Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Creation Date:
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Chemical Engineering Documents


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In fact at Sun Oil we've just adopted a new system
that promotes it. Internal Placement System.
SHere's how it works. Say you're in Production
and you decide to take a crack at Marketing.
Next opening in Marketing we'll tell you. You can
apply and be considered. First. You have freedom
to experiment and move around at Sun. You
learn more and you learn faster.

SWhy do we encourage job hopping? Because
we happen to believe our most valuable corporate
assets are our people. The more our people
know, the stronger we are. Now-you want to
know more? Ask your Placement Director when
a Sun Oil recruiter will be on campus. Or write
for a copy of our Career Guide. SUN OIL
COMPANY, Human Resources Dept. CED.
1608 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

An Equal Opportunity Employer M
An Equal Opportunity Employer MIF

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien

Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Business Manager: R. B. Bennett
(904) 392-0881

Editorial and Business Assistant: Bonnie Neelands
(904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
SOUTH: Charles Littlejohn
Chairman of Publications Board
Clemson University
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Vincent W. Uhl
University of Virginia
CENTRAL: Leslie E. Lahti
University of Toledo
Camden A. Coberly
University of Wisconsin
WEST: William H. Corcoran
California Institute of Technology
George F. Meenaghan
Texas Tech University
University of Houston
James R. Couper
University of Arkansas
EAST:G. Michael Howard
University of Connecticut
Leon Lapidus
Princeton University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York
NORTH: J. J. Martin
University of Michigan
Edward B. Stuart
University of Pittsburgh
NORTHWEST: R. W. Moulton
University of Washington
Charles E. Wicks
Oregon State University
D. R. Coughanowr
Drexel University
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
University of California, Santa Barbara

FALL 1974

Chemical Engineering Education


162 Digital Computer Control of Processes
Armando Corripio

164 Process Technology of Solid-State
Materials and Devices
Lee F. Donaghey

168 Multivariable Control and Estimation
Thomas F. Edgar

172 Chemistry of Catalytic Processes
B. Bates, J. Katzer, J. Olson and
G. Schuitt

176 Multi-Purpose Video-Taped Course
in Data Analysis
R. Greenkorn and D. Kessler

180 Advanced Thermodynamics
Kraemer D. Luks

184 Wastewater Engineering
P. Melnyk and R. Prober

188 Enzyme and Biochemical Engineering
L. L. Taclarides

194 The Science of Synthetic and
Biological Polymers
Curt Thies

159 Editorial
214 Division Activities

204 Review of the History of Mass Transfer
Thomas K. Sherwood

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by the Chemical
Engineering Division. American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $10 per
year, $6 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE,
and $4 per year to ChE faculty in bulk mailing. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright () 1974. Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education, Ray Fahien, Editor. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the
ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective
copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standarization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

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Many medicines you find at a drug-
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We make radioactive diagnostic
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And plastic for heart valves
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We invented an Oxygen Walker. It
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Our CentrifiChem blood analyzer
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And we constantly experiment.
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So today, something we do will
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And may even help save it.

Today, something we do
will touch yourlife.

An Equal Opportunity Employer



As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate school.
In this issue CEE attempts to assist you in finding answers to them.

Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as
an opportunity to further your professional de-
velopment. We believe that you will find that
graduate work is an exciting and intellectually
satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate
study can provide you with insurance against the
increasing danger of technical obsolescence.
Furthermore, we believe that graduate research
work under the guidance of an inspiring and in-
terested faculty member will be important in
your growth toward confidence, independence,
and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. Previous issues
included articles on applied mathematics, trans-
port phenomena, reactor design, fluid dynamics,
particulate systems, optimal control, diffusional
operations, computer aided design, statistical anal-
ysis, catalysis and kinetics, thermodynamics and
certain specialized areas such as air pollution, bio-
medical and biochemical engineering. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in pre-
vious years. If your department chairman or pro-
fessors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge. But before
you read the articles in these issues we wish to
point out that (1) there is some variation in
course content and course organization at different
schools, (2) there are many areas of chemical en-
gineering that we have not been able to cover, and

(3) the professors who have written these articles
are not the only authorities in these fields nor are
their departments the only ones that emphasize
that particular area of study.

Where should y/ou go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many very fine
chemical engineering departments and each of
these has its own "personality" with special em-
phases and distinctive strengths. For example, in
choosing a graduate school you might first con-
sider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If
you have a specific research project in mind, you
might want to attend a university which empha-
sizes that area and where a prominent specialist
is a member of the faculty. On the other hand if
you are unsure of your field of research, you might
consider a department that has a large faculty
with widely diversified interests so as to ensure
for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again
you might prefer the atmosphere of a department
with a small enrollment of graduate students. In
any case, we suggest that you begin by writing
the schiils that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue.
You will probably also wish to seek advice from
members of the faculty at your own school.
But wherever you decide to go, we suggest
that you explore the possibility of continuing
your education in graduate school.
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Note to Department Chairmen, See Page 179.

