology G e o r g e F. M een aghan T e xa s T e ch University SOUTHWEST: J R. C rump Univ e r s ity of Hou s ton J ame s R. Co u p e r Univ e r s ity of Arkan s a s EAST :G. M i cha e l Ho w a rd Univ e r s ity of Conn e cti c ut L e on Lap i dus Princeton U nJ versi ty Thomas W. Weber State University of New York NORTH: J. J Martin University of Michigan Ed w ard B. Stu ar t University of Pittsburgh NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton University of Washington C ha r l e s E. W i cks Oregon State University PUBLISHERS REPRESENTATIVE D. R. Coughanowr Drexel University UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVES UNIVERSITIES: John E. Myers University of California, Santa Barbara FALL 197 4 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME VIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1974 GRADUATE COURSE ARTICLES 162 Digital Computer Control of Processes A r mc in do Co rri p i o 164 Proces s Technology of Solid State Materials and Devices L ee F. Do nc igh ey 168 Multivariable C ontrol and Estimation Thomas F. Edga r 172 Chemistry of Catalytic Processes B. Bcit e s, J. Ifot zer, J. Olson cind G. S c h ui tt 176 Multi-Purpose Video-Taped Course in Data Analysis R. G reen ko rn a n d D. K e ssl er I SO Advanced Thermodynamics Kra e m er D. L u ks I 84 Wastewater Engineering P. Melnyk and R. Probe r I SS Enzyme and Biochemical Engineering L. L. T a v l ari d e s 194 The Science of Synthetic and Biological Polymers Cur t Th i es DEPARTMENTS 159 Editorial 214 Division Activities FEATURES 204 Review of the History of Mass Transfer Thomas[(. Sher w ood CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION i s published quarterly by the Chemical En g in e ering Di v i s i o n, Americ a n Society for En g ineering Education. The publication i s e di te d a t the Ch e mic&l En g in e ering Department, Univ e rsity of Florida. Second-class po s t age i s paid a t Ga in esv ill e Florid a a n d at D e L e on Sprin gs Florida Corr es pondence r e gar d in g e ditorial matt e r, circul a ti o n and ch a nges of addre s s should be addressed to th e Edi tor at Ga in es v ill e, F l or id a 326 11. Adve rti s in g r ates a nd inf o rmati o n ar e a v ailabl e from th e adverti s in g repres e ntativ es. Plates and other advertising material ma y b e se nt dir e ctly to th e print e r: E. 0 Painter Printing Co., P O. Box 877. D e L eo n Sprin gs Fl o rid a 32 0 28 Sub s cription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per y ear. $6 pe r y e ar m a il e d to m e mb ers o f A l C h E and o f th e C hE Di v ision of ASEE and $ 4 p e r year to ChE faculty in bulk mailin g Write for price s on individual ba c k co pi es C op y ri g h t 1 97 4. C h em i ca l En g in ee rin g Di v i s i o n of Am e r i c an Society ( o r En g in ee rin g Education, Ray Fahi e n, Editor. The statements and opinions ex pr esse d in thi s p e riodic a l ar e tho s e of th e writers and not nece s sarily those of the C hE Di v i s ion of the ASEE which body assumes no re s ponsihility for them. Defective c opi es r e pl a c e d if n oti fie d w ithin 120 d a y s Th e In te rn at i o n a l Or ga n izat i on fo r Sta n dar i zat i on has ass i g n ed t h e code US ISSN 0 009 2479 for th e id e nt i fi c ation o f t h is per i od i cal. 157

PAGE 4

What we're doing for your health is a lot m ore comforting than a bowl of chicken soup. Little things at home relieve a lot of your misery But we offer human solace too. Many medicines you find at a drug store are made with our chemicals. Aspirin to bring down your burn ing fever, lozenges to soothe your poor sore throat sedatives to let you fall asleep at last. We' re also involved in more serious thin gs. We make radioactive diagnostic materials that pinpoint cancer. And plastic for heart valves human beings can live with. We invented an Oxygen Walker. It helps people with emphysema move freely around again Our CentrifiChe rti blood analyzer helps a hospital make more than 20 vital blood tests with up to 300 chemical analyses an hour. Much of the life-saving oxygen in a hospital is ours. And we constantly experiment. We are 123,000 involved human beings who work all around the world on things and ideas for every basic need. So today, something we do will touch your life. And may even help save it. Today, something we do will touch your life. An Equal Opportunity Employer

PAGE 5

A LETTER TO C HEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS As a se n ior you m ay be ask in g so m e q u est i o n s abo u t gTad u ate sc h ool. I n t hi s issue CEE atte m pt s to as ist yo u i n fin d ing a n swers to them. Should you go to gmduClte sc hool ? Through the papers in this special graduate ed ucation iss ue, Ch e m ica l Engin eerin g Edu cci tion invite yo u to co nsider grad uate sc hool a an opportunity to further your professional de velopment. We believe that you will find that graduate work is an exciting and intellectually sa tisfying experience. We also feel that graduate study can provide yo u with insurance aga inst the increasing danger of tec hni ca l obso les cence. Furthermore, we believe that graduate research work under the guidance of an inspiring a nd in terested faculty member will be important in your growth toward c onfidence, independence, a nd maturity. What is taught in gmdunte sc hool? In order to familiarize yo u with the co ntent of so me of the areas of grad uate che mi cal e ngineer ing, we are co ntinuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate co urse s as they are taught by scholars at various universities Previous issue s included articles on applied mathematics, trans port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics, particulate sys tems, optimal co ntrol, diffusional operations, computer aided design, statistical anal ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and ce rtain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio medical and b iochemi ca l e ngineerin g. We s trongly suggest that you supplement your reading of thi issue by also reading the articles publi s hed in pre vious years. If your department chairman or pro fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no c harge. But before yo u read the articles in these issues we wish to point out that (1) there is so me varia tion in co urse content and course organization at different schools, (2) t here are many areas of c hemi ca l e gineering that ,ve ha ve not bee n able to cove r a nd FALL 1974 (3) the professors w ho have wr itten these articles are not the only a uthoritie s in these fields nor are their departments the only o n es that e mpha s ize that particular a r ea of study. Wh e1e s ho u ld you go to grClducit e school? It is co mmon for a student to broade n himself by doing graduate work at an institution other than the one from which he receives his bac helor' s degree. Fortunately there are many very fine c hemi ca l engineering departments and e ach of these ha s its own "persona lit y" w ith special e phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in choosing a graduate sc hool yo u might first c on sider which sc hoo l is most s uitable for yo ur ow n future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a specific research project in mind, yo u might want to attend a univer sity which empha s izes that area a nd w her e a prominent s pe c ialist is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if yo u are unsure of your field of research, you might co nsider a department that h as a large faculty with wide l y diversified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide c hoice of projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a small enrol l ment of graduate students. In any case, we s u ggest that you begin by writing the schiils that have provided information on their graduate programs in the back of this issue You will probably also w ish to s eek advice from members of the faculty at your own sc hool. But wherever you decide to go, we s uggest that you explore the possibility of c ontinuing yo ur education in graduate sc hool. Sincerely, RAY FAHIE Editor CEE University of Florida Gainesville, Florid a Note to Department C hairmen See Page 179. 159

PAGE 6

t-JNI letters Fire Destroys ChE Library Dear Sir: Due to a fire, we lost our Chemical Engineering Building; the worst consequence was the loss of our library. The total losses are evaluated in the order of $400,000. We have already received help from va riou s departments of Che mical Engineer ing in our country and from U S.A. as well. This letter is to ask you to publish an appeal in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION to those departments of Chem ical Engineering that might ha ve books or journals which they'd be willing to donate. These would be most useful to our stu dent s and to our research staff. Faculty of Engineering Nat ional U nive rsity of LaPlata LaPlata Argentina Compliments for Carberry Commentary Dear Sir: I just fini s hed the Winter 1974 Issue of C hemical Engineering Education and felt co pelled to comp lim ent the authors of the sketch of Professor Carberry. I thought it informative, as are most of yo ur a rti c le s, but more importantly, it was good writing In turn light and humorous and con taining scholarly references, it presented a pic ture of a truly professional teacher who is clearly a man to be admired and respected. A good c hang e from the dusty picture of a equally dusty professor. Cor dially, R. J Wall Industrial Relation s Administrator Westvaco ARE YOU APPLICATIONS ORIENTED? At Fluor Engineer s and Constructors, Inc. our 4 billion dollar plus backlog offers all kinds of practical app li cations opportunities for chemical engineers to help provide solutions to the energy problem. At Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc. we de sign and build facilities for the hydrocarbon processing industry oil refineries, gas processing plants, and petrochemical installations We are very active in liquefied natural gas, methyl fuel, coal conversion, and nuclear fuel processing. If you want to find out about opportunities, loca tions you can work in (world wide) and why Fluor is the best place to apply what you have learned, meet with the Fluor recruiter when he comes to your campus or contact the College Relations Department directly Fluor Engineers and Constructors Inc. 1001 East Ba II Road Anaheim, CA 92805 '!( FLUOR ENGINEERS ANO t CONSTRUCTORS, INC. 160 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU CA TIO

PAGE 7

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES Twelfth Annual Lectureship Award to Elmer Gaden The 1974 ASEE C hemical E ngineering Division Lecturer was Dr. Elmer L. Ga den Jr., of Co lumbia Univers i ty. The purpo se of this award lecture is to recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineering theory or prac t ice. The 3M Co mpany provide s t he financial s upport for this annual lecture award. Bestowed a nnually upon a distinguished e ngineerin g educator who delivers the A nnual Lecture of t he C hemical Engi n eering Division, the award consists of $ 1,000 and an engraved cert ificate. These were 1nesented to t hi s year's Lecturer at the A nnual C hemical Engineering Divi sio n Meeting June 28, 1974 at Ren sse laer Polytechnic In st itute Troy, N Y. Dr. Gaden spoke on "Biotec hnology an Old Solution to a New Problem." Elmer L. Gaden, .Tr., was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. He attended the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and tra n sfe red to Co lumbia U ni ve r sity t hrough enlistment in t he naval t raining 1>rogram of World War I I. He graduated from Co lumbia durin g the war and later recei ve d the Ph.D. in c hemi c al engineering from the s ame sc hool. Professor Ga den worked for C ha s Pfizer & Co in biological proce ss development before returning to Co lum bia. He ha s had s ubsequent industrial experience with Biochemical Processes, Inc. a company which he founded and directed from 1958 to 1971, and with Radiation Ap plication s, In c With a primar y technical interest in bioengineering, especially the analysis, de s ign and co ntrol of proce sses ba se d on t h e a ctiv itie s of microbial populations, Professor Gade n ha s m ade important contributions to the understand in g of aeratio n a nd oxygen transfer and to the kinetic re l ationships in s uch proce sses, microbial proc ess design and co n trol, and air ste rilization by filtration. Dr. Gaden h as also been the editor of the journal B i ot e chnology and B i o e ng i n ee r in g s ince its inception In 1970 he was t he fir st recipient of the Food & Bioengineering Awa rd of t h e A I C hE. Since 1949, Professor Ga den has been a memb er of t he faculty at Co lumbia U niver sity with teac hing responsibilities in chemical e n gi neerin g, bioengineering, and, s ince 1966, hi sto r y He ha s also been responsible for initiating interdisciplinary under gra duate in st ruction in "techno l ogy and society From 1960 to 1969 and again from 1971 he ha s been C hairman of the Department of C hemical Engineering and Ap 1>li ed C hemi stry In 1971 he received t h e Great Teachers Award and in 1973 the Hai-old C Urey A, ard of Phi Lambda Upsilon, FALL 1974 PREVIOUS LECTURES 1963, A. B. Metzner, University of Delaware, "Non Newtonian fluids 1964, C. R. Wilke, University of California, "Mass transfer in turbulent flow. 1965, Leon Lapidus, Princeton University, "As pects of modern contro l theory and applica tion 1966, Octave Levenspiel, Illinois Institute of Tech nology, "Changing Attitudes to Reactor De sign." 1967, Andreas Acrivos, Stanford University, "Matched Asympototic Expansions." 1968, L. E. Scriven, University of Minnesota, "F lo w and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces 1969, C J. Pings, California Institute of Tech nology, "Some Current Studies in Liquid State Physics 1970, J. M. Smith, University of California at Davis, "Photo c hemical Processing-Photo Decomposition of Pollutants in Water." 1971, William R. Schowalter, Princeton Univer sity, "The Art and Science of Rheology." 1972, Dale F. Rudd, University of Wisconsin, "Synthesis and Analysis Engineering." 1973, Rutherford Aris, University of Minnesota, "Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Cata l ysts a Chemical Engineering Symphony." 161

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DIGIT AL COMPUTER CONTROL OF PROCESSES ARMANDO B. CO RRIPIO Louisic inci Stcite University Bcito n Roug e, L ouisicir,ci 70 803 C OMPUTER PROCESS CONTROL, as space travel, i s n o l o n ger a dream but a rea lit y. T h e time when every n ew plant of s i g nifi ca n t s iz e w ill be equipped with a co ntrol co mput e r i s rapidly approaching R ecog nizin g this fact the Dep art m e nt of C h e mi ca l E n gineering at LSU initiated s ix years ago a co ur se o n the u se of digital co puters in process co ntr o l. This grad uat e co ur se is o n e of fo ur o ff ered by the department in t h e area of a ut o m at i c pro cess co ntr o l: C o ur se T itl e Level Introdu ctio n to Automatic Contro l Th eory Senior/Graduate Process dynami cs a n d adaptive co ntrol Graduate Optima l co ntrol of processes Graduate Digita l Co mput er Process Co ntrol Graduate Th e first of t h ese courses i s a pre-requisite to t h e ot h e r t hre e w hi ch are independent of each other Each of the graduate courses covers differ e nt aspects of modern contro l theory with actual or potent i al app li cat i o n to c h e mi ca l processes. As Computer process control l ike space travel i s no longer a dream but a reality; the t i me w h en every new plant of sign ifi cant size wi ll be equipped with a contro l computer i s rapid l y approaching. a matter of hi stor i ca l int erest, two of t h ese cou r ses were initiated over two decades ago by t h e l ate Arthur G. Keller, as s urv ey courses in proce ss in s trumentation a nd co ntr ol. The objective of t h e course is to fam ili ar iz e t h e st u dent wit h the co ntr ol capab iliti es of the dig i tal co mput er and with the techniques h e will need to design t h e co ntr o l routines to be e x ec uted by t h e comp ut er. The co ur se o utlin e g iv e n in Tab l e I i s a li st of the top i cs covered. 162 Table I C OURSE OUTLINE .I. Introduction 1. Review of a u to m atic pro cess co n trol t h eory 2 Descriptio n of t h e co m1rn ter hardwar e n ecessary fo r rea ]-tim e operatio n 3 Progra mmin g t h e co m1rn ter for real-time operatio n I. Eco nomic j u st ification II. Desig n of Sa mpl e d-Da ta Co n t rol Syste m s l. The algebra of z tra n s form s 2 Stability of s ampled-data syste m s 3 Effect of noi se a nd dig i tal filterin g Il l. Fee dba ck C ontrol A l gorith m s l. Sy n t h esis of c ontrol a l go rithm s 2. Disc r ete eq ui v alent of s ta nd ard twoa nd three-mode co n tro ll ers 3. Process mod e l s an d t unin g tec hnique s 4 Effect of s amplin g i n terval I V. A d va n ced Co n t rol Tec hniqu es 1 Fee d forward c ontrol 2 Cas cade c ontrol syste m s 3. Interaction index and d eco uplin g of mul t i var iable syste m s t. On -lin e id ent ifi cat ion and adaptive c ontrol 5 Co mp e n s ation of t ran s portation lag V. O p ti mi zatio n of Process Operation 1. Fo rmula tion of t he 01>timization problem and t h e performance index 2 Linear programming and c on st rained optimum 3. O n-lin e se arch me t hod s CONTROL LOOP ANALYSIS A REVIEW OF AUTOMATIC contro l t h eory i s g i ve n in t h e for m of a n a n a l ysis of the d i fferent co mp o n ents of the typ i ca l co ntr o l l oop Special attent i o n i s devoted to t h e co n ve n t i o n a l twoa nd three-mode a n a l og co ntr o ll ers for lat er co mpa r i s on with the di g it a l version of the feed back controller. As part of the int ro ducti o n the st udent who i s usually fa mili ar w i th pro g r a mmin g the co mput er for "batc h so lution of sc i e ntifi c prob l e m s, is exposed to t h e specia l h a rd ware a n d programming co n s id eratio n s required for real-time" operatio n i. e co n t inu o u s atten t i o n of a process t h at takes p l ace in act u a l ti m e. The s i g nifi ca n t factors involved in eco n o mi ca ll y justifying a comp ut er in a process c ontrol a ppli cat i o n are a l so presented The co ur se as ta u g h t at LSU u ses z-tra'nsform CHE MICAL ENG I NEERING EDUCATION

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Armando B. Corripio is Assistant Professor of Chemical Engin eer ing at Louisiana State University Baton Rouge Louisiana. H e attend ed the Universit y of Villanueva in Ha vana, Cuba until closed by the Castro r eg im e in April 1961 on the day of the Bay of Pigs in vasion H e holds B .S. (1963), M.S. ( 196 7) and Ph.D ( 1970 ) degrees in Chemical Eng i neering all from L.S.U His industrial experience incudes f1ve yea r s of process simulation and contro l systems design wit h Dow Chemical Company Member of AIChE ISA SCS and COED, his main interest lies in the areas of computer simulation and automatic control theory. H e is author or co-author of over thirt y articles and presentations is married and has four child r en ages 1 7, 9 and 10 algebra as a tool in the analysis of the sa mpl ed data co ntr o l loop a nd in the synt h es i s of digital control algorithms. Pulse transfer functions and their use in the determination of the stab ilit y of the loop are given particular attention, as are the most common forms of data holds on t h e computer output signals. The effect of noise on the sampling process and it s attenuation by digital filtering are also presented. The synthesis of digital control algorithms i s illustrated by the presentation of the deadbeat, Dahlin and Kalman algorithms. These a l gor ithm s will, under certai n co ndition s, cause excessive switching of the control valve, a phenomenon known as "ringing". As a result of a term project assigned to o n e of the st udent s in the co ur se, a demonstration of ringing utilizing t h e Chemical Engineering Hybrid Simulation Laboratory has been developed. The demonstration consists of a co ntinuou s st irred tank c h em i ca l reactor, s imul at ed on the analog computer and contro ll ed by the digital computer through the hybrid interface. (See Table II). Given this set-up the st udent is able to obtain a model of the process, synthe size a digital contro l a lg orithm which is pro grammed on the digital computer, and observe the effect of ringing. He i s a l so ab l e to identify and remove t h e ringing poles in the control a l gor i t hm s and observe the performance of the FALL 1974 Table II HYBRID COMPUTER HARDWARE Analog Co m1rnter Electronic Associates Model 6 8 0 75 operational amplifier s 30 integrator / s umm er n etworks 20 multipli ers / sq uar e / square-root cards 2 adjustable function generators \ ssorted parallel lo gic: AND g-ate FLIP FLOPS, etc. Hybrid Interface Electronic Associates Model 693 24-c hannel s of analog-to-digital conve r sion 12 c hannel s of digital to analog converters I 6 digital 011t1rnt line s (logic l evels) 8 digital in1rnt lin es ( lo gic levels) 6 interrupt line s Di gital Computer Xerox Model Sigma-5 20,000 words, 32 bits per word Hardware floating-point unit 750,000 bytes of bulk st orage (disk) Car d reader Line printer O1>erator's console 6 l eve l s of priority interrupt Software Sigma Macro-symbol assembler FORTRAN co mpil er SL-1 Sim ulation Language Hybrid s ubroutin e packag-e (F'ORTRAN c allable) A demonstration of ringing using the ChE Hybrid Simulation Lab has been developed. It c onsists of a continuous st irred tank chemica l reactor simulated on analog computer, contro lled by digita l computer ihrough hybrid interface. "ringi n g-free" a l gorithm. The set -up can also be used to test the different method s of obta inin g simp l e models of a process, and to ob s erve the e ffe c t of varyin g the computer sampling interval. OBSERVING COMPUTER RESPONSE MAN Y OF THE INDUSTRIAL applications of digital contro l computers invol ve the use of discrete equiva l ents of the conventiona l ana lo g twoand three -m ode controllers. A number of method s to tune the parameters of the analog con trollers have been adapted to their digital co unter parts. These include Zeigler-Nichol s, Co h en and Coon, and a number of empirical formu l as de (C ontin11 ed o n page 203.) 16~

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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY OF SOLID ST A TE MA T ERIALS AND DEVICES LEE F. DONA G HE Y University of Californici, Berkeley B er k eley, Calif 94720 T HE C HEMI C AL ENGINEER i s making a n inc r eas ing numb er of contributions to so lid s tate indu st ri es, fro m ultra p urifi cat i o n a nd s in g l e c r ys t a l produ ct ion t o process e n g in eer in g in se mi co nductor inte g rated e l ectro ni cs. The rap idl e volving t ec hnol og i ca l requirements of the hi g hl y c ompetitive electronic material s and device in dustrie s a re crea ting new h or izon s for well tra in e d chemical engineers with spec ializ at ion in so lid s tate engineering: a working knowl edge of so li d s tate c hemi st r y, basic device phy s ics and process chemical engineering. In response to the im portanc e of contributing to so lid state e n g ine er in g education, a new co ur se h as been introduced into the c h e mical engineering c urri c ulum at t h e Univer s it y of Ca lifornia B er k e l ey. The foundations of t h e m ode rn so lid state industries d eve l oped s lowl y in the early 1900' s. Am o ng the mo st imp orta nt co nc epts was t h at of crysta l latti ce defects introduced by Frenkel in 1926. Schottk y a nd Wagner, Fowl er and ot h ers then developed the stat i s tical mechanic s of c ry s tal s to describe states of disord e r in a n ear l y perfect latti ce Wil so n also co ntribut ed to t hi s development with the band t h eory of so lid s which wa s based on quantum me c hani cs The recogni tion of the import a n ce of defects in so lid s h as ha d a profound influen ce on o u r c urr e nt under sta nd ing of man y diverse phenomena including so lid state reactions, het eroge n eo u s catalys i s, semico n ductor e l ect r o ni cs, photography a nd las er ph ys ic s The defect c hemi s tr y of so lid s i s of s u ch co ntinu ing importan ce in so lid state e ngine ering that this s ubje ct, includin g the s upp o rting basics of so lid s tat e c hemi stry were chose n for t h e basi s of the new course. The beginning of e l ectron i c dev i ce tec hn o l ogy began in ea rn est with t h e disclosure of the Schottke-barrier field-effect transistor in 1940. At 164 L ee F. D onaghey r ece i ved the B .A. deg r ee in Physics from H ar va rd Colleg e, and th e M.S. and P h D degrees in Mate r ia l s Science from Sta nford Uni ve r sity. Hi s industrial expe r ience has been in th e sem i conduc t or and m i crowave elect ron ics industries Following ii postd o cto ral appoin tm ent at th e Royal Institut e of T ec hnology Stock holm he joined the Chemical Eng inee r ing facu l ty at the Un ive rsity of California Berk e l ey in 19 70 Hi s research inte r ests ar e conce rn ed with th e syn th esis thermochemistry and process kine t ics of e lec tronic m at er ial s. that time t h e device operated at a n et power l oss, a nd it was ev id e nt that n ew exper im e nt al technologies were n eeded for ultr ap ur e s in g l e c r ysta l production a nd devic e processing. New purification proc e dure s s uch as zone refining were introduc ed, as well as techniques able to co ntr o l s urfa ce defects. The new approac h es ultimately c limax ed in power ga in with the B ardee n-Bra t tain point co nta ct tran s i stor in 1947. Since that t ime adva nc e m e nt s in process technolog y of so lid state devices h ave appeared at an ever accelerat ing rate. In rece nt years, planar processing, lar ge sca le int eg ration and s ingl e c r ysta l film process in g hav e expa nded th e techniques a nd n eeded ex pertise of th e process e ngin eer. The bas i s for und ersta ndin g these development s in proces s tec hnolo gy, and techniques for appl y in g them in c urr e n t applications form the l atter part of t h e n ew course. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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C OURSE OB J E CTIVES T HE MAIN P U RPOSE of t hi s co ur se t h e n i s to provide st ud e nt s w ith a n intr od u ct i o n to and workin g knowled ge of (a) t h e c h e mi stry of t h e so lid sta t e, (b) theory and practice of s in g l e crys tal growt h and ( c) proces s ope r a tion s a nd technologie s for so lid s tat e device fabrication. An important theme is that t he attainable physical properties of e le c troni c, m ag n et i c a n d op tical mat er ial s are often limit ed by process-induced de fect and as a co n seq u e n ce, fabrication processe s mu st be d es ign e d to c ontrol mat e ri a l s propertie s so as to opt imiz e the performance o f the final device. The st u de nt acquires a n under sta nding of the m e tho ds for co ntrol of e le ctrica ll y, ma g n e ticall y and optically active defects and ga in s in s i g ht into t h e e ffect of processing variables o n m a teri a l s a nd defect-related device properties. Th e course i s a c h e mi ca l e n g in ee ring e l ect iv e designed for se nior a nd fir st yea r grad u ate st d e nt s of chemical engineering who are interested in a materi a l s e n g in eer in g option. N e vertheless, this o ne-quarter co ur se h as attracted s tud e nt s from departments of e l ec tri ca l e n g in ee ring c hemistr y a nd materi a l s sc ien ce A prerequisite for enrollment i s a basic course in mat eria l s sc ience or materials e ngineerin g; most of t h e c hemical e n g in eer in g se ni ors at Berkeley, a nd man y entering g raduat e st ud e nt s h ave co mpl eted this prerequisite. In add ition some c h e mic al e n g ineerin g st udent s concurrently e nr o ll in a n e l ect rical e n g in ee rin g co u rse in Ele ct r o ni c C i r c uit s d es i g n ed speci fi ca ll y for non-maj ors. Th e n ew co ur se co mplement s severa l e le c tronic material s and related c urri c ula within t h e univ e r s it y. The c h e mi ca l e n g in eer ing co ur ses in Mass Tran s fer, Transport Phenomena a nd C hemi c al Processing of In orga ni c Co mp o un ds co ordinate with the sec ti o n s o n c r ysta l grow th c h e mical vapor deposition, ox idati o n a nd d iffu s ion. The co urs e treatment of s ili con i s e xt e nd ed in the e lectric a l e n g ineerin g co ur ses Processing a nd De s i g n of Int eg rated Circ uit s, a nd Semicon ductor Devi ces; also, the treatment of point defect thermodynamics provides a basis for adva n ced physical property st udie s o ff ered in Ph ys i cs a nd C h e mi stry of Semiconductor s. Two co mplemen tary co ur ses in physical propertie s are offe red in m a terial s s cience: Thermal and Optical Proper ti es of Materials a nd Ele c trical a nd Magnetic Properties of Materials. Nevertheless, the treat ment of th e defect c h e mi stry of so lid s a nd re l aFALL 1974 Table I. OUTLINE OF COURSE ON E LE C TRO N I C MATERIALS Ref. l. Introdu ct ion: So lidState Engineering ; l 2 Materials and Devices; Process Technologies. 2. C rystal C hemi st r y : C ry st al S tructure s l, 3-5 and Bondin g; Energetics of Defect s; Poin t Defect Equilibria; La ser C ry sta l C hemistry. 3. Electronic Defect S tructure: Equilibria 1, 3, 4 with Impurities; T ran s por t Properties and Lattice Defect s 1. U ltra1rnrifi ca tion: Purification Sc heme s; 6, 7, 8 Halid e Trans11ort; Zone Refinin g 5. C ry sta l G rowth: Use of Pha se Equi1 9 10 libria ; C zochralski Cryst al G rowth ; G rowth from S olution. 6. C hemical V a11or De11osition: Kinetic 11, 12 M e c hani s m s; C hemi ca l Transport; Vapor Pha se Epitaxy o f S ilicon and Ga llium A se nide-Pho s phide 7. Proce ssi ng of S ilicon De vi ces : Photoresist 2, 11 T ec hnolo gy; C h e mi ca l Etching; Oxidation; Diffusion. 8. Discrete Co mponent Processing: MOS 11, 13 Technologies; Pa c kagin g. 9. Electro-011tical Device Proc ess in g: 1 4, 15 S olar C ells; Light-Emitting Diodes; Hetero st ructur e Devices. 10 Magnetic Device Processing: Magnetic 16, 17 Thin F ilm s; Ga rnet Film Memories. The main purpose of t he course is 1 0 prov ide a wor king kno w ledge of solid-state c he m i st ry theor y and practice of s ingle crysta l g ro w th and process operations and iechno log y for sol id state device fabrication. tion to c h em i cal phenomena in so lid state material s a nd devic e process in g remain s uniqu e to t h e n ew co u rse. C OUR S E CONTENT THE TEN TOPICAL sections s ho wn in Table I co mpri se the co ur se co nt e nt. The st udent is introdu ced to t h e field of so lid state e n g ineerin g a nd s hown h ow m ater i a l s purification, crysta l grov th and se l ect processing steps influen ce the performance of so lid sta te d ev i ces Sing l e c r ysta l s a nd wo rkin g devices se rve as in-class e xamples: 3 dia. germa nium crysta l s, ultra-high purity co mp ou nd c rystals a nd s ili co n memory c hip s, li g htem ittin g diod es a nd magnetic t hin film m e m or i es in different stages of fab ri cat i on. 165

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The fundamentals of crystal chem i st r y are e xplor ed in the n ext sect ion beginning with a review of Brav a i s l attices and bo ndin g Magnetic and ferroelectric crysta l st ru cture are e xamin ed from a n i o nce nt e r ed approac h w hil e opt i ca l se micondu cti n g a nd s u perco ndu ct in g crysta l s are e xamin ed in te rm s of bonding a nd band str uctur e. Defect s in so lid s are introduced, and m ass actio n r e la t i o n s betwee n point defects so lv ed by m atr ix meth ods to obta in defect eq uilibria. Factors in fluencing s ub st ituti o n a l i o n so lubiliti es in la ser c ry s tal s are explored. D ef ect eq uilibria between electronic defects a nd impuriti es are then in troduced a nd related to e l ectro ni c transport pro perties. Section four presents ultr a purification schemes for elements and co mp o und s Th e se l ec ted r e moval o f electrically active impuriti es i s e mpha s ized. Two purification processes are e xamin e d in de tail: halid e transport purification a nd zone re fining using a case st ud y approach for s ili co n and group III -V co mpound s Crysta l g rowth fundamentals are presented in Section five, where phase eq uilibrium require ment s a nd nonsto i c hi o m etry co n seq u e n ces are e xplor ed for different g r owt h m et hods Interfac e attachment kinetic s and defect d e n s itie s a r e r e lated to c r ysta llizati o n driving forces for diff ere nt g rowth me c hani s m s Czoc hr a l s ki crysta l growt h of s ili co n a nd III-V co mp o und s a nd so lution are e xpl ored. An illu st r a tiv e prob l e m treated is described in Homework Exampl e 2. Section seve n i s devoted to unit processes for so lid state device fabr ication F or seve ral process es, c h e mi ca l etc hin g, ox id at i o n a nd diffusion, t her e ex i sts a wealth of lit erat ur e, a nd eas il y identified rate dependence o n latti ce defects. Co n seq u e ntl y, t h ese processes serve to exe mplif y the influence process variables h ave o n physical properties of so lid state mat e ri a l s. In Sections e i g ht through ten, process tech nolo g ie s of selected devices are presented: bipolar and m eta l-oxid e s ili co n (MOS) transistors, so lar ce ll s and li ght-emitt ing diodes and m ag n et i c thin film m emor i es. For eac h, the seque n ce of process operat i o n s i s id e ntifi ed and the process co ndition s and critical prop ert ie s are o utlined The unit pro cesses examined earlier in the co urse are drawn on as a basis for this sec tion In home work problem s the proces s in g co ndition s n ee ded t o achieve a fin a l device of g iv e n c haract er i st ic s are so ught in t er m s of rate processes and process alternatives. D e mon strat i o n s s upplement t h e l ect ur e a nd r ead in g m a t e rial a nd provide c l oser co ntact with indu s trial processes.,:, Czoc hral s ki crysta l grow th is demon st rated, a nd melt convection s imulated. C h e mical vapor deposition i s demonstrated with a gra du ate research reactor. The c urrent-v o ltag e c har acter i st i cs of e l ectro ni c devices a r e demonThe rapidly evolving tech nological requirements of 'i"he highly c ompetitive electronic materials and device i ndustries are creating new horizons for well-trained chemical engineers with specialization in solid state engineering: a working knowledge of solid state c hemistr y, basic device physics and process ChE growth of ga rn ets are treated as exte nded examples. Int erest in g intera ct ion s are exp lor ed between crystal g rowth phenom e na a nd lattic e defect s which influenc e both impurit y so lubilit y and growth rates. A typical problem i s s hown in Homework Example 1. R eactor design a nd chemical reaction pro c es ses of c h e mical vapor deposition a r e presented in S ec ti o n s ix beginning with a discussion of kineti c m ec h a ni s m s and rate co ntr o l regimes. C lo sed system c h em i cal tra n sport c r ysta l growth fund a mental s a r e exp lor ed Fin a ll y, com m erc i a l reactor s, c hemi cal reactions a nd growt h co ndi tions for s ili co n a nd ga llium a r se nid e -ph osp hid e 166 st rat ed with a se mi co ndu ctor c urv e tracer. A term paper was an int eg ral part of t h e co ur se during the first two years of dev e lopment. Thi s project serve d to integrat e the co ur se ma terial with a spec ific topic of interest to eac h st ud e nt. The co ndition s and deadlines for t hi s assignment were presented at the beginning of the co ur se, with a topic approved a nd abstract written by mid q u arte r. The m ost s u ccess ful top i cs c h ose n are li sted in T ab l e II. In t h e last Support e d in part by th e U Atomic Energy Com mi ss i on through t h e In organic M ateria l s Research Divis i o11 o f t h e Law r ence Berkeley Laboratory. CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Table 11. TERM P \PER TOPIC~ MOS Processing Te1:hniques. Ion Implantation Technique s for t he Manufacture of New Semiconductor Devices. He1:ent InnoYation s in Zone Helining. l'hotoresist Properties and Use in Semiconductor Proce:ssing 01iera t ion;;. Light Emitti n g JJiode Proce ss in g. Laser C rystals: Ho11 the~ work ;iml Some Pn flaratiYe ~Iethod s. Modification of Solvent Co m J>O sitio n s for Liquid Phase Epitaxial (~rowth of Magnetic 'l'hin F'ilm Ga rnet s. ,vear, this assignment was omitted tu allow g-r ea er dev e l opment of d e vi ce pro cess tech nologi e::; with illu st rativ e, e xt e nd e d h o m e w o rk assign m e nt s Th e r e ex ist no comprehensive text able tu cover the broad s ubje ct matt e r treated in th e co urse. Co n se quently an extensive set of cour se note s i s provided. The book Solid-State C hemistry b y Hanna y ha s s erved as an intr od uctor y text with readingass i gnments drawn from th e r efe ren ce li s t. Slide s ar e us e d as a part of man y l ect ur es t o prese nt examples from the reacting. Althou g h th e course mat e rial appears e xten s iv e, experience ha s s hown that w e ll dire c ted hom wo r k and r e ading as s ignments enab l e the co sc ientiou s s tudent to handl e the material without diffi c ult y SUMMARY J N THE THREE YEARS clurin: which t his co urs e ha s been given th e e mpha s i s ha s e panded from the fundam e ntal s of so lid state chemistry and control of e l ect rically active defects toward a fuller explication of unit proces s e s and t ec hn o l ogies for current]~ imp o rt a nt electronic d e vice s such a s bipolar and MOS integrated cir c uits, li ght emitt in g d e vic es, and "bubble domain magnetic memorie s. Wh e r eas the former e mphasi s i s more important for m a t e rials e ngi neer s, thi s s ubject causes chemical e ngin ee r s t h e most clifficulty. The e xploration o f ba s ic processe::; such as c r ys tal growth oxiclat i on ancl diffusion provid es s tudents with a better und e rstanding of the e ff ect of proce ss var i ables on defect -r e lated ph ys ical prnperties. Cove ra ge of the proces s technologies for specific solid s tate d ev ic es t e nds t o kindle the most inter est a nd i s m o r e important for preparing c h e mi c al e ngin ee r s for rol es in solid state industri es Many a lumni o f t hi s course have FALL 197 4 alr ea dy laun c h e d s u ccess ful ca r ee r s in lo c al e l ect ronic s and so lid s tat e mat e rial s industrie s, wh e r e th e demand for the c h e mi c al e ngin ee r with sp ec ializ e d s kill s in mat e rials i s in c r eas ing. D HOMEWORK EXAMPLE 1 : Neodemium Distribution in Czochralski Grown CaWO Th e addition of Na 0 O to t h e melt s ignificantl y aff ects t h e so lubilit y of N d '; ions in CaWO, t hrou g h c harg e co mp e n s~1 ti o n with Na + ions. In t hi s problem the di st ributi o n of Nd "+ along a Ca WO c r ys tal grown by the Czoc hral s ki m et hod is to u e calcu l ated fr o m di st ributi o n coe ffi c ient : for Nd and Na and from properties o f th e diffu sion b o undary l a,ver at the c r_v sta llizing inter face. The in s tantaneous ion co nc e ntrations in the c r ys tal are calcu l ated b y so l ving ma ss action rela tions for S c hottk y d efec t formation, N cl substitu tion on a C a s it e with Ca vacancy formation, Na s ub s titution on a Ca s it e with formation of an o x yge n vacancy, ancl th e time-dependent Na O and NctO ,, co n ce ntrati o n s in the m e lt. Thi s prob l e m clemonstra t es the interd epe nd e nc e of d e fect ma ss action r e lation s hips with c r ys tal growth co nditi o n s. HOMEWORK EXAMPLE 2: Chemical Vapor Deposition of GaAS x P Phase eq uilibrium temperatures and deposi tion rates are e xpl o r e d within a barrel reactor in which ga llium arsenide-phosphide so lid so lu t i o n s a r e dep os it e d from Ga C I As P, and H C l source vapors transposed by H 0 The vapor-solid re ac tion equi libri a ar e so lv ed s imultaneously to d ed u ce the equilibrium t e mp e ratur e and solid so lution co mposition for the ove rall react i on. Side r eact ion s are omitt ed in this si mplifi ed analysis. Th e depo s ition rates at l o w e r temperatures are det e rmin e d b y so lvin g the set of co mponent molar flux equations for a film boundary la ye r. This probl e m provides u se ful c rit e ri a for under s tand in g co mm e rcial r eac t ors fo r e l ect ro-optical film d epos ition REFERENCES I N .B. Hannay, Suli r/-.'ill/lt Ch w ini i; /;ru Prentice-Hal l. Inc ., Engl e w oo d C liff ~, N J ., J!)G7. ~ I> Hak e r D. C. Ko e hl e r \\I 0. F l e 1: k enste in C E. 1 1o d e n a nd R. Sab ia Pl1y sic l/l JJe r< ign of El ectronic S y.,t e ms Y o l. 3 l nl e (lml e cl D c ric e ancl Co nn ection (Co ntinu ed on 1ia ge l!IH. ) 167