FALL 1974


Fire Destroys
ChE Library
Dear Sir:
Due to a fire, we lost our Chemical Engineering
Building; the worst consequence was the loss of
our library. The total losses are evaluated in the
order of $400,000. We have already received help
from various departments of Chemical Engineer-
ing in our country and from U.S.A. as well.
This letter is to ask you to publish an appeal
those departments of Chemical Engineering that
might have books or journals which they'd be
willing to donate. These would be most useful to
our students and to our research staff.
Faculty of Engineering
National University of LaPlata
LaPlata, Argentina

Compliments for
Carberry Commentary
Dear Sir:
I just finished the Winter 1974 Issue of
Chemical Engineering Education and felt com-
pelled to compliment the authors of the sketch of
Professor Carberry.
I thought it informative, as are most of your
articles, but more importantly, it was good
writing. In turn light and humorous and con-
taining scholarly references, it presented a pic-
ture of a truly professional teacher who is clearly
a man to be admired and respected. A good
change from the dusty picture of a equally
dusty professor.
R. J. Wall
Industrial Relations Administrator


At Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc. our 4
billion dollar plus backlog offers all kinds of practical
applications opportunities for chemical engineers to
help provide solutions to the energy problem.
At Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc. we de-
sign and build facilities for the hydrocarbon processing
industry-oil refineries, gas processing plants, and
petrochemical installations. We are very active in
liquefied natural gas, methyl fuel, coal conversion, and
nuclear fuel processing.

If you want to find out about opportunities, loca-
tions you can work in (world wide) and why Fluor is
the best place to apply what you have learned, meet
with the Fluor recruiter when he comes to your campus
or contact the College Relations Department directly.

Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc.
1001 East Ball Road
Anaheim, CA 92805




Twelfth Annual Lectureship
Award to Elmer Gaden

The 1974 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer was Dr. Elmer L. Gaden, Jr., of Columbia
University. The purpose of this award lecture is to
recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in an
important field of fundamental chemical engineering
theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering
educator who delivers the Annual Lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and
an engraved certificate. These were presented to this
year's Lecturer at the Annual Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Meeting June 28, 1974 at Rensselaer Polytechnic In-
stitute, Troy, N.Y. Dr. Gaden spoke on "Biotechnology-
an Old Solution to a New Problem."
Elmer L. Gaden, Jr., was born and raised in Brooklyn,
New York. He attended the Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and transferred to Columbia University through
enlistment in the naval training program of World War
II. He graduated from Columbia during the war and later
received the Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the same
Professor Gaden worked for Chas. Pfizer & Co., in
biological process development, before returning to Colum-
bia. He has had subsequent industrial experience with
Biochemical Processes, Inc., a company which he founded
and directed from 1958 to 1971, and with Radiation Ap-
plications, Inc.
With a primary technical interest in bioengineering,
especially the analysis, design, and control of processes
based on the activities of microbial populations, Professor
Gaden has made important contributions to the understand-
ing of aeration and oxygen transfer and to the kinetic re-
lationships in such processes, microbial process design
and control, and air sterilization by filtration. Dr. Gaden
has also been the editor of the journal Biotechnology and
Bioengineering since its inception. In 1970 he was the
first recipient of the Food & Bioengineering Award of
the AIChE.
Since 1949, Professor Gaden has been a member of
the faculty at Columbia University with teaching
responsibilities in chemical engineering, bioengineering,
and, since 1966, history. He has also been responsible for
initiating interdisciplinary undergraduate instruction in
"technology and society." From 1960 to 1969 and again
from 1971 he has been Chairman of the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. In 1971
he received the Great Teachers Award and in 1973 the
Harold C. Urey Award of Phi Lambda Upsilon,

1963, A. B. Metzner, University of Delaware,
"Non-Newtonian fluids."
1964, C. R. Wilke, University of California, "Mass
transfer in turbulent flow."
1965, Leon Lapidus, Princeton University, "As-
pects of modern control theory and applica-
1966, Octave Levenspiel, Illinois Institute of Tech-
nology, "Changing Attitudes to Reactor De-
1967, Andreas Acrivos, Stanford University,
"Matched Asympototic Expansions."
1968, L. E. Scriven, University of Minnesota,
"Flow and Transfer at Fluid Interfaces."
1969, C. J. Pings, California Institute of Tech-
nology, "Some Current Studies in Liquid State
1970, J. M. Smith, University of California at
Davis, "Photo chemical Processing-Photo
Decomposition of Pollutants in Water."
1971, William R. Schowalter, Princeton Univer-
sity, "The Art and Science of Rheology."
1972, Dale F. Rudd, University of Wisconsin,
"Synthesis and Analysis Engineering."
1973, Rutherford Aris, University of Minnesota,
"Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Catalysts
-a Chemical Engineering Symphony."