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MULTIV ARIABLE CONTROL AND ESTIMATION THOMAS F. EDGAR University of T exas Austi n, Te xcis 78712 I N THE 1970 Graduate Education Issue of Chemicnl E ngineerin g Education, Lowell Koppel l amented that advanced control techniques had not been considered to be practical or effec tive in spite of the significant number of engineers with graduate level training in process control. Today however, it appears that there is a real opport u nity for advanced contro l techniques to have a significant impact on the practice of pro cess contro l in the chemical industry Concomit antly, graduate education in control theory can contribute to the emergence of the new control methods. Let us examine the current situation in more detail. First, the dedicated process computer has been made a rea l ity via the deve l opment of inex pensive process control software and hardware. Second, some of the ideas which have received theoretica l attention in the control literature have now been subjected to experimental verification. For examp l e, the increase in effectiveness of mu l tivariab l e control, where the controller is fed information from a ll outputs, over single loop contro l (single measurement feedback) has been cle a r l y demonstrated by several investigators' Third, increased energy costs have caused super visory personnel to re-examine the economic t ra de-off between energy consumption and pro duct specifications, both for steady state and dynamic operation. F o urth the use of the com puter for data a cq uisition 2-nd supervisory con trol as well as in single loop DDC has been ac cepted in the process industries-a development which c l ears the way for further advances in s ophistication. Given the cunent industrial situation, ho, v does one attempt to structure the graduate c ur ricu I um in control so that it will present the im portant concepts but also eventually have some impact on control practice ? There are a num ber of re l evant facts to co nsider here: 168 Today there are fewer g raduate st udent s s pecializing in pro cess co ntrol most of them M S. candidates with relatively s hort holdup times. This situation together with faculty logistics usually permit the offering of only one graduate co ntrol course. A chemical engineering graduate course in contro l should not and need not dup l icate other engineering control co urse s It should emphasize theory and application indigenous to the c hemi ca l process industry. Since a classical co ntrol co ur se based on frequency domain analysis is traditionally taught undergraduates, the graduate co urse should interface with that background. In order to communicate with a practicing co trol engineer, the graduate must be able to speak in terms of transfer functions and PID controllers Unfortunately these subjects have not been addressed in most advanced co ntrol theory books based on t ime domain analysis. Tom Edgar is an assistant professor at Th e University of Texas at A ustin H e came to T exas from Princeton University ( Ph D 1971 ) whe re he specialized in control theory and co ll ision and trajectory analysis the latter two topics mainly applied to in t ercol legiat e competition i n rugby and vo lleyball. His B.S degree is from the University of Kans a s, and he has worked as a process e ngineer for Continental Oil Company At Te xas he is engaged in teaching and r esea rch in the fields of multiva r iable control optimization process mode li ng and e nergy systems C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATIO

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Experimental computer control facilities if avai l ab le should be integrated into the con trol course. This is the surest way to lend credibility to advanced control concepts. The 1970 survey of universities by the CACHE Real-Time Task Force has shown that nearly fifty c hemical engineering departments had acquired or were planning to acquire com puters for use in their laboratories. COURSE PEDAGOGY GIVEN THE ABOVE considerations, the graduate offering in modern c ontrol theory at the University of Texas has evolved into a c ourse on multivariable control and estimation. The course emphasizes the development of con trol strategies based on state variable models but not necessa r ily limited to the use of optimization theory. The concepts of transfer functions, both continuous and discrete, are introduced, and the design of feedback control laws for sing l e input sing le output systems is shown to be a subprob lem of the multiple input-multiple output design problem. The majority of the course material is based on linear (ized) systems, for which many useful mathematical results have been developed. Coverage of basic mathematical concepts, es pecially those of static optimization and matrix techniques, is minimized in the interests of time. Variations in the mathematical background of the students can be rather wide, but it has been found that most students will accept the scale-up of a two dimensional example to a matrix expres sion By later studying a higher order example, they do obtain an appreciation for the power of matrix notation. An important ingredient of the course is the providing of experience via computer simulation and real-time computer control experimentation. The experiments require knowledge of computer programming (Fortran, Basic) ; however, the student does not need to learn details on instru mentation or computer hardware although that option is available. As part of a large project on computer based education at the University of Texas, modulariz ing of certain portions of the course has been at tempted to s trengthen the learning process, with good success. A module consists of explanatory material (both theory and application) on a s pecific topic in which the student behav ioral ob jectives or goa l are c learly defined by the inFALL 1974 structor. The student then proceeds to inde pendently learn the concepts via conjunctive use of textbooks and material written by the instruc tor. Study questions are used to reinforce the understanding of the module. By formulating the module as a project with many options and alter natives and requiring the student or group of students to write a report on their resu lts the students' creativity in thought and expression is stim ul ated. This procedure along with several examinations indicate whether the student has modularization of certain portions of the course has been attempted t o streng then t he learning process, with good s ucces s ... student eval uation has s hown that this definitely enhances the quality of the course. attained the desired behavioral objectives. If the students do not learn the specific concepts, then the module should be altered so that they do. Modules also provide additional experience in independent study; the capacity for self -stud y i s a va luabl e trait for c ontinued professional deve lopm ent Student evaluation of the module approach has shown that it definitely enhances the qua lit y of the course The mathematics of modern c on trol theory are rather difficult to master, and supp lementar y information as well as study q ue s tions on the various subjects prove to be helpful. The modules can somet ime s stand in place of a lecture; less than twenty percent of my lectures have been displaced by this medium. In those cases the lecture time is used for informal dis cussion of the concept or experiment under study. The transferability of a module to another school is another important consideration, and great care has been exercised to design the modules so that they could be implemented else where. COURSE CONTENT A GENERAL OUTLINE of the course is given in Table I. A heavy emphasis is placed on linear system theory, both for control and estimation, since these topics have a much higher probability of near-term a pplication in t h e chemical indu s tr y. 169

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Table I COURSE OUTLINE I. Review of Static Optimization II. State Representation of Dynamic Systems A. State Equations B. Eigenvalues, Modal Analysis, Modal Control C. Co ntrollabilit y, Observability III. Dynamic Optimization-Cont inu ous Time A. The Variational Approach B. The Linear Q uadratic Problem (LQP) C Co n strai ned Co ntrol, Minimum Time Co ntrol D. Nonlinear System Co n trol IV Dynamic Optimization-Discrete 'l'i me A. State Equations B. Discrete Dynamic Programming-LQP V. State and Parameter Estimation A Observer Theory B. Kalman Filtering C. Nonlinear System Estimation Modules have been written on the following s ubject s: IIB : modal analysis and control IIIB : optimal multivariable control of a distilla tion column IIIC : minimum time control of linear systems ( phase plane analysis) V ; __ sequential parameter estimation in a stirred tank The parameter estimation module has been used with real-time computer data acquisition and computation, while the other modules have used simulation (digital and analog) for demonstrat ing the concepts. Equipment limitations have previously prevented the application of actual ex perimentation to the first two modules, but this problem has recently been resolved. The textbook used is Mod er n Control En gineeri n g by Maxwell N oton ; the text more or less covers the topics listed in Table I. The book The course emphasizes the development of control strate gies based on state variable models but not necessarily limited to use of optimization theory .. an important ingredient is providing experience via computer simulation and real-time computer control experimentation is interdisciplinary in its presentation, a lthough not as extensive in scope as those books used for additional study in the course 3 After a short review of static optimization usingthe book, the study pf linear continuous system dynamics is undertaken. Such subjects as eigenvalues / eigen vectors and their relationships to transient re170 sponse, canonical forms, state variable notation, multivariable Laplace transforms, the transition matrix and the modal equations 9 are presented here. At this point the student is prepared for the first application of multivariable control. Pro portional control of the states is assumed to be the most practical strategy for process regulation. It can be easily shown that the addition of feed back contro l in effect shifts the eigenvalues of the open-loop model. The proposed controller should realize a quick-responding closed -loop system where the eigenvalues have large negative real parts. Thus the so-called pole placement or modal control technique offers one multivariable con trol approach. One can adjust the elements of the feedback matrix, K, to obtain the desired c lo sed loop behav io r. This can be done intuitively, by optimization techniques, or by other meth ods 9 11 The students are cautioned, however, that the system eigenvectors can cause un predictable behavior These factors are studied in the first module. TYPICAL PROBLEM A PILOT SCALE distillation column system in the laboratory can be introduced at this junct ur e as a typical multivariable control prob lem. Since most multivariable systems are derived from phys i cal pr incipl es (black box multivariable modeling techniques are not yet well-developed), this approach is used for the column model de velopment The Huckaba model1 2 for a column with n trays and reboiler and condenser yields a set of n + 2 nonlinear ord in ary differential equa tions. The derivation is explained in detail in a st ud ent handout. This model has been experi mentally verified and thus assumes some credibili ty. By linearizing the equations, a state space model of the form, x = Ax + Bu + Cd is derived, where x, u, and d are the state, control, and disturbance vectors. This system can be used as the focus of various linear multi variable control strategies, such as the modal control technique mentioned above. The second major approach for design of multivariable controllers utilizes the the mini mum principle applied to the linear state equation with quadatic objective function, the well-known linea r quadratic problem (LQP). The basic op timal control structure for the LQP is linear feedCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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back; if the disturbance d, is non-zero, the LQP solution consists of proportional feedback plus feedforward control. Thu s the notion of feedfor ward control to anticipate the effect of the dis turbance, a concept which is now well-established in control practice (via transfer function ana l ysis), arises in optimal multivariable co trol. By proper choice of the ob jective function, One of 'the more interesting applications is the control of a fluid catalytic cracker system ... the distributed parameter version of the LQP is br i efly treated in class by discretization of the spatia l variab l e "if you don't like it, lump it. '' an optimal PID controller can be computed. For imp le systems this correlates closely with the PID controller tuned using c lassical co ntrol theory .1 3 Optimal control theory clearly demon s trates the effect of the integral model; it only makes the controller more sluggish, but its ad vantages include compensation for model errors and the smoothing of the control action. The computation of multivariable control via the LQP is rather straightforward, and there are "canned" computer programs available for con troller design Such a program, VASP 1 (Variable Dimension Automatic Synthesis Program), links available Fortran subroutines (e. g., integration of Riccati equation, formation of transition matrix, etc.) and requires a minimum of pro gramming effort, thus permitting the s tudent to concentrate on the i nterpretation of his results. In the second module the student applies the LQP computation to the distillation column model. The artic l es on optima l feedforward / feedback c ontrol by Hu and Ramirez and Newell et al.' serve as good supplementary paper s. THEORY VERSATILITY E XTENSIONS AND APPLICATIONS of the LQP are also dis c ussed. The recent survey article by Edgar et al. 1 G has reviewed the versatili ty of LQP theory and its applications; one of the more interesting applications is the control of a fluid cata l ytic cracker system.' ; The distributed parameter version of the LQP is briefly treated in class by discretization of the spatial variable ("if you don't like it, lump it"). The discrete FALL 1974 ve rsion of the LQP is so lved using discrete dy namic programming, which permits the discus s ion of Bellman' s principle of optimality. The discrete LQP is discussed in con junction with digital control, and the conversion from con tinuous time to discrete time and the definition of discrete state variab l es are cove red here. In the third module the subject of co ntinuous time dynamic optimization is co ntinued with dis cuss ion s of the linear minimum time problem and var ious algorithms for solving it. Phase plane analysis is an important tool for understanding co ntrol synthesis, and real-time simulation of the phase plane on an analog co mputer readily shows how difficult it is to perform minimum time c on trol. While minimum time co ntrol is open loop contro l it does exhibit a multivariable feedback nature in that a switching function based on the adjoint var iables is defined via the minimum principle. The final section of the co urse is state and parameter estimation. This area is relatively difficult for the student because of the need to u se probability theory. For no noise in the sys tem, the Lu en berger observer is used; for noisy systems, the Kalman filtering algorithm must be introdu ced In order to show how a simple se quential linear least squa re s algorithm is de ve l oped (vs. a non-sequential algorithm), the fourth module utilizes an exper iment where the co mputer sequentially estimates a single para meter in a linear discrete-time equation. This eq uation is derived from a n energy balance de scribing heat transfer in a stirred tank. The theory follows the presentation of Young. 1 8 This experiment demonstrates many of the conver gence features of sequential estimators while in c luding real-life features such as process and measurement noise as well as modeling errors. It is simple enough ( one unknown parameter, first order o. d. e.) that the student can interpret the experimental and computational results. The dis crete -time filter is then extended to continuous time systems; the analogy to the LQP is pointed out. The experimental testing of state estimation by Hamilton et al. ,u at the University of Alberta is a good applications paper for this section Due to a la ck of time, the course does not cover topics such as Lyapunov functions (particu larly as applied to s uboptimal control and model referen ce adaptive control), non-interacting co trol, or multivariable frequency response design. (Co ntinued on page 199.) 171

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CHEMISTRY OF CATALYTIC PROCESSES B. C. GATES, J. R. KATZER, J. H. OLSON, and G. C. A. SCHUIT Uni v ersity of D e lci i vci re Newark, D ela,ware 19711 M OST INDUSTRIAL REACTIONS are catalytic, and many prncess improvements result from discovery of better chemical routes, usually involving new catalysts. Because catalysis plays a central role in chemical engineering practice, it is strongly represented in c hemical engineering teaching and research at Delaware. A graduate course entitled "Chemistry of Catalytic Processes" is designed to present a cross section of applied catalysis within the framework of detailed c on sideration of important industrial processes. The course brings together the subjects of chemical bonding, organic reaction mechanism, s olid state inorganic chemistry, c hemical kinetics, and re actor design and analysis. There i s no strnnger evidence of the value of inte grat ing c hemistry and chemical engineering than the industrial successes in cat alytic processing. Five classes of industrial processes are c on sidered in s equence: catalytic c racking, catalysis by transition metal c omplexes, reforming, partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and hydrodesulfuriza tion. Each class i s introduced with a description of the processes, which is follovved by details of the catalytic chemistry and process analysis a nd reactor design To the extent that each subject allows, ties are drawn between the reaction chemistry and process design. For example, the new zeolite cracking catalysts are used primarily because they have h i gh selectivity for gasoline production but they also have s uch high activity co mpared to the earlier generation of silica-alumina c atalysts that they must be used diluted in a s ili ca -alumina matrix to prevent overcracking. Thei r application has required redesign of cata lyti c crackers to ac c ommodate rapid reaction predominantly in the riser tube (located upstream of what was former ly the fluidized-bed reactor) ; redesign must also accommodate a changed energy balance resulting 172 from the redu c ed c oke formation on zeolite catalysts and must promote more complete coke removal in regeneration. The reactor design may based on a simp l ified series parallel reaction net work, on the assumption of a small deviations from piston flow in the riser, and on a balance between the energy required for the endothermic c ra c king reactions and the energy produced in c oke burn-off from catalyst particles in the re generator. T here is no stronger evidence of the value of integrating chemis t ry and chemical enginee ri ng than the industrial success in cat al ytic process i ng. T h e 1 1roces s e s are i n tro du ced i n a n order lead in g ro u g hl y fro m t h e s i m pl est to t h e m o st complex chemical co n ce p ts an d fro m t h e b est u nd erstoo d to the least well und erstoo d catalytic c h e mi stry (Table 1). Cracki n g i s the fi r st s u bject p rece n ted because t h e zeolite catalysts h ave kn ow n c r ysta llin e st ru ct u res a nd re l ative l y we ll d efi n e d ac id ce n te r s; t h e crack in g react i o n s procee d v i a car b o nium io n i n te rm e d iates, givi n g we ll c h a r acterize d pro du ct d i t ri b u tio n s The seco nd s ub ject catalys i s by tra n sitio n m eta l co m p l exes a l so i n vo l ves well defi n ed species and i s un ifie d by t h e id ea of t h e cis-i n sertion mechanism, w h ic h is di sc u sse d o n t h e bas i s of liga nd field t h eory and exe m 11 li fied i n detail by Zieg l er-Natta 1>0ly m erizatio n Reforming introduces metal catalysis, the c on ce pt of bifunctional reaction mechanism and ties with acid catalysis. Theory of meta l cata l ysis is incomplete although s olid-state theory and molecular orbital calculations on small metal clusters pro vi de insight; a tie still remains to be drawn between ca talysis by metal complexes and ca talysi s by c lusters of metal atoms. The c on cluding topics of partial oxidation and hydrode s ulfurization involve so lid state and surface c hemistry of tran s ition metal oxide and s ulfid e cata l ysts; there is a thorough understanding of a few oxidation catalysts (for examp l e, bismuth mo l ybdate cata l yzing ammoxidation of propy lene) but for the mo s t part the c hemistry i s not CH EMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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well understood, and the ties between the chemistry and the process design cannot be well developed. COHERENCE VIA CHEMICAL CONCEPT S THE COHERENCE o f the c ourse is provided by the chemical rather than by the e ngineer ing concepts, and the latter are interwoven as dictated by their practical value to the various processes. For example, interphase mass transfer is considered in analysis and design of the gas liquid reactors used in the oxo, Wacker, and vinyl acetate processes, which involve homogeneous c atalysis by transition metal complexes. Mass transport in catalyst pore s is important in hydro desulfurization (affecting rates of the desired re actions and rates of reactions giving pore-blocking deposits) ; the unique phenomena of mass trans port in the molecular-scale intracrystalline pores of zeolites are introduced with catalytic cracking and form the basis for an introduction to s hape selective catalysis. Analysis of reactor and c atalyst particle stability is c entral to the dis c ussion of catalytic oxidation processes for which ca talysts are selected and reactors de s igned to give high y ields of valuable partial o xidation products and low yields of CO 2 Instrumental methods of analysis ess ential to c atalyst characterization are introduced as the y are appropriate to the process, giving a represen tation of the breadth of their usefulnes s. For example, chemisorption measurements, electron microscopy and x-ray line broadening to deter mine metal surface areas and crystallite sizes are introduced in discussion of catalytic r eforming which involves supported-metal bifunctional c atalysts Infrared spectroscopy is u s eful for probing the detailed structures of transition metal complexes (for example, the rhodium c omplexe s used as oxo catalysts) and for indicating the s tru c tures of acidic centers on zeolite s u r faces Ele c tron spin resonance and magnetization s tudie s have provided essential information about o xida tion and hydrodesulfurization c atalysts co ntain ing transition metal ion s. The course i s an attempted sy nthesi s of c hemistry and chemical engineering ; the sy nthesi s is traditional in practice, but not in teaching, and there is a lack of appropriate s econdar y literature so urces. C onsequentl y we have prepared a thorough s e t of typewritten notes (portions of which ha ve b een published as review article s FALL 1974 (1, 2 )). Th e notes are based lar gely on primary literature, a nd si n ce t he lit erature of industria l processes does not g i ve a good representat ion of c urrent pra c ti ce, the interpretations may some times be out-of-date and erroneo u s Many improvement s in the co ur se have re s ulted from c riti c i s ms g i ve n by practitioners, and w e have attempted to include st ud ents from in dustry in classes wit h first-and-second-year gradu ate students. The co ur se has been o ff ered in the 4 : 3 0 to 6 :00 P M. time period w hi c h is co n ven ient to man y potential s tud e nt s w ho are e mpl oyed nearby. Respon se ha s been favorab l e e nou g h t h at the course is a l so o ff ered year l y as a one-wee k short co urse Tho se a ttend ing have been pre dominantl y indu st rial c h e mi ca l engineers and c hemi s t s (in about eq ual numbers), some trave in g from as far as the west co ast and Europe. [J REFERENCES 1. Sc hui t, G C A., "Cata l yt i c Ox i dation over Inor ga n ic Oxid es as Cata l ysts," Memoir es cle Zn Societe Royal e d es Sci e nc es d e Li e g e, Sfrci eme S e1 ie, T om I 227, 1971. 2. Sc hui t, G. C A., and Gates, B. C "C h e mi s try a nd Engin ee rin g of Cata l ytic H y dr odes ulfu1iz at i o n ," A T C hE Jm wrw l 1 !I, 417 ( 19 73 ). TA B LE. 1 Course Outline I. ZEOLITECA T A LYZED C R AC KIN G AND RELATED PRO C ESSES A. Proces ses 1. C atalyti c C racking a. Process Co ndition s b. Reactor Operation c Re g enerator Operation 2. Hydrocackin g and l s omerization B. Reaction s and C hemi st r y 1. C hemical Bond Theory a. At omi c Orbitals and E ner gy Level s b Molecular Orbital s i. Linear C ombination s of Ato mic Orbitals ii Symmetry As pect s iii. The S ecular Determinan t c. Multiple At om Syste m s i. Hybri d i zat ion Theory i i. Electron-Deficient Delocalized Molecular Bond s 2. C arbonium Ion s a. Electron Deficiency Propertie s b. C la ss ical and Non-Classical C arbonium Ions c Rea c tivity and C haracteri s ti c Reaction s 3. C rackin g Reaction s a. Thermal Crac king b. A cidC atalyzed C ra c kin g C Ca tal ysts 1. A morphou s C atal ys t s a Preparation b Structure and S urfac e C hemi st ry c. Ac idit y: Measurement and C orrela t i1:m 1 7 3

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George Schuit received his Ph.D. from Leiden and worked a t the Royal Dutch Shell Laboratory in Amsterdam before becoming Prof essor of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Technology, Eindhoven Th e Netherlands His research interests are primarily in solid state inorganic chemistry and catalysis and his recent publica tions are concerned with hydrodesulfurization and selective oxida tion of hydrocarbons He has been on organizing comm itt ees for the Roermond Conferences and the Third International Congress on Catalysis i s a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Catalysis. In 1972 he' was National Lectur er of the Catalysis Society and Unidel Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Delaware; he now holds joint appointments at Eindhoven and Delaware. Jon Olson obtained a Doctor of Engineering degree at Yale and worked for E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company before joining the faculty at Delaware With wide ranging interests i n 2. Crystalline (Zeolite) Cata lyst s a. Structure and Surface Chemistry i. Primary and Secondary Structural Units ii. Type Y Zeolite iii. Mordenite b. Acidity i. Chemical Probes ii. Instrumental Probes iii. Explanation from Structural Considera tions iv. Active Sites and Activity C orrelation s D. Reaction Mechanisms 1. Reaction C hemistry Related to Surface Structure a. Amorphous Catalysts b. Zeolite Cata l ysts 2. Hydrogen-Transfer Activity of Zeolites 3. Activity and Selectivity C omparison of Zeolites and Amorphous C atalyst s 4. Reaction Network and Deactivation: Quantitative Models E. Influence of C atalytic C hemistr y and Mass Trans port on C hoice of Processing Co nditions 1. Superactivity of Zeolites 2. Mass Transport Effects in Zeolites; Shape Selective Cata lysis 3. Effect of Zeolite C racking Chemistry on Reactor and Regenerator Design F. Quantitative Reactor Design 1. Riser-Tube Cracker Design 2. Regenerator Design II. CATALYSIS BY TRANSITION : METAL COMPLEXES A. Processes 1. Wacker Process a. Reactions, Product Distribution, and Kinetics b. Processing Co ndition s c. Reactor Design 2. Vinyl Acetate Synthesis 3. Oxo Process (Hydrofotmylation) 4. Methanol Ca rbonylation to Acetic Ac id 5. Ziegler-Natta Polymerization: Transition from Homogeneous to Heterog erteous Catalys i s 8. C hemical Bond Theory 1. Ligand Fieid Theory 2. CT and 7r-Bonding in Com plexe s 174 chemical engineering he has recently done research conc:ernil')g analysis of fixed bed catalytic reactors, fouling of chromi;, / alumina catalysts partial oxidation and automotive emissi ons contr ol. Jim Katzer received a Ph.D in Chemical Engineering from MIT and has been at Delaware since 1969. His primary researeh in1erests are catalytic chemistry and mass 1ransport in catalysts. His recent work has e mphasized applications of catalysis to pollution abate ment, particularly catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, supported metal catalysis, catalyst poisoning mechanisms, and transport and reaction in zeolites Bru ce Gates received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington He did postdoctoral research with a Fulbright grant at the University of Munich and worked for Chevron Research Company before j oin ing th e Delaware faculty in 1969. His current research concerns hydrodesulfurization catalysis by transition metal comp le xes and design and evaluation of synthetic polymer catalysts C. C ataly sts 1. Wacker-Pd Chloride 2. Hydroformylation-Co and Rh Car bonyl s 3. Carbonylation-Rh-Phosphine Complexes 4. Ziegler-Natta Polymerization-Transition Metal Chlorides and Metal Alkyl D. Reaction Mechanisms 1. The General Cis-Insertion Mechanism a. Experimental Evidence b. Molecular Orbital Explanation 2. Detailed Mechanisms of Particular Reaction s a. Ethylene Oxidation b. Hydroformylation c. Ca rbonylation d. S tereospecific J_"olymedzation E. Quantitative Process Design 1. Design of Gas-Liquid Reactors; Mass Transfer Influence 2. Preparation and Characterization of Solid Catalysts a_. Transition Metal Complexes Bound to Inorg 0 anic Surfaces b. Complexes Bound to Organic Matrices HI. CATALYTIC REFORMING A. Process 1. Principal Chemical Reactions 2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics 3. Supported Metal Catalysts 4. Process C onditions and Reactor De sign 8. Jleactions and Chemistry 1. Mechanisms of Metal Catalyzed Reactions a. Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation and H-D Exchange b. Isomerizatfon and Hydrogenolysis c. Cy clization d. Aromatization 2. C hemical Bond TJ.i,~ory a. <:, and 7r-Bonds ': b 1 Deloci1lized Bol\ds 'C. :'Bands t in Metals : d. d or bitat C ontribution t!) Transition Metal B~nd s ,,_ 3. Met~J Catalysis '' 9 a. Electrons and Metal Borid Strength b. Electrons and Adsorption on Metals CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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r. Theoretical C alculation,; of Electronic Pro1>ertie s and S urface Bond Strength d. C atalytic Act ivity : S urfa ce C om1>otmd C orr e lation s e. A lloy s i. Miscibility G ap s and S urfa ce C onl]Jo s ition ii. C atalytic Ac tiYit y: Lig and and Ge ometri c E ffect s C. Dual-Fun ct ional S upport ed J\' [etal C ataly s t s (P t/ Al,0 ) I. Th e Metal Pra c tica I C on s ideration s a !'reparation and C haracterization b. E ffect s of C ry s tallit e S ize on Ac tivity c. S intering and Poi so nin g d \llo ys 2. Th e A lumina Support a. l're1rnration and Properti es h. St ru ct ure t Development and C ontrol of .Ac idity D Reaction Net work s and Rea ct ion Mec hanism s 1. Dual-Functional Nature of C atal yst a. Reaction S t e p s and R e lation 10 C atalysl Functions h. S tudies with Physically Se parated Func tions Mass Transport C onsideration s c. Effect of Stq11>0rt A cidit y on Reformin1r Reaction s d. Poisons and Poisonin g St udie s 2. C yclization Rea ctio n Net.work and Reaction Me c hani s m :~. Overall Net work E. Relation of Proces s in g to C atal ytic C h e mi st r y l. Balancing the S tren g th s of the C atalyst Function s 2. Mas s Trans11ort Effect s on Se lecti v it y :~. 011timum Desig n of Dual-Functional C atalytic Syste m s I. Regeneration Procedure s Related to C ataly st Structure and S tabilit y :i. Lumping in Fixed Bed R eacto r Design for :\ Jan y Reaction s IV SELE C TIVE OXIDATION OF HYDRO CA RBON S C ATALYZED BY METAL OXIDES ..-\. Proce sses 1. Phthalic A nh y drid e a. R e action s b. Proce ss C ondition s 2. Maleic A nhydride :t Ac rolein and .Ac rylonitril e I. Ethylene Oxide B. Rea ct ion s and C h e mi st ry 1. C hemical Bond T h eory a. El e ctro s t at i c Bond s in So lid Oxide s b. C hange s in C ation Oxidation S tat e 2. A llyli c In te rmedia tes :J. Mar s -van Kre, l e n Mechanism I. Reaction Netw ork for N aphthalene Oxidation C. C atalyst s 1. C ompo s ition a nd S tructure a. V 0 0 0 and MoO -V ~ 0 h B i 0 :, -MoO :: c. Fe 0 0 3 -Mo0 ~ cl. U0 0 -Sb p ~ e. C u 0 FAL L 197 4 f. Ag 2. Oxidation Se l ectivity a C orrelation s i Ox yge n Bond St r e n !!,"t h ii. Meta l Oxi d e S trudure b. Oxyge n Interchange w i t h Metal Ox id es c Micro s co 1>i c C on s id erat ion s, Act i, e S i tes D. D eta il ed Reaction Mec hani s m s in v olving O lefin s Examples Ba se d on S olid and Int e rm e dia te C om pl ex St ru ct ur es 1. S olid St ru c tur es. Bis muth :'llol y hclat e and U ranium .A n t imon y 2. S urfa ce C h e mi st ry 3. ReactantS ur face I nt e r act ion s 1. Reaction Mec hani s m E. Quantitative R eac tor D esig n Th e Hot S pot Prob l e m 1. Influ e n ce of C atal y ti c C h e mi stry on C hoi ce of Pro ces s in gC o ndi tio n s; 1 h e Need for Se l ective C atal ys t s 2. Fluidized B e d R e actor s 3 Fixed Be d Reactor s 1. Heat and Ma ss Tran s fer in C atal yst Parti c l es 5 C a ta l yst Particle S tability V. HYDROD ESULFU RIZ AT I ON :\. Pro cesses I. S ulfurco n ta inin g co mpound s in Petroleum and C oal-D erive d Liquids w i t h Hydrogen 2. C onq)() s ition s of (' o Mo and N i } lo C atal ysts :3. Proce ss in gCo ndition s a P e t rul e um D i s tillat es b. Petroleum R es idua c. C oal 'Reactor Des i gn: Fix e d a nd F luidiz e d Reel s B. R e action s a nd C h e mi st r y 1. Model Reactant C ompound s a. Des ulfuriz at ion Reaction Netwo rk s of Thio11hene a nd Benzothioprene s h. Kinetic s of H y drode s ulfuri zatio n of Thioph e ne an d Benzothiophen es 2. Petroleum Fee d S tock s a. C o m po s ition of Feed Stoc k s h. S implifi e d kin e tic s for Petrol e um Feed S tock s C. C ataly sts 1. S tructure of Co balt Mo l y bdate an d Nicke l 1" I o l yb cla te C a ta l y s t s 2 Text ur e 3. Int eract i o n of C ataly st w i t h th e S up11or t -1. E ff ect s of Pro motor ~ 'l C ata l y ti c S it es a. Mo n o la ye r Model b. I nt e r ca la tio n Mo d e l D R eact ion Mec h anisms of i\' Iocl e l C ompound s E. Process JJ es il!,"n 1. Relation of Proce ss De s i g n to C atalytic C h e mi stry of Hydrude s ul fu rization a nd S id e Rea c tion s 2. Influ e n ce of l n tn qrnr ticle \'\lass .l.' r a n s 11ort on C atal yst E ff ect ivene ss : 3. Ca taly s t \ g in g: l'or e lllockin g a nd Inter s t i t ial De 1 >0sition I. H ot S p ot s a nd Reaetor S tab ilit y; A n a l ysi s of Trickl e B e d a nd S lurr y Beel Reacto r ~ 175

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MULTI-PURPOSE YIDEO-T APED COURSE IN DAT A ANALYSIS R. A GREENKORN and D P. KESSLER P11l'd11e U 11ir e l' s ity J!l l est L({f((!J('tte, .lndi(/'/'1(/ 47807 Th e it e ruti re JmH ess of fo,.nrnlat-in!J ff math e 11/1/ ti ntl mod e l, d e siu11 of e .i")1 e rim w 11t:; to test tha t 111odel, 1u1((/!f :;is of th e d(/t/1 fmm th e :;e ex 11e !'i111 e11ts the u s e of th e e .r11 e 1 -im en t({l J'esults to moclif!I th e 11111/()th es i. zecl mod e l, 011d th e i11 CO l'JJO rutio11 of the mod e l h1 lal'.<} e l' s ust e ms is on e 1 c h ich is f1wd({me,,t({/ to (If/ b1rn('h es of en uin eer iny. Altho u ,11/i thi s 111, es s is U({S il' to t h e en y ineeriny 1111((/!fsi s of 11 rob l e ms (/ '/1 d d es i un Jll'O< e dul'e:; the J' e e. !' ;st f e ll' rn11/'s e s i11 ll'hfrh th e l'Ompl e t e r c l e i:s tl'e ({ted. The difti<-lllt!! ll'ith t e ({rhi11.<1 th e comJJlete /0011 l1 !f 11 s 11ul m et hods is th({t t1111fr((ll?J th e bnck ,lf/'01111d of the stnd ents is J' e lnti ce ly dis1i((rate, th e r ef o rn 011 c -is s e ldom ({h/ e to t e ({ ch to (/ hod!! of s t11 dl'11ts with 11 11-ifonn b({l'k.<11 '/l lldS. Nonethe l ess, 11 e f ee l th({t s ur h (I ro 111s e is im11ol'tant to e 11yi11eel'i11,11 ,<;rncluates s o 1/' e h({ ce ((tt e m11t e d to ({J11no1u h th e 1n bl e m usinu 'l" id e o tap e. A s i,1 r 111"_fi('({ 11t ((c/.r({11ta,11 c i 11 tl' e at?"nu th i s typ e of s 11bj e tt, ll'h e r e /)((r:k,(Jl'On11d s m((!J not all b e th e s ({m e is o,tf ere d b JI rideo -t1111 e a 11d ri deo-tap e r r1 ssette r((JHthilit ies Th ese tool s p e l'm it d'i,tf e-ren t st11de11ts to u se di,ti e l' c 11t 11o'l'tio11s of the S ((m e 1 0 11 l"s e rl'lld ({/so 11 e ,-mit thes e stu d e nts to 1n O.
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COURSE CONTENT THE COU RSE IS ORGANIZED in 17 unit s. Ea c h of these units h as from two to fo ur parts with the except i on of Unit 1 wh i c h is a s in g le part in trod u ctio n. Each par t r e present s a 3 0-minute l ect ure At Purdue t he re m ai nin g part of a 50-minute period i : u sed for discu ss i o n. In eac h of the unit s abo ut half of th e m ate rial pre se nt ed i s act u a l e xample s taken from pract i ce. UN IT l is the introduction and i t sets t he objective for th e cour se, which i s to interface theory and da ta The u se for the int e rface is to build model s, plan experiments J>roce ss data interpret data and d es i g n data sys tem s UN IT 2 is c oncerned with curve fittin g and nomo g ra ph y, to p e rmit s ummarizin g data s o that it can be inter polated and extrapolated, to check theor y, and for em pirical predi c tion of new data The two 1>art s to the c un e fitting probl e m are: First, to determine the form of c ur ve. Thi s i s usually acco mpli s hed b y plo tt ing th e data in various ways until a s trai g ht lin e re s ult s Seco nd to dete rmin e the paramet e r s b y fitting a st raigh t line to t he re ct ifi e d data u s in g the method of s elected J>oint s, method of lea s t s quare s One of the part s of thi s unit di sc u sses nomography a graphical r e J>r ese nt at ion of the function al relation s hiJ> among Yariable s We g i ve a bri e f introdu tion to method s of con s tructin g nomo g raph s e mpha s izing addition, s ubtraction multiplica t ion a nd di v i s ion. UN IT 3 i s concerned with stat i st ical and numerical e rror s. Th e object here i s to id e ntif y a nd se parate sta tistical error tho se random e rror s t hat are a s sociated with measurement; and syst em a ti c e rror, those that ar e not random error s ; and furth e r error s t hat re s ult from 01ie ration on the data numericall y We end t he unit with a di sc u ss ion of the meaning of acc urac y and J>r ecis ion both in the s tati s tical se n se and in t he s ense of relating th ese conce1>ts dire ctly t o the number s in v ol ve d in e xperiment s UN IT 4 t reat s differenc es and La g rangian method s One often ha s to interpolat e between data 1ioin ts, es p e ci a ll y when d a ta i s in tabular form, and i t i s a l s o often neces s ary either to diff e rentiat e or int egrate tabul a ted data. We di s cu ss the di v id e d diff e ren ces, backward for ward and central finite diff e rence s. We e nd with a di s cu ss ion of La g ran g ian method s s 1iecificall y applied to numerical differentiation and numerical integration In UN IT 5 the principle of l e a st s quar es i s c on s id ere d in detail. Al s o we begin an e arl y di sc u ss ion of how l eas t s quare s and linear re g re ss ion are r e lat e d s in ce we u se lin e ar r egressio n to pr e di ct s tatistical b e havior. Th e principle of l e a st s quare s i s u s uall y u se d to fi t t he data in regre ss ion analy s i s. We g i ve a di s cu ss ion of t h e u se of lea st s quare s to identify importan t v ariable s and c on s ider the more complex J>ol y nomial lea st s quare s and nonlinear lea s t s quare s In UNIT 6 population characteristics ar e di s cussed s o that we can u se s tatistical model s of the variou s di s tribu tion function s to de sc rib e s ampl e s pace s. We di sc u ss so m e of the s impl e di str ibution s -the uniform d i st ribu t ion t h e normal di s tribution-and th e m ea nin g of 1 h ese di s tribu tion s in a probabilit y s en s e. UN IT 7 i s more detailed di sc u ss ion of 1irobabilit y and inve st igate s the m e anin g of ex perim e nt s outcome s s ample s 1rnc es and elements of s am1>le s pa ces and ho w the s e FALL 1974 Rob ert Gr eenko rn a ft er -five years as a na va l aviator r eturned to W i scons in 1 0 ob t ain S.S. M.S., and Ph D i n C hem i cal Engin eer i ng from t he Univ ers i t y of W i scon si n l 954 19 55 and 1 9 57 r es pect ive l y. He spent 't he academic year l 9 57 -58 at the N orweg i an Techn ical Ins t itute in N orway as a past doctora l f ellow. Fr o m 1958 ; o 1963 he was r esearch engi n e er with Je rsey P ro duct ion Co mp an y i n Tu lsa and l ec tur er in eveni n g divis io n of Un ive r si t y o f Tul s a. Fr om 1963 t o 1965 wa s Ass oc i a t e Pr ofessor of th eore ti ca l and app l ied mec han i cs a t Marqu e tt e Un iversity. Associat e Pr ofesso r in t h e Sc h ool of Ch em i cal E n gineer i ng a t Pu rd ue Univ e rs it y fro m 1965 to 19 67. Pr ofessor and Head of 'the Schoo l of Chem i cal Eng ine er ing I 967 1973 ; Acting Head o f Aerona u tic al a nd A s trona utic al E ngi ne e ri ng .l une 197 3-Aug. n73 Asst. De a n for Resea rc h D i r ec t or Inst itute for Int erd i scipl ina r y Engin eering Stu dies, and A s socia t e D i rec t or o f t h e Eng ineer in g Exp. S t a tion Aug. 31 19 72 -p r esen t. ( LEF T ) Da vid Kessl e r has 1 aught at P u r due Un i v e r sity s ince 1 964. Prior to his academic ca r eer, he was e mp loy ed in p r ocess eng i neer i n g and statistical qualit y contro l b y 1 he D ow Chemical Company and in process and p r oduct develop m ent by t h e P roc t or an d Ga m bl e Com pany H e did his u n derg r adua te work at Purdu e and received h i s graduat e degr ees from 'the Un ive r s ity of Mic hi gan. Hi s cu rr ent r e sea r ch interes t s are fl ow in he t e ro geneous non uniform and a ni so tropic porous me dia m om entu m tra n sfer i n mu l t i p hase fl ow and b i oengine e r ing ( ar tific ial blood c ard i a c contractil i ty an d hem orrha p i c shoc k ). He i s co -a utho r w ith Prof essor Gr eenko rn of the unde rgr adu ate t ext Tra ns fe r Opera t ion s ( McG rawH i ll 1 972 ) ( R ight ) niriou s co nc e pt s a r e utili ze d in pro ba bili ty formu l ation \ s hor t di sc u ss ion of J>robabili ty in t e rm s of l ogi c a nd Ve nn diagrams i s inclu de d M arginal and co nditiona l 1>robabiliti es a nd th e Ba yes th eo r e m ar e also disc us se d In UN IT 8 we di sc u s s s ampl e c hara cte ri st i cs. co ce ntratingo n utili z in gt h e normal di st ribu tion from a d es ign e d e x1>eriment. lo ok at th e pr ob abili ty m ea nin go f di s tribu t ion fun c tion s in ter m s of t h e n or m ali zat i o n o f these distribution fun ctio n s a nd t h e r e la tion s hip t o pr o b a bilit y W e di sc u ss th e u se of var i ou s ki n d s of tabu la te d probabil ity di s tribu t ion fun ct i on s a n d th e d i st r ibu ti o n of s am1>le c h aracter i st i c s. The unit e nd s with a d i s c u ss ion of co nfid e nc e interval s and a 1>r eli min a r y t r ea t m e nt of h y 1io t h es i s te st in gand ty p e I and ty 1> e 11 e rror s. The s e l as t to 1 >ics are r e 1i eate d in mor e de 1 >th in U n i t 1 5 In UN I T !J w e b eg in our di sc u ss ion of expe rim e n tal de s i gn b) introducin g th e anal ys i s of va rian ce t.ech n iq u di ssect in gtotal varia tion in s u c h a way that vario u s kinds of experimental effects are e limina te d Th e a n a l ysis o f Ya ri a n ce allow s u s t o s ho w h ow ex 1> e rim e n ts m ay b e de1 7 7