FALL 1974

4 Gouse ont


Louisiana State University
Baton PRIuI Louisiana 70803

travel, is no longer a dream but a reality. The
time when every new plant of significant size will
be equipped with a control computer is rapidly
approaching. Recognizing this fact the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at LSU initiated
six years ago a course on the use of digital com-
puters in process control. This graduate course is
one of four offered by the department in the
area of automatic process control:

Course Title


Introduction to Automatic Control
Theory Senior/Graduate
Process dynamics and adaptive control Graduate
Optimal control of processes Graduate
Digital Computer Process Control Graduate
The first of these courses is a pre-requisite to
the other three which are independent of each
other. Each of the graduate courses covers differ-
ent aspects of modern control theory with actual
or potential application to chemical processes. As

Computer process control, like space
travel, is no longer a dream but a
reality; the time when every new plant
of significant size will be equipped with
a control computer is rapidly approaching.

a matter of historical interest, two of these
courses were initiated over two decades ago by
the late Arthur G. Keller, as survey courses in
process instrumentation and control.
The objective of the course is to familiarize
the student with the control capabilities of the
digital computer and with the techniques he will
need to design the control routines to be executed
by the computer. The course outline given in
Table I is a list of the topics covered.

Table I
I. Introduction
1. Review of automatic process control theory
2. Description of the computer hardware
necessary for real-time operation
3. Programming the computer for real-time
1. Economic justification
II. Design of Sampled-Data Control Systems
1. The algebra of z-transforms
2. Stability of sampled-data systems
3. Effect of noise and digital filtering
III. Feedback Control Algorithms
1. Synthesis of control algorithms
2. Discrete equivalent of standard two- and
three-mode controllers
3. Process models and tuning techniques
4. Effect of sampling interval
IV. Advanced Control Techniques
1. Feedforward control
2. Cascade control systems
3. Interaction index and decoupling of multi-
variable systems
I. On-line identification and adaptive control
.. Compensation of transportation lag
V. Optimization of Process Operation
1. Formulation of the optimization problem
and the performance index
2. Linear programming and constrained optimum
3. On-line search methods


A REVIEW OF AUTOMATIC control theory
is given in the form of an analysis of the
different components of the typical control loop.
Special attention is devoted to the conventional
two- and three-mode analog controllers for later
comparison with the digital version of the feed-
back controller. As part of the introduction the
student, who is usually familiar with pro-
gramming the computer for "batch" solution of
scientific problems, is exposed to the special hard-
ware and programming considerations required
for "real-time" operation, i. e. continuous atten-
tion of a process that takes place in actual time.
The significant factors involved in economically
justifying a computer in a process control appli-
cation are also presented.
The course as taught at LSU uses z-transform


Armando B. Corripio is Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He attend-
ed the University of Villanueva in Havana, Cuba until closed by the
Castro regime in April 1961, on the day of the Bay of Pigs in-
vasion. He holds B.S. (1963), M.S. (1967) and Ph.D. (1970) degrees
in Chemical Engineering, all from L.S.U. His industrial experience
includes five years of process simulation and control systems design
with Dow Chemical Company. Member of AIChE, ISA, SCS and
COED, his main interest lies in the areas of computer simulation
and automatic control theory. He is author or co-author of over
thirty articles and presentations, is married and has four children,
ages 1, 7, 9 and 10.

algebra as a tool in the analysis of the sampled-
data control loop, and in the synthesis of digital
control algorithms. Pulse transfer functions and
their use in the determination of the stability
of the loop are given particular attention, as are
the most common forms of data holds on the
computer output signals. The effect of noise on
the sampling process and its attenuation by digital
filtering are also presented.
The synthesis of digital control algorithms is
illustrated by the presentation of the deadbeat,
Dahlin and Kalman algorithms. These algorithms
will, under certain conditions, cause excessive
switching of the control valve, a phenomenon
known as "ringing". As a result of a term project
assigned to one of the students in the course, a
demonstration of ringing utilizing the Chemical
Engineering Hybrid Simulation Laboratory has
been developed. The demonstration consists of a
continuous stirred tank chemical reactor, simulat-
ed on the analog computer and controlled by the
digital computer through the hybrid interface.
(See Table II). Given this set-up the student is
able to obtain a model of the process, synthe-
size a digital control algorithm which is pro-
grammed on the digital computer, and observe
the effect of ringing. He is also able to identify
and remove the ringing poles in the control al-
gorithms and observe the performance of the