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Professors Greenkorn (left) and Kessler (right) on the set for ~ lming a unit of their multi purpose video :a p e. sig n ed so that w e can g et the mo st information from th e data. We discu ss th e one-wa y clas s ification and two -wa y classification (and randomized comp l ete block designs) The lin ear model s assoc i ated with these k ind s of de s ign s ar e di sc u ssed as are t h e s h o r t-c u t methods of c alcula ti n g the anal ys i s of a ri a n ce ta bl e R EGRESSION IS DISC SSE D i n UN I T 10 based on t h e unit s on l east sq uar es a nd a n alysis of va ri a n ce. A nal ys i s of varianc e i s u se d to in te rpr et t h e meaning of regre ss ion coefficie n ts in th e nuiou s kind s of r eg r ess ion mod e l s The "extra s um of sr 1u a r es" 1>rin cip l e i s introduced and m et hod s for analyzing t h e m ea nin g of th e var iou s re g-res s i o n c oefficient s in mod e l s t h at h ave mor e t han one i nd e 1> e nd e n t va ria hie ;i r e c on s id ere d. In U N I T 11 r eg -r ess ion ana l ysis i s v i ewed from t h e s tand1>oint of matrix mani1H1lation s. Ther e i s a s h ort r view of lin ea r a l g-ebra a nd matrix theory and then the m atr ix a1>proach to r eg re ss i o n i s di sc u sse d wit h u se of the Doolittle m et hod for determining reg-ression co efficie nt s In UN IT 12 we ente r a di sc ussion of di m e n s ional e nal ys i s, a sys tematic way in w hi c h t h e number of nuiabl es r eq uir ed to d escribe a g-iven ex 1> e rim e nt a l s itua tion i s reduced, s ince normal model building u ses dimen s ionl ess form s. W e a l so inv est ig-at e the r e la tio n s hi1> be tween dimensional analysis and t h e diff e r e n tial eq uation s whi c h a r e the model s for vario u s ex periment s : Vlodel buildingi s considered in UN IT 1 3 in a philo so phi c al se n se a nd we try to answer t h e que s tion s: \Vhat i s a m o d e l ? How do es it re l ate to th e rea l world? How do we build mod els? Ma th e mati ca l and phy s i c al an a log s ar e di sc u sse d E xample mod e l s are form ul ated throug h u se of a n e ntit y bala n ce. In UN IT 1 1 we treat tim edep e nden t stoc ha st i c proce ss es t ha t i s, pro cesses wher e th e p ara m eters of t h e J>roba bili ty density and di s trihut ion function s a r e t im e-de 1> e d e nt. Much of what w e do in eng ine e rin g is ti m ed e p en den t and we can no t i g nore t hi s ti m ed e pendence. Ways and m eans of im estigating th e stat i s tical pro1> e rtie s of syste m s that do depend on tim e are co n side r e d The e r god ic ass umpti o n i s a l so d i sc us se d 178 T H E PRO B L EM OF INFEREN CE and t h e est ima ti n g of 1>01H1la t ion p ara met e r s from expe rim ents in a detailed manner i s di sc u ss ed in UN IT 15. The meanin g of inferen ce i s in ves tiga te d in term s of t h e various kinds of di st ribution fun ct ion s. The meaning of hy1>ot.hesis te s inga nd multi1>le-hypo t h es i s t e s ting are di sc u ss ed a nd the 01> e ra t in g characte ri s tic c urve for var iou s kind s of h y poth es i s tes t s i s introduced. In U NIT 16 w e co n s id e r fa ct orial s which a r e 1>0 se d a s ex 1> e rim e ntal d es i gn s --randomized blo c k and Latin s r1uare The m ea nin g of fa ctors in ex p e rim e nt s i s a nal yze d u s ing the lin e ar h y poth es i s and i s based on the di s cu ss ion of inferen ce and h y poth esis test in g in the pr ev iou s uni t. We co n s id er multi-fac tor experiments and how one co nfound s data in a fac t orial ex1 > eri m e nt. Th e us e of alia s e s in de s ignin g fra ctio nal factorial ex 1> e rim e n ts i s al so dis c u sse d. In UN IT 17 we look at the total data acqui s ition a nd analy s i s syste m Net w ork m odels an d !{ra1> h theo r y a r e di sc u sse d. Information flo w a s r e l ated to e xe c u t iv e 1>ro g-ramming i s al so c on s id e red. USE OF COURSE w E PRE SENTLY TEA C H the course i n i ts e nt i rety over the Purdu e c l osed circuit video fac ili ties As can be see n from th e netw o rk dia g ram, a numb er of ways to trace out eit her t h e total co ur se o r se l ected s ubse t s are available Typi ca l mini-c o ur ses mi g h t be U ni ts 9, 10, a nd 11 in R egression or Unit s 9 a nd 16 in Experi mental D esig n Most of t he in div i d u a l Un it s a l so sta nd alone without refere n ce to other un i ts. In t h e future we hope to inc o rp orate a ll seg ment s of t hi s co ur se on v i deo ca ss ette s which ca n be pla ye d over monitor s equ ipp ed so t hat the tape may be stop ped w i tho ut eras in g the picture from t h e sc reen. This will p e rmit m u c h grea te r eco n o my in pr ese ntin g grap hi cal m ater i al, in that the s tudent ca n s im ply stop the m o nitor a nd hoicl t h e picture on t h e sc r ee n rather t han wasting se veral minute s of tape for a static display DIFFERENCES FROM CONVENTIONAL COURSES rr IS INTERESTING to o b serve the react i o n s of s tudent s w hen v i ew in g a course o n w h at l oo k s l ike a co nventi o nal telev i s i o n s et They react t o th e co ur se much as o n e obse r ves gr o up s of peop l e r e a c ting to t e l ev isi o n programm in g in In t h e fu tur e we hope to incorpora t e al l segments of t he cou rse i n video cassettes w hic h can be p l ayed over monitors equipped so th at the ta pe ma y be s t opped without e r asing t he pictu r e. CHE MI CAL ENGINEERING ED UC ATION

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their hom ethat i s, there i s far l ess re lu c tan ce to create a disturbance, mu c h as o n e w ill c arr y o n a conversation in one's own livin g room while t h e TV set i s o n. Th e r e a l so i s a mu c h greater need for e nt er tainment value to h old the st ud e nt' s attention than in an o rdinar y c l ass room l ect ur e, bec au se the st ud e nt s, see in g the m ater ial o n t h e te l ev i s ion set, exp e ct a far m o r e profess i o n a l de g r ee of tr eat m e nt than i s true in t h e or din a r y lectur e One i s, in e ff ect, co mp et in g with a pro g ram lik e Sesame Street (with a s ix million d o ll a r 8ul1Jlnr oodela r lannlnr Cicp \ i,,cnt .. \' roc:c ss in s l.l, 1tll l11tcr~rctin~ J,1 t 1 Oata ., ysl~"'it (11) /lllo dc l IHtP.. FIGURE 1 Network Diagram budget) in production and e ntertainm e nt valu e, w hil e at the sa me time attempting to present a mu c h m ore sop hi st i cated l eve l of co n ce pt s to a mu c h mor e c riti ca l and discriminating a udi e n ce. It i s a l so int e re st in g that the stude nt s do n ot perce iv e the pace at wh i ch the co ur se is go in g. At time s they fee l that the ma ter i a l i s com in g quite s l owly when, in fact, because of the co mpa ct ne ss of the presentation, material i s being pre se nted at a far greater rate than was ever possib l e in an ordinary c l assroom l ect ur e Stu dents are a l so far mor e crit i cal of mi s take s that appear on a televi s ion tape than mi sta ke s t hat a ppear in an o rdinar y c l ass room l ect ure. (Th e preparers of the tap e, of co ur se, s h o uld a l so be ex tremel y cr itic a l of s u c h mi sta k es beca u se these mi s takes will be perp et uat ed from year to year.) It i s int erest in g t ha t the te l ev i sio n tape prompt s a far g reat er n eed o n the st ud e nt' s part to be s uppli ed with All the mat e rial than does a n o rdinar y c la ssroo m l ect ur e st ud e nt s appear to fee l that s in ce a co ur se i s ta u ght o n TV there h o uld be n o n ee d to co n s ult o ut s id e references. Again, thi see m s to be a psychological set in duced by com m erc ial TV view in g. In t h e future we ma y attempt to r e m edy t hi s by ca llin g for mor e re s pon se from the c l ass durin g t h e te l evision tap ing via s h ort questions, etc, Thi pe rhap s, is FALL 1974 o n e of the stro n gest reaso n s why te l ev i s i o n ta pe s mu st be e nt e rt a inin g-t h e st ud e nt ca nn ot p a rti pate by talking back to a television scree n in the sa m e way t ha t a good l ect ur er can stop a nd as k questions at a pertinent poi n t in the prese nta t ion and li ste n to feedback from st ud e n ts. At present there is n o practical poss ibilit y of branching or c h a n g in g pace in a te l evision presentat i o n as there i s in the ord in ary c l assroom l ect ur e. We h ope to circ umv e nt this d i ffic ul ty to so m e exte n t by keepin g individu a l presentations s h ort a nd th u s permitting the st ud e nt to se l ect a m o n g a variety of s h ort prese nt at i on so that if t h e pace becomes too s l ow or too fast h e ca n a l ter the pace to s ui t him se l f In the future we a l so h ope to tape a greater var i ety of examp l e problems so that the st ud e nt ca n go directly to a n exa mpl e prob l e m if h e ha s difficulty with the t he oret i ca l co n c ept which ha s been presented o n t h e tape In tapin g t h e course we u se d a produ cer / director and three came r amen, with v i s ual material o n rear-projection s lide s and new s 1>rin t. T h e set i s s hown in t h e photo. One of the major diffi c ultie s i s the pr e 1rnration of vis ual ma terial (about 1000 item s for this course). We hop e to do s ome work so on on auto m ating mu c h of this with t h e comp ut er. Our c urren t 1>roduction costs (exc lu s i ve of author s) is abo u t $ 300 per U ni t. D TO DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN: The staff of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA TION wishes io i hank i he 72 departments whose advertisements appear in -this s ixth graduate issue We also appreciat e the excellent response you gave to our request for names of prospective authors. We regret that, because of space limitations we were not able to include some outstanding papers and ihat certain areas are not represented. In part our selecti on of papers was based on a desire to complement i his issue with those of the previous years As indicated in our letter we are sending automatically 'io each department for distributionto seniors interested in graduate school at least sufficient free copies of ihis issue for 20 % of the number of bachelor's degrees re ported in "ChE Faculties." Because there was a large response to our offer in that letter 'lo supply copies above this basic allocation, we were not able to folly honor' all such requests However, if you have definite need for more copies than you received, we may be able to furni5h these if you write us We also still have some copies of previous Fall issues available We would like 'io ihank i he departments not only for their support of CEE lhrough advertising, but also through bulk subscriptions. We hope 'that you will be able io co ntinue or increase your support next year Ray Fahien Editor 179

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ADVANCED THE RMODYNAMICS KRAEMER D. LUKS Uni v ersity of Notre Dame Not r e Dam e Indicinci 46556 THE COU RSE TO BE discussed h ere is Engiiri n g 510 "Advanced Thermodynamics," which is a "core" course in t h e Co lle ge of En g in eeri ng at Notre Dame. The on l y prerequisite is o n e semester of undergraduate thermodynamics, so t h at engineer in g grad u ate st udent s of a ll disciplines can qua lif y for the course The co ur se is required for graduate chem i ca l engineers and is often taken as an elective by engineers of other disciplines. The latter gro u p of st udent s ge nerall y The cha l lenge is to substantially enlighten and expand the kno w ledg e of the c hem ic al engineers .. and pr?vide a strong fundamental unit of t hermo dynamics for the non-chemical en gineers who may compose as much as half of the class. has a one-semester background from, say, Hol man 1 or Reynolds and Perkins,2 w hil e the c h e mi ca l engineers are more thoroughly sc hooled in undergraduate thermody n a mi cs, u s uall y having two semesters of formal st ud y, covering both physical and chemical thermody namic s, as well as addit i onal exposure in "mater ial a nd e nerg y balances" and in physical c h em i stry The challenge is to present a co ur se that will substantia ll y en li ghten and expa nd the knowledge of the chemical engi n eers, wh i le at the sa m e time will provide a strong, fundamental unit of thermodynamics for the n o n-ch e mical engineers, who may compose as much as one-half of the class T h at thermodynamics, a discipline based on a few fundamental laws and their applicat i o n is taught at the graduate level to chemical e ngin eers is probab l y an honest reflection of t h e fact t h at chemical eng in eers, despite their background, ac-: cept their bachelor's degree with a fou nd ation in 180 thermodynamics that can be s haken without ex cess ive effort. The discussion that follows map s out the ma terial covered in the course in its chronological appearance. The objective i s to stress the as pect s of the course that a re given th e mo st emphasis during the se mest er as well as to give a se n se of the continuity of t he topics treated. The sev eral s ection s that follow form a rough sy llabus of the course, covering approximately 14 weeks, or 42 meeting s. 1 Review of Concepts ( 2 week s) Befor e s tartin g a formal pre se ntation of t hermod y n a mic s in a po s tulational" manner, a review of the traditional "i nductiv e" t herm dynamics is performed. To mak e thi s review at tractive, it is presented in a historical c ontext much in the spirit of Tisza, 3 s tarting with Galileo and Torricelli presenting the caloric theory a nd it s s hortcoming s, continuing with the contribu tions of Ca rnot Kelvin, Mayer Joule, and finish ing with the r eso lution of thermodynamics into it s law s which occurred in the middle of the nine teenth century. B es ide s providing a review of t hi s "thermodynamics of cycles," these initial lecture s are designed to s how the s tudent that the difficul ties that were encountered in the development of thermodynamics, historic a ll y s peaking, are the sa me difficultie s that trouble the co ntemporar y student of thermodynamic s Beside s treating t h e law s of thermodynamics and their function lec tures are presented on t h e concepts of reversibili ty and irrever si bilit y and the temperature co cept a nd it s mea s urement. 2 The Postulational Development o f T hermodynam i cs (5 weeks ). The on l y text required for this co ur se is Ca llen 4 Lectures structured about the first se ven c hapter s of Ca llen are employed with the follow in g philosophy: Take away the law s" of thermo dynamics from the st udent and develop a se lfco nCH EMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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K r aemer D Luks was educa t ed at Princeton University ( B .S. E ., 1963) and th e Univ ersi t y of Minn e sota ( Ph.D., 1967 ) H e has been at the Univ e r s it y of Notre Dam e sinc e 196 7 and is presently Associa t e Professo r and Directo r of the Gradua t e Program in t he D epa rtment of Chemical Engineering. His research interests in t hermodynamics are broad, ext en ding from theoretical and applied statistical mechanics to expe r imental phase equilibria studies of petroleum and natural gas systems. s i ste nt se lf co n ta in ed mathematically str u ct ur ed d i sc iplin e w h ich can be s h own to provide the user wit h a n a l y tical too l s equ i va l ent to the "laws." One drawback to in ductive thermody n am i cs i s t hat t h e l aws evo lvin g from it are based on e x perimenta l observation (specifically, "tho u ght" e xperiment s ), a nd the tende n cy of st u dents is to deve lop "ru l es-of -thum b" whic h are not comp l ete l y general. Conseque ntl y, t h e u se of these r ul es of-t humb can ofte n l ead to difficulties, much in t h e way paradoxes, or apparent co ntradictions, arose in the historical deve l opment of t h ermo dy nami cs. A pr im ary function of this deve l op ment i s to demonstrate t h at postu l ational t h ermo dy nami cs is app li cab l e to a n y thermody n amic prob l em, including t h ose from w hi ch inductive t h er m ody n am i cs evo l ved Ke y po in ts of e mpha s i s in t hi s sect i on are: T h e informational c ontent of thermodynamic f unda mental relation s hip s a nd t h e eq ua tions of state t ha t co m e from them, The role s of the E ul er and G ibb Du h em e quation s in pro v idin g t h e link between e qu tio n s of st at e and fundam e ntal r e lation s hip s are de tai l ed. The fact that one observes an in co mple te set of equations of state i n the laborator y is u se d to demon st rate t h e need for a ba s i s, or reference, for the family of t h ermody nami c e nergy f un ct ion s ( in ternal e n ergy e nthal11 y, etc.). Th e equivalence of t h e ext remum prin c ipl e fo r e ntrop y and int e rn a l e n e r gy and their ext en s ion by Legendre tra n sfo rma t ion to non-i so l ated syste m s. T he Gibbs minimum 11rinci11le for sys tem a t so me g i ve n (P 0 ,T 0 ) is u s ed l ater as the sta rtin g 110int for handlin~ co mpl ex c hemi cal syste m s. (See Section 3.) FALL 1974 The Ja cob i a n tran s formation s in co n cert w i t h t h e Max well r e l ation s, 1>r ese nt e d a s a sys tem for handlin g i, h e e xpr ess ion of 11r ocess d e ri\' at i ves in ter m s of mea s ur ab l e quantitie s s u c h as s 11 ec ifi c heat at c on s tant pres s ur e C", i sot hermal co mpr ess ibilit y KT, a nd t h e co e llicient of thermal expa n s ion a, i. e., t h e th r ee ind e1i e nd e nt de ri vatives of t h e P-T ba s i s T h e utilit y of the third point above ca n be acce n tuated by having t h e st ud e nt demonstrate hi s capability at developing an H-S diagram for so me substa n ce, or at l east the necessary formal i sm to do so Ge n erating formulae for i sobars a n d i sot h erms in H-S space is fair l y stra ightforward, b u t deriving a formu l a for the coex i stence curve of, say, t h e saturated vapor i s a bit more oppos in g ( D e nbi g h h as a re l ated prob l em in wh i ch an ex press i on for th e specific h eat at coexistence for a p h ase i s desired.) : "" s l o p<:! 0 1 s~ nur.:it e d vapo l'." lo c us i n s at Vi. lp 11S S Jh l C e ( a h ) ( h dh = I' dT + IP/ T d i' (2-1) I ) Js = J T +
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tion 6) while a firm basis of the thermodynamic e xtremum principles i s necessar y to realize the s tabilit y criteria for pur e a nd multicomponent sys tem s (See Section 5). 3. The Application of the Gibbs Minimum Principle to Complex Chemical Equilibria (2 weeks). Zel ez nik a nd Gordon G hav e applied the Gibbs minimum principle to a ge n era l syste m of p pha ses and m species at so m e fixed (P 0 ,T 0 ), a nd it i s m y experience that incorporation of their d e rivation into the course provides a q ui c k powerful method for the s tudent to set up a complex chem i cal e quilibria problem in a form amenable to comput e r s olution Th e derivation i s l engthy and o nl y the result s will be pre se nted h e re with accompanying co mment s. That thermo is taught at the graduate level to ChE's is probably a reflection of the fact that they ac c ept their B.S. degree with a foundation in thermo that can be shaken without e x cessive effort. For the reacting syste m above, one so lv es the fo llowin g se t of e quation s : I I i a .. N -.~ b~ 0 .lJ 1 J E E j, j = ,. .. i r .., 1 l;:.._ nt r = 1 ,. 1 r rnp-.?. inJ.::-r..:n !c:1t r.._ 11..: tions (31 ) (3-2) where aii i s a c hemical s ub scr ipt for element j in s pecies i a i s the pha se superscript, N i i s moles of s pecie s i, b / i s the total numb e r of gram-atoms of e l ement j in the sys tem and A ir i s a s toichiometric c oefficient for reaction r. The problem thus be c omes mp equations in mp unknown s, namel y, the se t { N~ J i = l ... m; a = 1 .... ,p. Each member of Equation (3-2) i s called a reaction affinity. If the reaction mechani s m is unknown ( or un spec ifi ed) the problem en lar ges so m ew hat as Equation (3-2) i s replaced by P~ + l >. j,ij = 0 for 1 = l,,,.,, m ; ct = l, .... p (3 3) j The problem i s no w (mp + l) equations in (mp + l) unknowns, namely {N a } as before, and [ A J], j = l. l .... ,Z, which are a s et of Lagrangian multiplier s introduced in applying the Gibbs minimum principle An important point brought out by this ap proach is the eq ui valence of problems w ith and without a reaction me c hani s m as the final equi182 librium s tate doe s not depend on the c hoice of a particular me c hani s m but rather on the choice of permissible species in the sys tem. Elimination of [ A i] from Equation (3-3) will y ield Equation (3-2), L e., a possible set of reactions. There are several difficulties inherent in a dopt ing the Zeleznik-Gordon treatment directly for instrnctional purposes: o C har ge mu s t be treated a s an ''ext ra element, to be electroneutralized rather than c on se rved. Furthermore fre e e lectron s are a s p ecies a s well as a charge The definition of s pe cies become s any e ntit y for which the concentration at e quilibrium i s desired. In pha e equilibria 1noblem s, where there are no re actions c onservation of ele ment s, Eq uation (3-1) c an either 1>rovide too man y or too few constrai n ts. One mu s t repla ce Equation (3-1) with a s et of eq uation s conserving s 11ecie s rather than e l eme nt s. If one ha s a problem in which only s ome of the species are re acting and some are not and they have common e le ment s, the s tatement of t he problem becomes even more complicated. It i s not s atisfactory to consider all re actions permissible by s toichiometry as so m e w ill have rate s s o slow as to b e di s regarded For example, in t he pha se equilibria of a natural gas syste m co ntaining CH,, C H a and C 3 H it i s of no intere s t to co n si der t he possible reaction: CH 4 + c 3 11 8 i 2c 2 11 6 In other words goo d judgment mu st be exercised in a1>1>lying the Zeleznik-Gordon sc hem e. \J A traditional way of de sc ribin g a m-component vaporliquid phase equilibria problem i (See p. 47 of Reference 9, e.g ): m + 2 eq uation s: Ill g = p I l i = 1 ,,, , Dl Pg" Pg (v s T, (y i}) Pt = P 9 '(v\ T, {K,}) .I, 2 unknown s: (T vg v,Y1 Y2 1 Ym -1) The d e mon st ration of t he eq uin1lence of thi s 11roblem to that of Zeleznik and Gordo n i s mad e intricate by t h e fact that the Zeleznik-Gordon s cheme by virtue of s olving for { N': '. } s ugg e s ts a batch l)fOc ess with finite l 1>ha ses, w hile the above problem make s no s pecification of phase s ize. The co mpari so n of the two de s cription s i s 1)f ese nt ed in the c our se 4 The Phase Rule (1 week) 'Th e phase rule, written a s f=C P+2 (4-1) o r l=C-P+2-R, (4-2) where R i s r es tri c tion s i s one of these rule s -of t humb that mo st s tudent s f ee l t h ey under sta nd C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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by the time they reach the grad uate level. Be ca use this i s often not the case, I generally start with an example complicated enough to produce a myriad of answers for the degrees of freedom f, and then backtrack, beginning at the beginning. Rather than deriving the rule as given above, I state the p ha se rule as: "t he number of degree s of freedom in the intensive phase nlriab le s = the number of independe n t inten sive pha se qu i a bl es-the number of re st riction s" For example, consider the 3 component, 3-phase system (soli d-liquidvapor) where the components will be speci fied as A, B, C. The independent inten s ive variables are 12 in number a ncl t h e restrictions a re 10: ,.. fhus f = 2, as ca n be readily obtained fro n1 Equatio n (4-1). The difficulty arise s interpreting R in Eq uation ( 4-2) Co n si d er the restrictions : 1) p = p 0 and 2) xTi = x : = 0 In the first, logic dictates that f reduce to 1 and t h e form of analysis s u ggested introduces or f = 12 11 = 1 The restrictions (2) above do not affect f a s there occ ur s a ''balance": x~ x! are removed from the independent intensive variab le s and ~ = JJ; ; a nd "i = ca n he remov e d from the re st riction s. Thus the problem is f = 10 9 = 1 Experience ha s shown that this detailed approach increases the student's confidence. Since the phase rule makes no spec ification co ncerning the s iz e of the phases (indeed, they co uld be considered infinite), the effect of "Batch ing" or, in a flow process, the sett in g of flow rates to a vessel can require careful examination. For example, consider the s ingle (liquid) phase esterification reaction of ethyl alcohol and acetic acid at fixed T 0 ,P 0 If one applies the phase rule Equation (4-2) directly [=4-1+2-R where R = 3 : P = P 0 T = T 0 and 1 reaction (mp-Z = 1), or f = 2. But one recognzies that if one batches the system identicall y each time, FALL 1974 i. e fixes [Ni ] = [Ni 0 ] one gets the same equili brium composition in the vessel. Thus, the batch ing constitutes 2 restrictions. It can be seen by noticing that N 10 6 N xi = l Ni 1 for reactants and Ni 0 +6N 1 =~ i where, in this particular case, EQUATION, as moles are conserved. Thus, e. g., ~=i = .1i z (r .... acLa nts) and the sing l e variable z replaces the 3 indepen dent variables of the set [x; ] (lx; = 1), and batch in g in this case co n st itute s 2 restrictions. Furthermore, the quantity (mp-Z) used to de note reactions in the Zeleznik-Gordon scheme is really more general than that. One s hould con s id er it as representing the number of indepen dent affinities, including those whoch describe a phase transformation: 1 ~ 0 for s pecie s i and phases a and /3 Care must be taken not to count s u ch a transfor mation twice, once as a reaction (transformation) in the set (mp-l) and once as a chemical equi librium. For example, consider a vapor-liquid equilibrium between C H C,H G C 3 H 8 CO 2 typical of a natural gas mixture prototype. For this system, mp-Z = 8-3 = 5, yet co mmon sense sug gests 4 phase eq uilibria The fifth "reaction" i s the one cited in (2) of Section 3. The point here is not only s hould that reaction possibility be dis carded but also that mp-Z include s that 4 c hemical eq uilibria, i. e., phase transformations. Applications relating to how many variables in a real process mu st be spec ified to produce a unique experiment (i. e ., reproducible) can as s ume many forms and can be both interesting and c h a ll eng in g. 5. Stability Phenomena (2 weeks). A brief introduction to phase stab ilit y (thermal and mechanical) a nd diffusional stab ili ty is presented. Phase stab ilit y is discussed in many texts, e. g ., Ca ll en,-' a nd can be demonstrated eas il y with the van der Waals equatio n. Some mention i s made in passing of the fact that the (Continued on Jiage 198.) 183

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WASTEWATER ENGINEERING FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS PETER B. MELNYK and RI C HARD PROBER Cnse Western Reser 1,e Urzii 1e rsity Cle ve lcind, Ohio 44 106 I N THE PAST FIVE YEARS, the areas of re search and development interest for c hemical e ngin eers hav e expa nd ed to in c lude e n vi ronmen tal topic s. To see this, one ha s only to look at ad vertisements for indu str ial positions in o ur trade journal s or at the Ji tings of act ive research areas in graduate programs in the fall issue of this journal. Yet, coverage of wastewater topics in most chemical engineering programs i s limited to a few specific examples introdu ced by instruc tors with exper i e nc e in the field. This paper describes "Wastewater Engineer ing, a grad uat e course or i e nt ed for the sp ecifi c need s and backgrounds of chemical e ngineer s. It evolved und er t h e somew hat unusual circum stances t hat in the 1965-1970 period there were no active teaching or research programs in En vironmental Engineering ( or, as it was known then, Sanitary En g in eer ing) at Case Western Reserv e University. This vacant niche in the ecology of the School of Engineering has been occupied by a Graduate C h em i ca l Engineering Wast ewater Program built around the s ubject co ur se and a co mplem e ntar y program on Water Resources in the Systems Engineering Depart ment. Further development of "Wastewater Engi neering" was fostered by hirin g of faculty with s pecific background in the field and by a training grant (jointly administered between C hemical Engineering a nd Systems Engineering) from the U S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Manpower a nd Trainin g The g raduate c h em ical engineering co urse on wastewater originated in response to a wide ap peal for e nvironmentally oriented co ur ses Many others e nroll ed besides c h e mi ca l e n g ineerin g graduate st ud e nt s, including under gra duates (mainly chem i cal e n gineers), g radu ate st udent s in other fields and part-time st ud e nt s already e mplo yed in indu stry The initial offerings in 1969 18 4 and 1970 were as a seminar or s pecial-topic s course Thi s was followed in 1971 by a structured course devoted principa l ly to wastewater analyses and treatment techno l ogy. That course a l so dealt with water quality criteria and air pollution topics, hence it s title "Environmental Qualit y : Measure ment and Improvement At the time, it was the only substantial environmental co urse, graduate or under grad uate, available in the e ngineering school. "Wastewater Engineering," the present gradu ate course, was first taught in 1973 Now, an undergraduate course on wastewater or an intro ductory Sanitary Engineering co urse i s a pre requisite. We assume that the tudents are familiar with water quality criteria, unit s of Richard Pr ober rec eived his B.S from Illino is Institute of Tech nology and his M S. and Ph.D ( 1962 ) from the Un ive rsit y of Wi c onsin His indust rial expe ri e nce includes work with the Shell Development Company and Sybron Corporation R esea rch Center He is a member of the American Chemical Society and AIChE. H e is presently an associate professor of chemical engi n ee ring at Case Western R ese r ve Univers i ty ( LEFT ) P e ter B Melnyk rec eived his B .S., M.S. and Ph D ( 1974 ) from McMaster Univ e rsity His technical expe ri e nc e includes work with the Ontario Pulp and Paper Company and Pollut ech Advisory Ser vices. H e ha s participated in t he Association of Prof essio nal Engineers of Ontario, th e Pollution Control Association of Ontario and the Wate r Pollution Con trol Federation H e is presently an assistant professor of chemical e ngineering at Case Western Reserv e Uni ve r si t y. (R IGHT ) C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATIO

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m eas ur e ment w a stewate r analy es a nd t h e co m o n sc h e me s for municipal wastewater t r eat m e nt. Th e discussion h e r e cove r s both t h e l ect ur e topics and assoc iat ed lab o rat o r y expe!'i m e nt s Be ca u se adeq u ate re fere n ces h ave be e n proviclecl we o nl y li st t h e l ect ur e top i cs and di sc u ss the rea so n s fo r their se l ectio n In th e l ec tur es, C h em i ca l En g ine e rin g m et h ods app li ed to wast e water tech n o l ogy take away so m e of the m yst iqu e Still, e pirical m et h ods play a l a r ge part in c hara cter i z in g wastewaters a nd t h ei r treatment. H e n ce, t h e laborat ory i s a n imp orta nt c omplement to the l ec ture s Since n o publi s h ed l aborato r y manu a l i s available we h ave co n so lidat ed o ur exper i e n ce o v e r the la st few years by providing deta il s o n the object iv es a nd s u ggest i o n s fo r carryi n g o u t the expe rim e nt s. Finall y, we to u c h briefl y o n t h e relationship of W astew at er Engineering" to o th er co ur ses in o ur program. COURSE CONTENT TABLE 1 LISTS THE SPECIFIC topics cove r ed. Each top i c i s presented sta rtin g with fund a m e ntal co n s id erat i o n s a nd proceeding to r at i o nal m et hod s for design spec ifi cat i o n or pro cess a nal ys i s. Co mpr e h e n s iv e problem s are as s i g n ed, ba s ed o n actual wa s tewater treatment e perience w h e n eve r po ss ibl e Table 1 in c lud es re co mm e nd ed texts. Lo ca tin g s uitabl e books was a pr ob l e m s in ce environmental e n g in eer in g texts ge n e rall y devote co n s id e rabl e co verage to funda m e ntal ph ys i ca l chemistry, transport phenomena and reaction kin et i cs. Wa stewate r En g ine er in g," as a co ur se for specialists in the fi e ld co nc e ntrat es o n the widely us ed minimum-op erat in g -c ost "wor khor se" pro cesses, which ca n r e m ove m a n y pollutants togeth er. Biologi ca l treatment he ads the li st of t h ese top i cs, as the unit pr ocess of c h o ic e for removal o f biodegradable o r ga ni c pollutants :fro m muni c pal or indu s trial wastewaters. It is d i ffic ul t to co c eive of o th er treatments which co uld b e eco n o mi ca ll y co mpetitive to biological t r eat m e n t Sed im e nt atio n also i s stressed, as an int egra l part o f biological waste treatment processe s a nd, in its ow n right a s the unit operation of c h o i ce for re moval of s ettleable pollutants. Pr ecip itati o n i s widely us ed in municipal a nd indu st rial waste water treatment for removal of in o r ga ni c pollu tants by co nv ers ion to in so lubl e forms and sed m e ntation or ot her liquidso lid separat i o n s Oxida tion-reduction processes are u se cl principally in inFALL 1974 TABLE J Topic 8 In Wa s tewater Engineering Topic s 1. Biologi c al Wa s t e Treat m e n t (15 l ec ture s) a. Ba s i c mi c robiolo gy. b. S toichiometri c and hinet i c r e lation s of mixed c ultur es including both oq1:anic ind inorgani c :s ub s trat es. c. Biodegradabilit y and re,;pi rom e tri c m eas urement s. cl Biological t r eat m e n t pro ce,;s configuration s, includ ing auxiliar y facili ti es for aeration mixin g, and se di m e n t at io n e. New development s includ ini! : un ,;tea d y state anal s i s, u,; e of purified oxyl!,'en rot a ting fix e ds urfac e e;rowth, e tc 2. Sedimentation, Clarification and Thickening (9 l ecture,;) a. Flow reg im es for g ra ity s ettling in c luding free falling parti c le s, h i nder e d se ttlin g and zone set tling h. S olid s flux con ce 1>t s and de s ign m et hod s c. Diff e rentiation betwe e n r quirement s for clarifica tion s. tho se for thick e n 1ng :. cl. Integration of se dim e nta tion vessel d esig n with t h e biolog ical tr eatme nt r e actor s. e. Tubese ttl e r operation : i. l'reci1>itation (9 l ect ur es) a Physical chemistry of ioni c e quilibria. b. Eff ec t of c omplexing ag nts. c. Use of pH,;o luhil i t y dia g-ran1s. d. S tati s tical appro ac h es for ap1>lication of l a borator y or pilot data to desig n. I. Oxidation-H e cluction ( 6 lecture s) a. Stoichiometr y for co mmon oxidant s and r ed u c in g agent s b. Rea c tion rat e co n ce 1>h. c. Oxidation-Reduction Po te tial and relation s to e l ect ro c hem ica I pro cesses. Text book s Bu sc h W e b e r / C h. 11 W e ber ,' C h. :3 12 We b er / C h. 2 St umm and Morg an C h !'i. 8, 10 Weber / C h. 8 St umm and Morgan ,' C h. 7 185