Table II
Analog Computer
Electronic Associates Model 680
75 operational amplifiers
30 integrator/summer networks
20 multipliers square/square-root cards
2 adjustable function generators
Assorted parallel logic: AND gates, FLIP 'FLOPS,
Hybrid Interface
Electronic Associates Model 693
24-channels of analog-to-digital conversion
12 channels of digital to analog converters
16 digital output lines (logic levels)
8 digital input lines (logic levels)
6 interrupt lines
Digital Computer
Xerox Model Sigma-5
20,000 words, 32 bits per word
Hardware floating-point unit
750,000 bytes of bulk storage (disk)
Card reader
Line printer
Operator's console
6 levels of priority interrupt
Sigma Macro-symbol assembler
FORTRAN compiler
SL-1 Simulation Language
Hybrid subroutine package (FORTR'AN callable)

A demonstration of ringing using the ChE
Hybrid Simulation Lab has been developed.
It consists of a continuous stirred tank chemical
reactor simulated on analog computer, controlled
by digital computer through hybrid interface.

"ringing-free" algorithm. The set-up can also be
used to test the different methods of obtaining
simple models of a process, and to observe the
effect of varying the computer sampling interval.


M ANY OF THE INDUSTRIAL applications of
digital control computers involve the use of
discrete equivalents of the conventional analog
two- and three-mode controllers. A number of
methods to tune the parameters of the analog con-
trollers have been adapted to their digital counter-
parts. These include Zeigler-Nichols, Cohen and
Coon, and a number of empirical formulas de-
(Continued on page 203.)

FALL 1974

41 Q4,Ut i44 9kct4wauc M&&eid:



University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, Calif. 94720

T HE CHEMICAL ENGINEER is making an in-
creasing number of contributions to solid
state industries, from ultrapurification and single
crystal production to process engineering in semi-
conductor integrated electronics. The rapidly-
evolving technological requirements of the highly
competitive electronic materials and device in-
dustries are creating new horizons for well train-
ed chemical engineers with specialization in solid
state engineering: a working knowledge of solid
state chemistry, basic device physics and process
chemical engineering. In response to the im-
portance of contributing to solid state engineer-
ing education, a new course has been introduced
into the chemical engineering curriculum at the
University of California, Berkeley.
The foundations of the modern solid state
industries developed slowly in the early 1900's.
Among the most important concepts was that of
crystal lattice defects introduced by Frenkel in
1926. Schottky and Wagner, Fowler and others
then developed the statistical mechanics of
crystals to describe states of disorder in a nearly
perfect lattice. Wilson also contributed to this
development with the band theory of solids which
was based on quantum mechanics. The recogni-
tion of the importance of defects in solids has had
a profound influence on our current understand-
ing of many diverse phenomena including solid
state reactions, heterogeneous catalysis, semicon-
ductor electronics, photography and laser physics.
The defect chemistry of solids is of such continu-
ing importance in solid state engineering that
this subject, including the supporting basics of
solid state chemistry were chosen for the basis
of the new course.
The beginning of electronic device technology
began in earnest with the disclosure of the
Schottke-barrier field-effect transistor in 1940. At

Lee F. Donaghey received the B.A. degree in Physics from Har-
vard College, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Science
from Stanford University. His industrial experience has been in the
semiconductor and microwave electronics industries. Following a
postdoctoral appointment at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stock
holm, he joined the Chemical Engineering faculty at the University
of California, Berkeley in 1970. His research interests are concerned
with the synthesis, thermochemistry and process kinetics of elec-
tronic materials.

that time the device operated at a net power
loss, and it was evident that new experimental
technologies were needed for ultrapure single
crystal production and device processing. New
purification procedures such as zone refining were
introduced, as well as techniques able to control
surface defects. The new approaches ultimately
climaxed in power gain with the Bardeen-Brat-
tain point contact transistor in 1947. Since that
time advancements in process technology of solid
state devices have appeared at an ever accelerat-
ing rate. In recent years, planar processing, large
scale integration, and single crystal film process-
ing have expanded the techniques and needed ex-
pertise of the process engineer. The basis for
understanding these developments in process
technology, and techniques for applying them in
current applications, form the latter part of the
new course.



T HE MAIN PURPOSE of this course then is
to provide students with an introduction to
and working knowledge of (a) the chemistry of
the solid state, (b) theory and practice of single
crystal growth and (c) process operations and
technologies for solid state device fabrication. An
important theme is that the attainable physical
properties of electronic, magnetic and optical
materials are often limited by process-induced de-
fects, and as a consequence, fabrication processes
must be designed to control materials properties
so as to optimize the performance of the final
device. The student acquires an understanding of
the methods for control of electrically, mag-
netically and optically active defects and gains in-
sight into the effect of processing variables on
materials and defect-related device properties.
The course is a chemical engineering elective
designed for senior and first year graduate stu-
dents of chemical engineering who are interested
in a materials engineering option. Nevertheless,
this one-quarter course has attracted students
from departments of electrical engineering,
chemistry and materials science. A prerequisite
for enrollment is a basic course in materials
science or materials engineering; most of the
chemical engineering seniors at Berkeley, and
many entering graduate students have completed
this prerequisite. In addition, some chemical
engineering students concurrently enroll in an
electrical engineering course in Electronic Cir-
cuits designed specifically for non-majors.
The new course complements several elec-
tronic materials and related curricula within the
university. The chemical engineering courses in
Mass Transfer, Transport Phenomena and
Chemical Processing of Inorganic Compounds co-
ordinate with the sections on crystal growth,
chemical vapor deposition, oxidation and diffu-
sion. The course treatment of silicon is extended
in the electrical engineering courses Processing
and Design of Integrated Circuits, and Semicon-
ductor Devices; also, the treatment of point defect
thermodynamics provides a basis for advanced
physical property studies offered in Physics and
Chemistry of Semiconductors. Two complemen-
tary courses in physical properties are offered in
materials science: Thermal and Optical Proper-
ties of Materials and Electrical and Magnetic
Properties of Materials. Nevertheless, the treat-
ment of the defect chemistry of solids and rela-

Table I.
1. Introduction: Solid-State Engineering; 1, 2
Materials and Devices; Process
2. Crystal Chemistry: Crystal Structures 1, 3-5
and Bonding; Energetics of Defects; Point
Defect Equilibria; Laser Crystal Chemistry.
3. Electronic Defect Structure: Equilibria 1, 3, 4
with Impurities; Transport Properties and
Lattice Defects.
I. Ultrapurification: Purification Schemes; 6, 7, S
Halide Transport; Zone Refining.
5. Crystal Growth: Use of Phase Equi- 1, 9, 10
libria; Czochralski Crystal Growth;
Growth from Solution.
6. Chemical Vapor Deposition: Kinetic 11, 12
Mechanisms; Chemical Transport; Vapor
Phase Epitaxy of Silicon and Gallium Ar-
7. Processing of Silicon Devices: Photoresist 2, 11
Technology; Chemical Etching; Oxidation;
S. Discrete Component Processing: MOS 11, 13
Technologies; Packaging.
9. Electro-optical Device Processing: 14, 15
Solar Cells; Light-Emitting Diodes; Hetero-
structure Devices.
10. Magnetic Device Processing: Magnetic 16, 17
Thin Films; Garnet Film Memories.

The main purpose of the course is To
provide a working knowledge of solid-state
chemistry, theory and practice of single
crystal growth and process operations
and technology for solid state device fabrication.

tion to chemical phenomena in solid state
materials and device processing remains unique
to the new course.


T HE TEN TOPICAL sections shown in Table
I comprise the course content. The student
is introduced to the field of solid state engineering
and shown how materials purification, crystal
growth and select processing steps influence the
performance of solid state devices. Single crystals
and working devices serve as in-class examples:
3" dia. germanium crystals, ultra-high purity
compound crystals, and silicon memory chips,
light-emitting diodes and magnetic thin film
memories in different stages of fabrication.

FALL 1974

The fundamentals of crystal chemistry are
explored in the next section beginning with a
review of Bravais lattices and bonding. Magnetic
and ferroelectric crystal structures are examined
from an ion-centered approach, while optical,
semiconducting and superconducting crystals are
examined in terms of bonding and band structure.
Defects in solids are introduced, and mass action
relations between point defects solved by matrix
methods to obtain defect equilibria. Factors in-
fluencing substitutional ion solubilities in laser
crystals are explored. Defect equilibria between
electronic defects and impurities are then in-
troduced and related to electronic transport pro-
Section four presents ultrapurification schemes
for elements and compounds. The selected removal
of electrically active impurities is emphasized.
Two purification processes are examined in de-
tail: halide transport purification and zone re-
fining, using a case study approach for silicon and
group III-V compounds.
Crystal growth fundamentals are presented in
Section five, where phase equilibrium require-
ments and non-stoichiometry consequences are
explored for different growth methods. Interface
attachment kinetics and defect densities are re-
lated to crystallization driving forces for different
growth mechanisms. Czochralski crystal growth
of silicon and III-V compounds and solution

are explored. An illustrative problem treated is
described in Homework Example 2.
Section seven is devoted to unit processes for
solid state device fabrication. For several process-
es, chemical etching, oxidation and diffusion, there
exists a wealth of literature, and easily identified
rate dependence on lattice defects. Consequently,
these processes serve to exemplify the influence
process variables have on physical properties of
solid state materials.
In Sections eight through ten, process tech-
nologies of selected devices are presented: bipolar
and metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) transistors, solar
cells and light-emitting diodes and magnetic thin
film memories. For each, the sequence of process
operations is identified and the process conditions
and critical properties are outlined. The unit
processes examined earlier in the course are
drawn on as a basis for this section. In home-
work problems the processing conditions needed
to achieve a final device of given characteristics
are sought in terms of rate processes and process
Demonstrations supplement the lecture and
reading material, and provide closer contact with
industrial processes.* Czochralski crystal growth
is demonstrated, and melt convection simulated.
Chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated with
a graduate research reactor. The current-voltage
characteristics of electronic devices are demon-