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clustrial wastewater treatment, to change in organic pollutants either directly into innocuous forms ( e g., conversion of cyanides to CO2 by chlorine oxidation) or into another form more tractable for treatment by conventional processes ( e. g., reduction of chromates to trivalent chromium ion s prior to precipitation of the in so lubl e Cr(OH)J. LABORATORY PROGRAM F OUR EXPERIMENTS ARE OFFERED with "Wastewater Engineering" on Biological Waste Treatment, Biological Respirometry, Sedi mentation and Thickening, and Precipitation Processes. They have been selected a nd developed, based on the following cr iteria: The ex 11 eriments must comp l e m ent and relate directly to the c ourse material. They must be realistic in the se n se that data obtained from the experiment ca n be ap11lied to design 11roblems discus se d in class. It is important t ha t the experiments are carried out in a manner that allows st udents to participate and, th u s, obtain "hands on" experience. The experiments should be organized into laboratory sessio n s no longer than about three hours. The students s hould be able to operate all necessary equi11ment without extensive training. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT Thi s experiment provides students with the opportunity to measure the reaction rates and sto ichiometr y of the bio-oxidation of a particular waste. They obtain the data by monitoring changes in organic s ubstrate and s uspended solids concentrations occurring for a mixed c ulture in a batch reactor. This permits the experiment to be completed in one laborator y period. A co tinuous reactor at steady state would provide only a s ingle rate measurement during the same time spa n. Carefu l preparation is needed beforehand to assure that the rates measured in this experi ment approximate those of a full scale syste m. The mixed c ulture mu st be acclimated to the waste and mode of operation, a nd the average bacteria floe s ize s hould be s imilar to those found in fu]] sca le sys t e m s. Both acclimatization a nd classification of floe s by size can best be car ried out in a continuous syste m in which bacteria are recycled_,:, These steps require a sepa rate re actor and consume more time and attention t han the exper iment itself. For exa mple during ac climatization care must be taken to avoid filamen tous growth on the walls of s mall reactor vessels. 186 Such g rowth represents an act iv e bacteria popula tion which i s significant on the laborator y sca l e but negligible in full-scale operation. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) or Total Ca rbon analyzers are the most efficient means of measuring s ubstrate concentrations. Indeed, this exper iment would not be feasible if we had to u se the difficult, inaccurat e and t imeco n s umin g B. 0. D or C 0. D. tests. Suspended so lid s (a mea s ur e of bacterial c ulture co ncentration) are monitored g ravimetri ca ll y Students calculate y ield factors and rate Wastewater engineering concentrates on the w i de l y used minimum-operating-cost "workhorse" processes, which can remove many pollutants together; biological treatment heads the I ist of these topics. constants for substrate oxidation directly from the data obtained here. Usually the change in microbial mass during the bat c h experiment i s not large enough to obtain a good estimate of the culture's sp ecific growth rate. This can be better determined from measurement s of s ludge wasted in a co ntinuou s syste m (i e ., either fullor bench scale). With this additional information st ud e nt s are able to: 1) select the operating l eve l of bac teria and s pecify the hydraulic residence time, 2) specify sludge waste rate, and 3) determine theoretical aeration requirement s for a full sca l e reactor. BIOLOGICAL RESPIROMETRY E XPERIMENTS IN RESPIROMETRY illu strate a number of points pertinent to biological waste treatment. A sa mple of waste is seeded with bacterial culture and then i so lated in a s tirred container with air or oxygen in the gas cap. Pressure changes resulting from the absorp tion of evo lved carbon dioxide and uptake of oxygen by the culture indicat e the exte n t of ox idation Inexpen s iv e, direct-reading apparatus is available co mmerciall y. (Hach Che mical Co. Model 2173), as well as more elaborate electrolytic equipment which log the data automatically. For e xperiments involving industrial wastes, a com m e rcially ava il ab l e bench sca l e reactor-settler is recommend ed. (Cole Parmer: Bio-Oxidation Reactor). A more e pedient app l' oac h is to use samp l es of a waste (e. g., pri mary effluent) and cu ltur e (activated s lud ge r e turn) ob tained from a local treatm e nt plant CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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This ex p e riment takes a numb er of days to run, 3 -6 days for carbonaceous oxidation o nl y and up to 10 days for nitrifi cat ion Students are or ganized into teams to carry o ut monitorin g around the cloc k over the de s ired period. Test s carried out s imult aneously on a number of conta in ers demonstrate the e ffe cts of bacterial see ding, st irrin g, s ub st r ate co n ce ntr at ion etc. o n the s hap e of the uptak e c urv es. This exper im e n t illu strates the relationships a m o n g B. 0. D. C 0. D. a nd T 0. C. The st ud e nt s co mpl ete t hi s st ud y w i th a comparison of the observed uptak e c urve s to the ideal c hara cte ri st i cs proposed in the lectur es. SETTLING MODES Student s observe the c haracteri st i cs of hinder e d a nd zone settling m odes, and mea s ur e the rates of se ttlin g at each co ndi t ion The major a ppar at u s is s imply a 6" I. D. x 7 ft. high plexig l ass co lumn which i s eq uipp e d with sa mplin g ports. Th e batch se ttlin g tests are car ried out with act ual waste water sa mple s, (e. g primar y influ e nt and aera tion "mixed liquor"). An inve st ig at i o n of each co ndition occ upie s o n e laborat ory period. Th e se ttling rates are determined from c h anges in s uspended so lid s co nc e ntr at i o n profiles durin g set tling In hindered sett ling s tudie s, t h e concentrat i ons are m e a s ur ed directly In zone set tling st udie s, the co n ce ntrati o n i s estimated indire c tl y from the s lud ge blanket height. Graph i ca l method s introdu ced in the l ect ure s a r e used to calculate the rate s from t he se profiles. This permit s s tudent s t o spec if y the basin areas requ ir ed in co ntinuou s ope ration s Co mparativ e s tudie s wit h and without fl occ ulation aids would illustrat e th e ir effects on t h e design spec ification s. PRECIPITATION PROCESS A pr eci pitation process of co n s id erab l e lo ca l inter est is removal of phosphates. B ot h sta g es of pr ec ipitation nucl eat ion and flo cc ulation ca n be readi l y inve s tigated in a s impl e batch rea ctor in w hi ch mixin g i s co ntr o ll ed, (i. e a jar test). Stirrin g equipment de s i g ned espec i a ll y for this e xperiment is avai l ab l e commerc i a ll y (Phipp s & Bird Stirr e r) Student s inve s ti ga t e the e ff ec t s the fo ll owing variable s on treatment efficiency: Wa s tewater co mp osition (e. g., s olution pH al kalini ty, J>ar t icula te co ncentration and ini tial phosphorou s co ce n tration), Ratio of orthoto poly-phosphate s, Ty p e a nd d osage of precipitant (e g lime alum or ferric s alt s ) FALL 1974 Type and do s age of flo ccu lan t aids (e. g., anio ni c a nd catio ni c pol y m e r) and Turbu len ce le ve l ( i. e., mixin g inten s ity). Though eac h test can be comp l eted in 30 minut es, a lar ge numb er of tests are required. The present sta t e of the art i s e mpirical, a nd thus the e ff ects of the above var i ab l es mu s t b e deter min ed for eac h particu l ar waste. Also, as t h e co mp os i tio n of a waste usually varies with t im e, t h ere is a further problem of determining c h em i ca l dosage w hi c h res ul ts in t h e desired re m ova l over a spec ifi ed percentage of the t im e Both problems require that the st ud e nt s app l y stat i st ical techniques disc u ssed in cl ass An effic ient approac h to exper im e nt a l design permits the relative importan ce of indep e nd e nt variab l es to be so rt e d o ut in a minimum numb er o f tests. The problem of spec i fy in g s uit ab l e l eve l s of the c h e mic a l dosage is so lv ed by a frequency-of oc c urr ence analysis. B eca u se eac h problem requires at l east 8-10 tests to be carr i ed o ut t he chemical a naly s i s mu st be efficient. For exa mple a n a uto m a ted syste m (Technicon Autoanalyzer II) i s used h ere to car r y o ut phosphorus me as urement s RELATION TO OTHER COURSES Wa st ewater E n gi n eeri n g" i s one of t hre e gra duat e c h em ical e n g in eeri n g c our ses w hi ch deal primarily w i t h wastewater to pi cs. "S eparation Sc ience deal s in part with t h e more costly se lecti ve m e mbr ane and packed co lumn proce sses, w hich find a11plication for industrial wa s tewater treatme n t eit h er to me et st ringent e ffluent quality requirement s or for r ecovery by11roducts. "Collo idal Syste m s" deal s with fundam e n tal co n s ideration s o n co ag ulation and flocculation an d on the nature of t urbidit y. T hi s a dd s to under s tandin g of se dimentation and pr ec ipi tat ion proce sses The se three plu s co ur ses on wa ter Re s ource s" and o n "Lega l Eco nomi c and Political As pect s of Water Pollution availab l e through Syste m s Engineer in g pro vide a core program for che mi cal engineers s p ecia li zing in wastewater. A dded to traditiona l c h emical e ngineering graduate cour ses in ther mod y namic s, tra n s port phenamena and c hemi ca l r eac tion e n g ineerin g, t hi s provide s a u n ique backg round for profe s ion al careers in d eve lopment and d es i g n of t r eat m ent facilitie s for indu st rial wastewater s or for advanced muni ci pal wa stew ater t reatment A mea s ure of our s ucce ss with t hi s J>rogram i s that all of our grad uat e s tudent s who ha ve co m11l eted it to date are active in th e area. REFERENCES 'Busch, A. W ., r l e l'ubi c B io l o,giclil T reatment of Wa s t e waten Oligoclynarn i cs Pres s H ouston, 1971. > W e b e r, W. J., ed i tor, Ph ysiochemica l Pro cesses /01 ll" at e1 Quality Contro l Wil ey, N e w York, 1972. = St umm vV. and Mo1 gan, Aquat ic Chemistry, Wil ey, N e w York 1970. 187

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ENZYME AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING L. L. TA VLARIDES Illinois Institut e of Technology Chicago, Illinois 60616 T HE CURRENT INTENSE interest in novel methods of enzyme applications in the food, pharmaceutical, biomedical and waste treatment processes obviated the need to augment the food technology program in our department with a graduate l evel course in Enzyme and Biochemical Engineering. The title implies all eng in eering as pects; however, the essence of the course focused upon kinetics and reactor design with emphasis on immobilized enzyme systems. The course was structured to expose the graduate student and re searcher to basic concepts, methodologies, and techniques in enzyme technology whi c h wou ld permit rational design and analysis of immobilized enzyme reactor sys tem s and fermentor reactor design. I. Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Actio n, Preparation a nd Immobilization and II. Enzyme and Biological Reactor De sign An attem 11t is made to develo11 an appreciation of how enzymes function, the sensitive a nd specific nature of enzymes and the immobilization methods recently de velo11ed which 1nomise to make e nz yme utilization in larg e sc ale process feasible (see 'fable I). The course is presented towards a first level graduate chemical engineering student with undergraduate transport phenomena, reaction engineering and mathematics through partial differential equations desirable. Preferably the student should have a background in biology and / or biochemistry. Advanced level biology and biochemistry students fare reasonab l y well but deficiencies in chemical engineer in g and mathe matics courses made aspects of the second part of the c ourse disconcerting. Several problem assignments and a term paper with an oral pre se ntation were the student re quirem e nts Readings in the various topics were encouraged. 188 Lawr ence L. Tavlarides r e ceived his B.S. ( 1963 ), M.S. ( 1964 ) and Ph D ( 1968 ) degrees in Chemical Engin ee ring at the University of Pittsburgh. Several years o f industrial expe rience were gained with Gu l f Research and Development Company. H e pursued postdoctoral r esea rch studies at the Technische Hogeschool in Delft H olland for one year prior to joining the Chemical Engine e ring Department at Illinois Institut e of Techno l ogy in 1969 as an Assistan t Professor. His research and teaching interests inc l ude e nzyme kinetics, reactor analysis and transport phen0mena and mixing effec ts in dispersions DISCUSSION OF COURSE MATERIAL Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Action, Preparation and ImmobiJization THE FIRST THREE sections of Part I introduces the stude nt to the biochemistry of enzymes, the c l asses of reactions which enzymes c atalyze and the kinetic mechanism postulated to describe the enzyme action. The biochemistry of proteins is discussed start in g with the amino ac id s a nd how enzyme specificity is determined by TABLE I Enzyme and Biochemical Reaction Engineering Course Outline Part I. E nz y me St ructure Kinetic Actio n Preparation A B. C D. E. F. Part II. A B. c D. E F. and Immobilization Struct ure of Enzymes C la sses of Enzyme Reaction s Enzyme Kinetics Enzyme Production Enzyme Isolation and Purification Enzyme Immobilization Methods Enzyme and Biological Reactor Design Ideal Batch, Tubular and CSTR Reactors Ideal Reactor Co ncept s with Enzyme Kinetics Fermentation Kinetics and Reactor Design Physical and Che mical Rate Processes in Heterogenous Immobilized Enzyme Syste m s Diffusional Influences in Hollow Fiber Catalysts Immobilized Enzyme Deactivation and Para meter Determination G. Design of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors Part III. St udent Presentation of Term Papers. C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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it s particular seq uenc e of amino acid re s idue s a nd high er order s tructure. The primar y, seco ndar y, tertiary a n d quaternary s tructure s of proteins are discussed with so me detail g iv e n to t h e ge m etry of the peptide b o nd a -h e li x and p l e ated s h e et s tructures, and t h e var ious types of bond s v hi c h determ in e hi g h e r order s tru ct ur es. C las ses o f e nzyme reaction s s uch as o xidoreductases tran s fera ses, hydrolase s, Jya ses isomerases a nd Jig-a ses are t hen 1>re se nted. A 1>pro1>riate time i s devoted to enzyme kinetic s Michaelis-Menten theory of e nzym e s ub st rates com1>lex i s 1>re se nted and then a pplied t o derive the reaction velocities for com1>etitive, non c om1>etitiv e, s ub s trate and 1>roduct inhibition kin et i cs. Tern 1> e ra t ur e, pH effects and enzyme inactiv at ion e ff ects a re de lineat e d. Methods o f the det e rmina tio n of rate coeffic i e nt s are illu strate d. Examples of s tarch h ydro l ys i s, g lu cose i s merization and lypa s e gly cero l ys i s are employed to indi cate enzyme kinetic s of current intere s t. Variou s references (l-8) were helpful in the 1>reparation of t he material. Methods of e nz yme productio n i s o l atio n a nd purification then followed. Example s of t h e various plant, animal a nd microo r ga ni s m so urc es o f e nz y m es wer e pre se nt ed with spec ifi c atten tion g iv en t o the la st so ur ce. Specific exa mple s (9-11) illu s trated h ow opt imum y i e l ds were ob tained i n t h ese ferm e ntation s I so l at i o n and puri fication was pr ese nt e d in t hr ee stages of (a) ce ll removal, disruption or e xtraction, (b) initial fra c tionation technique s and ( c ) hi g h reso luti on techniques (see Table II). Adequat e ref e rences ex i s t (12-30) whi c h delin eate s p ec ifi c aspects and e ntir e enz y m e production sc h e m es. Imm obi li zed enzymes was the l ast sec ti o n dis c ussed in Part I. Ex ce ll ent revi ews are avai l ab l e (31-36). Th e metho ds discussed w ere co va1ent attac hm e n t to water in sol u b l e s upport s cova l ent int e rm o l ecu lar cross linkin g adsorptio n, conta in m e nt within d ev i ces and e ntrapment wit h c ros s linkin g pol y m ers. Enzyme and Biological Reactor De sig n Material and e n ergy ba l ances for i dea l h omo ge n eo u s ba tc h C STR and plug flow reactors wit h e nz y m e a n d fermentation kin et i cs are pre se nt e d in the fir s t t hr ee sect ion s M i c ha e li s Menten kinetics with a nd w ith out s ub strate inhibition are e mplo yed. Effects of n on icl ea l flow a nd po ss ibili t ie s of multiple s t ea d y sta te s for s ub strate inhibi tion kin e ti cs are introdu ce d. Th e Monad mod e l for fermentation kin e tic s i s presented. B a tch a nd co ntinu ous ferme nt at i ons are di sc us sed with so m e atte ntion t o wa s hout phenomen a, multistaged reactors, n o ni clea l flow and mi cro -mixin g e ffect s Mode l s of h ydrocarbo n fermentation are pr ese ntFALL 197 4 TABLE II Enzyme and Biochemical Reaction Engineering Enzyme Isolation and Purification (S ub sect ion E of Part I) Introductor y C omm e n ts, E n ric hm e nt Yie ld s, Lab. Results. So lidLiq uid Separation Ce ntrifu g ation Fi l t ration Dis rnpt io n of M i c roor gani s m s No nm ec han ica l Me c hani ca l I n ; tial Fract ionat i on Procedure s S alt Pr ec ipit at ion S olvent Pr ec i1>itation High R es olution Technic1ues E l ec tro1>hor es i s U ltrafiltrati o n Ge l F il t rationGe l C hrom atogra ph y A ff inity C hromato g raph y The course introduces the studen t "to the b io chemis tr y of enzymes and merges -the t ec hni ques of chem i cal r eac tor e ngineering with i mmobilized enzyme and biochemic al kinetic s and exposes met hod s of reactor design for the se systems eel which co n s id er microbia l sorptio n to / from droplets, growt h on the droplet surface and within brot h, drop l et size d i stributio n a nd mixing, a nd o x yge n absorption. Chemical reaction e ngineer ing texts and various other refere n ces were e ployed (15 37 42). Th e in teraction of chemical a n d physica l rate processes are pre se nted for the sing le p ar ticle. Var i o u s limi ti n g cases such as extern al mass transfer w i th s urface reaction, diffusio n a l re s istan ces a nd reaction with in the partic l e are disc u ssed and i so thermal effect i ve n ess factors are in troduced D iffu sional influ ences in membra ne ca taly sts for planar cylindrica l (hollow fiber) or sp h e ri ca l geometry are also form ul a t e d for Michaelis-Men ten kineti cs Overa ll rate e xpre s s ion s for s in g l e part i c l es and m e mbranes are formu l ated Various references emp l oyed are ( 43 45) T o comp l ete the discuss i on, a form ula tion of e n zy m e kin et i cs w ith inactivation i s pre se nted for variou s modes of deact i vat i on D eac ti vation parameter estimations for vario us i foid so licl reactor configurat i ons as discussed in Leven sp i e l (37) are extended to M i chae li s -Menten kinetics a n d exa mpl es are presented T h e p erfo rman ce equation s are e mploy e d with the ra te ex1>re ss ion s d eve lop e d to 1>r edict conversio n for fixed 189

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b e d immobilized e nzyme reador s, slurry reactor s with di s per s ed immobilized enzyme, and tubular membrane reactors. Mode s of reactor operation for deactivating im mobilized e nz y m es to maximize production are discussed fur th e g lu cose isomera se reaction. A fixed bed reactor with 1>lug flow of fluid s i s considered and n1rying tempera ture policy (44) or s ub st rat e flow rate is e mployed t o maximiz e y i e ld s and / or maintain constant product quality. D REFERENCES I. M. Dixon a nd E C. W ebb, E11:::y111 es 2nd Ed. Acad e mic Pr ess, In c. Ne"' Y o rk, 19 6L 2 S B e rnh a rd, The S lrnc/11r e an d .P11111'1ion of Eu z um e s, vV A. Benjamin, In c N e w York, 1968. :~ H. G u tf r e und A11 I //Lrnd111ti"/I to //, e Study uf E11 z y111 es .J o hn Wil ey, In c. N ew, 19G 5 4 J. M. R e in e r B e / 1rw i"wr o f En ::: !f'Yll e Susl e m.,, Burg ess P uhli s hin g Co 111p a ny Lib of Co ng. Cat No. 5 9-8042 Minn ea p o li s Li, Minn. 19 5 9. ii K. J. Laidl er, T he Kin etics of En z ym e Action, Oxford U niY e r s i ty Pr ess, Lond o n 19 58 (i. J o hn W est l ey, En::: !flll e Ca ta/ y.,i,-;, Harp er and Ro"' N e w York, 1 969. Not es from C ES 700 1 En:::ym e T e clrnolo.<;y and it s F:11gi11 eer i11 r; .41 iplimi'im 1.,, Jun e 1-5, l!J70 U niv. o f P e nn. P hil a., Pa. 8. L. L Ta v larid es, "Enzy m e Kin et i cs L ect ur es," pre sented at Moff et T ec hni ca l Ce nt e r, CPC, Int e rnational, Argo Illin o i s. 9. W W. Windi s h N. S Mha1t e, Mi e rnbial Amylas es," Ad va n ces i n Appli e d Mi c r ob i o l ogy, Vol. 7, p 273 3 04 ( J 9G5). 1 0. K. Mizu saw a, E. Ichi s h im a, F Ya s hida, "P rodu c tion of Th er mo s tabl e Alk a lin e Protease s b y Th e rmophili c S/reptom!}l'es," App l ied Mi crnh i o l o gy VJ7n 3, 366 37 1 ( 1 9(i9). I 1. L. N y iri, Manufactur e o f P ec tinas es ," Pr ocess Bio c h e mi st r y, V:fo8 27 (19G8), M o rgan-Grampian (Pub li s h ers ) Ltd. 1 2. S. Sc h wim m e r A. B. Pard ee "P rin ci ple s a nd Pro ced ur es in t h e I so la t ion of Enzyme," Ad va nc es in E n zy m o l ogy, V14, p 375 1 3 S. Aiba, S K itai, N. I s hid a, J of G e n and App. Mi crobio l. VB, 109 (1962), 1 4. N. C Mahoney, Proces s Bi oc h e mi st ry, V3n9, 19 (1968). Ei. S. Aiba A. E Hu111p hr ey, N. F. Milli s, Bioch e mi c al Enr;i11eeri11g, Acad e mi c Pr ess, N. Y 1965. I G. C Ambler, J. of Bi oc h e m. a nd Mi crnb io c h e m. T ec h a nd Engr., Vl, 185 (19 5 9). L 7. Neppera s, E. A., D. E. Hu g h es, Bi o t ec h & Bi oe ng., VG 247-70 (1964). 1 8 J. W. T Wimp e nn y, Prncess Bi oc h e rn V2n 7, 41 (19G7). rn. J. T. Eclsa l, "Pla s ma Prote in s a nd Th e ir Fra c tiona t i on," Ad\, i n Pl'ote in C h e rn. V 3, 408 (1947) 20 M. Di xo n and E C. W e bb, Enzym e Fr act ionation by Sa l t in g Out: a Th eo r. Not e, Adv. in Prntei n C h e m., V17, l!J7 (196 3) 21. H A. Askona s, B iochem. J. V 48, 42 ( 19 5 1). 22. M. Bi e r ElectnJJil1 // 1"eSis 'l'l, eoru, Me llwd .s an d ~pp l l'tlti,m., Acad e mic Pr ess, In c N e w Yo rk N. Y. 19 59 190 23. M. Bi e r El e ctrn1iltor es i. T/1 e ///'// M e tl,ocl., wu l Appli c a tions, A c ad e mi c P ress, In c ., N ew Y o1 k, N Y (1967) 24. M K. J ou s trn "Ge l Filtration o n A garose G e l s," Mod11. S e p11. Jllle ll111d ., o f Na cH 0111ol e C11f e ~ and Pa1tir-lcH, P r //.
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Th e insid e w ord on t h e outsid e w orl d AIR POLLUTION: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS JOHN H. SEINFELD, California Institute of Technolog y. 1975, 400 pages (tent.), $18.50 (tent.). Here is a quantitative and rigorou approach to the basic science and engineering under l ying the air pollution problem. The most comprehensive single book available on the s ubject, it provides an in depth treatment of air pollution chemistry atmospheric transport pro cesses, co mbustion sources and contro l methods. ENVIRONMENT AL PROTECTION EMIL CHANLETT, University of North Ca rolina at Chapel Hill. 1973, 608 pages, $ 17 50. Solutions Manual ENVIRONMENTAL PROTE C TION is man centered. This book describe s the rationale for the management and prote ct ion of our land, air, water, and energy resour ces. The co nse q uences of mismanagement of the major environmental com ponents are examined at three levels: 1) effects on health; 2) effects on comfort, co nvenience ef ficiency and esthetics; and 3 ) effects on the bal ance of ecosystems and of renewable resources Although scientific and engineering principles are stressed, the material covered is presented in a clear, non mathematical manner to facilitate a broad understanding by relatively divergent groups. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING LINVIL G. RICH, Clemson University. McGraw H ill Series in Weiter Resources and Environ mentcil Engineeri'Ylg. 197 3, 405 pages, $17.50. So l utions Manual While covering a broad spect rum of environ menta l topic s, the focus is on the system as a whole and h ow its co mponents int erac t rather than the components themse l ves. This systems ap proach is used in formulating and analyzing en vironmental phenomena, as wel l as in the se l ection and design of engineered facilities needed for con trolling the environment. Although water environ ment is c onsidered in greatest detail, also in c luded are air pollution and its co ntrol, solid waste man agement and radiological health. The m athe mati cs of systems analysis and co mputer so lution s is u sed extensively. FALL 1974 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT ROBERT V. THOMANN, Manhattan Co ll ege. 1972, 286 pages (tent.), $ 19.50 (tent.) Us ing both mathemati ca l models of environmental respon ses and management and control schemes, the text provides a series of analytical tools for describing and forecasting the effects of the sur rounding environment on the water quality of a st ream or estuary, presents information on water qua lity criteria and wastewater inputs, estab l ishes a point of departure for evaluating the worth of water quality improvement projects and discusses the benefits of app l ying cost / benefit analysis to engineering. SOURCE TESTING FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL HAL B. H. C OOPER, JR., University of Texas at Austin, and AUGUST T. ROSSANO JR., Uni versity of Washington. 1971 278 pages, $ 13.50. A discussion of prin c iple s and methods used for testing of gaseous and parti c ulate materia l s being emitted from industrial c ombustion and other so urce s is presented in this informative text. Organized to give the reader a logical presentation of the s teps taken in source testing, the book in c l udes an extensive examination of the equipment, methodology, sampling, and analytical techniques in use for gaseo us and particulate particles AIR POLLUTION H. C PERKINS, University of Arizona 1974, 4 07 pages, $15.50. So l utions Manual To date, this is the only truly engineering oriented text on the subject that draws upon the student's bac kground in analyzing and so lving problems in air pollution. The treatment is sufficiently detailed to enable chemical, mechani ca l, and sanitary en gineering s tudents to so lv e a var iety of problems. A co mpl e te discussion of the global effects of air pol l ution i s in c luded along with numerous ap p l i ca tions type problems. P rices ub_iect to chcinge without notice. McGRAW HILL BOOK CO 1 221 Avenue of the Americas N Y ., N.Y 10020 191

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Strengthen the McGRAW -HILL Texts Reinforce BASIC ENGINEERING THERMODY NAMICS, Sec ond Edition MARK W. ZEMANSKY, Emeritus, City Co llege of the C it y Un i vers ity of New York, MICHAEL M. ABBOTT and H. C. VAN NESS, both of Ren sse l ae1 Polytechn i c Institute. 1975, 448 pages (t ent.), $15.00 (tent.). So lution s Manual Important changes in this revision include a con s olidation and unification of material resulting in fewer c hap te r s, the ad dition of a large number of worked examples, extensive use of SI units, and u se of the sa m e sig n conventions for both work a nd he at. A l so featlll"ed are an expanded treat m ent of refrigeration and power cyc l es and ex t ens io n of the discussion on flow processes to in clude ad i abatic flow processes, es pecially transonic flovvs. SOUDIFI CATION PROCESSES MERT ON C. FLEMINGS, Massachusetts Insti tut e of Technology. 197 4, 580 pages $19 50. So l u tion s Manual Professor F l e min gs ha s w1 it ten the only book that treats the engineeri ng side of solidificatio n proc esses in depth. Un ique in its app li cation of so li di fication theory, SOLI DIFI CA TION PROCESSES builds on the foundation of heat flow, mass trans port and interface kinetics. Simi laritie s as we ll a s differences betwee n pro cesses are highlighted, and among the processes co n s idered are crysta l growing, shape cast in g, ingot casting, growth of composites a nd sp l at cooling MASS TRANSFER THOMAS K. S HERWOOD, ROBERT L. PIG FORD, and CHA RLES R. WILKE, all of the University of Ca lifornia B e 1keley. 1975, 512 page s (te n t ), $18 50 (tent.) C ompa red t o the 1952 ve rsion Absorption cmd E x t rcictiori, this volume is substa nti a lly more sophisticated, providing a mu c h broader coverage of ma ss transfer. Emphasis i s on the practica l aspects and re a l problems that demand an under s tandin g of theory. Yet, theoretical derivations are minimiz ed by ex pli c it c itation of over 1,100 contemporary r efe r e n ces. PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS JUI SHENG HSIEH, New Jersey Institute of Techno l ogy 1975, 500 pages (tent.), $16.50 (tent.) A clea1 and unified treatment of various thermo dynami c systems, this new text illustrates the w i de range of app li cab ilit y of the basic la ws of thermodynamics. Beginning with a comprehensive review of the first and second l aws, the text ex a mines thermodynamic re l ations for s in g l eand multi-component compressib l e systems; stabi lit y; phase and c hemical equi li brium; thermodynamics of e l astic system, interfacial-tension system, m ag netic system, and e l ectric system; cryogenics; and t he third l aw and negative Kelvin temperatures. INTRODUCTION TO METALLURGICAL THERMODYNAMICS DAVID R. GASKELL, University of Pennsyl vania M c Gra w -H i ll Series iri M at eri cils S cie nc e nnd E n gin eerin g. 1973, 550 pages, $19 .50. Here is a modern text which details the thermo dynamics of high temperature systems encoun tered in metallurgy, via systematic deve l opment of the criteria governing equilibria in metal lurgical reaction systems Use of the thermody namic method is demonstrated by an extensive illustration program using, as examp l es, real sys tems which have been carefu ll y se l ected to illus trate the thermodynami c princip l es involved. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, Third Edition J. M. SMITH, University of Ca li fornia at Davis, and H. C VAN NESS, Rensselaer Po l ytechnic Institute. M c Gmw -H ill S eries in Chemical Engi neering. 1975, 672 pages (tent.), $16 .50 (tent ). Including a new chapter on so lu tion thermody namics, the third edition of this successful funda mentals text maintains a unified treatment of thermodynamics from a chemical engineerin o viewpoint. The chapters on phase and chemicaf: reaction equilibrium have been rewritten and ex panded in order to present a co herent exposition of these topics. McGrawHill Book Company 192 CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Chemical Bond. Student-Professor Relati onships. SEPARATION PROCESSES C JUDSON KING, University of Ca lifornia, Berke l ey. McGrciw-Hill Series in Cherniccll Engi neering. 1971, 7 36 pages, $ 19.50. So lu tions Manual This text stresses the man y co mmon aspects of the functioning and ana l ysis of different separa tion proce sses, such as distillation, absorption, and extraction Modern co mputational te c hni ques for s ingle and multistage separations are co nsider ed w ith the emphasis on an understanding of the various conditions which favor different co mputa tional approaches. THE INTERPRETATION AND USE OF RATE DATA S T UA RT W. C HUR C HILL, U ni versity of Penn sy l van i a. 1974, 510 pages, $19 .50. So l utions Man ual Professor C hur c hill offers a co mpletel y new and unique treatment of the rate processes which i s unified and genera liz ed in terms of bot h pro ced ures and processe s An e l ementary, bas i c cov erage of chemica l reactor design, momentum transfer, heat transfer and co mponent transfer is provided. Discussion foc u ses on raw experimental data rat h er t han on h ypothetica l pro cess e s and data MOMENTUM, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, Second Edition C. 0. BENNETT, University of Con ne c ti c ut Storrs and J. E. MYERS, University of Ca l i fornia, Santa Barbara. 1974, 810 pages, $17.95. Solutions Manual Combining a r ig orous approach to fundam e ntal s with an exte n ded treatment of pra ctica l problems, this revision illu strates basic ideas by applications to industrial pro cesses The reader is offered an understandin g of the principles which govern the operation and design of chemica l and physical processes i n industry. Mathematics t h rough dif ferential equations is us ed freely, but em pirical procedures are also described. New appendixes give s uffi cient data so that the problems can be done without referen ce to a handbook. In addition, 50 1/, of the problem s are ne,v. THERMODYNA MICS, Second Edition JA CK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Uni versity 1974, 608 pages, $16.50. Solutions Manua l. Self-Study Cassettes, $65.00. Self-Study Guide, $3.50. All standard thermodynami cs topics can be cov e red from either the c las s i ca l or stat i stica l view point or from any desi1ed integration of the two with this book. In this revision there is a 60 % expansion of classical thermod ynam i cs and ap pli cat ions. Many new examples and problems worked in both fps and SI units have been added HEAT TRANSFER, Third Editi o n JACK P. HOLMAN Southern Methodist Uni versity. 1972, 496 pages, $ 1 5.50 This elementary text offers a brief and concise treatment of all phases of heat transfer. New features include chapters on environmental prob lems emphasis on numerical techniques in con duction problems and an incre ase in text exa mples. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL: GUIDEBO OK FOR MANAGEMENT AUGUST T. ROSSANO, JR., University of Wash ington, and HAL B. H. COOPER, JR., University of Texas at Austin. 1969, 214 pages, $21.50 The book provides a comprehensive and balanced treatment of the complex technical and ad minis trative nature of a ir pollution problems. A ll major e lem ents of the field are included to provide both a text and background referen ce of the sub ject in one vo l ume. Pri ces subf ec t to chnnge IV'ithout notice 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020 FALL 1974 193

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THE SCIENCE OF SYNTHETIC AND BIOLOGICAL POLYMERS CURT THIES Wnsh ingto11 Uni'cel'situ St. Lou is, Missouri 63130 TH E SCIENCE OF SYNTHETIC and Biological Polymers is a one se mester (15 weeks) in troductory g raduate po l y mer course offered at Washington University that co n s ist s of three hours of le ct ur e per week and carries three hour s of credit. The material presented i s designed to be of value to a range of e n g in eer in g st udent s in cluding those in the materials sc ienc e and bio medi ca l engineering programs. For many stu dents, this i s the only polymer co ur se they take Accordingly, I try to cover a reasonably broad spec trum of material. The depth of presentation i s designed to be s ufficient for the students to apprec i ate the theoretical principles of po l ymer sc ienc e, but it i s not s uffi c ient for them to be polymer specia list s Because the scope of contemporary polymer science ha s become so broad, a one se me ster course ca n never cover more than a sma ll frac tion of the knowledge availab l e Thu s, I am high ly se l ective about what i s presented. Th e c hoice of s ubje ct matter i s prejudiced by m y industrial research experie nc e Re gard le ss of where today's students ultimatel y work, I am conv in ced t hat they will encounter many of the same types of problems that I encountered. These includ e prob lem s associated with se lection of polymers for a spec i fic application, deterioration or change in po l ymer properties with u se, pushing a polymer product to the limit s of it s capabi litie s, and as suming lot-to-lot re li abi l ity of polymer co ntaining product s All of these problems co nstantl y plague polymer u sers Accordingly, I s lant the course material toward po l y mer characterization, se le c tion, properties and weaknesses Being a physical c hemi st, I take a physico-chemical approach to a ll material presented. The fundamental principles discussed are k ept as s impl e and l ogical as I can make them. I try frequently to introduce practical 194 exa mpl es into the le ct ure mat er ial thereby illu s trating the various topics discussed. My e ntire goal i s to maximiz e lon g -term retention of u se ful kn ow l edge of polymers by the s tudent s. COURSE CONTENT TABL E 1 CONTAINS an out lin e of t he co urse mat er ial. I start with po l ymer nomenclature and follow this with a discussion of the chemistry involved in preparing various po l ymers. I then cover polymer c hara cter ization and po l ymer struc ture property re l ationships Polyelectrolytes and proteins are treated after polymer so lution pro perties. In add i tion, I deliberate l y try to include illustrative exa mples of bio l ogical or water-so lu b l e po l ymers throughout the course. This is done pri marily for the benefit of the biomedica l st udents, but the other st udent s benefit too, s ince indu st rial u ses of water so luble po l y m ers a re stead il y in creasi n g. As noted previous l y, a ll topics are ap proached from a po l y m er u ser viewpoint Basic princ i ples are stressed constantly, but the co ur se ha s a definite practical orientation. In order to visua li ze the s ubje ct matter given, it i s appropri ate to discuss in more detai l the seq u e nce of topics listed in Table I. Choice of subject matter is prejudiced by my industrial research experience ... I slant the material toward po l ymer characterization, se l ection, properties and weaknesses ... a physica l chem i st, I take a physico-chemical approach to a ll material presented. The first topic i s nomenclatur e. At times one tends to look upon this as a trivia l topic However, consistent with my efforts to stress fundamentals, I spe nd severa l l ectures on nom e n c lature. These introdu ctory l ectures also enable me to introduc e the basic co ncept s of polymer st ru ct ure. CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Table I COURSE OUTLINE I. Nome ncla ture II. Polymer C hemistry A. Kinetics of polycondensation reactions B. Kinetics of free radical polymerization C Copolymerization kinetics D. Ionic )lolymerization reactions E. Epoxy and urethane c uring reactions III. Polymer C h aracterization A Solution Pro1>erties 1. Solubility Behavior 2. Fractionation 3. Molecular Weight Determination B. Polyelectrolytes and Proteins C. Bulk Properties of Polymers ] The Glass Transition and Crystalli n e Melting Point 2. Viscoelasticity 3. Rubber Elasticity l V. Po l ymer Structure / Pro1>erty Relationships A. Factors That Affect the Glass Transition B. Factors that Affect Crystallinity C. Structural Analysis of Widely Used Plastics The students are exposed to the difference be tween linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers, the meaning of stereoregularity, etc. I do my best to cover a broad spectrum of polymer terms in common u se. The beauty and complexity of biological polymers from a structural viewpoint is introduc ed too. I also expect the students to learn the c hemical str ucture s of a number of widely used commercial polymers ( e. g., polyethy lene, poly ( viny I chloride), etc .). To me, knowing the chemical structures of a number of polymers provides a mental picture of how various polymers differ structurally and lays the groundwork for more meaningful discussion of polymer properties later in the course PREPARING POLYMERS F OLLOWI NG NOMENCLATURE, I spe nd co siderable time going over the chemistry in volved in preparing various types of polymers. This takes about 25 % of the total se mester lec ture time. I feel that spending so much time on polymer chemistry is easily justified, because polymers are constantly u sed under conditions where they depolymerize, oxidize, and / or cross link. All of these reactions cause profound changes in pol y mer properties and occur when polymers deteriorate with u se By stress ing to the students how polymer molecules are assembled, it is logical to point out simultaneously how various polymerization reactions can either be reversed FALL 197 4 Cu rl Thies has been an Associate Professor of Chemica l Engineer ing at Washington Univers ity since January 1973. H e is a native of Michigan. He rec e iv ed a B .S. in Chemistry -from Western Michigan University (1956); M.S. from lhe Inst i tut e of Paper Chemistry ( 1958 ); and Ph.D. in th e Physical Ch e mistry of Polymers with a minor in Chemical Engin ee rin g from Michigan State University ( 1962 ) Prior lo ioining Washington Uni ve rsit y he had an industrial ca r ee r cul minating with th e position of H ead of !he Polymer / Microencapsula ti on Research Section of NCR His res e arch and leaching interests are in the a r eas of colloid and surface behavior of po l ymers, microen capsu lation and po l yme r mixtures to cause deploymerization or altered to ca u se crosslinking. Much of the chemistry discussed relates to condensation, free radical, and ioni c polymeriza tion processes. However, I also discuss the various mechanisms by which epoxy and urethane resins are cured I spe nd time on these latter two families of polymer s because: 1. they are widely used in situations engineers are likely to e counter ( e g., adhesives, foams, and co mposite materials) ; 2. it gives me an opportunity to go over the concept of c ro ss linking and thermoset resins in so me detail. The level of organic c hemi s try presented i s always relatively e lemen tary, but I feel that it s uffic es to ind icate to t he students how the major types of polymerization reactions differ. I stress polymerization kinetics. From the kinetic approach, the students l earn to appreciate that polymer chain l engt h rate of chain growth, etc., differ for the var iou s poly merization process. I try to note h ow these im portant parameters can be co ntroll ed to thereby give the polym er producer a great degree of c on trol over tailoring polymer molecules for spec ifi c end u ses. The kineti c express ion s developed for free radical copo lymerization reactions are a l so d i s cussed. Many copolymers are of sign ifi cant com mercial importance and the st udent s s hould hav e a grasp of the fundamental principles that poly195

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mer produ ce r s u se to minimiz e or avoid for m at i o n of compositionall y h eteroge nou s co polym e r s The di sc u ssio n of copoly mer kin et i cs a l so helps the st dents to appreciate the se quenc e in which mon o m e r s are added to a grow in g po l y m e r c h a in and h ow differ ences in the seq u e n ce of monomer addition l ead to gross cha n ges in polymer s tru ture with concomitant c h a n ges in pr o perties. POLY MER CHARACTERIZATION F O LLOWIN G THE P RESENTATION of po l y m er iz ation reaction s, I d evote a number of l ect ur es to po l ymer characte rization The tech nique s d i scussed fa ll into two broad ca tegories: tho se that u t ili ze po l ymer so luti o n properties a nd those t hat are based on po l ymer b u l k properties. I begin with t h e former. One of the first points I try to make i s that few co mmer c ial polymers a r e pur e. Polymer manufa ct ur e r s in evitab l y a dd to their products a range of add iti ves like li g ht s tabili zers, anti oxidant s, process in g aid s etc Toxicit y of t h ese additives i s of c ritical importan ce to those inte1e ste d in biomedical app li c ations be cause the y ca n be l eac h ed from the polymer matrix durin g u se Thus, I st res s t h at t h e first step to tak e in characteriz in g a pol y m er s ample i s to find out what i s prese nt, including t h e addit i ves. Infrar ed spect ro sco p y i s a co nv e nient m ea n s of doing this. In t h e case of co mpl ex mix ture s, the various co mp o nent s are sep arated by diff ere n ces in so lubilit y Thi s then l eads int o a general d i sc u ss i o n of polymer so lu bil i ty be havi or. I stress t h at so lubilit y in a range of so l ve nt s a nd over a range of temperatures not o nl y e n ab l es o n e to separate comp l ex mixture s a nd fract ionat e pol y m e r s int o diff ere nt mol ec ul ar weight frac tion s, but a l so provides insight into the molecu l ar structure of a po l ymer ( e g., crys talline polymers are mor e in so lubl e than non c ry s talline po l y m ers, cr os s link ed po l y mer s a r e in so lu b l e in a11 s olvent s etc.) Aft er di scuss in g po l y mer so lubili ty, I sw in g in to the theory underl y in g t h e commo nl y u se d metho ds of determ inin g po l y mer mol ec ul ar weight and the m ean in g of the var i o u s m o l ec ular weight average s Includ e d in the prese ntati o n i s a n in trodu ct i o n to ge l fi l tration and gel permeation c hr omatograp hy I spe nd on l y about t hr ee to four l ectures on these topics, beca u se I am s impl y tr y in g to ge t the st ud e nt s to apprec i ate how p o l y mer molecular weights d iff er f o m those o f n o npo l y m eric s peci es I a l so am co n s tant l y warn in g them a lw ays to spec if y what mol ec ular wei g ht 196 average they m ea n when the y quote the molecular wei g ht of a polymer. At thi s point, I begin to discus s what addi tion of ioni c g r o u ps to a po lym e r c hain does to t he po l ymer and thereby deve l op th e co n ce pt of poly e l ect r o l ytes Th e d i sc u ss ion of po l ye l ectro l y te s, in turn, serves a s a l ea d int o a di sc us s i on of pro teins I s p e nd se v e ral l ectures presenting protein s and g l ycoprote in s from a pol y m e r chemist's view point. Th e rea c tions that protein s und e rgo a re not co n s ider ed I focu s e xclusivel y upon their primar y, seco nd ary, tertiary, and quaternary s tru c ture and the influ enc e that intra-or inter-mole c ular bond in g h as upon e ach of these str u ct ur es. A f t e r prot e in s, I tr ea t bulk po l ymer proper tie s Th e concept of g l ass transition (T ,, ) and meltin g po int (T u, ) i s s tre sse d a n d attent i on i s focused up o n how these events affect polymer prop e rti es. Thi s involves showing h ow a polymer's modulu s c han ges as one p asses through T,11 a nd / or T ,,. Th e influen ce o f c ro ss linkin g, c ro ss link den s it y Th e students are exposed to the difference between l inear, branched and crosslinked po l ymers, the meaning of s tereo regularity etc. ... The beauty and complexit y of biolog ical polymer s from a stru ctural viewp oint is introduced and degree of c r ysta llizati o n on the modu lu s / temperature c urv es i s u se d to illu stra t e how s tructural and ,, or morphologi ca l c han ges in a po l y m er influen ce it s properties. At this point the s tructural requirements for a polymer to develop c r ysta llini ty a nd th e co n cept of fo ld e d c h a in po l ymer crysta l s are a l so treated. Thi s i s fo ll owed by a dis c u ss i on of the viscoelastic properties of polymers which in vo lv es go in g through the Voigt Kelvin and four-parameter model s of vi scoe la s tici ty. Th e thermodynamics of rubber e l ast i city i s a l so cove red. Particular e mphasi s i s placed upon th e k ey st ru ct ur a l feature s o f po l y mer s need e d for e l ast i c behavior The fina l portion of th e co ur se i s devoted to a di sc u ss i o n of po l y m e r st ru ct ur e property re l ationship s St ru ct ural factors that favor in creased T" or Tu of a p o l y m er are co n s id e r ed The effect of co polym e ri zat ion upon T ,1 or Tu, of a pol y m er are co n s idered. Th e e ffect of copo l y meri zat ion upon T and the d eg ree of c ry sta llinit y C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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exhibited by a polymer i s also discussed. I try to show how polymer structure plays a key role in determining what properties a polymer has. This then determines the applications for which a polymer is suited. In order to drive this point home, I like to list the T i; and T 111 values for a number of widely used polymers. I then go over the structural features of each polymer and indi cate how these have affected its applications. SOURCE MATERIAL The required text for the co ur se is Billmeyer's Text book of Polymer Science (Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1971). I also have developed a set of le cture notes for parts of the course and pass these out to t h e st udent s. The seq uence of lecture ma terial presentation that I favor differ s sign ificantly from that used by B illm eyer. Since a wide spectrum of s ub jects is covered, I also find that I like to supple ment Bill meyer's text with additional material taken from the reference text s listed in Table II. Thus, I either formulate by own problems, turn to the example problems in Rosen's text, or give the homework problems in Rodriguez's book. My s upply of problems is stead ily increasing but I never have enough. I favor assigning a range of problems that require relatively little time to so lve rather than giving a limited number of problems that require considerable time to solve. This exposes the student to a broader range of problem situations. CLASSROOM APPROACH JNSOF AR AS THE LECTURES are concerned, I try to provoke class participation by routine ly asking lots of questions during the lectures. These are addressed to the class in general (i. e ., anyone can volunteer an answer) and tend to be practical in nature. The questions are designed to establish dialogue between the students and myself during class. In this manner, I become more aware of what concepts they are not grasp ing well and can then spend more time on these. I also try to constantly relate my own experiences with polymers to them and warn them of some of the polymer problems that they are likely to encounter This past year, I was assisted in the course by Dr. Lawrence Nielsen, a Senior Scientist in the Corporate Re sea rch Department of the Mon santo Company and Affiliate Professor in the Chemical Engineering Department at Washington University. He is an experienced polymer physi cist specializing in the mechanical properties of polymers and handled the lectures that dealt with this aspect of polymer scie nce. During his lectures, the s tudents were exposed to a concise FALL 1974 Table II TEXTS FROM WHICH SUPPLEMENTAL COURSE MATERIAL IS DRAWN Text Flory, P. J., "Principles of Polymer Chemistry," Cornell University Press, lthaca, New York, 1953. Saunders, K. J., "Organic Polymer Chemistry," Chap man and Hall, London, England, 1973 Ro se n, S. L., "Fundamental Principle s of Polymeri c Materials for Practicing Engineers," Barne s and Noble, Inc ., New York, N. Y. 1971. Tobolsky, A. V., "Properties and Strn c ture of Polym e rs," .John Wiley & Sons, In c New York, N. Y 1960. Neurath, H., "The Proteins," Second Edition, Academic Pre ss, New York, N. Y., 1965. Rodriguez, F., Principl e of Polymer Systems," Mc Graw-Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y., 1970. Miller, M L., "The Structure of Polymers," Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, N. Y., 1966. S upplemental Material Used Kinetics of polycondensa tion plus rubber e lasticity Organic polymer chemistry, including ionic polymeriza tion processes and cure of epoxy and urethane 1esins. Primarily viscoelasticity. I also make extensive use of the examp l e problems given throughout the text. Factors affecting the glass tran s ition, viscoelasticity. Structure of Proteins. Homework problems. Polyel ec trolytes and free radical polymerizations. survey of the mechanical property behavior of polymers The choice of relevant material pre sented was something only a seaso ned expert cou ld do and greatly strengthe ned the overall content of the course. CONCLUSION Before concluding, I wish to note that the content and arra n ge ment of a course like this one is s ubject to con sta n t modification. I am trying to increase the learning efficiency of the stu dent s without forcing too much knowled ge on t hem too quickly. One mean s of doing this involves improving my sty le of delivery, es1>ecially for those topics which the st udents seem to consistently have greatest difficulty. My approach is to si mplify the presen tation as much as feasible. Furthermore, I am increasing the number of note s to be handed out before a lecture is g iven. In this mann er, I ho1>e to devote more of the lec ture to class discussion. Only time will tell how s uccess ful these efforts are. D 197

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SOLID-STATE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY: Donaghey Continued from page 167. T e chnology, Pr e ntic e -Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1972. 3 R. A Swalin, Th e n n ody n ami c s of Solids, John Wiley and Son s N e w York, N. Y., 1962. 4. N. N. Gr e enwood, Ion ic C ry s tal s Latt ice Def e ct s and No ns toi c h iometr y, Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York, N Y., 1970. 5 K. Na ssa u, "Th e C h e mi st ry of La s er Crystals," in Avpl ie d So l i d St at e S cience Ad v an c es in Materials and D evice R ese cvr c h, R. Wolfe and C. J. Kriersman, e els Vol. 2 A c ad e mic Pr es s, New York, N. Y., 1971, PP. 17 3299. 6. M. Zi e f a nd R. S p e ights, eds., Ultrapurification, M et h ods and T echni q ues M. D e kk e r, New York, N. Y., 1972. 7. H S c hafer C hemic al Tran s v o rt R e a c tions, Academic Pr ess, N e w York N. Y. 1964. 8. W. G Pfann, Zo ne M e lt in g, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N e w York, N. Y. 2nd Edition, 1966. 9. R. A. Laudis e Th e G r o w th of t h e S i ngl e C ry s tal s P re ntic e -Hall, In c Engl e wood Cliffs, N. J., 1972. 10. R. L. P a rk e r, "Cry s tal Growth Mechanism s : Ener g e tic s Kin e ti cs and Transport," in Solid Stat e Physic s ADVANCED THERMO: Luks Continued from page 183. occurrence of a van der Waals "loop" in the re gion of coexistence is a manifestation of the ap proximate nature of the equation of state. 7 Diffusional stability, or immiscibility phenome na, is presented in a manner abstracted from Prigogine and Defay. 8 Margules so lution model s, starting with the "regu lar ," are adequate to demonstrate a broad spectrum of possible im miscibility behavior. Prausnitz's discussion of the subject 9 is a good complement to this topic. 6. Thermodynamics of Mixtures (2 weeks, or whatever time remains). Obviously, two weeks is not enough to do any justice to the practical aspects of the thermo dynamics of mixtures, such as the fugacity and activity concepts. Often, these few lectures are given in a qualitive way to provide an overview of what is presently relevant in chemical thermo dynamics. Thi s is generally all that the non chemical engineers will de s ire while the chemical engineers have refuge in a second course for which thi s course is a prerequisite. The second course is a course in phase equilibria and uses Prausnitz 0 as a text. It will not be discussed here. In closing, it is satisfying to note that Equa tion (3.1-8)-(3.1-14) and Equation (3.4-9)198 Ad v an ce s in R e sear c h and Awli c ation s H. Eh re n reich, F. Seitz and D. Turnbull, ed s ., Vol. 25, Academic Pr e ss, New York N. Y., 1970, pp. 152-299. 11. R. M. Burger and R. P Donovan, eels., Oxidation, Diffu s ion and Evitaxy, Prentice-Hall, New York, N. Y., 1967. 12. S. A. Shaikh, "Chemical Vapor Depo s ition of GaAs 1 xp x Reactor Design and Growth Kin e tics," M. S Thesis, University of California, Berk e ley, Se tember 1972. 1 3 H. R. Camenzind, El ec trnni c Int e grat e d Sy s t e m s D e sign, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, N. Y., 1972. 14. I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish and F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl. Phys., 1 2, 1929 (1971). 15. H. C. Casey, Jr. and F. A. Trumbore, Mater. Sci. Eng., 6, 69 (1970). 16. A. H. Bobeck and H. D. E. Scovil, Scientific Am e ri c an, June 1971, pp. 78 -8 9. 17. 1972 Wescon T e chnical Paper s S e s s ion 8, Mag netic B1tbbl es Institute of Electrical and Electroni c Engi ne e rs, San Francisco, Calif (3.4-17) of Prausnitz,U equations for the proper ties of mixtures with independent variables (P,T) and (V,T) relative to an ideal gas basis (T = T, P = 1 atm absolute), are derivable by stu dents of the core course without recourse to the work of Beattie. 10 REFERENCES 1. Holman, J. P., "Thermody11amics," McGraw-Hill, Inc (1970); 2nd Edition (1974). 2. Reynolds, W. C., and H. C. P e rkin s "Engine e ring Thermodynamics," McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1970). 3. Tisza, L., "Generalized Thermodynamics," M. I. T. Press (1970), ps. 5-38. 4. Callen, H. B., "Thermodynamics,'' John Wiley and Sons, Inc. ( 1960), ps. 3-130. 5 Denbigh, K., Th e Principles of Chemical Equi librium,'' 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Pre ss (1971), See prnb. 8, p. 213-214. 6. Z e leznik, F. J., and S. Gordon, I. & E. C. 60 (6), 27-57 (1968). 7. For e xample, s ee Appendix 9 of T. L. Hill' s "St a ti s ti cal M e chanics," McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1956), p s 41 3 423. 8. Prigogine, I., and R. Defay, "Chemical The r mody namic s ," Longmans (1954), ref. Chapters XV and XVI. D. Prausnitz, J. M., "Molecu la r Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria," Pr e ntice-Hall, Inc. (1969). 10. B e atti e J. A C h e m. Rev. 44 141-192 (1949) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL AND E STIMATION : Edga r Continued from page 1 7 1. This latter approach is an interesting extension of c lassical single loop design. 20 SUMMARY The course s tre sses those elements of modern control theory which a1>1>ear to have the mo st 1>romi se of eventual a1>plications and economic ju st ification The u se fulne ss of the 1>ropo se d tech n ique s is tested via simulation and ex1>erimentation. A pilot plant di st illation column has been chosen a s a prototype sys tem for testing multivariable st rategies; focusing on a r e al system s eems to enhance the students' i n terest. There is no question that use of a computer control laboratory stre ngthen s the overall course, and hopefully the ex perience will motivate the st ude n ts to u se multivariable control and estimation to s olve the ditricult problem s of process 01>eration. REFERENCES 1. Nev ,c ll, R. B., Fisher, D. G., and Sebol'g, D. E., A I ChE J. 18, 976 (1972). 2 Smith, F. E., 'Dynamic Modeling and Contro l of a Fluid Cat Cra~ke!r" 76th Natl. AIChE M ee ting, Tulsa, OK, March, 1974. 3 Sage, A.P., "Opt imum Systems Control," Prentic Hall, England, Englewood C liff s (1968) 4. Bry so n, A. E., and Ho, Y. C., "App li ed Optima l Contrn l, Blaisdell, Waltham (1969). 5. Lapidus, L. and Luus, R., "Optima l Contrnl of Engi neering Processes, Blaisd e ll, Waltham (1967). WHY WAIT ... 6. Kopp e l, L. B., "Introduction to Control Theory," Pr e ntice-Hall Englewood Cliffs (1968). 7. Ogata, K., "State Space Analysis of Control Systems," Pr e ntice-Hall, Engl ew ood Cliffs (1967). 8. D e nn, M. M., Optimization by Variational M ethods," McGraw-Hill, New York, ( 1969). D 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 1 5 Ellis J K., and White, G. W T., Contrnl, Aprll-19 3 Ma y262, J un e-3 1 7 ( 1965). T o paloglu T. and Seborg, D. E., Pro c JACC, 309 (1974). ,Jam eso n, A., IEEE Tmn s Auto Cont ., AC-15, 345 (1970). Huckaba C. E., Franke, F. R., May, F. P., Fairchild, B. T., and Distefano G. P., CEP Syrnp. Ser., 61, No. 55, 126 (196 5 ). O' Co nn er, G E. and D e nn, M. M., C h ern Engr. Sci., 2 7, 121 (1972). Whit e, J. S., and L ee, H. Q., "User's Manual for VASP," NASA TM X-2417, Washington, D. C., October, 1971. Hu Y. C ., and Ramir e z, W. F., A I ChE J., 18, 479 (1972). 16. Edgar, T. F., V e nn eyc huk, J. G., and Lapidu s, L., Chem Engr. Cornrn., 1, 57 (1973). 17. Sc hul dt, S B., and Smith, F. B., Proc. J ACC, 270 (1971). 1 8 Young, P. C ., Contro l Engr., O ctobe r, 119, Nov e mber, 118 (1969). 19. Hamilton, J. C., Seborg, D. E., and Fisher, D. G., A I C hE J., 19, 901 (1973). 20. Ma c Farlan e A. G. J., Autornatica, 8, 455 (1972). MOVE UP WITH MOBIL NOW A COMPANY FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS WHO MAKE THINGS HAPPEN! FA LL 1974 Naturally chemical engineers need all the education they can get. At Mobi l many of our people pursue graduate studies while they work The advan tage? The chemical engineer is thrown into the excitement and challenge of immediate work, gaining practical on-the-job experience. A basic mover at Mobil, the chemical engineer can be found in all functional areas and in every echelon of management. At Mobil the primary need for chemical engineers is and always will be at the Bachelor's level. However we en courage all our employees to take whatever additional studies they feel are necessary In other words they earn while they learn through our tuition refund plan Opportunities for chemical engineers are available in a wide variety of activities in the following functional areas: Research Exploration & Producing Manufacturing Transportation & Logistics Marketing If you're i nt eres ted writ e to: Mr R W. Brocksbank Manager-College R ec ruiting Mobil Oil Corporation D ept. 2 133 150 E ast 42nd Street New York N.Y 10017 M@bil AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER 199

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ENERGY ENGINEE RING C E HAMRIN JR., R. I. KERMODE, and J. T. SCHRODT University of Kentucky L exington, Kentucky 40506 T HE COURSE BEGAN BEFORE t h e s tudent s went home for the Christmas holida ys We asked t h em to find the cost of e n ergy so urc es s u c h as coa l h eat in g oi l gaso lin e, natural gas, and e l ectr i c i ty in their hometown. In add ition to passing out the course out lin e a n d reading ass i g n m ents, the first class period was spe n t tabu l ati n g the students' data. It was interesting to learn that two students from Kent u c k y came from h omes h eated by coa l and the cost of th i s coal was $29 and $3 1.50 / ton. This was quite a jump from the 1971 national average of $ 7 .0 7 / ton! A st ud e n t vo lun teered to s ummarize the data o n ditt o mast e r s a l ong with t h e l atest national averages and on the co mmon basis of / 10 BTU. Another assignment in th i s first part of the co ur se was to find an energy forecas t for U. S. co n s um ption in 1985 or 2000. It was a n ey e-open er for a ll of u s to see the difference in Inter Tech n o l ogy Corp.'s prediction of 99.3 x 10 15 (a co posite of 56 predictions) and C hase Man h attan Bank's 135 x 10 1 BTU / year for 1985. The hazard s of forecasts were further spe ll ed o ut by the r e quired readin g of Doan's article (see refere n ces at e ncl of article). PRIOR ENERGY RESEARCH T .T ENTU CKY WITH VAST COA L reserves re _l~ li es h eav il y on mining for a large fraction of its gross State product. In t h e interest of pr serv in g these markets the Univers i ty of Ke ntu cky (UK) received State fundi n g s tarting in 1972 for coa l research. This mon ey was to be u sed for eco n om i c and tec hni ca l s tudies re l ated to Ken tucky coals. Proj ects in the department of c h e mical eng n eering in c lud ed s u ch topics as high te mp erat ur e s ulfur removal from gases, certa in aspects of hi g h and l ow BTU gasification, su l fur remova l from coa l and a study of the agg l omerat in g character 200 i st i cs of coa l. T h us in t h e Fall of 1972 fo ur grad uat e s tudent s, three undergraduates a nd three post doctoral fellows were carrying out coa l researc h und e r the d ir ection of four facu lt y m e mb ers These nu mbers were augmented i; h e following October when the department rece i ved an NSF -R ANN grant in co njun ct i on with t h e A s hland O il Corporat i on. The focus of t h e :re sea r c h was li quefaction and four sepa rat e proj ects in thi s area were initiat ed at that time. Durin g the s umm er of 1973 it became apparent that an incr easing number of students a nd fac ul ty would be in volved in energy research. It was decided that two co ur ses shou l d be offered, one being a n advanced und ergrad uate-M. S. l eve l co ur se, the other an M S.-Ph.D l eve l co ur se. Th e first was to be a comp l ete survey of a ll types of energy and e n ergy convers ion pro cesses Th e seco n d wou l d be a course in funda m e ntal c h e mi ca l eng in ee rin g principles applied to e n ergy e n g in ee rin g COURSE OBJECTIV ~ S T O PROVIDE THE BROAD backgrou nd needed to und ersta n J the nature of the prob l ems we des i g n ed t h e first co ur se as a series of lectures a nd c l ass di sc u ss ion s that would accomplish t h e fo ll owing: Fam ili arize t h e learners with the sc ope of the e n ergy 11roblem. R e fre s h t h e m w i t h t h e ba s i c e n gi n eering principles n ee d e d to ferret out thos e e n ergy 11ro blems req uirin g e n g in eer in g s kill s for so lu tio n fro m those t hat req uir e oth e r s kill s for s olution. Provide t h e opportuni ty to review in a syste matic fa s hi on certain facet s of inter est, op11ortunity a nd Jiromi se in t h e e n e r gy area. Educate them to t h e ene r gy ba sed raw mat e rial need s of co mm e rc e and i ndu s try 1 iartic ularl y t h e CPI. Ev aluat e t h e s ho rt and lon g term potential s of es tabli s h ed and n ove l e n e r gy c onver s ion and conse r vat ion 1iro cesses a nd pra ct i ces. In the short tim e in which we instigated this first course we foresaw that a consort of teaching fac ul ty wou l d be needed to handle both the broad n ess a n d depth of the course. Prerequisites were CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Charles E. Hamrin Jr. r eceived his B.S. M.S and Ph .D degrees in Chemical Engineering from Northwestern University. He worked at the Y-12 Plant of Union Carbide for six years before jo ining 1he faculty of the University of Denver. H e has been at the University of Kentucky since 1968 where his t eaching has emp ha sized student i n vo lvem en t and discovery. ( BELOW ) R. L. Kermode received his undergraduate education at Case Institute of Technology and an M.S. and Ph.D ( 1962 ) from North western University. He has teaching expe ri ence at Carnegie-Mellon University and the Universit y of Kentucky. His research interests are in th e ar eas of process con trol and coal liquefaction. ( LEFT PHOTO ) J. Thomas Schrodt is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engin eer ing at the U nive rsit y of Kentucky. He received the 8.Ch .E. degree in 1960 and a Ph.D in 1966 from the University of Louisvill e and a M.S. degree in 1962 from Villanova University Dr. Schrodt worked as a Senior R esea r ch Engineer for the Tennessee Eastman Company prior to joining the faculty at U.K. H is teac hing and research i nterest s in -fundamental thermodynamics and heat and mass l ransfer. ( RIGHT PHOTO ) estab li shed for thi s facu l ty; each had to have a profic ien cy i n the basic princip l es and each had to have an expertise in one or more of the e lected areas of energy conversion or consumption. This required in severa l cases that facu l ty from other departments-Professors Cre m ers Hahn, a nd Stewart from the ME Department-had to be called into the association. The prerequisites for st udent s tak in g the course for cred it a mounted to a n under sta ndin g of c las s ical thermo, fluid s and process principles or some equivalent thereof. Students from ot h er discip lin es desiring to audit the co ur se were we l comed to s it in. The final class makeup consisted of 15 und ergraduates, 14 Ch.E's and 1 Ag E. and 16 C h E. graduate students. COURSE CONTENT THE COURSE C ONTINUED as s hown in the course out lin e. Thermodynamics was s um marized in a handout of 20 important eq uation s for e n ergy conversion, conservation, entropy flow, and material transport. Sample problems were worked using a s team turbine to illu st r ate e n ergy FALL 197 4 balances and a chemical eq uilibrium problem with three s imultaneou s reactions occurring. Three homework problems covering a stea m turbine, co mpressibl e fluid flow, and gas ifi er reaction equ ilibria were assigned and represented t he quantative portion of the course. Flow sheets and gas ifi er design for low-BTU and pipeline qua li ty gas, and for liquefaction, were presented during the next severa l weeks. Data from the Morgantown Gasifier of the USBM, for the first time using a caking coal (K e ntucky No. 9), were presented to the c l ass. The o utlet gas co mpo s ition was shown to compare favorab l y with a s imple mod e l of an adiabatic reactor in which the water-gas s hift reaction was at equi librium and methane was being produced by the reaction C + 2H ~ C H Detail s of gas c leanup processes in c ludin g liquid absorption, dry oxidation, and dry adsorption were also discussed. C urrent research at UK in this latter area was also detailed. In addition to the text, New Energy Tech 1wlogy (by Hottel and Howard), a key reference to processes for producing pipeline quality gas was that of Bituminous Coa l Re sea r c h (see reference s). Gasification processes essentially co sist of five major units: gasifier, water gas shift reactor acid-gas removal system, m et hanator, and dryer. Di sc us s ion of the various AGA-OCR-USBM pilot-plant processes e mpha sized the unique fea tures of eac h in terms of these five units. Lique faction coverage was limit ed to the Sasol plant in South Africa and the H-Coal process. In many instances novel learning techc niqu es were used to draw the st udent s into cla ss 1rnrticipation. For exam1>le, the group 1>rocess technique o f role-p la y in g was u sed to discu ss solvent refining of coal. Five grou1>s were formed with l eaders being chosen ba se d on highest first exam sco r es. In hour e ach gro up was asked to co m e 201

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up with a proce ss to remove s ulfur from Western Ken tucky coal (4% S, about half organic s ulfur and half pyritic sulfur). A 2-minute 1ire s entation wa s to be made to the Governor and hi s aide s trying to se ll them on this proce ss as 1>art of hi s $50 million energy package (This bill wa s eventually s igned in the C hemical Engineering Department' s Unit Operation s Laboratory.) Having re ceived the a ignment, one group left the room and we wondered if they would return. The grou r> s in the room became actively engaged in di s cu ss ion, and t ho s e s tu dents doing coal re se arch 11roject s were particularly v ocal. It was the fir st time for many to verbalize their idea s of coal proce ss ing based on cla ss lecture s and out s ide read i ng. No new proce sses evo lv ed but a valuab l e learning ex perience occurred. The remaining co ur se topics were cove r ed in o n e or two sess ion s except for nu c l ear which was pre se nt ed in three l ect ur es. Pr ofessor Bill Co nger of our department covered the hydr oge n economy concept ba sed on hi s research in co llaboration with Dean Funk. Two spec ial c la sses were those l ed by d i s tinguished visitors to the En g ine er in g Co ll ege. Profes so r Jimm y W e n C hairman of the Dept. of C hemical Engin ee rin g a t We st Virginia, gave an excellent ove r v iew of the s hort and lon g ter m so lution s to the U. S. energy problem. Near t h e e nd of the se m este r Professor Ja c k H owa rd co CACHE COMPUTER PROBLEMS author of th e text, gave an extemporaneous talk o n tar sa nd s a nd o il s hale which s uppl e m e nted the h eavy e mph as i s o n coa l during mo st of t h e co ur se. Table 1 ENERGY ENGINEERING COURSE OUTLINE I. E ner gy C on s umption, Demand Tran s 11ortation Storage, and C o s t s ( C EH) II. Thermodynamic Laws Governing C onservation and Av ailability of E n ergy (JTS) ll l. Fo ss il Fuel to Fuel C onversion A Low-Btu Gas (JTS) 8. Pipeline Quality Gas (RIK) C Synthetic C rude Oil (RIK) D. Solvent Refined C oal ( C EH) IV. Dependence of Indu s try on Hydrocarbon Feed s tock s A Petrochemical (JTS) B. Steel, Glass, Fertilizer etc. (RIK) V. Electrical Power Ge neration A. Non-Nuclear (OWS) 8 Nuclear (OJH) VI. Other Energy Sources A. Geothermal (JTS) B. Ma~netohydrodynamic s ( C J C) C Solar ( C EH) D Fuel C ell s (RIK) E. Hydrogen econo m y (WL C) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, in cooperation with the CACHE (Computer Aides t o Chemical Engineering) Committee is initiating the publicat i on of proven computer based homework problems as a regular feature of this journal. 2 0 2 Problems submitted for publication should be documented according to the published "Standards for CACHE Computer Programs" (September 1971) That document is available now through the CACHE representative in y our department or from the CACHE Computer Problems Editor Because of space limitations, problems should normally be limited to twelve pages total ; either typed double-spaced or actual computer listings A problem exceeding this I imit will be considered For such a problem the article will have to be extracted from the complete problem description The procedure to distribute the total documentation may involve distribution at the cost of reproduction by the author Before a problem is accepted for publicat i on it will pass through the following review steps: l) Selection from among all the contributions an interesting problem by the CACHE Computer Problem Advisory Board 2) Documentation review (with revision s if necessary) to guarantee adherence to the "Standards for CACHE Computer Prog ra ms 3) Program testing by running it on a minimum of t hree different c omputer systems Problem s sh ould be submitted to: Dr. Gary Powers Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Penn 15213 CH EMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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DIGIT AL CONTROL: Corripio Continued from page 163. ve loped und e r the project THEMI S r esea r c h g rant at LSU. F o rmula s fo r a ll of t h ese m et h o d s h ave been programmed as a s ubr o u t in e that co putes the parameters of t h e c ontrol a l go rithm g iv e n th e m odes, the sa mplin g int erva l a nd the parameters of a first-order plus dead-time (trans portation la g o r time delay) m o d e l of the process. Th e s tud e nt s use this s ubroutin e, a l so the s ub ject o f a fo rmer term proje c t in thi s co ur se, to obse rv e the r espo n ses produced by t h e different for mul as o n syste m s s imulat e d o n t h e h ybr id co mput er. Th e justification of digital co n tro l co mput e r s i s u s uall y based o n the ease a nd eco n o m y of im p l e m e ntin g co ntrol techniques m o r e sop hi st i ca t ed t han s impl e feedback. The adva n ced techniques of fee dforw ard co ntr o l cascade control, e liminati o n of l oop in terac ti o n thr o u g h decoupling, o n-lin e id e ntificati o n for adaptive co ntrol of n o nlin ea r processes, a nd dead-time co mp e n sat i o n are covered from th e po int of v i ew of d i g it a l versus analog impl e m e nt at i o n T e rm projects in t h ese a r eas are ass igned to individu a l s tudents. Although u se of the h ybr id co mput er i s e n co ura ged with views to the d eve l o pm e nt of demonstration prob l e m s, t h e st udent s do n o t always co mpl y. Th e op timizati o n of stea d y state process ope ration was the fir st type of co m p u te r co ntr o l ap pli c ati o n s and i s st ill o n e of t h e m ost popular. 20-CHEM. ENGINEERIN G 122 8 1 J e rr y A lth o u g h the s ubj ect of op timiz at i on i s cove r ed in detail in a no t her grad ua te co u rse, a n over v iew of the problem i s presented from the po int o f view of o n-line application to processes. Th e t e xt u se d in this co ur se i s Di g ital Co m puter Process Co nt ro l ," published by Int e xt (1972) a nd a uth ored by Dr. Cec il L. S mi t h C h a ir man of t h e D ep artm e nt of Co m p u ter Sc i e n ce at LS U a nd o ri g in ator of the co ur se In add iti o n a co ll ect i o n o f articles cove rin g spec ifi c topics i s u se d as reference ma te ri a l. In s ummary thi s cour se offer s fairly c omplete coverag e of the s ubject of digital computer control of chemical proce sses 1>lu s a working c ontrol of chemica l proce sses, plus a worki ng ex1>erience through the u se of h ybrid s imulation of digital control loop s. S in ce th e s ubj e ct matter i s in a s tat e of ra1>id deYelo1>ment the c our se it se lf i s in a s tate of evolution. Th e s tudent s contribute to t hi s evo lu tion throu g h th e ir t e rm 1>roj e cts and throug h c on s tructive c riti c i s m of th e s ubject matt e r and m et hod s o f pre se ntation. D ----------Parsons is a Good Place to Work! There is no limit to the opportunities offered by Parsons-high salaries good benefits ad vancement professional freedom -and a work environment unequalled anywhere. Parsons is expanding its operations Our new world headquarters will be completed in the summer of 1974 This $20 million, 400 000 square-foot facility was designed specifically for our business It is located in a suburban area near the Rose Bowl in Pasadena Cali fornia close to some of the country s famous universities in case you want to further your academic career-with Parsons tuition aid plan Parsons is one of the leaders in the engineer ing design and construction of petroleum re fineries metallurgical plants and chemical plants. We have prepared a booklet describing the advantages of working for Parsonsfo r your copy of Parsons is a Good Place to Work ," write to Personnel Manager The Ralph M. Parsons Company EN G INEER S/ CONSTRUCT ORS 6 1 7 W es t S e v en th Street. Lo s An geles. C a 900 17 RJP AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER F ALL 1974 203

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF MASS TRANSFER THEORY THOMAS K. SHERWOOD University of Californici B er k e l ey, Cnlif. 94720 Mass transfer ha s always been a ce ntral t heme in chemical e n g in eer ing. We ha ve de ve loped a s 1>ecial c om peten ce in the d es i g n of se 1>aration proce sses from bat c h di st illation to diffu s ion 1>lan ts for e nri c hin g uranium235-and ha ve had littl e co mp etit i o n from other branche s in this area. Perhaps c h e mi ca l e n g in ee ring would not have been d eve lo1> e d as i t ha s if me c hani ca l e n gi ne e r s had st udied ph ys i ca I c hem i s tr y. Th e ba s ic tools avai labl e to the e n g in eer in t h e design of a se paration sc hem e are three: the l aws of c onserva tion of ma ss, e ner gy, and t h e elements; data and theory 1>ertainin g to pha se equilibria; and knowled ge of rates of transport from one 1>ha se to another. The u sua l 1>lan is to accompli s h a prefer e n t ial e nrichm e nt of a de sire d s p ecies in a sec ond pha se, followed b y in ex p e n s i ve mechanical s e1rnration of t h e gases, liquid s, o r s olids. It i s m y in te ntion to talk about t h e third tool of the des i g n e n g in ee r -knowled ge of ma ss trans f er b etwee n phases-with a critical r eview of the r esea r c h over t h e years which h as led to the 1>re se n t state of t hi s art. This is not on l y t h e twentieth anniversary of the department at Houston but the :fiftieth an niversary of the publication of "Princip l es of C h e mi ca l Engineering" by Walker, Lewis, and McAdams in 1923. That book was a milestone, for it estab li shed chemica l engineering as a separate and unique branch of engineering, and stimulated the proliferation of chemica l e ngineering depart m e nt s in many universities. Its focus on the qua ntit ative treatment of the unit operations was cha ll enging and exciting, and the "unit o pera tions" concept served the profession we ll for 3 ome twenty years. The name "chemica l engineering" had been co in ed by Davis in England some fifty years ear li er, and there was at least o ne c urriculum l abe l ed "c hemical engineering" by 1888. The ear l y fo u r-year c urri c ula generally cons i sted of two years of mechani ca l engineering and two years of c hemistry. By 1923 the new approach had much to start with. Physical chemistry was we ll developed; multiple effect evaporation and rectification had been invented in Europe; and t h e ideas of reflux and co untercurrent staging had been recognized a nd ana l yzed. The concept of staged operations appears co be unique to chemica l engineering. Several years ago a we ll-kn own me c hanical e ngineer to ld me that he had visited Oak Ridge and had been as tounded by the plant's capacity to produce uranium 235. I told him that I had understood t h e productive capac it y to be an extreme l y we ll guarded sec ret, and asked how he had learned what it was. He answered that it was si mpl e he had seen the sizes and estimated the r. p. :m. of the c ir c ulating gas co mpressors. I asked him if he had ever heard of reflux. His reply was "No, what is reflux?" There we r e not many chemica l e ngineers in the twenties and ear l y thirties, but mu c h was ac co mpli shed in the development of the unit opera tions. M cCabe and Thiele worki n g within a few feet of each other at M. I. T., independent l y co ceived their graphical representation of Sorel's a l gebraic analysis of binary rectification The now-familiar friction factor graph was imported from England and publicized in this co untry by chemica l engineers The si m p l er staged operations were ana l yzed, and the McCabe-Thiele diagram adapted for gas absorption, so l vent extraction, and l eaching The humidity chart had been in vented by Grosvenor in 1908 and was pub li shed Profe sso r Sherwood's paper is reproduced by perm1ss1on of the copy ri gh t owne r and was taken from: Procee dings of the 20th Anniversary Symposium on Ma ss Tran sfer a n d Diffu sion," of the Department of Chemi cal Engine er in g, Uni vers it y of H o u ston, held April 5-6, l 97 3. Other l ectures presented at the Symposium were: "Tomorrow's Challenges, by H L Toor ; Today 's Problem s and Some Approaches to Their Solution," by P V Danck wer t s; In dustry Pr ob l ems in Ma ss Tr ans fer and Diffu sion," by J. R Fair I n addition the lecturers partici pa ted in a panel discussion on D eve lopm en t s P ast and Pr esen t Copies of t he Symposium are avai labl e at a cost of $5.00 by writing to : Herbert Kent, Executive Off i cer, ChE Dept of Houston Ho uston, Te x a s 77004 204 CH EMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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in Volume 1 of the Transactions of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, greatly simplify ing analyses of drying and air c o nditioning. EARLY PERIOD I N THIS PERIOD OF some twe1:ty years pr.ior to Wo r ld War II the emphasis was on -che collection and correlation of data intended to be of direct use by the practicing design engineer. Industry had few such data and published little, so schools felt a re13ponsibility to fill the need. This urge to be immediately helpful to industry has largely disappeared today; research in schools is now along more scientific and theoretical lines, hopefully of value to industry a generation hence. Our rapport with industry has suffered. Resear ch on mass transfer between phases was strong in the twenties and thirties even as it is today. Then, as now, the research was mostly by academics. The film model had been invented by Nernst in 1904, and by others around the turn of the century. This was elaborated by Whitman and Lewis [20, 37] through the concept of additivi ty of resistances of two phases in contact. Murph ree [22] defined a useful plate or stage efficiency, which was shown to be related to rate coefficients. The main v ariables affecting plate effic iency contactor design, fluid properties and the nature of the phase equilibria-were elucidated in numerous thesis investigations by graduate s tu dents. But the most remarkable thing about this period was the obsession with studies of packed towers. Most of the experimental work was carried out in 2and 3-in. columns, much too small to provide useful design data for the in dustrial process engineer. Data were obtained on flooding, holdup, and pressure drop as well as mass transfer rates, and correlations based on dimensionless groups were developed, without much reference to any valid theory The profes sion seemed to have a one-track mind and the AIChE was referred to as "Packed Tower Insti tute." Important as packed towers were, and con tinue to be, it appeared that academic investi gators had lost their sense of perspective, neg lectin g other problems of similar relevance and importance. Let me tu r n now to a review of the develop ments of the theory of mass transfer processes, ) with a few critical comments as to which of these seem now to be of importance, and which do_not. Even in the twenties we were in moderateFALL 1974 ly good shape as to how to deal with diffusion within a single phase. Physical chemists had pro vided us with an understanding of diffusion in gases, and by 1934 we had semi-empirical cor relations of diffusion coefficients i n binary gas systems. The classical kinetic theory has since been developed to allow for interactions between un lik e molecules, and the modern kinetic theory is adequate for most engineering purposes. There s till is no adequate theory of the liquid state, however, and we must rely on inade q uate em pirical correlations of diffusion coefficients in liquids. Chemical engineers have been major con tributors to the development of the useful corre lations now ava ilable. T HE MAIN THRUST of the theoretical studies has been quite logically on mass transfer be tween phas e ::; since the understanding of the factors which determine the rate of transfer is the basic objective. If the flow past the interface is laminar, analysis is often possible by combining the trans port relations with equations describing the flow field. This has been done successfully for laminar flow in tubes, rotating disks, falling liquid films on inclined or vertical surfaces, over spheres, and creeping flow around spheres. The theoretical analyses for such cases are sometimes better than t he e xperimental data. Perhaps ChE is emerging from an era of empiricism .. we have much concern with complex physical phenomena, and we have not yet arrived at the point where all can be left to the comp,uter. In indush ial practice, however, the flow past the mass-transfer interface is usually turbulent, and attempts at theoreti ca l analysis have been frustrated by the lack of an a dequate under standing of turbulence-especia ll y of turbulence ~ 11ear a phase boundary. Whatprogress has been made is due as much to chemical engineers 'ls to specialists in fluid mechanics. The early approach vas to develop empirical corte lations relating dimensionless groups, such as the mass-transfer Nusselt number and the Reynold and Schmidt numbers. This was hardly a theoretical approach in any real sense, but has served a useful purpose over a p~riod of many years. -;-~ ~:-205