The rapidly evolving technological requirements of the highly competitive electronic
materials and device industries are creating new horizons for well-trained chemical
engineers with specialization in solid state engineering: a working knowledge of
solid state chemistry, basic device physics and process ChE.

growth of garnets are treated as extended
examples. Interesting interactions are explored
between crystal growth phenomena and lattice
defects which influence both impurity solubility
and growth rates. A typical problem is shown in
Homework Example 1.
Reactor design and chemical reaction pro-
cesses of chemical vapor deposition are presented
in Section six, beginning with a discussion of
kinetic mechanisms and rate control regimes.
Closed system chemical transport crystal growth
fundamentals are explored. Finally, commercial
reactors, chemical reactions and growth condi-
tions for silicon and gallium arsenide-phosphide

strated with a semiconductor curve tracer.
A term paper was an integral part of the
course during the first two years of development.
This project served to integrate the course ma-
terial with a specific topic of interest to each
student. The conditions and deadlines for this
assignment were presented at the beginning of
the course, with a topic approved and abstract
written by mid quarter. The most successful
topics chosen are listed in Table II. In the last

*Supported in part by the U. S. Atomic Energy Com-
mission through the Inorganic Materials Research Division
of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.


Table II.
MOS Processing Techniques.
Ion Implantation Techniques for the Manufacture
of New Semiconductor Devices.
Recent Innovations in Zone Relining.
Ihotoresist Properties and Use in Semiconductor
Processing Operations.
Light Emitting Diode Processing.
Laser Crystals: How they work and Some Pre-
parative Methods.
Modification of Solvent Compositions for Liquid
Phase Epitaxial Growth of Magnetic Thin-
Film Garnets.

year, this assignment was omitted to allow great-
er development of device process technologies
with illustrative, extended homework assign-
There exist no comprehensive text able to
cover the broad subject matter treated in the
course. Consequently, an extensive set of course
notes is provided. The book Solid-State Chemistry
by Hannay' has served as an introductory text,
with reading assignments drawn from the
reference list. Slides are used as a part of many
lectures to present examples from the reading.
Although the course material appears extensive,
experience has shown that well directed home-
work and reading assignments enable the con-
scientious student to handle the material without

IN THE THREE YEARS during which this
course has been given the emphasis has ex-
panded from the fundamentals of solid state
chemistry and control of electrically active defects
toward a fuller explication of unit processes and
technologies for currently important electronic
devices such as bipolar and MOS integrated cir-
cuits, light-emitting devices, and "Illl.k- domain"
magnetic memories. Whereas the former
emphasis is more important for materials engi-
neers, this subject causes chemical engineers the
most difficulty. The exploration of basic processes
such as crystal growth, oxidation and diffusion
provides students with a better understanding
of the effect of process variables on defect-related
physical properties. Coverage of the process
technologies for specific solid state devices tends
to kindle the most interest and is more important
for preparing chemical engineers for roles in solid
state industries. Many alumni of this course have

already launched successful careers in local
electronics and solid state materials industries,
where the demand for the chemical engineer with
specialized skills in materials is increasing. rF

Neodemium Distribution in Czochralski Grown CaWO,

The addition of NaO to the melt significantly
affects the solubility of Nd- ions in CaWO,
through charge compensation with Na+ ions. In
this problem the distribution of Nd-' along a
CaWO, crystal grown by the Czochralski method
is to be calculated from distribution coefficients
for Nd and Na and from properties of the diffu-
sion boundary layer at the crystallizing inter-
face. The instantaneous ion concentrations in the
crystal are calculated by solving mass action rela-
tions for Schottky defect formation, Nd substitu-
tion on a Ca site with Ca vacancy formation, Na
substitution on a Ca site with formation of an
oxygen vacancy, and the time-dependent NaO
and Nd.0,: concentrations in the melt. This prob-
lem demonstrates the interdependence of defect
mass action relationships with crystal growth


Chemical Vapor Deposition of GaAS ,P,

Phase equilibrium temperatures and deposi-
tion rates are explored within a barrel reactor
in which gallium arsenide-phosphide solid solu-
tions are deposited from GaCl, As,, P, and HC1
source vapors transposed by H_. The vapor-solid
reaction equilibria are solved simultaneously to
deduce the equilibrium temperature and solid so-
lution composition for the overall reaction. Side
reactions are omitted in this simplified analysis.
The deposition rates at lower temperatures are
determined by solving the set of component molar
flux equations for a film boundary layer. This
problem provides useful criteria for understand-
ing commercial reactors for electro-optical film

1. N. B. Hannay, 'Solid-Statl Chemisltry, Prentice-Hall.
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1!(;7.
2 I. 1. Baker, I). C. Koehlcr, W. O. Fleckenstein, C. E.
Roden and R. Sabia, Ph/!,sical I)e.ign of Electronic
S!stem.s, Vol. 3, Integratcdl Dccire a nd Connection
(Continued on page 198.)

FALL 1974



University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712

IN THE 1970 Graduate Education Issue of
Chemical Engineering Education, Lowell
Koppel lamented that advanced control techniques
had not been considered to be practical or effec-
tive in spite of the significant number of engineers
with graduate level training in process control.
Today, however, it appears that there is a real
opportunity for advanced control techniques to
have a significant impact on the practice of pro-
cess control in the chemical industry. Concomit-
antly, graduate education in control theory can
contribute to the emergence of the new control
Let us examine the current situation in more
detail. First, the dedicated process computer has
been made a reality via the development of inex-
pensive process control software and hardware.
Second, some of the ideas which have received
theoretical attention in the control literature have
now been subjected to experimental verification.
For example, the increase in effectiveness of
multivariable control, where the controller is fed
information from all outputs, over single loop
control (single measurement feedback) has been
clearly demonstrated by several investigators"-
Third, increased energy costs have caused super-
visory personnel to re-examine the economic
trade-off between energy consumption and pro-
duct specifications, both for steady state and
dynamic operation. Fourth, the use of the com-
puter for data acquisition and supervisory con-
trol as well as in single loop DDC has been ac-
cepted in the process industries-a development
which clears the way for further advances in
Given the current industrial situation, how
does one attempt to structure the graduate cur-
riculum in control so that it will present the im-
portant concepts but also eventually have some
impact on control practice? There are a number
of relevant facts to consider here:

Today there are fewer graduate students
specializing in process control, most of them
M. S. candidates with relatively short holdup
times. This situation together with faculty
logistics usually permit the offering of only
one graduate control course.
A chemical engineering graduate course in
control should not and need not duplicate
other engineering control courses. It should
emphasize theory and application indigenous
to the chemical process industry.
Since a classical control course based on
frequency domain analysis is traditionally
taught undergraduates, the graduate course
should interface with that background. In
order to communicate with a practicing con-
trol engineer, the graduate must be able to
speak in terms of transfer functions and PID
controllers. Unfortunately these subjects have
not been addressed in most advanced control
theory books based on time domain analysis.

L .

Tom Edgar is an assistant professor at The University of Texas
at Austin. He came to Texas from Princeton University (Ph.D. 1971),
where he specialized in control theory and collision and trajectory
analysis, the latter two topics mainly applied to intercollegiate
competition ;n rugby and volleyball. His B.S. degree is from the
University of Kansas, and he has worked as a process engineer for
Continental Oil Company. At Texas he is engaged in teaching and
research in the fields of multivariable control, optimization, process
modeling, and energy systems.


Experimental computer control facilities,
if available, should be integrated into the con-
trol course. This is the surest way to lend
credibility to advanced control concepts. The
1970 survey of universities by the CACHE
Real-Time Task Force has shown that nearly
fifty chemical engineering departments had
acquired or were planning to acquire com-
puters for use in their laboratories.


GIVEN THE ABOVE considerations, the
graduate offering in modern control theory
at the University of Texas has evolved into a
course on multivariable control and estimation.
The course emphasizes the development of con-
trol strategies based on state variable models but
not necessarily limited to the use of optimization
theory. The concepts of transfer functions, both
continuous and discrete, are introduced, and the
design of feedback control laws for single input-
single output systems is shown to be a subprob-
lem of the multiple input-multiple output design
problem. The majority of the course material is
based on linear (ized) systems, for which many
useful mathematical results have been developed.
Coverage of basic mathematical concepts, es-
pecially those of static optimization and matrix
techniques, is minimized in the interests of time.
Variations in the mathematical background of
the students can be rather wide, but it has been
found that most students will accept the scale-up
of a two dimensional example to a matrix expres-
sion. By later studying a higher order example,
they do obtain an appreciation for the power of
matrix notation.
An important ingredient of the course is the
providing of experience via computer simulation
and real-time computer control experimentation.
The experiments require knowledge of computer
programming (Fortran, Basic) ; however, the
student does not need to learn details on instru-
mentation or computer hardware although that
option is available.
As part of a large project on computer-based
education at the University of Texas, modulariz-
ing of certain portions of the course has been at-
tempted to strengthen the learning process, with
good success. A module consists of explanatory
material (both theory and application) on a
specific topic in which the student behavioral ob-
jectives or goals are clearly defined by the in-

structor. The student then proceeds to inde-
pendently learn the concepts via conjunctive use
of textbooks and material written by the instruc-
tor. Study questions are used to reinforce the
understanding of the module. By formulating the
module as a project with many options and alter-
natives and requiring the student or group of
students to write a report on their results, the
students' creativity in thought and expression is
stimulated. This procedure along with several
examinations indicate whether the student has