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One theoretical approach which has fascinated so many workers is the development of the so called "analogies" between mass, momentum, and heat transfer. If these could be successful, they would provide a way to use the accumulated body of knowledge regarding turbulent flow of fluids for the prediction of mass and heat transfer coefficients. The first of these was the Reynolds analogy, which stated that the Stanton number for heat transfer should be equal to one -h alf the Fanning friction factor. This came close to fitting experimental data on heat transfer in tubes with gases in turbulent flow, but not for water or oils It made no allowance for the different mole cu l ar properties of the fluids. Attempts to clarify the situation focussed on transfer from a turbulent fluid to a solid surface, as in the case of fully-developed turbulent flow in a round tube Consideration of transfer be tween two fluids, as from gas to liquid, or be tween two immiscible liquids, came later. It was well established that in pipe flow there is no slip at the wall, so it seemed logical that turbulent mixing c ould play no part in the transport mechanism as the distance from the wall ap proached the mathematical limit of zero. In this limit the mass transfer flux should be propor tional to the flux power of the molecular diffu sion coefficient, D. The main turbulent stream is so well mixed that solute is transported radially a t fluxes much greater than can possibly be ex plained by molecular diffusion. In the two limits of the wall and the main flow the radial flux is proportional to D' and D, respe c tively. It is not surprising that most of our mass transfer corre lations sho w the mass transfer coefficient to be proportional to D", where n is between zero and unity. The spectrum of motion from eddies to mole cules is suggested by this little verse-authorship unknown: Big size whirls have little whirls That feed on their velocity And little whirls have lesser whirl s And so on to viscosity. It seems logical to assume that molecular and eddy diffusion take place in parallel, and that the flux toward the wall can be expressed by a ver sion of Fick's law in which the "total diffusivity" is the sum of the molecular diffusion coefficient, D, and the eddy diffusion coefficient, E The first is a property of a binary mixture, but the eddy coefficient E depends on the nature of the flow and the distance from the wall. By the late twenties the early "stagnant film" model was realized to be a gross oversimplifica tion. Whitman, who is often mistakenly quoted as having applied it rigorously, noted in 1922 that a sharp boundary was assumed between the stagnant film and the turbulent core, but that "actually no such sharp demarcation exists." Whitman and Lewis did not advocate the film model; their papers developed a way to add the resistances of two fluid phases in contact. ANALOGIES SINCE MASS TRANSFER at a phase boundary depends on the varying eddy diffusivity it is evident that any theory of the overall process will necessarily require a theory of the variation of E with the flow conditions and the distance from the wall. The first attempt to allow for the large variation of E with distance in the vicinity of the wall was made in 1932 by a well-known chemical engineer, the late E. V. Murphree [22 ] Murphree assumed the total diffusivity to vary as the cube of the distance from the wall, y, up to some limit y,, beyond which the parabolic velocity defficiency law determined the nature of the flow in the bulk or turbulent core. This semi-empirical approach corre l ated data on heat transfer in pipes over a limited range of Prandtl numbers, which the Rey nolds analogy had failed to do. 1939 saw the publication of Von Karman's elegant analysis [34] of the possibilities of de veloping a unified theory of mass, heat, and moProfessor Sherwood joined the Berkeley faculty in l 970, after spending most of his professional life at M.I.T After five years with the O.S.R.D during the war, he was Dean of Engineering at M.I.T from 1948-1954 Many of his publications have dea lt with various aspects of mass transfer, and "Mass Transfer is the title of a new book now in press, written jointly with R L Pigford and C. R. Wilke He is the recipient of the Walker, Found er's, and Lewis awards of the AIChE, the Murphree award of the A.C. S ., and the Presidential Medal for Merit. 206 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATIO

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mentum transport from a turbu l ent stream to a so lid wall; this had been a fascinating idea s ince Re yno ld s' time. Eddies appear to transport mass, heat, or momentum by simi l ar if not identical processe s so it see med l ogica l that E co uld be equated, or related to, the eddy viscosity The s imila rity of the three processes is suggested by co mpa ring the Reynolds modification of the Navier-Stokes equations for turbu l ent flow in t he x-d ire ction: It is noted t h at the s imilarity i s not co mplet e: m o mentum is a vector but temperature and mole fractions are scalars. The first equation has an extra term involving pressure gradient. Further more, as B eddingfield and Drew [ 1 ] ha ve shown, the equation for mass transfer is va l id as w ritten on l y for low concentrations of the s pecies being transferred if diffusion ve locities are to be re lated to a plane of no net mo l al transport in order to gain the advantage that D in binary gas syste m s is t h e n independent of concentration. A remarkable general corre lat ion of ve lo city profiles for turbulent fl ow in pipes had been deve lop ed by workers in fluid mechanics, from w hi c h th e eddy v i scos i ty co uld be obta ined Velocity profi l es for both gases and liquid s over a wide range of Re y nold s number s were repre se nted by a s ingle curve of u + vs. y +, where u + i s a dimensionles s local velocity, and y + the d im e n s i o nl ess distance from the wa ll. The eddy v i scos it y is obta in ed from the s l ope of this curve Von Karman wrote s impl e equations for three seg m e n ts of the u + ,-, y + fu n ction, and differentiat ed t h ese to obta in the eddy viscosity as a func tio n of y He t h e n assumed the eddy d iffu sion coe fficient to be equa l to the eddy viscosity, and int eg rat ed t h e hea t flux eq u at i o n from wall to FALL 1974 bulk fluid. The result was an eq uation relating the Stanton number for heat transfer to the fric t i on factor and the Prandtl number, which agreed quite w e ll with data on heat transfer data for gases and various li quids The correspo n ding equa tion for mass transfer i s eas il y obtained and ha s t h e sa m e form. Von Karman's pub li cation prec ipi tated a minor ava lanche of variations of the analogy idea and these are st ill co ming out (33, 35, 36) Von Karman's ana l ys i s can be under stood by noting th e bas i c equations e mplo yed, here written for m ass transfer: TQ = C u+ = I -2 r 2fpUAv""r; u+;;;_o Ay+=(ro-r)OAv II UAv f ll 2 ( 4) ( 5 ) E Iv = _r dy+ I v rw du+ Eo/v (6) J A = kc ( C Av Cw ) = ( D + ED) ( 7) I OAv St=~= 2A + f (Sc) f f ( 8) The function of the Schmidt number ste m s from the assumed relation between u + a nd y + ; the var i at i on of St wit h the Re y nolds numb er appears in the friction factor. Various s implifying assumptions are involved in arriving at the l ast eq u at ion by the derivation o utlined Most of these are reasonab l e t h ough it i s n ow kn ow n that E 1 a nd E, ma y differ s ub s tantially. In fact Von Karman's a n a l ys is, and lat e r TP od ification s of it represent heat transfer data for turbulent flow in pipes quite well. Most of the h eat transfer data involved Prandt l num bers in the range of abo ut 0.5 to 35. The t h eory fai l ed, howev e r for heat transfer to li q ui d m eta l s, whic h hav e very sma ll Prandtl number s. Of more importan ce in c h e mi ca l engineering, the ana l ysis failed ser iou s l y for hi g h Schm i dt num bers. In the liquid syste m s of intere st to c hemical engineers the Schmidt num bers range from se veral hundr ed to severa l thousand. Much re207

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sea r c h ha s been directed towards improving this s ituati o n by modifying the ana1ogy approach. In liquid syste m s with high Schmidt number s the c onc e ntrati o n boundary la ye r i s exceedingly th in that i s, almost all of the co nc e ntration drop occur within a few mi c r o n s of the wa ll genera ll y at y + from zero to perhap s 2. There are essentiall y no datn op the ve l ocity profi l es in thi s region; it i s too c l ose to the wall for mea s urem e nt s by Pitot tub es Furthermore, s inc e in this region u + and r are v e ry n ear l y equal, the precision in getting E, by Eq 6 i s very poor. It appears now that it may b e ome ye ars before we hav e a quantative und erstand in g of this region very n ea r the wall; current resear c h u s ing opt ica1 techniques indi cates that the flow patterns there are quite com pl i cated In thi s dilemma, num e r o u s a na1 ysts hav e s impl y ass umed the n eeded function. An yo ne ca n d eve lop a n ew "analogy" by doing this. It doesn't matt e r wheth e r one assume s a n ew u + ----y + re lation or E as a function of y +, or, m ore directly El) as a function of y or y + B y trial a nd er ror one can fin d a ba s ic function which will l ead to a n int egrated final eq uation fitting the data over a wid e range of Prandtl and Schmidt number s. JT SEEMS TO ME that there hav e been mo re "analo g ie s" developed in this way than we hav e any ne e d for. Most inv o lv e too much of an aspect of a s umin g th e an wer to be called theoretical acco mpli s hm e nt s What we seem to n eed i s n ew and better technique s for st ud y in g the wall region. Nedderman [ 23 ] and Fow1es [29] hav e emp lo yed optical method s to record direc tion and peed of particles flowing very near the wall. Interferometric and la ser techniques ma y wol'k, a nd Kline 's photographs [ 18 ] of dye streaks and tiny bubb l es are fascinating. A1ready the idea of a l am inar s ubl ayer h as been made obso lete-by observation, not by t h eory Now let me go back to 1934 and com m e n t on th e remarkably s imple a nd useful C hiltonCo 1burn ana l ogy, which may be expressed in t h e form I s usp ect that thi s was ba s ed on (a) t h e observa tion that the s imple Reynold s a n a lo gy h e ld for h eat tran s fer when Pr wa s n ear unit y, (b) t h e fact that P 6 3 h a d been hown t h eoretica ll y to 208 a pply to transport through a laminar boundar y l ayer, (c) the apparent validity of the s impl e e mpirical function 1.0 Pr 2 / 3 to represent heat transfer data over a limited range of Pr, and (cl) an intuitive guess that because of the s imilarit y of the m ec hani s m s of h eat and mass transfer k 10 2 .-,--;.---_---r--r-----1 ~-1 o -S t ::-=38 7 ll03 ot S c =I. O J o Heal T ransfe r .. ..., .& Mass Transfer V K "-.~ O McAdams Hea t on o rmo .!!__ :,:.. -. Transfer lo Ga ses ... ____ / / 1 Re : 10 ,00 0 Wason o nd W i Ike .. 1 o ~ ~~ 0 ,b ----i1 o o ---ccc : ~ ~ -o -~ ~ 1t). ~ o Sc ;;;;: .1!. o r P, E Cp," D k FIG. l Plot of Sc vs Pr for Re = l 0,000. s hould vary with Sc in the sa me way that h does with Pr. In any case it ha s been found to agree s urpri sing l y well with a lar ge amount of subse quent data. The first eq ualit y see m s to be ge neral for turbu l e nt flow; and seco nd when there is on1y "sk in fr iction" with no form drag, It i s interest ing that the proper c h oice of constants in Murphree's analysis will make it agree with C hil ton and C o1burn [5]. Let m e s ummarize this review of the ana1ogies by s ho w ing how severa l of them compare with data on heat and ma ss transfer for fully de ve l oped turbulent flow in a tube. Figure 1 is a graph o f St vs. Sc or Pr for Re = l0,000, with lin es representing five of the better-known analo g i es Th e open c ir c l es represent data on heat transfer to gases, water, oils, molten salt, organic liquid s, a nd aqueous so lution s of sugars. These were co ll ecte d from the extensive literatur e b y Fri e nd and Metzner [ 11 ] The so lid points at larg e Sc repre se nt the exce llent data of Myerink and Friedlander [ 21 ] and of Harriott and Hamilton l14] on the dis so lution of tubes of s lightl y so lubl e s o li d o r g anic ac id s The so lid points at 0.6 < Sc < 2.5 a r e G illiland' s data 1_12 ] for vaporization of li quid into air in a wetted-wall co lumn McAdam corre l atio n for heat transfer to gasses is shown a lin e A -A. At Sc = l, all of the line s s hown pass near St = l /2 f = 3.87 x 10 \ which the Re y nold s a nalog y require s Friend a nd Metzner' s line passe s through t h e data pont s, as i s perhaps to b e e xC HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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pected, s in ce their analo gy i s based o n t h e data points represented by the o p en circ l es. T h e re ce nt ana l ogy deve l o p ed by Notter and Sleicher f 24 ], based on ca r e full y se l ected h eat tra n sfer data, agrees c lo se l y with Friend and Metzner. Th e Von Karman lin e, based o n the ge n e r a l c or relation of ve l ocity profil es, does poor l y. Thi s i becaus e Von Karman to o k th e e dd y diffu ivi ty to be zero from th e wall to y + = 5; i t i s n ow c l ear t hat a very s m a ll amount of eddy diffusion at l ow va lu es of y + ca n be quite imp o rtan t at l arge Sc. Th e m os t remarkab l e thing abo ut this co mpari so n is the fact that the C hilt o nCo lburn a nal ogy does as well as it do es ; their eq u at i o n wa proposed at a time when th e re w e r e no data on heat t r a n sfer above a P r of about 20, and n o data o n m ass transfer a t Sc greater than 2.6. It i s also notabl e that this g raph represents a n e n o rm ous ra n ge o f flow co nditi o n s a nd of ph ys i ca l p r ope rti es of t he fluid s. I h ave discussed t h ese a nalo g i e at so m e l e ngth beca u se t h ey co n s titut e a m a jor e ffort to develop a th eo r y o f mas s t ran s fer between phases in th e import a n t turbu l e nt r eg im e There a r e a l so the "models," of which the first was t h e "stag n a nt fi lm mod e l. It impli es that t h e trans port rate s hould be proportional to the fir st power o f the m olec ular diffu ion coeffic i ent, which i s not true, but it can st ill be s u ccessfu ll y e mpl oyed for a variety of purpo ses It g iv es reliab l e pre dictions of th e ratio of the ma ss tra n sfe r flux with s imultan eo u s c h e mi ca l reaction to that at tained wit h out c h emical rea c tion und er s imil ar co nditi ons. It does equally well in pred i ct in g t h e e ffect of co nv ect iv e flux es in the direction o f diffu s i on o n th e rate s of mass or h eat transfer. INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER NUMERO US MODELS OF the co ndi t i o n s at a ph ase b o undar y h a v e been pr opo eel to pro vide a ba s i s for a t h eory of interph ase ma ss tra n sfe l'. Th e three best kn ow n are the stag n a nt film mod e l the penetration theory, a nd t h e t urbu l e nt bo und a r y l aye r model. The a ll owa n ce for t h e variation of e dd y diffu s ivit y with distance from the wall as in the analogie s, i s th e basi s of t h e turbu l ent boundary l ayer m odel. Th e penetratio n model picture s s mall fl ui d e l ment s contacting th e ph ase boundary fo r br i ef periods during whi c h transient diffu i on cc ur s, and then bei n g repla ce d by fresh flu id fro m t h e bu lk. Thi s wa s s u ggested by Higbi e in 1935 [ 16 ] FALL 197 4 as appl i cable to b u bble moving in a li quid, and to ga s -l i qu i d co n tac tin g in pa c k e d towers wh ere fres hl y mix ed liqui d i s s uppli ed to s uc cess iv e pac kin g e l eme nt s It l ead to th e concl u sio n that the transport flux sho uld be proportional to the s quar e root of the m o lecul a r diffusion coefficient. Thi s h as been fou nd to be approx im a tel y t rue in a wid e variety of flow syste m s, inc l uding t he ab so rption of s paringly so lubl e gases in pac k ed to wer s An important exte n s i o n of the penetration theor,v w as proposed by Pr o f esso r D a nck we rt s in 1951 r 7] Whereas Hi gb i e had taken the exposure time to be t h e sa m e fo r all of t h e re p eate d con tacts of the fluid with t h e interface, D a nck we rt s e mpl oyed a w id e spectr um of c ontact t im es a n d averaged t h e vary in g d egrees of pen e trat i o n Like the Hi gbie m ode l t hi s co n cept l eads to th e co n clus i o n t h at the transport flux s h o u ld te pr opo l' t i o nal to t h e sq u are root of D. It i n ot ge n era ll ,v be liev ed that fluid edd ie s r eac h a fixed in terface, suc h as the w a.1 1 o f a t u be, b ut t her e i s in c r easing e vid e n ce that th i s m ay b e so Th e model makes part i c ul ar l y good se n se w h en a ppli e d to co n di ti o n s at the int e r face between a gas a nd a st ir red li qu id. Watching t h e s urfa ce of a swift bu t de e p riv er, o r of a well st irr ed liq uid in a l aborato r y vesse l it is n ot ha rd to d i scern fluid ele m ent s w hi c h co m e up from below and t h e n appear to m ove back d ow n after br i ef pe ri ods of co n tac t w i th t h e a ir at the s ur face. A s app li e d in th e simp l est cases, th ese fo ur models l ea d to t h e fo ll owing e qua tio n s fo r t he mass transfer c oeffic i e nt k, .: D ~ = t, Y 0 (IO) ( I I ) Surface~Renewa I : kc = jDs ( 12) Turbulent Boundary Layer: UAv k = c f.+ f7l f(Sc) t T ( I 3) The fir st three, to be u sef ul, require kn o wled ge of t h e e ffe c tiv e film t hi c kn ess, y 0 t h e co nt act 209

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time t, or t h e fractio nal rate of s urfa ce renewal, s The l ast re qu ir es that f i (Sc) be spe cified w hi ch cou l d be done if the var i at i o n of ed d y diff u s ivit y t h rough t h e bo und ary la yer were kn ow n Littl e i s known about y 0 t, s, or f (Sc), so as theories all four models a r e in co mpl ete. It i s intere st in g t h at t h e m o d e l s descr i bed per haps owe their or i g in to Osborne R eynolds [ 27 ] who wrote in 1874 that the h eat flux to a wall i s proportiona l to t h e i n terna l diffusion of the fluid at and near the s urfa ce," and tate s that the h eat flux depends o n two t hin gs: 1. t he natural in ternal diffu sio n of the fluid when at rest a nd 2. the eddie s caused b y the vi s ible motion w hich mi xes t he fluid up and continually brings fresh particle s int o c ontact w ith the s urface. The fir st of these ca u ses i s ind epe ndent of the ve lo city of t h e fluid ... T h e seco n d ca u se, t h e effect of the e ddi es, ar i ses e n t irel y from t h e m ot i o n of t h e fluid ... SIMULTANEOUS CHEMICAL REACTION I T I S NOT POSSIBLE fo r me to cover mu c h of the deve l opme nt of t he var i o u s th eor i es u sed in practice by c h e mi ca l e n g in eers, eve n in the re st r icted area of ma s tra n sfer, but l et m e co m m ent on two ot h er im porta nt t h eoretical deve l op ments. The first i s m ass transfer wit h s imul taneou s c h em i ca l react ion the s u bject of num erous papers in o ur journals T hi s s t a rt ed in 1929 by Hatta [ 15 ], who e mpl oyed t h e film m ode l to develop a theory of gas absorption followed by reaction in t h e liquid as in the absorption of CO, by a lk a lin e so lu t i o n s F o ll ow in g H at t a t her e h as been a proliferat i o n of theoretical a nal yses of all kin ds of cases thought to be of prac tical im portance a nd u sefu l ge n era li zat ion s, n otab l y by Hoft y zer and Van Kreve l en [ 17] a n d by B r i an [3, 4]. Hatta's u se of t h e film mode l was suspect, but D anc kw erts a nd Kenn edy [8] h ave shown that the penetration model gives essentia ll y t h e sa m e resu lt s in m a n y instances The se theories do n ot predict rates of ma ss transfer but ge ne ra ll y lead to eq uation s express in g t h e e nh ance m ent of the rate by the s imul ta n eous react i o n that i s, the rat i o of t h e rate w i t h c h e mi ca l reaction to that for physical ab sorptio n Professor Danckwerts' rece n t book [ 9 ] s umm ar i zes the w h o l e s ub ject, w ith spec i a l refer e nce to t h e absorption of aci d gases by a lk a lin e so lu tions, so imp orta nt in t he manufa ct ur e of h y dro ge n a nd of sy nth etic n at ural gas It mi ght see m that so me of the cases analyzed 210 w ill n ever find practica l app li cation, but o n e ca not predict. When I recentl y h ad occas i on to a n a l yze the process of SO absorptio n by a sus pe n s i o n of lim esto ne particle s in a stack g as c rub ber I was s ur prised a nd pleased to fi n d this It is not genera lly believed that flu id edd i es reach a fixed int e rface, such as the wall of a tube but there is i ncreasing evidence that th i s may be so. case ana l yze d in a p u blished paper (26). How ever, i t may be t h at we are runn in g int o t h e law of d i m i n i sh in g ret urn s in p ur s uing these a nl yses, a n d that more exper im e nt al st udies are in o r der. Th ere i s nothing lik e a surpris in g n ew fact to st imul ate th e deve l opme n t of better co n cepts a nd t h eo ries. Another area in which we h ave made great p r ogress i s that of diffusion and react i on in porous cata l ysts. This s ubject i s of great practical importance because of the e n ormous success of ca t a l ytic processes in t h e chemica l and petroleum industries. The pioneering papers of the U. S. c h emica l e n g in eer Thiele [32 ] a n d the Russian Zeld ow it sch [38 ] in 1939, s tarted a flurry of ex per im e n ta l a nd t h eoretical s tudie s. We hav e now l ea rn ed a l ot about bu lk and Knudsen d i ffus i on in pores of si m ple geo m etry, a n d are begin nin g to tack l e th e m uch m ore difficult prob l em of su face diffusi on All kind s of cases ha ve bee n a n a l yzed, ass umin g both power -l aw and Lang muir-Hin she lw ood kin et i cs, heat effects, and var i ous geometr i cs of th e cata l yst particle. T h e decrease in the e ff ect i ve n ess factor w ith increase in part i cle size is un derstood at l east qualitative l y, alt h ough I find highl y successful cata l yst re sea rch pe o ple in indu stry who u e the theory so li ttle t h at t h ey think a l ow effective n ess factor indicate s a re l at iv e l y in act i ve catalyst. Apart from the prese n t myster y regardi n g s u rface diff u s i on the st um b lin g bloc k s to better development of the t h eory wo ul d a ppear to be i nad equate und erstanding of t he mechanism of surface cata l ysis, and th e difficult y of descr i bi n g t h e comp l ex structure of a porous so lid by one or two numb ers Many indu str i a l processes involve the absorp t ion of r eact in g gases by a li qu id conta inin g sus pended part icl es of a catalyst T hi s operat i on was descr i bed qua n titat i ve l y in 1932 by three c h emists [ 6 j, who s howed t h e merit of plott in g the recipro CHE MI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ca l of the rate vs. the reciprocal of the ca talyst l oading in the s lurr y The inter cept, correspond ng to in finit e catalyst l oad in g, i s a measur e of the mass transfer resistance to t h e absorption of t he gas The s ituati on ha s been generally und e stood by c hemical engineer s for 40 yea r s b ut t h ere ar e st ill so m e chemi sts who attempt to analyze uch proces ses by power-law or other kinetic s when the co ntr o llin g factor i s actua1ly the rate of gas absorpt i on. THE MARANGONI EFFECT F IN ALLY, LET ME CO MME T briefly on t h e phenomenon of interfacial turbulenc e, or the Marangoni effect Spontaneou s e mulsificati o n of two liquid s h as been known for m a n y yea r s, but the imp orta nt role of interfacial turbulence on ma ss transfer at an interfac e was brou g ht forcibly to the attention of c h emical e n g ineer s by Lewi s and Pratt in 1953 [ 19 ], and b y Jim W e i [28] in the course of his doctorate re sea rch in 1957 As ma ss transfer takes place, the so lute concentra t ion and conseq u ent l y, the int e rfacial tension vary from s pot to pot over the s1.,1rface Thi s causes spreadi n g and contraction of the s ur face elem e nt s, which "is so rapid that the m o mentum of the spreading liquid i s s uffi c ien t to break the ce nt er of the poi n t source and e xpo se s ubjacen t liquid drawn from below the s urfac e (10) ." The result i s s urface renewal, usuall y with development of rippl es, and an increa se in the rat e of mass transfer. The effect depend s on the direc tion of th e mas transfer flux, and the p h e nom e non obviously introduce new and difficult prob lem s in attempts at theoretical analyse s of ma ss transfer between two fluid phases. Resear c h directed to an understanding of the ro l e of interfa c ial turbulence on mas s transfer has proliferated in the l ast twent y ye ar Thi s i s proper, since t h e effect can b e quite l arge, and re quires major adjustment of the simple two-film picture. Excellent picture s of the ph e nomenon have been published by Dr H. Sawi tow s ki of Im perial Co ll ege, London, and b y others. Th e first important theoretical attacks appear to be those of Pear son [ 25] and of Sternling and Scriven [3 0 ] ; Br i an's recent introdu ct i o n of t h e G ibb s la yer ad so rpti o n exte nd s the theory a nd is evident l y a maj or co ntribution [2]. But the theory of t hi s phenomenon, of real practical imp or tan ce, i s sti ll in its in fa n cy. Its development to the point of practical application in design pre se nt s a challen ge to c hemical engineers in c lin e d toward FALL 197 4 t he o re t ic a l s tudie s Do not tackle i t without a thoroug h background in physical and colloid chemistry. C h e mi ca l eng in eers can be proud of the de ve lopm ent of the profession since Walker, Lewis, and McAdams in 1923. The chemical and petro l e um indu st ries have prospered, with the help of U .S.trained chemical engineers. Plants have been b uilt and operated successfu ll y, usually at a profit. But our co ntributions to the theory of mass transfer between phases have not been re m ark ab le, at l east ,vithin the definition of a theory as be ing va lid for quantitative n pr rio ri predictions useful in des ign A major diffi c ult y is t hat w e desire theories applicable in turbu lent flow, and not mu c h bas i ca lly new has been learned about tu rbul ence in the la s t 40 years. How ever, c hemica l engi neer s ha v e de v eloped a unique ski ll in using the f01m of a theory A modes t theory is better than no theory at a ll. Even the simp l e equation q = UA L'i t for heat transfe1 enab l es us to eliminate two variab les and co ncen t rate our attention on the manner in which t he heat transfer c oeffi ci ent varies with t he ge ometry a nd the fluid flow. There are many exa mple s of thi s The Van Laar equatio n s for bi nar y vapor -li q uid eq uili b ria were r ejec ted by sc ienti t s beca use the theory did 1 ot work in t he prediction o f the constants But che mi ca l engi neers found the f o rm of the th eo ry to be re mark ab l y good-two data points are e n ough to provide I t may be t hat we are running into t he law of diminish i ng returns and that more experimental studies are in order The re is noth ing like a surprising new fac t to s t imulate the development of better concepts and theories. the V a n Laar constants, a nd make it possible t o predict co mplet e y x diagrams for comp le x b inari es, in c ludin g azeotropes. Similarly, the models of the mechanism of mass transfer be tw ee n phases provide the form if not the s ubstan ce of a theory, a nd make it possible to rlevelop correlations of experi men ta l data on a rational a nd useful basis. It i s 1. oo mu ch t o e xpe ct that in fifty ye ars we ,,oulcl h ave developed a fundamental and quan titative theory which would enab l e us to predict rates of mass transfer in turbulent flow. That i s a goal for the future, probably re q uirin g more 211

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progre s in understanding t ur b ulenc e Such a theory would be a feat co mp arable to t h e develop m e nt of the kineti c theory of gases, and these a r e not :f r eq uent THEORETICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS T HERE HA VE, OF C OURSE, bee n a number of theoretical accomp l i s hm e nt s about w h i ch c h e mi ca l engineers ca n be proud. The wet-bulb thermometer i s a fascinating exa mple. Thi s de vice wa s not understood until about 100 yea r s ago, wh n Maxwell, usin g what amounted to o ur film theory, ex plain ed t h e dynamic eq uilibrium estab li s h ed whe n the rate of heat transfer from a ir to wet wi c k just eq u a l l ed the l atent heat of va porization of the water evaporating at the wet bu l b temperature. About 1910 it was noti ce d by Willis Ca ni e r that the wet-bulb te mperatur e c oin c id ed with the ca l c u l ated te mp erat ure of ad i abatic sat uration Why s h o uld t his be? It wa s so m e yea r s later that W. K. Lewis a nd J H Arnold ex plain ed this The ratio of t he heat i;ra n s fer coeffic ient air to wet-bu l b, to t he mas s tra n s fer c oefficient determining va porization depends o n the mo l ecular properties of a ir a nd water, a nd these ju st happen to have va l u es s u c h that the e quation s for the wet bu l b depression and for adiabatic sa turation beco m e q uantitati ve l y jdenti c a l. Ca rrier 's observations for water wet-bu l bs we r e exp l a ined, b ut were s hown to be based o n a r e mark ab l e n at ural co in c iden ce, a nd not ge neral for o th er gases a nd li q uid s These st udies es ta b lishe d the ratio of heat and ma ss transfer coeffic i ents for a ir a nd ater va por This led to Merkel's in ge nious analysis of c ooling tO\ ver o p era tion a nd t h e e ngin ee rin g de s i g n m e thod u se d today. It i s remarkable that a theoretical ana l ys i s of the wet-b ul b t h er mometer provided the bas i s for a s imple and practical de s i g n pro ce dur e for coo l in g towers. M er kel s' m et ho d also app lie s in the design of dehumidifier s. I am s ur e that G I. Taylor does not think of him se l f as a c h e mi ca l e n gi ne er, b ut we need people lik e him in c h e mi ca l engi ne eri n g. In 1954 he de ve lop ed a t h eory of lon g itu d inal dispersion in o pen pipe s, base d on a ge nera l ized co rr e l ation of ve l oc it y profiles in turbulent flow [3 1 ]. Figur e 2 indi cates how wel l the theor y works. Th e point s a nd dotted c ur ve s ho,~ t h e dispersion of a radio act i ve tracer pulse after flowin g 43 miles in an o il pip elin e in hilly cou nt ry [ 13]. The so lid c ur ve is predicted by the Taylor theor y. The agreement see m s o nl y fair, b u t is rea ll y qu i te r e m arkable in 212 v ie w of t h e fact that t he tracer took 85,000 seco nd s to travel the 43 miles t o the te st statio n. The predicted dispersion coefficie n t was 594 cm 2 / sec ; the va lue re q uired to fit th e da ta is abo u t tw i ce th at. The T ay lor theory did n ot a llo w for pumps a n d elbows in the line. 4 0 V> a, a. V> 30 0 C 0 20 C a, u C 0 u 10 Pipe Line= L = 43 m i les; d = 10 in. ; Re= 24,000 Tra cer Pu l se Test "'-..;~ I 0 / / T i me (sec) FIG 2 Comparison be tw een theor y and experiment. FUTURE NEEDS W E HAVE COME A LO NG WAY in fifty yea r s b ut we have mu c h yet to do. It wou l d see m t hat ne, ~ co mplicati o n s, s u ch as inte rfa c ia l turbulence, a re appearing mo re frequent l y than t heor y advances. In m y judgment the m ajor goal is a bas i c theory of the mechanism of mass tra n sfe r bet ween phases in t u rbu l ent fl ow. T o at ta in th i we sha ll need a be tt er und e r standing of flow c onditions at a phase bou nd ary. I believe c h e mi ca l e n g ine e r s a r e as lik e l y to provide this as s p ec iali sts in flui d me cha ni cs, b u t it see m s that it ma y be some years before we have it Of per ha p s equal importance is a theory of mas s transfer with s im u ltaneou s c hemical re ac ti on at a c atalyst s urface. The mass transfer e l ements of such theo r y are in fair sha pe b ut s urfa ce cata l ysis is s till an emp i rical art. R eal i ing this, ch emical eng in eers are joining c h emists in a g ro wi n g program of re sea rch on catalys is. Many c hemi ca l e ngineer i n g depar tment s now have strong programs of ba si c research on ca ta l ys is. Perhaps the reason fo r this trend is t he realization t h at t h e c hemi ca l reactor i s t he heart of th e ind us trial che mi cal pro ces s, a n d t ha t t he unit o p erat ion s are often peripheral. P e rhap s c hemi ca l e n g in ee rin g i s e m erg in g from an era of empir i cism. E l ect ri cal e ng-in ee r s n eed onl y the C HEMI C AL ENGINEER G EDUCATION

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phy s ical 1>ropertie s of their con111onents; from there on cl s ign i s a job for t he co mputer. We hav e much mor e c on cern with com11lex phy s ical 11henomena and we have not yet arrived at the 11oint wher e all c an b e left to the c om puter In a wa y I hop e w e nev e r will for c hemical e n l{ineering i s s o much more fun whe n we don't know ve r y much Pending the ultimate d eve lopm e nt of theory, we c on t inue to do well. Ver y large plant s are de s igned on th e ba s i s of em 11iri cism or half-formed theory and operat e Ther e ar e no more failure s t han e ncoun te red b y bridge de s igner s, who hav e a c om11l ete t heor y of s tre ss e s in a s tructure. S ome of our indu s trial proce sses ev en mak e money and 1no vide our profe. s ion not onl y with a liveli hood but s ati s fyin g careers for chemical e ngineer s. D SYMBOLS AND NOMENCLATURE E, f o ~. J k k ,. p P r I' I"ll" s Sc St t T LI u + u_ ,, u, x, Y, X y Yo y + Y_\ Y' 11 p = co n cent rati on, g mo l es / c m = heat c apacity, g ca l / ( g mo l e) ( K) = mo l ec ular diffu s ion coe ffici e nt, cm 2 / sec = e ddy diff u sion coeffic i e n t, c m 2 / ec = e ddy d iffu sion coeffic i ent for ma ss transfer, cm 0 / sec. = ed d y v i scos i ty, c m 2 / ec. = F a nnin g friction factor = co nv ers i o n factor ( =3 2.2 i n Eng li s h syste m of un i ts) = mo l a l diff u s i o n flux of A in abse nc e of super posed c o n vect i o n g rno l es / (s ec ) (cm ) therma l co ndu ct ivi ty, g c al / ( ec ) (c m 2 ) ( K l e m) m a s t ran sfe r coefficie nt c m / ec. = pr essu r e g / c m = Prandt l numb er, = Cr / k = radia l d i stanc e fro m axis of t u be, cm. = t u be rad iu s, c m. fra ct i o n a l rate of s urf ace re n e wal sec 1 S c hmidt numb er, = / pD = / D S tanton numb er = k / U_ \, flu c tuat in g te m perat u re, K t ime-mean te mp erat u re, K flu c tuati n g ve l ocity, cm / sec. dimension l ess ve l oc i ty, de fin ed by Equation 5 t im e -mean a v ernge v e l oc i ty, c m / ec. t i m em ea n ve l oc i ty at a point, in x-c lir ect i on, c m / sec = coord inat e c m. = distance in d ir ec ti o n of d iffu sio n c m. = fi l m t hi c kn ess, c m. = d im e n s ionl ess di ta n ce f r o m wa ll d e fin ed by Equ at i o n 5 = t im emean mo l e fraction = fluctuating mo l e fract i on = v i scosi ty, g / ( ec ) (cm). = kinematic vi cosity, = / p, c m 2 / sec. = de n i ty, g/ c m REFERENCES l. B ed din g fi e l d, C. H a nd T. R. D r ew, Ind. Eng. C h e m .12 1164 ( 1 950 ). 2. Br i an, P. L T., et n l ., A I. C h .E. J. 1 7 765 (1971); 1 8 231, 58 2 ( 1 972). FALL 1974 0 Br ia n P. L. T ., J. F. Hurl ey, and E H Hasseltine A.I. C h .J 7 22G ( 1 961). L Brian, P. L. T., A .I.C h .E. J., 10 5 (1 964 ). 5. Chi l ton T. H. and A. P. Co l burn, I nd. Eng Chem .!6 11 83 ( 1 934). 6 Dav i s, H. S., G T h ompson, and C Cranda ll J. A. C. S., 54 2340 (19 32). 7 Danckw e1 ts P V Ind Eng. Chem 48 146 0 (19 51). 8 D a n c k werts, P. V. and A. M Ke nn edy, T ra n s In t Chem E n g. (Lo n don) 8w, Suppl. S 49 (1954). !J Danc k werts, P V., "Gas Liq ui d Reactions," McGr awH il l B oo k Co., ew Y ork, 1970. LO. Ell i s, S R. M and M. Biddu l f, C h em. En g. Sci., 21 11 07 ( 1 966). Ll. F riend, W L. a n d A. B. M etzne r A .I. Ch.E. J. 4 393 (1958). L 2. Gill il and, E R. and T. K S h e rw oo d, I ncl Eng. Chem ., 26 5 1 6 ( 1 934) J. 3 H u ll D. E. and J. W. Kent, Incl. Eng Che m ., 44, 2745 (1952) 1 4 H a rri o t t, P a nd R. M H ami l ton, C h em Eng. Sci 20 1073 (1965) 15. H ::.t ta S., T ech. R ept. Toho ku Imp. Univ., 8 1 (19282 9) 16. Hi gb i e, R., Tr ans. AI C h E, 31 3G5 (1 935). 17. H oftyzer, P. J. and D. v\l. Van Kr eve l e n Tra n s. Inst Che rn E n g. ( Lnndon), 3 2 S up p l. 560 (19 54 ). 1 8 Kl i n e, S J and P. W Runstadle r ASME Pap r 58A-64 (1964). 19. L e w i s, J.B. and H. C. R. Pratt 171 1155 (1953). 20 L e wis W K. a nd W. G. Whitma n Incl. En g Chern., 16 1215 (1924) 21. M eyerink, E. S. C a nd S. K. Fri ecl l ancle r Chem. Eng. Sci 1 7 121 (1962). 22 M u rph ree, E V., Ind. Eng. Chem., 2 4 726 ( 19 32) 2 3. N ed cl e rman, R. M. C h em. E n g. Sc i. 16 120 ( 1 961). 24. Notter, R. H. a n d C. A. Sl e i cher, Chem. Eng. S ci. 26 161 (1971). 25 P ea r so n J. K. A. J. Fluid M ec h., 4 489 (1958). 26. Ram ac h a ncl ra n P. A. and M M Sharma, 24 1681 11969). 27 Reynolds, 0., Proc Manch ester Lit. P h il. Soc., 14 7 (1874); r e printed in "Papers on Mechanical a nd Phys i cal Subjects," Vol. 1, p. 81, Ca mb ridge Un i v. Pr ess ( 1900) 38 Zeldowitsch J. B ., Acta Phy icoc him, U.S.R.S. 10 10 3 0 (1957). 29. Sherwood, T K., K. A S mi th, and P. E. F owles, C h e m Eng. Sci 2,7 1225 (1968). 30. Ste rnlin g C V. and L E. Scriven, A .I. Ch E J., 5 514 (1959). 31. T ay l o 1 G. I. "Sc i en tific Pap ers," G. K. Batch elo r, eel Vol. II p 466. Ca mb ridge Un i v. Pres 1960 :12 Th ie l e, E. W. Incl Eng. Chern 8 1 916 ( 1 939). 33. Vieth, W. R., J H Porter, and T. K. S h erwoo d Ind. Eng. C h e m. Fund J l (1963). :J4. Von K ar man Th. Tra n s, ASME 61 705 (1939). 35 W asan, D T., C. L T i e n, a nd C R. W ilk e, A .I. Ch. E. J. .9 5G8 (1963) 36. W asan, D. T a n d C. R. Wilk e, Int. J. H eat a n d M ass Tran sfe r 7 87 (1964) 37 Wh it man, W. G., Chern and M et. En g., 2 .9 146 (1932). 38 Z e ld o wi tsch, J. B., Acta Ph ysicoc him, U.R.S.S 10 G83 (1 9 3 9). 2 1 3

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IF YOU'RE CONCERNED ABOUT THE ENERGY SHORTAGE,NOW'S YOUR CHANCE TO HELP DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT. ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS URGENTLY NEEDED Put your education and ideas to work on the world wide problem of providing more energy Challenging career opportunities ava i l a ble Exc e llent salary Liberal benef i ts Advancemen t. All the responsibilities you can handle App l y : STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA J. D. Strickler-Professional Employment 225 Bush Streat San Francisco, CA. 94104 Chevron === Standard Oil Company of California A n eq u al op p ortun i t y emp l oye r

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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in c h emical e n g i neering at th e Californ ia Institute of Tech nology are the creative research atmosphere in which th e stude nt find s himself and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical di ciplines in his program of study. In this way a student can properly pre pare him se lf for a productive career of research, develop ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding technological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A specia l terminal M.S. option involving e ither research or an integrat e d de s i gn project, i s a n e wly add e d feature to th ?. overall program of graduate study. The Ph D. de g r ee r e quires a minimum of three years subseque nt to the B.S. degr ee, consisting of thesis research and further ;cirlvanced study. FINANCIAL ASS ISTAN CE Graduate students are sup ported by fellowship, res ea rch assistantship, or teaching assistantsh ip appointment s during both t he academic yea r and the summer months. A st ud e nt may ca rry a full load of graduate study an d research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institut e gives cons i deration for admission and fina n cial assistanc e to all qualified applicants r e gardless of race, rel i g ion or sex. APPL I CAT IO NS Further information and an application fo rm may be obtained by writin g Profe sso r J H. S e infeld Executive Officer for Che mi cal Engineering C alifornia Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91109 It is advisable to submit applications befo r e F e rr11ary 1 5, 197 5. FACULTY IN C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Profe sso r and Vice President for Institute Relations Ph.D (1948), California Institute of Technolo~y Kinetics and catalysis; plasma chemistry; bio medical e n gi n eeri n g; air and water quality. SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, Professor Ph.D (1954), Univer s ity of Illinois Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution; biom e dical e n gineering; int e rfacial transfer; dif fusion a nd m e mbran e transport. GEORGE R. GAV ALAS, Associate Professor Ph D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization; coa l gasification. L. GARY LEAL, As istant Profe sso r Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. C ORNELIUS J. PINGS, Professor, Vic e Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology Liquid state physics and che mistry; statistical mechanics. JOH H SEI FELD Professor, Exe c utiv e Officer Ph D. (1967), Princeton University Control and estimation theory; air po lluti o n FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor Ph.D (1963), Univer s ity of Califomia, Berke ley Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies of various e nvi ronmental problem s NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wal es Mechanical propertie s of polymeric materials; theory of v i scoe lasti c behavior; str uctur prop erty relations in polymers. ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, As soc iat e Professor Ph D. (1967), Univer sit y of Illinoi s Solid s tate and s urfa ce c h emis try 'vV. HENRY WEINBERG, A ssoc iat e Pi-ofessor Ph D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA The chemical engineering department at the Univ ersity of Arizona is yo ung and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and MS and Ph D. Graduate Programs. Fina nc ial support i s available through government grants and contracts, teaching and research assistantships, trainee ships, and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in a!I major areas of chemica l engi neering THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE : WILLIAM P. COSART Asst. Professor Ph. D Oregon State University 1973 Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys tems B l ood Processing JOSEPH F. GROSS P rofessor Ph D P urdue University, 1956 Bound ar y Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation B iorheology JOST O l. WENDT, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., J ohns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody namics l nterfacia l P henomena RICHARD D WILLIAMS Asst. Professor Ph D ., P rinceton University, 1972 Catalysis, Chemica l Reactor E ngineering, Energy and Environmental P rob l ems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re action Applications to the Minerals I ndustry. DON H WHITE Profe sso r and Head Ph D ., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Proce sses, Solar Energy Microbial and Enz yma tic Processe s ALAN D RANDOLPH Professor Ph.D Iowa State University, 19 6 2 Simulation and Design of Crysta ll ization P rocesses, Nucleation P henomena, P articulate Processes, Exp l o sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R REHM Professor and Acting Head Ph.D. University of Washington 1960 Mass Transf er, Proces s In s trumentation, Packed Column Distil l ation, Applied Design JAMES WM. WHITE Assoc. Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968 RealT ime Computing Process Instrumentation and Con tro l Model Bui l ding and Simulation Tu cson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow ing, modern city of 400,000 that retain s much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For fu rt h er i n for m at i o n w ri te to: D r. J. W. White, Chciirmc vn Grciduate Study Comm ittee D e part?n en t of Ch e n iic al Engin ee ring Unive?'Sit 11 of A 1izonci T11( :s on A1 izona 857 2 1

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UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A EDMONTON, ALBERT A, CANADA Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Ph.D Candidates: up to $5 ,000 / year. M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to $4,000 / year. Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships and limited travel funds are available. Costs Tuition: $535 / year. Married students housing rent: $140 / month. Room and board, Univer sity Housing: $115 / month Ph.D Degree Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year co ur ses, thesis. M.Sc Degree 5-8 half-year courses, thesis. M.Eng Degree 10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project. Department Size 12 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows, 30-40 Graduate Students. Applications Return postcard or write to : Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6 Faculty and Research Interests I. G. Dalla Lana Ph D (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero geneous Catalysis. D. G Fisher (Chairman), Ph D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real -Time Computer Appli ca tions, Process Des ign. A. E. Mather, Ph.D (Michigan) : Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics. W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol lution Tran sp ort Phe nomena in Porous Media Ap plied Mathematics F D. Otto, Ph D ( Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer Design of Separation Processes, Environm ental Engi neering. D Quon (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Appl ied Math ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theo ry. FALL 1974 D. B. Robinson, P h. D. (Michigan): Therm al and Vo lu metric Properties of Flu i ds, Phase Equilibria, Thermo dynamics. J. T Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Ene rgy Economics and Supply. D. E Seborg, Ph.D. ( P rinceton): P roc ess Con trol, Ad aptive Control, Estimation Theory F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware) : Turbulent Flow, Rheo logy of Complex Fluids. S. E. Wanke, Ph.D (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine tics. R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwes tern ): Process D ynamic s and Id entification, Control of Distillation Columns. Department Facilities Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre. Excelle n t complement of computing and analytical equipment: IBM 1800 (real-time) computer EAi 590 hybrid computer AD 32 analog computer -I BM 360 / 67 term i nal Weissenberg Rheogoniometer Infrared spectrophotometer -Research and industrial gas chromatographs The University of Alberta O ne of Canada's largest universities and eng i neering schools. E nrollment of 18,000 students. Co-educational, government-supported, non-denominational. Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river valley. Edmonton Fa s t growing modern cit y; population o f 440,000. Resident professional theatre, symphony orchest ra, professional sports Major chemical and petroleum processing centre. Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains an d Jasper National Park 217

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA RESEARCH ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MATERIAL ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY FOR APPLICATIONS AND FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE: FACULTY Alexis T. Be ll Lee F : Donaghey Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N. Hanson C Judson King (Chairman) Scott Lynn David N L yon Robert P Merrill John S Newman Eugene E. P e terse n Robert L. Pigford John M. Pr ausnitz Mitchel She n Thomas K. Sherwood Ch arles W Tobias Theodore Vermeulen Charles R Wilke Michael C Williams Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720

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FALL 1974 NEW ENERGY Write Graduate Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15213 219

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UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Newark Delaware 1971 1 The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for stud i es and practice in the art and science of chemica l eng in eeri ng: An M.Ch E. degree based upon course work and a the sis p rob le m. An M.Ch.E degree based upon course work and a period of in dustrial internship with an e x perienced senior eng i neer i n the Delaware Valley chemical process industr i es A Ph.D degree. The regular faculty are: Gianni Astarita ( time) C. E. Birchena l l H W Blanch M M Denn B. C. Gates J. R Katzer R L. McCullough A. B. Met zn er J H O ls on C. A. Petty T. W. F. Russe l l S I. Sandler G C. A. Schu it ( time) J M Schultz James Wei The adjunct and research faculty who provide e x tensive associat io n w ith i ndustrial practice are: L. A. DeFrate _______ _______ __ ___ __ Heat, mass and momentum trans fer W. H. Manogue _______ _________ Catalys i s reaction engineering E. L. Mongan, Jr. ____________ Design and p roces s eva l uation F. E. Rush, Jr. _____ ___ _______ _____ Mass transfer d i stillation ab s orpt io n, ext ra ction R. J. Samuels ____ __ ____________ Polymer science A. B Stiles ___ __________ _______ ___ Catalysis K F Wissbrun ______ __ ________ Polymer eng i neer i ng For informat i on and admissions materials contact: A. B Metzner, Chairman

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY DEPART~ENr OF CHEM101L ENGINEERING M.S. & Ph.D. Programs Including Intensive Study in ENERGY ENGINEERING Energy supply a nd demand Fu el comb usti on p rocesses Coal liqu efactio n a nd gasification process es AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Rates and equilibria of atmospheric react i o n s Process and system control, and gas c l ea n ing Diffusion and mod e llin g of ur ban atmosphe r es WATER POLLUTION CONTROL Adva nced waste treatment and water r eclamation Design of phys ica l a nd chemical processes Biochemical r eac tor design STIPENDS: Excellent fina n c ial support is available in the form of Environment a l Protection Agency Tra in ees hip s, fellowships & assistants h ips. OTHER PROGRAM AREAS: Electrochemical engineering Process control Reactor des i gn Transport WRITE TO : R B Grieves, Chairman D e pt of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY LEXINGTON KENTUCKY 40506

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CLARKSON PROGRAMS LEADING TO THE DOCTORA L DEGREE IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING SCI E NCE O n t h e so u t h ern brow of t h e H i l l Camp u s, C l arkson's massi v e new Science Center now s tand s complete, its laborator ie s, class rooms and corr i dors teemin g with s tudent acti v ity. Th e $5.5 m illion structure is t h e fir st educational buildi n g to be construc ted on the hill CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACU L TY R J NUNGE Prof and Chmn. ( Ph D ., 1965 Syracus e University ) T ransport phenomena m u ltist r eam forced convection transport proc esses, structure of pulsating turbulent flow flow through porous media, atmospheric transport processes, transient dispersion D T CHIN Assoc. Prof ( P h.D. 1969 U niversity of P ennsylvania ) Electrochemical e ngin ee ring, transport phenomena mass transfer at e lectrodes R COLE Assoc. Prof and E xec Officer ( Ph D ., 1966 Clarkson Co l l e g e of Technolog y ) Boil ing heat transfer bubble dynamics boiling nuclea tion. D 0 COONEY Assoc. Prof ( Ph.D ., 1966 Un i ve r sity of W i sconsin ) Mass transfer in fixed beds, biomedical engineering. E J WOVIS Prof (Ph D ., 1960 University of Wash i ngton ) Heat trans fer and fluid mechanics associated with twophase flow convective dif fusion, aerosol physics transport phenomena Mathematical modeling. J ESTRIN Prof (Ph.D., 1960 Columbia University ) Nucleation phenom ena crystallization E W GRAHAM Assoc. Prof ( Ph D. 1962 Universit y of Ca l iforn ia B e rk eley) Chemical r eac tion kinetics and r e lat e d theoretical problems ca talysi s, fu el cel l s, air pollu tion J L. KATZ -Assoc Prof. ( Ph.D ., 1963 University of Chicago ) H omo geneous nucl ea tion of vapors homogeneous boil i ng, heterogeneous nucleation aerosols nucleation of voids in metals the r mal conduc tivity of gases R A SHAW Assoc. Prof ( Ph.D. 196 7, Corne l l Univ er sity ) Nuc l ear e n gineering re verse osmosis radioacti ve trac ers, env ir onm ent al effects of power genera ti on H L. SHULMAN Prof ., Dean of En g. and Vice Pr es. of t he Col le g e. (Ph .D 1950 Un i versit y of Pennsyl van ia ) Mass Tra ns f er pa cked co um ns adsorption of gases abso rp tio n. R S SUBRAMANIAN As st Prof ( P h .D. 1972 Cla rks o n College of T echno log y) H eal and m a ss tr an sfer p r oblems, unste ad y convect ive diffusion miscibl e dispersion chromatograph ic and o t her i nt e rphase transport systems fluid mechan i cs T J WARD Assoc. Pro f. (Ph.D. 19 59 Rensse l aer Pol y t echn ic I nst i t ut e ) Process control n uclear e ngin eer ing cer ami c m ateria ls. G. R YOUNGQU I ST Assoc Prof. ( P h.D. 1962 University o f Il linois ) Ad so rption crys ta llizat i on diff us ion and flow i n porous media. For inform a tio n c on ce rni ng Assistan t ships and Fe l l ow sh ip s c on tac t t he Graduate School Of f ice, Clarks on Co l l ege of Techno l og y, Po tsdam, New York 1 36 76 CLARKSON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY / POTSDAM NEW YORK 1367 6

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flliversity of florida Transport Phenomena & Rheology Drag-reducing polymers greatly modify the familiar bathtub vortex, as studied here by d ye injection. offers you Thermodynamics & Statistica l Mechanics Illustrating hydrogen-bondin g forces between water molecules and mucfimore .. A young, dynamic faculty Wide course and program selection Excellent facilities Year-ro und sports Optimization & Control Part of a c omputerized distillation control system. Biomedical Engineering & Jnterfacial Ph enomena Oxygen being extracted from a substance s imilar to blood plasma. Write to: Dr. John C. Biery Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Room 22 7 University of Florida Gainesville Florida 32611

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Petra:tantal lrx:tustry Medicine Space Faculty Focilities 1he Real world of Chemical Engineering The University of Houston is located in the midst of the largest complex of chemical an d petrochemical activity in the world. This environment provides unequalled oppor tunities for graduate students in ... THE REAL WORLD OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. H ou ston is th e national center for ma nufact u ring sa l es, research and design in the petroleum and petrochemical indus tr y. Mo s t of th e major oil and pe t roch em i ca l com pa n i es ha ve plant s and resea r ch i nstallat i ons i n t he Houston area. The h eadqua rt ers of many of these organizat i ons are he r e. The world famou s Texas Me d ical Center i s loca te d i n H ouston T he NASA L yndon B. Johnson Space Center i s l ocated in th e Houston area. There is continuous int e r ac tion through sem i nars courses a nd res earch betwe e n the faculty a nd graduate students of thi s d e part ment and the eng ineer s a nd scientists of thi s large t e chn i c a l community The resea rch of 1 4 facu lt y mem be r s e n co mpa ss a wide range of sub j ects in c h em ica l eng ine eri ng F ac ulty m emb ers a r e ac tive i n th e interdiscip lin ary areas of bio m edica l en vironmental urb an a nd sys tems e n gi n eering. The department is one of the fas t est growing in th e nation. Th e c u r rent e nrol lme nt in c l ude s 50 seniors and 45 f ul l time graduate students; a 200 % in crease in th e enro llm ent over th e past 5 years Resear c h gr a n ts a nd co nt racts currently in progress exceed 1 .2 mil li on do llar s Over $90 0 000 of m o dern research e qu ipm e n t i s locat ed in 50, 000 sq uare feet of research a nd off i ce space Firnr,c:ial Aid Fel l owship stipe nds are a vai lab le t o qual ifie d app l ica nts INQUIRIES ARE DIRECTED TO: Head Gradu ate Ad missions D epar tment of Chemical Enginee r ing University of Hou s ton Houston ,. Te xas 77004 The temperat e Gulf Coast area with its year round outdoor wea the r offers un limit ed recreationa l opportunities. An equa l num ber of cul tur al opportu niti es ex i st in th e s i x th l arge st an d fastes t growi n g city i n the country. H ouston h as an ou tsta n ding sy mphony o rche str a seve ral theatre co mp anies, fine museu m s, an d a stim u latin g intel l ect ual commu ni ty.

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GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH The Department 01 Energy Engineering UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS Al CHICAGO CIRCLE Gradu a t e Program s i n The Department o f E n e r gy E ngineerin g leading to the degr e e s o f MAST E R OF S C IENCE and DO C TOR O F PHILOSOPHY Faculty and Research Activities in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Unid S. Hacker Ph.D Northwestern Univer s ity, 1954 A s sociate Professor Jame s P. Hartnett Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley, 1954 Professor and Head of the Department Larry M. Joseph Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1974 As s istant Profes s or John H Kiefer Ph.D C ornell University 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1 9 69 A s sociat e Profe ss or Irving F. Miller Ph.D., Univer s ity of Michigan, 1960 Profes s or S ati s h C Sa x ena Ph.D. Calcutta U niver s ity, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D., Illinois lnst ; tute of Technology, 1966 A s socia t e Profes s or Th e M S p rog-ra m w i t h it s o p t i o n a l t h e s i s, ca n b e co mpl e t e d in o n e y ea r. T h e d e 1 rn r t m e n t i m i te s a p1>li c at i o n s for admi ss i o n a nd S U) l p o r t fro m a ll qua l i fi erl c an d id a t e s S p e c i a l fe ll ow s hip s a r e ava ilabl e fo r min ori t y s t u d e n t s. To o b ta in a ))l>li c a t ion fo rm s o r t o r eq u es t f ur t h e r in format i o n wr i te : I ~: : : -~: ; -.. -- -W. :. """"' _,; ... ~--: ... -t ..;_ .. -.. --: _:_ .. _.;.. ... .. --~:"" .. .. '-, ~.. ..:.. .. .. ... ------~~--.... _.;,. .. ... .. .. ... ~-" .. : /: ::-. :: = 1 C h e mical ki n e ti c s ; c omb u s tio n m a ss --. ~ .. -:.. _, .. -.... -. .. ., -------------.. ............ --, ,. _____ --t i ~ n s port p h e n om e n a; c h e mi ca l proc ess d e s ig n p a rti c u l a t e tra n s port p h e n om e na I' o rc e d co n vectio n ma ss tr i n s f e r c ooE n g n o n Ne w t o n i a n fl u id m e c h ani cs a n tl h ea t t r a n s f e r P roc ess d y n a m i cs a n d co n t r ol s imulati o n a n d l l ro c ess a n a l y s i K i n e t i c s of g a s r eactio n s, e n e ric\" Y t ran s f e r 1 1roce sse s mole c ul a r l as e r s T h e r m odyna mi cs ~ n d s tat i st ica l me ch a n ic s of fl u : d s, s o li d s an d s olut ion s ; kin e t i cs of liqu id re a ct i o n s, c r y ob i o e n g i n eer in g C h e mi c al e n g in eer in g bioe n g in e e r i n g m e mb ra n e tra n s port proc esses, mat h e m a t i c a l m o d e lin g T r a n s p o r t JHop e r t i e s o f flui d s a n d s o li d s h e at a nd m a ss t ra n s f e r i s o t op e se p a r atio n fi xecl a nd flu id ; z e d b e d c o m bu s tion q t a l y s i s 1 c h e m i c a l r ea ct i o n e n g in e e rin g, op t imi za t i o n e nn ro nm e n ta l a n d p ollu t i o n pr o bl e m s Professo r H aro ld A. S im o n C h a irm a n T h e G radu ate C o mmi ttee D e p a rtm e nt of En er gy E n gi n eer in g U ni ve r s it y o f Illin o i s at C hi cago C ircl e Box 4 34 8, C h icago Illin o i s 606 8 0

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS FACULTY FACILITIES RESEARCH FINANCIAL AID LOCATION TO APPLY 226 First Land Grant school (1862). Largest Col l ege of Engineering west of the Mississippi River and fifth largest in the U.S Ranks ninth in Ph.D degrees in Chemical En gineer i ng. Current enrol l me nt of 250 unde r gradua t es and 50 grad students in Chemical Engineering M.S and Ph.D degrees Five year integrated program for M E G r aduate facu l ty of 1 3 in Chemical Engineering having a va r iety of back grounds and interests New fully equipped Chem ic al Engineering build i ng with 50,000 square feet of laborato ry, office, and classroom space. Ad j acent to computer ce nter and to library. Excellent technica l support from Engineering Research Institute and technical service groups Affiliat i on w i th the Ames Laboratory the only National Laboratory of the U.S AEC located on a un i versity campus. International reputation in the fo l lowing areas : Biochemical Eng ineering (Tsao) Biomedical Engineering (Seagrave ) Coal Research (Wheelock) Crysta 11 ization (Larson ) Fluidization (Wheelock) P ol y mer K i netics (Abraham ) Process Chemistry (Burnet ) Simu l ation (Burkhart ) O ut standing programs also in elect ron ic instrumentation, co m puter appli cations to process control, air and water po l lut i on contro l, extraction, thermo dynamics, kinetics and reaction engineer i ng, l i quid metals technology, fluid me cha nics and rheology, hea t and mass t ransfer and in t erfac i al and surface phenomena. Teaching and research assistantships and i ndustrial fellowsh i ps available. Ames, a sma l l city of 40,000 in central Iowa Site of the Iowa State Center (pi ctur ed above), which hosts the an n ual Ames Internatio n al Orchestra Festi val and athletic event s of the Big Eight Conferen c e Write to : George Burnet, Head Dept of Chemical Engineering and Nuclear Eng i neer i ng I owa State University of Science an d Tec hn olo gy Ames Iowa 50010 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERIN G ED UC ATIO

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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering M.S. and Ph D Programs i n Chemical Enginee r ing M.S Program in Petroleum Engineering also Doctor of Engineeri n g (D E ) and M.S. in Petro l eum Ma n agement The Department is the recent recipien t of a large state gran t for research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to ass i st the Petro leum Indus tr y Research Areas Transport Phenomena Fluid Flow in Porous Media Process Dynamics and Control Water Resources and Environmental Studies Mathematical Modeling of Complex Physical Systems Reaction Kinetics and Process Design Nucleate Boiling High Pressure Low Temperature Phase Behavior Financial assistance is available for Research Assistants and Teaching Assistants For Information and Applications write : Floyd W Prestun Chairma n Dept of Chem i cal and Petro l eu m En g ineering University of Kansas Lawrence Kansas 66044 Phone (913) UN4 3922

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CORNELL UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Chem i cal Engineering Th ree gradua t e degr ee p rogra ms in seve ra l subject areas are offered i n 1he F ie ld of Chemical Eng i nee r ing at Cornell University. Students may e nter a r~ -e ar h-or i c n led cou r se o f study l eadi ng to the d e grees of Do cto r o f Philo s:[) hy or M a s t er of Sc ie nc e, or may study for t he profess i ona l degree of M as:er of En3 i n ec ring ( C hemi cal). Gr ad uat e wo rk may be done i n th e fo ll ow ing su bject are as C ~emical Eng ; n e ering ( general ) T he rmod ynami:s; app ied mat hematics; t ransport phenom e na in c l uding flu id rn.:c h 3 n ics, h ea t t r a nsf er and diffusiona l operations B i oengineering Sep arati on and purificatio n of bio che micals; ferm e ntat ion e n g i neering and r ~' a t c d sub e : t s in b i ochemi st ry and mic r obio l ogy ; mat he mat ic a l mode l s of pr ocesses i n pharmaco l ogy and e n vi r onmental t oxico l ogy; arti fic i a l o r gans Chem i cal M i croscopy Light and e l e c t r on micros c opy as applied in chemistry and chemical enginee r ing Kinetics and Ca1alysi s H :,mo,; e neous kin e tic s; c ata l ysis by sol i d s and enzymes; ca t a l yst deactiva t ion ; s im u'.tt.nc0u:; mas:; tr ansfer and r eaction; opt im izati on of reac t or design. C he m : c.:11 Pr o ces : e s and Process Control A d,an:e d plant design ; p r ocess d e velopment; p etr oleu m ref i ning; chemical e ngineering eco nomi c s; p r ocess cont r ol; r e lat e d courses in s t atistics and com pute r me th ods Mater a s Engin eeri ng Po l ymeric materials an d related course wor k in chemistry m ater i a l s mecha nics meta ll urgy and solid state phys i cs bioma ter i a l s Nudear Proces s Engineering N u c le ar and r eac tor e ngine e r i ng and se l ected cours e s in appli e d p h ysics and c h em istr y. Fa:ully Members and Research lnleresl s John L. Ander s on, Ph D Membran e transport, bio en gin ee r i ng Kennelh B Bi sch off, Ph.!) Med i ca l a n d m ic robio l og ic al bioenginee ri ng, chemi cal r eac t ion engineering G e orge G Cocl
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ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES ENERGY FACULTY Raymond F. Baddour Robert C. Re id Lawrence B. Evan s Adel F. Sarof i m Paul J Flor y Charles N Satterfield Hoyt C. Hot te l Kenneth A. Smith John P. Long well J Edward Vivian James E Mar k G l enn C. Williams Herman P. M eissner Cla rk K. Col ton Edward W. Merrill Jack B Howard J Th G. Overbeek Michael Modell J. R A. Pearso n Massachusetts Institute of Technology DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING For decades to come, the chemical en gine er will play a central role in fields of national concern. In two areas alone, energy and the environment, society and indus t ry will turn to the chemical engineer for technology and management in finding process related so l utions to critical problems. M .I. T has con sistently been a leader in chemical engineer ing education with a strong working relation ship with industry for over a ha l f century For detailed in formation contact Professor Raymond F Baddour Head of the Depart me nt of Ch em ical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge Massach use tts 02139 C. M ichae l Mohr James H Port er Robert C. Armstrong Donald B. An th ony Lloyd A Clomburg Rober t E Cohen R ic hard G. Do n nell y Samuel M Flemin g Ronald A. H ites Jefferson W Tester

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230 Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr M. R. Strunk, Chairman Day Programs Established fields of special izati on in which re search programs are in progress are : ( 1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studie s Drs J. L. Zakin and G. K Patterson (2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells Dr. J. W Johnson (3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr E L. Park Jr (4) Mass Transfer Studies Dr R. M. Wellek (5) Structure and Properties of Polymers Dr K G Mayhan M.S. and Ph D Degrees In addition, research projects are bei ng carr i ed ou t in the following areas : (a) Optimiza ti on of Chemical Systems-Prof. J. L. Gaddy ( b) Evaporation through non-Wettable Porous Membranes Dr. M. E. Findley ( c ) Mu l ti-co m ponent Distillat i on Efficiencies Dr R. C. Waggoner ( d) Gas Permeab il ity Studies Dr R A. Pr im rose ( e) Separations by Electrodialys is Techniques Dr H H. Grice (f) Process Dynamics and Control Ors. M. E Findley, R C. Waggoner and R A. Mollen kamp ( g) Tran sport Properties Kinetics and enzymes a nd cata l ysis Dr 0 K Crosser and Dr B. E Pol i ng ( h) Thermodynam ic s Vapor-Liquid Equ i libr i um Dr. D. B Manley Financia l aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center CHE MI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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,. HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? -~ -1, FACULTY R C Ackerberg R F. Benenat i W Brenner J J Conti C. D Han M A. Hnatow R. D Pa te l E Pea rce E N Ziegler Formed by t he merger of P olylec h n i c ln slitule of Brooklyn and N e w York University Sc hool of =ngineering and Scienc e. Department of Chemical Engineering P rograms leading to Master's, E ngineer and Do ctor's degree s. Areas of stu dy and research: chemic al engineering, polymer science and en gin eering, biQQJ1)ifl~piing and environmental s tudi es, RESEARCH AREAS A ir Pollution Catalys is, K inet i cs and R eac tors Flu i dization F luid Mec hanics Heat and Mass Tra nsfer Ma thematica l Mode lli ng Po lymerizatio n Rea ct ions P rocess Contro l Rheology and Po lyme r P roce ss i n g Fellowships and Research Assistantships a re avai lab l e. For further information contact Professor C D. H an Head, Depa rt ment of Chemica l Eng i neering Polytechnic I nstitute of New Yo r k 333 Ja y Street Brooklyn New York 1 1 201 j

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LOOKING 232 for a graduate education m Chemical Eng i neering ? Consider PENN STATE M S and Ph.D Programs Offered with Resea r ch In Se pa rati on Processes Kinetics and Mass Transfer Petroleum Researc h Un it Processe s T he rmodyna m ic Propert i es Ca tal ys i s and Ap pl i ed Chemistry Ai r E nv iron m ent B i o Eng i nee ring Nuclear Technolog y Tr an spo rt P ro pert i es Lubr i cat ion and Rheolo gy And O t her Area s WR I TE TO Prof. L e e C. Eag le ton Hea d 160 Chem i cal Engineering Bu i ld i ng The Penn s ylvania State Univers it y University Park Pa 16802 C HEMI C AL ENG INEERING EDUCATION

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PHILADELPHIA The cultural advantages and historical asse t s of a great city, inc lud in g the incomparable Phil de lphi a O rchestra are within wa lk ing distance of t he Un iversity. Enthusiasts wi ll find a variety of college and profess iona l sports at hand. A com plete range of recreational facilities exists w ithin th e city. T he Pocono Mo un ta ins and the New Jersey s hor e are wi thin a two hour drive. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League Sch ool emphasizing scholarly activity and ex ce llenc e in graduate education A unique feature of the U niversity is the breadth of medically related activities inclu ding those in engineering. In recent ye a rs the U niversity has undergone a great expansion of its facilities, incl uding specialized graduate student housing The De partment of Chemical and B ioc hemical Engineer ing has attracted nationa l and international atten tion because of its rapi d rise to excel l ence. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING The faculty includes two membe r s of the Na tional A c ademy of Engineering and three recip ie nts of the highest honors awarded by the American I nstitute of Chemical Engineers. Every s taff member is active in g rad uate and underFACULTY Stuart W Churchi ll (Michigan) Elizabeth Dussan V. (Johns Hopk ins) William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania) David J Graves (M.I.T.) A Norm an H ixson (Columbia) Arthur E. Humphrey (Co lu mbia) Ronald L. Klaus (R. P I.) RESEARCH SPECIALTIES Energy U ti l iz ation and Conservat ion Enzyme Engineering Biomedical Engineering Comp ute r-Aided D esign Chemica l Reactor Analysis Electroche mic al Engineering gr aduate teaching, in res ear ch, and in profes siona l work Close fac u lty association with in dustry p ro vides expert guidance for the st u dent in research and career planning. Mi t chel l L itt (Columbia) Alan L. Myers (California) Me lv in C. Molstad ( Yale ) Le onard Nan is (Columbia) Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale) Jo hn A. Qu inn ( P rinceton) Warren D. Seider (Michigan) Environmenta l and Pol lution Contro l Po l ymer Engineering Process Simu l atio n Su rfa ce Ph enomena Separat ion s Techniques Biochemical Engineering For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to : Dr A L. Myers Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia Pa 19174

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234 Princeton University Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty R. P Andres Molecular beams, int ermo l ecu l ar forces, microparticles, nucl eatio n phenomena R C Axtmann Fus i on reactor t ec hnology en vironm ental s tudies of fusion and geo th ermal power, synthetic fu e l producti on. R. L. Bratzler Bio eng in eeri ng : ca rdiov ascular transport phenomena, extra corporeal devices. John K Gillham Mechanical spectrometry of polymeric sol ids, synthesis, character iza tion and pyrolysis of polymers. Princeton offer s two p ro grams of graduate st ud y, one leading to the degree of Master of Science in Engineering the ot h er to th at of Doctor of Philoso phy. Students a r e a dmitted to e ith er program but th e first ye ar is arranged so as to accommodate cha n ges from one to the other without difficu l ty. Work fo r the MSE can be comp lete d in one y ea r. T hree to four years b eyo nd the baccalaureate is the usual length of study for the PhD Bec au se o f the fac ulty 's v arie d research int erests the incoming student has considerab l e f l exibi lit y in choosing a research topic F ina nci al s upport i s a v a il a ble in th e form of fellowships and researc h ass ist ants hip s for the academic ye ar a nd summer mo nth s F or detailed in fo rmation contact : E. F. Johnson Fu sio n reactor techno l ogy, molten sa lts (kinetic and thermodynamic properties, catalysis), process contro l. Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Princeton University M. D Kostin Ch emical kinetics, bioengineer i ng transport phenomena, appl i cations of qu ant um theory. Leon Lapidus Numerical ana ly s i s in chemica l engineering, computer -a ided design techniques, identification an d control of reaction systems Bryce Maxwell She arinduced c ry stallization of polymers, melt structure recover y pol ym er mixing and blending D. F. Ollis H eterogeneous and homogeneous cata ly sis, biochemical engineering. William B. Russel Fluid mechanics, dynamics of colloida l s y stems D. A. Saville Fluid mechanics, be hav io r of particul ate s ys tems, e l ectr i ca l phenomena in fluids. W. R. Schowalter Fluid mechan i cs, rheo logy N. H. Sweed -Fixed bed sorption processes, chemical reactor en gin eering, honeycomb cata ly sts, coal processing (gasification and liquifaction). G. L. Wilkes Morphology a nd properties of block a nd segme nt ed copo lymer s, crystallization of polymers, biopolymers and b io materia l s. Princeton, New Jersey 08540 C HEMI C AL E GINEERIN G ED U CATION

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RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE offers graduate study programs in Chemical Engineering leading to M S and Ph .D. degrees with opportuni ti es for specialization in: THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER MATERIALS HEAT TRANSFER POLYMER PROCESSING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING REACTION KINETICS FLUIDIZATION ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICES FALL 1974 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute established in 1824 "for the app l icat i on of science to the common purposes o f life ," has grown from a school of engineering and applied science into a technological university, serving some 3500 undergraduates and over l 000 graduate s tudents It is located in Troy, New York, abou t 150 miles north of New York C ity and 180 mile s west of Boston Troy A l bany, and Schenectady to get he r comprise the heart of New York's Capital District, an upstate metro politan area of about 600 000 population. These his toric cities and the surrounding countryside provide the attractions of both urban and an d ru r a l life Scenic streams, lakes and mountains, including the Hudson River Lake George the Green Mountains of Vermont the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions of the Adirondack Forest Prese r ve are within eas y driving distance and offer man y attractions for those interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hunting, fishing etc For full details write Mr R. A. Du Mez, Director of Graduate Admissions, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy New York 12181. 235

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research A large number of research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science A joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine leading to M-D.-Ph.D and M D.-M S degrees is also available The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness according to a recent evaluation by the American Council of Education. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization Stability, and Process Control Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Polymer Science BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma Blood Pumping Systems Biomaterials Rice University Rice is a private l y endowed, nons e ctarian, coeduca tiona l university. I t occupies an architect u ra ll y attra tive tree-shaded campu s of 300 acres, locate d in a f in e r esidentia l ar ea, 3 mi l es from the cent er of Hou s t on. There are approximately 2200 u nder graduat e and 800 graduate st u dents. Th e scho ol offers the bene f i ts of a complete u niversi t y wi t h programs in the various fie l ds of science and the hu m anities a s we l l as in engineer i ng. It has an exce llent li bra ry with ex t ensive hol dings. The acade mic year is from September to Ma y. A s there are no summer clas ses graduate students have near l y four months for resea rch. The school offers exc e l len t recreat i onal and ath l et i c faci liti es with a completely equipped gymnasium, and the sou the rn climate makes o utdoor sports, such a s tennis go l f, and sailing year ro u nd activitie s 236 FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of $333-400 per month. APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION Address letters of inquiry to : Houston Chairman De pa r tment of Chemical Eng i neeri n g Rice Universit y Houston Te xas 7700 l With a p o pulation of nearly t w o mi llion Houston is the largest me t ropolitan, f i nancial, and commercial c enter i n the So ut h and Southwest. It has achieved world wi de recogni tion through it s vast and growing petroche mic al complex, the pioneerin g med i cal and surgical act iv i t i es at th e T exas M ed i cal Center and th e NASA Ma nned Sp a c ec raft C enter. Housto n is a co smopol i t an cit y with ma ny cultural and recrea t iona l att r ac t ion s It ha s a we ll kno w n r esident sy mphony orchest r a, an opera, a nd a ba ll et company, w hich perform regular l y in 1 he newly co n struc t ed Jesse H. Jo nes Ha ll Ju st east of the Ri ce campus i s Hermann Park w ith its fr ee zoo, golf c our se Pl anetar i um and Museum of Natural Science. The ai r -con di ti oned Astro d ome i s the ho me of t he Hou ston A stros and O il ers a nd the si t e of many o th er events. C HEM I C AL ENGINE ERIN G EDUCATION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA AT COLUMBIA F A LL 197 4 between the mountains and the sea Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph D. in Chemical Engineer ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemstry physics, math ematics, materials and computer science. Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are available For particulars and application forms write to : Dr M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman Chemical Engineering Program College of Engineering Univers i ty of South Carol i na Columbia S. C. 29208 THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULT Y B L Baker Professor, Ph.D. Nort h Caro l ina S t ate University 1 955 ( Pro c es s design, env i ronmental problem s, i on tr a nspor t) M W Davis, Jr. Professor, Ph.D. University of Californ i a (Be r kele y), 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis, ch e m i cal process analysis solven t extraction waste treat ment) J H Gibbons Professor Ph.D. Un i versity of P i ttsburgh 196 1 ( Heat t rans fer, fluid mechanics) P E. Kleinsmith, Assistant Professor Ph D., Carnegie Mellon Un i vers i t y, 1 972 ( Transport phenomena statistical mechan i cs ) F P. Pike, Professor, Ph.D ., Univers i ty of Minnesota 19 4 9 (Mas s transfe r i n l i quid -l iquid systems vapor -l iquid equil i bria ) J.M Tarbell, Assistant Professor Ph D. Univers it y of Delaware 1974 ( Ther mo dynamics, process dynami cs) 237

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Programs Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are o ffered in both Chemical and Meta lurgical Engineering The Master's pro gram may be tailored as a terminal one w ith e mpha s is on professional develop ment or it may serve as preparation for more advanced work leading to the Doctorate Special i zation in Polymer Science and Engineering is ava il able at both levels Faculty William T Be cker Donald C Bogue Charlie R. Brooks Edward S Clark Oran L Culberson John F Feller s George C Frazier Hsien-Wen Hs u Homer F Johnson, Department Head S t anley H Jury Carl D Lundin Charles F M oo r e Ben F Oliver Professor-in-Charge o f Metallurgi ca l Engineering Joseph J Perona Joseph E Spruiell E. Eugene Stansbury James L Wh ite 238 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Graduate Studies in Chemical& Metallurgical Engineering Research Process Dynamics and Contro l Sorption K i netics and Dynamics of Packed Beds Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge Studies of Mac romolecu les Development and Synthesis of New Engineering Polymers Fiber and P l astics Processing Bioengineer i ng X-Ray Diffraction Transmission and Scanning El ectro n Microscopy Solidification Zone Ref in ing and Welding Cryogenic a n d Hig h Tem pe rature Calorimetry Flow and Fracture i n Metallic and Polymeric Systems Corrosion Solid S t ate Kinetics Financial Assistance Sour ces availab l e inc l ude graduate tea ch i ng assistantships r esearch assis tants h ips and industrial fellowshi ps Knoxville and Surroundings With a popu l ation near 200 000 Knox vi lle is the trade and indus trial center of East Tennessee. I n th e Knoxvil le Audi tor ium-Col i seum and t he Universi t y theaters Broadway plays musica l and dramatic artists and other enterta i ment events are re gularly schedu l ed Knox v ille has a n u mbe r o f po i nts of hi torica l interest a symp ho ny orchestra tw o ar t ga l leries and a num be r of museums With in an ho ur s drive are man y TVA lakes and mounta i n streams for water sports the Great Smoky Mou nt ains Nationa l Pa rk w i t h the Gat l in burg tourist area two state parks and the atomic energ y insta l lat ions at Oak Ridge including t h e Museu m of Atomic Ener gy Write Chem i cal and Metallurg i c al E ngi nee ri ng The University of Tennessee Kn oxv ill e Tennessee 37 916 C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEGREES: M S. Ph.D RESEARCH AREAS INCLUDE : HEAT A N D MASS TRANS F ER RE ACTION K I NE TI CS A ND CA T A LY S I S PR OCESS DYNAM I CS AND CO N TROL P R OC E SS MODELING IN: COA L GAS IFI CATION, WOOD PYROLYSIS METHANA T ION E COSYST E M AN AL YSIS AND THEORETICAL STUDIES CONTACT: DR W I LLIAM J. HATCHER, JR., HEAD P. 0 Box 6312 University, Alabama 35486 AUBURN UNIVERSITY A Land Grant University of Alabama GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS: LIQUID FUELS FROM COAL P R OCE S S CONTROL POROUS MEDIA P V-T RELATIONS CRYSTAL GROWTH KINETICS INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATME N T SOLIDS LIQUID SEPARATION TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Financial Assistance: For Further Information, Write: Research and Teaching Assistantships, Industrial Fellowships Are Available FALL 19 7 4 Head, Chemical Engineering Department Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830 239

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240 BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineerin~ Department M S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS Areas of Interest Tr ansport / k i netic processes Th e rm odynamics (Center for thermochem ic al studies ) High pressure technology En vironmental quality co nt rol Energy resources (Combustion Re search Center ) N uclear Engineer ing Catalysis Fluid Me chanics De e H Barker Calvin H Bartholomew Ja mes J. Christensen Ralp h L. Coates Jose ph M. Glas sett H Tracy Hall R ic har d W H anks Faculty FOR INFORMATION CONTACT : Dr Richard W Hanks 350G ESTB Chemical Engineering Brigham Young University Provo, Utah 84601 Location 45 m il es south of Salt La ke Cit y i n scenic Prov o a t the base of the W asa t ch Mo untains Financial Assistance Available Fellowships Research As sistantsh i ps Teach ing Ass i stantships Scholarships Avai la ble up to $6,500 yr. M. Duane Horto n J ame s F Ja c k son J ohn L. Os ca rso n Bil l J Pope L. Do ug las Smoot G ra nt M Wi l son DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY LEWISBURG PENNSYLVANIA 17837 For admission, address Dr. Paul H. DeHoff Coordinator of Graduate Studies Graduate degrees granted : Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Some courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid liquid extraction ; thermodynamics; reaction kinetics; catalyst deac tivation; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of materials; mathematical model ing; numerical analysis ; statistical analysis Assistantships and scholarships are available For the usual candidate, with a B S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester hours of graduate credit includ i ng a thesis is the requirement for graduation CH EMI CAL ENG INEERIN G EDUCATION

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F ALL 197 4 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS Faculty R L. Bell : R G. Carbonell A. P Jackman : B J. McCoy : J M. Smith: S Whitaker : Mass T ran sfer, B i o Med i ca l E ng i nee ri ng En zyme Ki n e ti cs Quantum Mecha n ics Process Dynamics Therma l Pollut i on Molecular T he or y Tr a n sport P ro c esses Water P ol I u tio n R eac t or Design F lui d M echanic s, lnt e r facial Ph enomena To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To : Graduate Student Adviso r Department of Chem ic al Engineering University of California Davi s, Cal ifornia 95616 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA Henr i J. Fenech Owen T. Hanna Duncan A. Mellichamp John E My ers CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING G Ro bert Odette A E dward Profio Ro ber t G R inker Orvi ll e C. Sandall For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara 93106 2 4 1

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242 Case Institute of Technology CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY M.S and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Current Research Topics Environmental Engineering Crystal Growth and Materials Engineering Applications of Lasers Process Development Coal Gasification Simulation and Control Catalysis and Surface Chemistry Biomedical Engineering General Information Case I nstitute of T ec h nology is a priva t ely endowed insti tu ti on wi th a tra dit ion of excellence in Engi nee r ing and Appl ied Science since 18 80. In 1967 Case Insti tute an d We s t ern R ese r ve Uni vers it y joined together. T he enro ll ment, end o wm ent and facult y mak e C ase We s tern R eserve Un i versi t y one of the l ead in g pri v at e sc hools in t h e co untr y. Th e modern, urban campus i s l ocate d in Cleveland 's Uni ve r sity Circle an extensive co ncentration of educat i on scie ntific, socia l and cultural or ganizatio ns For more information, contact : Graduate Student Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio 44106 CINCINNATI DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING M.S. AND PH.D DEGREES -Major urban educational center New, prize-winning laborato r y building and facilities-Rhodes Hall National Environmental Research Center ( EPA) adjacent to campus Major computer facilities : digital analog, hybrid Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control polymers, applied chemistry, systems foam fraction ation air pollution control, biomedical power gen eration, heat transfer Inquiries to : Dr. D a vid B. Greenberg Head Dept of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of Cincinnati Cincinnati Ohio 45221 CH EMI CAL ENG I NE ERI NG EDUCATION

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CLEMSON UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering Departmen t M S and Doctoral Programs THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS Alley, F C., Ph.D ., U. North Carolina Air Pollution, Unit Operations Barlage, W. B., Ph.D. N C. State Tran sfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids Beard J. N ., Ph.D., L.S.U., Chemical Kinetics, Hybr i d Computation Beckw ith, W. F Ph .D., Iowa State Transport Phenomena Edie D. D ., Ph .D., U Virg in i a P olymay Harshman R. C., Ph .D ., Ohio State Chemica l and Biolog i cal K i net i cs, Design Littlejohn, C. E., Ph D ., V .P.1.Ma ss T ransfer Melsheimer, SS Ph.D. Tulane P rocess Dynamics, Applied Mathematics Mullins J C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech Thermodynamics Adsorption FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Fellowsh ips, Assistantsh i ps, Tra i nees hi p s Contact : C. E. Li tt l ejohn, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Clemson Un i vers i ty Clemson S. C. 2 9 631 THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Thermodynamics Pollution Control Transport Processes T h e program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further a dv ance study leading to t h e doctorate at anot h er institutio n. Financia l assistance is avai l able FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT : D e p artment of Chem i cal Eng inee ring The Cleveland State University -EucWd Avenue at East 24 th Street C le vela nd Ohio 44115

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244 faculty J P. BELL C. 0 BENNETT M. B CUTLIP A T DiBENEDETTO G M HOWARD H. E. KLEI R M STEPHENSON L F STUTZMAN D W SUNDSTROM programs M.S and Ph.D programs covering most aspects of Chemical Engineering Research projec t s concentrate in four ma i n areas : KINETICS AND CATALYSIS POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTRO L WATER AND AIR POLLUT I ON CONTROL financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships Fellowships locatlon Beautiful setting i n rural Northeast Connect i cut, convenient to Boston New York and Northern New England We would like to tell you much more about the opportunit i es for an education at UCONN please write to : Graduate Admissions Committe e Department of Chemical Engineer i ng The University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06268 ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CHICAGO ILLINOIS 60616 M.S and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Polymer Science Biochemical and Food Engineering, Gas Engineering Bio medical Engineering, and Particle Technology Faculty W M L a ngd o n R E P eck B. S Sw a nson L. L. T avla rides J. S V rentas D. T. W asan H W einstein E nvi ro nmental C o ntro l and P rocess Design H e a t Tra ns fe r a nd The r m o dyn a mics P roc e ss D yn a mics and C ontrols B i o chemic al E ngineer i ng and Reactor En g ineering P olym e r Sc i e n ce a nd T ra nsp or t P henom e na M ass T ransf e r and P article Dynamics Bi o medical En ginee r ing and R eactor E ngineering For inquiries write to : D T Wasan Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Illinois Institute of Technology 10 West 33rd Street Chicago Illinois 60616 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Up to $5,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Department of Chemical Engineering Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66502 Lehigh University D epartment of Chemical E nginee rin g M CHARLES C. W. CLUMP R W COUGHLIN A. S FOUST W. L. LUYBEN A J McHUGH G. W. POEHLEIN W E. SCH IESSER L. H SPERLING F. P. STE IN L. A. WENZEL Bethlehem Pa 1801 5 FALL 1974 Center for Surface & Coatings AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER HEAT TRANSFER FLUID MECHANICS THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS SOLID MIXING DESALINATION OPTIMIZATION FLUIDIZATION PHASE EQUILIBRIUM Computer Center CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Center for Marine & Materials Research Center 245

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Graduate En rollm e nt80 Faculty-19 Bioengineering Pol lu tion Conr r ol Process Dynamics Comp ut er Co n trol Kinetics and Cata l ysis T h ermodyna m ics Eco l ogica l Modeling Write : Chemical Enginf'ering D epa rtm e nt Siiear Technology Louisiana S t ate University Baton Roug e, Louisiana 708 0 3 McMASTER UNIVERSITY Hami lt on Ontario Canada M. ENG. & PH.D. PROGRAMS THE FACULTY AND THEIR INTERESTS R. B Anderson ( Ph D., Iowa ) M. H I. Baird ( Ph.D. Cambridge ) A. B enedek (Ph.D., U of Washington ) J. L. Bra sh ( P h D ., Glasgow ) . C. M. Crowe ( PhD ., Cambridge) I. A Feuerstein ( P h.D., Massachusetts) A. E. Hami elec ( Ph.D ., Toronto ) J. W Hodgins (Ph D Toronto ) T. W Hoffman ( Ph.D ., McGill ) J. F MacGregor ( Ph D ., Wisconsin ) K. L. Mu r phy (Ph. D Wisconsin ) l W Shemilt ( Ph.D. Toronto ) W J Snodg r ass (Ph.D., U of N Carolina Chapel Hill ) J Vlachopoulo s (D.Sc. Washington U. ) T. Wairegi ( P h. D. McGill ) D R Woods ( Ph.D ., Wisconsin ) J. D. Wright ( Ph D., Cambridge) Catalysis, Adso r ption, Kin e ti cs Oscillatory Flows T r ansport Ph enomena Wastewater Treatment Novel Separation T echniques Polymer Chemistry Use of Pol ymers in Medic i ne Optimization Chem i cal Reaction Engineering Simulatio n Biol ogical Fl u id and Mass Tran sfer Polymer Reactor Engineer i ng, Transport Processes Polymerization Applied Chemistry H eat Tran sfer Chemical Reaction Engr S i m ul ation Statist i cal M e tho ds i n Process Ana l ysis Comp ute r Co n lrol Wastewat er T r eatment Physicochemical Separations Mass Transfer Corrosion Mode l l ing of Aquatic Systems Polymer Rheology and Processing Transport Processes Fluid Mechan i cs (Bubbles drops a nd So lid Part icles) lnterfacial Phenom ena, Particulate Syste m s Proce ss Simulation and Control Computer Contro l DETAILS OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST CONTACT : Dr J W. Hodgins Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Hamilton Ontario Canada LBS 4L7 246 C HEMI C AL ENGINEER! G EDUCATION

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MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF CHEMISTRY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT AND CHEMICAL HOUGHTON, MICHIGAN 4 9 9 31 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY L. B HEIN Ph D ., Department Head M W BREDE K A MP, Ph D Instrumen tati on, P rocess D yn am i c s a nd Contro l E R. EPPERSON M S Phas e Equi li br i a D W HUBBARD Ph D L ake Stud ies M ixin g Ph eno m e na, Tu r b u lent F l ow J. T PATTON P h .D Bio sy n t he sis, Wa s te T r e a tm e nt, Pet r oleum Recove r y A J. Pl NT AR, Ph.D. Ene r g y Con vers ion T r an s po rt Phen o mena, Applied M a thematic s J M. SKAATES, Ph D Flu i d Solid Reactio ns Cataly sis Reacto r De s ign DEGREES GRANTED : M S E T. WILLIAMS Ph.D. Imp ro v e m en t of P u lpwo o d Yi eld Financial assistan c e availab le in th e for m of Fe l lows hi p s a n d Assistantships For more information, write to : DR L. B HEIN Head D e partm e nt of Ch em istry a nd Chemical Eng i nee rin g MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HOUGHTON MICH I GAN 49931 THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS on the ANN ARBOR CAMPUS The University of Michigan awarded its first Chemical Engineering M S. in 1912 and Ph D. in 1914. It has moved with the times since and today offers a flexible program of graduate study that allows emphases ranging from fun damentals to design The Chemical Engineering Department, with 21 faculty members and some 65 graduate stu dents, has opportunities for study and research in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics reactor design, transport processes, mathematical and numerical methods, optimization mixing rheol ogy, materials, bioengineering electrochemical engineering production-pipelining-storage of oil and gas, coal processing, and pollution control. FALL 1974 The M.S. program may be completed in 10 months and does not require a thesis The Pro fess ional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond th e Master's and a professional problem. The Ph.D program has recently been revamped to expedite entry into a research area as early in t he program as possible For further Information and applications write : Prof. Br ice Carnahan Chairma n of the Graduate Committee T he University of Michigan Department of Ch e mical Engi neering Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 247

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MONASH UNIVERSITY CLAYTON, VICTORIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIPS Applications are invited for Monash Un iversity Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart ment of Chemical Engineering The awards are intended to enable scholars to carry out under supervision, a programme of full-t i me advanced studies and research which may lead to the degrees of Master of Engineer i ng Science and / or Doctor of Ph ilosophy Facilities are available for wor k in the general fields of : Solid-gas Thermodyna m ics and Kinetic s Packed Tubular Reactors Crystal Nucleatio n and Growth Fluidisation Rheolog y Computer Contro l and Optimisation Gas Ab sorption with React ion Waste Treat me nt Engineering Process Dynamics Biochem ical Engi neering Fluid Part icle Mechanic s Mixing of Liquids Submerged Combustion Schol ar s hip s ca rr y a tax-free stipend o f $A3,050 per annum Detailed information about the awards and the necessar y application forms ma y be obtained from the Academic Reg ist rar Tec nica l enquiries s hould be addressed to the Chairman of Department, Professor 0. E. Potter Postal Address : Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton Victoria, 3168 Australia UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA OFFEHI NG G ll ADU 1 \TE S T U DY AND RE SEA R C H LEADli\ G TO TIii: \I. S on Ph.D I N THE AllEAS OF : Biod1 cmica l Engine e ring Computer Applications C r ysta lli zat ion Food Pro cess in g Kimti cs Mixing Pol y m c riza Lion Th e rmodynami cs Tray Effi c ien c i es and Uynami cs and othrr ar e a s FOil APPLL CA Tl0 1 \S \ i\ D J, FOIL\J \Tl OJ\ OJ\ Fl \ \ ~C I A L ASS I ST \ X C E WRITE TO : Prof W. A. Sche ller Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Nebraska, Lincoln Nebraska 6 85 0 8

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Tired of pollution, traffic jams and the big city life? T ha t i s one reason w h y y ou might consider spending t h e nex t t w o or three y ears i n Fredericton, w o r king for an M .Sc. o r P h. D deg r ee in chemica l engineering a t THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK H ere are some more reasons : Smal l, fri e ndly department wi th a we ll es tab l is hed r e s e arch r eco r d and an act i ve so cia l lif e. Va r i e t y of int e r es ting r e search pro i ects in fir e science a nd mo lec u l ar s iev e tec hnology as we ll a s in trad iti onal areas of chem i cal e ngineering F inan cia l support ($4 800 -55 00 ) includ i ng p aym ent fo r some easy b ut int erest ing teaching duti es. Frede r icton is situated in the scenic Sa i nt John river val l ey. Exce l l ent r ec r eati onal fa cili t ies in clud i n g s ai lin g sk i in g h un t in g and fishing a r e all avai l ab l e within a few minutes dr i ve from th e campus The Faculty and their Research Interests D D K r is t ma n son ( Ph D London ) Mi x ing, po ll u ti on con t rol J L andau ( P h D P r a gue) M ass t ra ns fe r, l i quid extraction K F L o u g hl in ( P h. D U N B. ) M o l ec u lar sieves C. Mor e lan d ( P h D B i r min g ham ) F lu idsol i d systems process d yn am ics D R Mor ris ( Ph D Lo ndon) El ec t rochemist r y, Cor ro s i on J J.C. Pi c ot ( Ph D M i n nes o ta) T rans p or t phe n o men a i n l i q ui d c r ystals D M R ut h ven ( P h D Cambridge ) Sorp ti on a n d diffusion in mo l ecu l ar si e v es ; ads o rp ti on sepa r a ti on pr o ce sses F R. S t e ward (Sc D M I. T .) Combust i on radiation furnace des i g n and f ire science For further information write to : D. M Ruthven FALL 197 4 Department of Chemical Eng i neering University of New Brunswick Fredericton N.B Canada THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO M.S and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical En~ineerin~ Offering Research Opportunities i n Coal Gassification Desalinization Polymer Science Hydrogen Economy Mini Computer Applications to Process Control Process Simulation Hydro Metallurgy Radioactive Waste Management ... and more Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque! For further information write : Chairman Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque New Mexico 87131 249

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250 STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chem i ca l Engineering Faculty and res e arch interests : J A. Be r gantz D R. Brutvan H. T Cul l inan, Jr P E hrlich W.N. G ill R J G ood J. A. H owell K. M K iser P J. P hil l ips W. H R ay E R uckenstein J Szeke l y T W Weber S. W We l ler Financial aid is available ene rgy sources, gas -s olid reaction s s taged operations multicomponent mass transfe r, transport propert i es po lymeric materials the rm odynamic s dispersion, reverse osmosis surface phenomena, adhesion of l iving cel l s biological rea c tors waste treatment blood flow, turbulence, pollut i on in la kes polymer morphology, structure an d properties optimization, polymerization reactors cat alysis, interfacial phenomena, bioengineering process metallurgy, gas-sol id and so l id-sol id reaction s process control, dynamics of a d sorption cata lysis catalytic re acto rs For full information and application materials please contact : Dr Harry T. Cullinan Jr Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stat e Un i versity of New York at Buffalo Buffalo New York 14214 THE NORTH CARO L INA ST AT E UN I V ERS IT Y A T RA LE I GH o ff e r s programs leading to the M S ., M Ch.E. and Ph D. degrees in chemical engi neering. Active research programs leading to approximately 50 journal publ ic a tio n s per year are offered in a ll classical and contemporary research areas of c h emical engineering The proximity of a large number of polymer-related re search facilities at the nearby Research Tria ng le Park and the various offices and l aboratories of the Environmenta l Protection Age nc y in and n ear the Park st i mu l a t es strong research programs in polymers and air pollution t echnology at North Ca ro lina State Univers i ty. Graduate students are further stimulated by beaches and mounta i ns, an early s pring and a lat e fa l l, and the sister universities of Duke and U N C Chapel Hi l l. Our distinguished sen i or faculty of K 0. Beatty Jr. J K. Fer r ell, H B. Hopfenberg, Warren L McCabe, E. M. Schoenborn, E. P. Stahel and V T Stannett join their colleagues in i nvitin g you r application to study chem i cal engineering in North Carolina C HEMICAL ENGINEERING ED UC ATIO

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE OHIO ST A TE UNIVERSITY M S AND Ph D. PROGRAMS Environmental Engineerin g Process Analys is Design and Control Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineer i ng Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservo ir Engineer ing Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic s Rheology Uni t Ope rations Energy Sources and Conversion Process D ynamics and S i mulation Optim ization and A d vanced Mathematical Methods Biomed ical Engineer ing and Biochemical Engineering Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request WRITE : Aldrich Syverson Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 W. 19th Avenue Columbus Ohio 43210 lRE UNIVERSITY OF OKIAHOMA CATALYSIS WRITE TO : CORROSION THE SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCE The University of Oklahoma Engineering Center 202 W. Boyd Room 23 Norman Oklahoma 73069 FALL 1974 DIGITAL SYSTEMS DESIGN e POLYMERS METALLURGY THERMODYNAMICS RATE PROCESSES 251

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ENERGY RESOURCE RESEARCH POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY PROCESS DYNAMICS These are some of the challenging specialties you can fol low in graduate programs leading to degrees of M.S. in chemical / petroleum engineering or Ph.D. in chemical enginee ring Graduate Coordinator Chemical / Petroleum Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pa 15261 t:11iy.(sif 3r l>il~bm.gh KINETICS TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ANALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS BIOENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING write to Chemical Engineering Purdue University Lafayette, Ind. 47907

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Qgeell's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc a nd PhD D eg ree Program s D. w Ba co n Ph I) 1 \\', s con s in H .A. Becker ,cD ,111 D H Bo n e PhD 1 London ) S.C. C h o PhD 1 Pnnce1on l R H C l ark PhD 1 lrnp eri,1 I Colleg, R.K. Code l'hl) ( Co,m II J D ow ni e PhD l oronl o J E. E ll s worth PhD ll'nnce1o n C C. H s u PhD rc,.1 1. J D R a al l'h I) loronl o T R Wa rrin er '>t I) John, tlop "" B W. Wojcie c how s ki l'hD 011"" Wa s te Pro cessi n g wa t e r and w as t e tr eat m e nt ap pli ed mi c r obio l og y bioc h e mi c a l e n g in eeri n g Chemical R eact i on Engineering c a t a l ys i s t a ti s t i cal de, ign po l ) lll e r o;t ucli e, Tra n s port Pr ocesse s co mbu s tion il uicl m ec h a n ic;, thermody n amic s Writ e: Dr. B W. Wo j cie c h owski Depar tm ent of Che m ica l E n g in ee rin g Q u een s Unive r s it y King s ton Onta ri o Ca n ada UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER T. L Dona ldson R. F Eis en ber g M. R Feinberg J. R Ferron J C. Friedly R. H. Hei st F J M. Horn H R O smers H J Pal mer H Saltsburg W. D. Sm i th, Jr G. J Su FALL 1974 ROCHESTER NEW YORK 14627 MS & PhD Programs Mass Tran s f er Membrane s, Enzy me Ca t alys is Inorganic Composites Ph ysical Metallu r gy Formal Ch emic a l Ki ne t i cs, Co ntinu u m Me chanics Transpor t Proces s es A ppl ied Mathe ma tic s Proces s D y nam ic s, Optimal Control & Des ig n Nuclea ti o n At mosp he ric Chem istry, So li ds Chemical Processing T heor y App l ie d M at h ematics Rheology Pol yme r s Biological & E cological Processe s lnterfacial Phenomena Transport Pro cesses S u rface & S ol id-State C he mi stry Mo lecu lar Bea ms Kinet i cs & Reactor De s i gn Computer Appl ic ation s G l ass Science & T echno l ogy, T he rm odynamics F o r i nfo r m a t i o n write: J R. Ferron Chairman 253

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254 GRADUATE STU D Y IN C H E MI C AL ENGI N EERIN G SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY R E S EAR CH A RE AS F ACULTY Wayne S. Amato W a t er R enovation B i o medica l E ngineering M emb r ane P rocesses D es a Ii nation Transport P henomena Sepa r at ion P rocesses Mathematical Modeling R heo l ogy Allen J Barduhn James M. M ozley Phi l ip A. R ice S. Alexander Stern Gopal Su br amanian Chi T ien R affi M Turian Syracus e University is a pr iv ate coeducational university located on a 64 0 acr e cam pus s ituat ed among the hi ll s of Central N ew York State. A broad cultura l climate which encourages in t e r est i n eng i neering science th e social sciences, and the humanit ie s exists at th e univ ers ity The many divers i fi ed activities conducted on the campus provide an idea l e nvironment for the attainment of both specific and genera l educ at ional goals As a part of this medium sized research or i ented u n ivers i ty, the Depart me nt of Chem ic al Eng i neering and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of th e faculty in new technological problems co nfro n ting soc i ety. Rese a r ch independent s tud y and the genera l atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimu l ation FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1974-75 For Information : Stipends : Contact: C h ai r man D ep ar tment of Chemical Engineering and M a t eria l s Science Stipends range from $2 000 to $4,5 00 w ith most students receiving $3,400$4, 000 per annum i n addition to remit ted tuit i on privileges. S yr a cuse Unive r sity Syracuse, N ew York 13210 THINKING ABOUT GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING? Think about a meaningful study program in chem i cal engi neering at Texas A&M University TAMU s graduate program is designed to produce eng i neers who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry and society Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl there is an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally warm Texas fri e ndliness, enabling you to get the very best guidance and instruction possible For an information packet and application materials write to : Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Eng i neering Te x as A&M University College Station Texas 77843 C HEMICAL ENGi EERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL c;~GINEERING M S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS TUFTS UNIVERSITY Metropo litan B os ton CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS RHEOLOGY OPTIMIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION POLYMER STUDIES MEMBRANE PHENOMENA CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY BIO-ENGINEERING MECHANO-CHEMISTRY PROCESS CONTRO L FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF K A VAN WORMER CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD MASSACHUSETTS 02155 STUDY WITH US AND ENJOY NEW ORLEANS TOO! DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TULANE UNIVERSITY A V igorous Faculty Meaning ful Research Exce ll ent Fa c il i t ies The Good Life For Additional Information Please Contact Duane F. Bru l ey, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Tulane University New Orleans Louisiana 70118 FALL 197 4 THE FACULTY: Raymound V B a i l ey P h. D (LSU ) ... ........... Systems Engi neering App l ied Math E n ergy Conv e rs ion D ua n e F Brul ey, P h.D ( Tenn. ) ...................... Process D y n amics Control B i omedica l Engine eri ng Robe rt P Chamb e r s Ph .D (Ca lif B erke l ey ) .... Enzyme Eng i n e ering Proc es s D e v elop m e n t Metals Reco v er y, Ca t alys i s H Gordon H arr i s Jr ., Ph.D (Calif B erkeley ) .... T h ermodyna m i c s Pha se Equ il i b ri a E x tr activeMetal l urg y Danie l B Killeen Ph.D ( Tulane ) ... ...... Use of Compu t e rs in Engin e e r ing Educat i on Victor J La w P h. D (Tul an e ) .... ............. Optimiza t ion Contro l Agris y stem s Samue l L. Sull iva n Jr Ph.D ( T exas A&M ) .... Separat i on P ro c ess Transport Phenomena N u mer ic a l Methods Da le U van Ros e nb e r g Sc.D. { M I T ) .......... Num er ic al Methods P e trol eum P ro duct i on Robert E C. W e ave r Ph D (P r ince t on ) ........ Resourc e Managem e nt Op e ra t ion s Research and Con tro l Biom ed i cal Eng ineer i ng 255

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256 We are seeking entrepreneurial innovative Colleagues for NEW VENTURES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOIN US AT VIRGINIA TECH Coal Proce ssing New Polymer F ibers D igita l El ectronics, M icro processors and Control Chemical Laser Engineering I sot o pe Sepa ration Chemical Microengineering Cryogen i c Che mic al Syntheses Foo d Pro cessing Agr icu ltur e Biochem ical E ngineering Heterogeneou s, Ho m ogen eous, and Mul tiphase Catalysi s Guer il la Scien ce F inancial support is avai la ble for programs lead ing to M .S. and Ph D D egrees Virgin i a Pol ytechnic Institute and State Un versity is Virginia's Land Grant University located in the mountains of beautiful Southwestern Vir g inia at B lac ksburg Research in Chemical Engi neering emphasizes applied science and the practica l appl ic at ion of new science and technol ogy to important current problems with service and profit as major objectives The department is o ne of the la rge st in the country a large supplier of well-trained engineers to nat i onal employers, and the gra d uate p rogram reflects a close relat i on ship wit h the potential users of new develop ments. The faculty represents a wide range of ind u stria l academic and government experience. WRITE TO: Dr Henry A. McGee, J r Head Departm ent of Che mi cal E ngineering V i rg inia Po l ytechnic Institute and State U niversity Blacks b urg V irginia 24061 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING H G. Donnelly, PhD E. R. Fisher PhD t hermodynamic s-process design kinetics-molecular lasers electrochemical engr fuel cells environmenta l engr -kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer compu ter applications -nuclea r engr p rocess dynamics-mass transfer polymer science -com bustion processes molecular bea m s-vacuu m science molecular beams-ana l ysis of experime n ts multi-phase flows-env i r onmental engr J. Jorne PhD R.H. Kummler PhD C. B Leffert PhD R Marriott PhD J H McMicking, PhD R. Mic ke lson, PhD P K. Roi PhD E.W Rothe PhD S K Stynes PhD FOR FURTHER INFORMAT ION on admission and fi nan ci al aid contact: Dr. Ralph H. Ku m mler C ha irman, Department of Chemical Engi n eering Wayne State University Defroit, Michigan 4820 2 C HEMI C AL ENG[NEERI G EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Department of Chemical Engineering Sea ttle, Washing ton 98105 GR A DUATE STUDY BROCHURE AVAILABLE ON REQUE S T WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY ST LOUIS MISSOURI GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Wash i ngton University is located on a park-like campus at the St. Loui s Cit y limit. Its location offers t he c ult ural and r e creat ion a l opportuniti es of a major m et ropol it an ar ea combined with the convenience of a Un ive rsi ty surrounded b y pleasa nt r esiden t ial areas with many apartment houses where single and married graduate students can obtain housing at reasonable rates The D epartment of Chemical Engineering occup ie s a modern bui l ding with wel l -e qu ip ped la bo rator y facil iti es for research in a larg e va r i e t y of areas. Th e re i s close interaction with th e research and eng inee r ing staffs of ma j or St. Lou is chemica l comp ~n ies and also ex tensive co lla boration with th e faculty of the Wash i ngton U nive rs ity Schoo l of Medicine in the biomedical engineering research activ i t i e s PRINCIPAL RESEARCH AREAS B iom edica l Engineering Rheology Chemical R ea ction Engineering Tec h nology Assess m en t En vironmental S c i e nc e T herm od ynamics Po lymer Sc ie nce Transport Phenom ena For application forms a catalog, and a brochure which describes faculty research int e rests research projects and financial aid write to : FALL 1974 Dr. Er i c Weger Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Washington University St Louis Missouri 63130 257

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THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AU B U R N SC I ENCE AN D EN GIN EERIN G C EN TER GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 258 RESEARCH AREAS : Applied Mathematics Biomedical Env i ronmental Porous Media Rheology Polymer Process i ng Transport Processes FINANCIAL AID : Teaching and Research Assistantship Fellowships Available Competitive Stipends FULL AND PART TIME ENROLLMENT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY O F AKRON AKRON OHIO 44325 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Chemica l Eng i nee ri ng Post graduate wo rk is offe r ed leading to th e research degrees of AA .A.Sc. and Ph D o r to the nonr ese ar ch degree of M Eng The Department has exce lle nt experiment a l a nd computing facil ities. A wide r a nge of research topics is avai l ab l e. Please write for further i nformat ion on graduate courses research projects and financial ass i stance to : Dr F. E Murray Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of British Columbia Vancouver B.C. Canada V6T 1W5 ---------------UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Colorado offers excellent op portun iti es for graduate study and research leading to the M aster of Science and Doctor of P hilosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. R esearch in teres ts of the facu l ty include :ryo genics process c ont r ol polymer science cataly sis, fluid mechanics, heat transfer m ass transfer, computer aided design, air and wa t er pollution, biomedical engineering and eco l ogica l engi neering. For application and information write to : Chairman Graduate Comm i ttee Chem i cal Enginee ring Department Universi t y of Colorado Boulder C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA Graduat e Study i n Ch e m i ca l Eng i ne e rin g PROGRAM OF STUDY : Thesis and non Th es is p r ograms leading to the M .S. de gr ee ar e available. A full t ime s tud ent c a n c om plete the program in a cale nd e r yea r R esea r ch and T eaching as s is tantsh ips are available PROJECT LIGNITE : UND's Chemica l Engineering Department is e ngaged in a major res ea rch prog ram under the U S Office of Coal Researc h on conversion of lign ite co al to upgraded en erg y products A pilot plant is under c on st ruct io n for a coal liq uefac tion process St u d ents may participate in p roj ect-related th esis problem s, or be emp loy ed as project workers while tak ing c ours e work i n the department BUREAU OF MINES : Th e Departm en t of Chemical Engineering and the U S Bureau of Mines Energy Research La bo rator y offer a coope r ative program of study related t o coal techno log y Cou r se work i s tak en at the Un iversi t y and th esis r ese arch p er formed at th e Bureau under Bur e a u staff m e mb e r s F ellowships are available to U S citizens FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO : Dr Thomas C Owens Cha i rman Chemical Engineer i ng Departmen t Un i versity of North Dakota Gr a nd Forks North Dakota 58201 Do any of these names ring a bell ? Elzy Fitzg er ald Knudsen Levenspiel Meredit h Mrazek Wicks They re our D epartment W e offe r advanced study in straight chemical engineering and joint programs with biochem i stry environmental and o cean engineering, etc. It 's exciting here at OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY Curious? Q u es tion s? Writ e Dr Charles E. W ic k s Chemical E ngineering Departmen t Oregon State Univ ersity Corvallis Oregon 97331 FAL L 1974 THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA Iowa Ci ty M.S and Ph D i n Chemical Engineering Em ph a sis on Materia ls Eng i neeri n g Rheology Transport Processe s Chemo-mechanics St res s Corrosion Irreversible Thermodynamic s Membrane Proce sses Surface Effe cts React io n K ine tic s Radiation Effect s Assistantships are available Write : Chairman Chem i cal Engineering P r ogram U n ivers it y of I ow a Iowa City IA 522 42 University of Rhode Island Graduate Study Chemical Engineering MS PhD Nuclear Engineer i ng MS A R EAS OF RESE A R C H Ad sorption Bioch e mi cal Engineerin g Boiling H eat Transf er Cata l ys i s Co rro s ion Desalination Di spers ion Processes Di s tillation Fluid Dynamic s Heat Tran sfer Ion Exc h ange Kin etics Liqu i d Extraction A PPLI CAT IO S Mass Tra n sfer Mater i a l s Engineering Me m brane Diffusion Me t a l F i nishing Meta l Oxidation Metallurgy Nuc l ear Technolog y Phase Eq uili bria Polym ers Proce s Dynamics The rm ody na mics Wa t er R es our ces X-ray Meta ll og ra phy Apply to the D ea n of the Graduate S c h oo l Uni versity of Rhod e Island, K i n gsto n, Rhode Island 02881. App l ica tion s for financial aid shou ld be re ce i ved not later than Februar y 15. Appo in tme nt s w ill be m ade about Apri l. 259

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The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships Available EPA Traineeships in Water Supply and Pollution Control. For more details write: Dr. Leslie E. Lahti Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo Ohio 43606 THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN M.S. and Ph D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty research interests include materials, separatio:1 processes, polymers, flu i d propert i es, surface and aerosol physics, catalysis and kine tics, automatic cont rol process simulat i on and optimi za tion For additional information write : Graduate Adv i sor Department o f Ch emical Eng ineering The Un ive rsit y of Texas Austin Texas 78712 West Vlrg1nIa UnIvers1ty Chemical Engineering 260 Environmental Engineering Purification of Acid M i ne Drainage Water by Reverse Osmosis Sludge and Emuls ion Dewatering SO 2 Scrubbin g Economic Impact of Environmental Regulation s Other Topics Chemical Kinetics Separat i on Process es Optimization Transport Phenome na Utili zation of Ultrasonic Energy Bioengineering Energy Availability Coal Convers ion Potent ial of Coal Based En~rgy Complexes Conversion of Soli d Wastes to Low BTU Gas MS & PhD Programs Financial A id : up to $5400/year For further information and applications write : D r. J. D. He nry Department of Chemical Engineering West V irginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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BRAUN Engineers Constructors engineering for more energy requires new ideas YOURS With a background of 65 years of engineering for the process industries, C F Braun & Co occupies a unique ground-floor position in three of the newer energy fields coal gasification, oil shale processing and nuclear fuels. Our nuclear projects include plants for fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, and power gener ation. We are also engineering and will construct plants to convert coal and oil shale to clean commercial fuels. You, as an engineer, recognize that your future job security and shortest route to promotion lie in areas of new industrial technology. You want individual recognition for your ideas You want to be involved with new conceptsYou want to work in a congenial atmosphere with senior engineers who can h elp you advance rapidly in your career You want to work in a company that provides the ideal environment for your professional growth. All of these you will find at Braun. The rapid growth of our eng i neering and construction work for the energy conversion industries has opened many career positions in our Engineering Headquarters at Alhambra, California and in our Eastern Engineering Center at Murray Hill New Jersey. For more infor mation, please write to C F Braun & Co, Department K, Alhambra, California 91802 or Murray Hill New Jersey 07974. AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER

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In the energy field, there aren't any easy answers which i s one very good reason for considering Atlantic Richfield for your career It' s ener g y that has created and maintains the fa b ric o f today 's c ivilization That's basic. But prov i d i ng energy in vast amounts today an d preparing for the greater needs of tomorrow is a tougher an d more challenging problem than ever before No w n ew answers must be found to developing and utili z ing energy and its by-products if we are to m aintain our energy-based standards of living We w ant the best brains we can find to help us arrive at th es e answer s. We want people sensit i ve to the h uman an d natural env i ronment and realistic enough to k no w that p rese r ving b ot h m u st come fr om t o u gh i n t elligent de d icat e d w or k .. backed b y o ut st a ndi n g r esources in c apita l, re s ea r ch and experie n ce suc h a s t ho s e of A tl ant i c Ri c h fie l d If tackling s uch large -sc ale si g ni f i c ant proble m s i s one of y our c r i teria i n s e l ect i n g a j ob j oin u s. W e can offer you a ca r eer ri ch in challe n ge r i c h in mea ni ngfu l work, r i ch i n pers o nal re w ar d. See o u r represen t ati ve on c a m p us o r yo u r P lac em ent D ir ector Sho u ld tha t no t be c o n venient, w ri t e J T Thornto n At l a n ti c Ri c hf ie l d C ompan y 515 So ut h Fl o wer s Stree t Lo s An g e l es CA. 90071. AtlanticRichfieldCompa ny An equal opportunity employer M / F


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