S. modularization of certain portions of the course
has been attempted to strengthen the learning
process, with good success... student eval-
uation has shown that this definitely
enhances the quality of the course.

attained the desired behavioral objectives. If the
students do not learn the specific concepts, then
the module should be altered so that they do.
Modules also provide additional experience in
independent study; the capacity for self-study
is a valuable trait for continued professional
Student evaluation of the module approach
has shown that it definitely enhances the quality
of the course. The mathematics of modern con-
trol theory are rather difficult to master, and
supplementary information as well as study ques-
tions on the various subjects prove to be helpful.
The modules can sometimes stand in place of a
lecture; less than twenty percent of my lectures
have been displaced by this medium. In those
cases the lecture time is used for informal dis-
cussion of the concept or experiment under
study. The transferability of a module to another
school is another important consideration, and
great care has been exercised to design the
modules so that they could be implemented else-


A GENERAL OUTLINE of the course is
given in Table I. A heavy emphasis is placed
on linear system theory, both for control and
estimation, since these topics have a much higher
probability of near-term application in the
chemical industry.

FALL 1974

Table I
I. Review of Static Optimization
II. State Representation of Dynamic Systems
A. State Equations
B. Eigenvalues, Modal Analysis, Modal Control
C. Controllability, Observability
III. Dynamic Optimization-Continuous Time
A. The Variational Approach
B. The Linear Quadratic Problem (LQP)
C. Constrained Control, Minimum Time Control
I). Nonlinear System Control
IV. Dynamic Optimization-Discrete Time
A. State Equations
B. Discrete Dynamic Programming-LQP
V. State and Parameter Estimation
A. Observer Theory
B. Kalman Filtering
C. Nonlinear System Estimation
Modules have been written on the following
IIB: modal analysis and control
IIIB: optimal multivariable control of a distilla-
tion column
IIIC: minimum time control of linear systems
(phase plane analysis)
V: sequential parameter estimation in a stirred
The parameter estimation module has been used
with real-time computer data acquisition and
computation, while the other modules have used
simulation (digital and analog) for demonstrat-
ing the concepts. Equipment limitations have
previously prevented the application of actual ex-
perimentation to the first two modules, but this
problem has recently been resolved.
The textbook used is Modern Control En-
gineering by Maxwell Noton; the text more or
less covers the topics listed in Table I. The book

The course emphasizes the development of control
strategies based on state variable models but
not necessarily limited to use of optimi-
zation theory an important ingredient
is providing experience via computer sim-
ulation and real-time computer control experimentation.

is interdisciplinary in its presentation, although
not as extensive in scope as those books used for
additional study in the course3-". After a short
review of static optimization using the book, the
study of linear continuous system dynamics is
undertaken. Such subjects as eigenvalues/eigen-
vectors and their relationships to transient re-

sponse, canonical forms, state variable notation,
multivariable Laplace transforms, the transition
matrix, and the modal equations9 are presented
At this point the student is prepared for the
first application of multivariable control. Pro-
portional control of the states is assumed to be
the most practical strategy for process regulation.
It can be easily shown that the addition of feed-
back control in effect shifts the eigenvalues of the
open-loop model. The proposed controller should
realize a quick-responding closed-loop system
where the eigenvalues have large negative real
parts. Thus the so-called pole placement or modal
control technique offers one multivariable con-
trol approach. One can adjust the elements of
the feedback matrix, K, to obtain the desired
closed loop behavior. This can be done intuitively,
by optimization techniques, or by other meth-
ods','', 1. The students are cautioned, however,
that the system eigenvectors can cause un-
predictable behavior. These factors are studied in
the first module.

A PILOT SCALE distillation column system
in the laboratory can be introduced at this
juncture as a typical multivariable control prob-
lem. Since most multivariable systems are derived
from physical principles (black box multivariable
modeling techniques are not yet well-developed),
this approach is used for the column model de-
velopment. The Huckaba modelP2 for a column
with n trays and reboiler and condenser yields a
set of n + 2 nonlinear ordinary differential equa-
tions. The derivation is explained in detail in a
student handout. This model has been experi-
mentally verified and thus assumes some credibili-
ty. By linearizing the equations, a state space
model of the form,
x = Ax + Bu + Cd
is derived, where x, u, and d are the state, con-
trol, and disturbance vectors. This system can
be used as the focus of various linear multi-
variable control strategies, such as the modal
control technique mentioned above.
The second major approach for design of
multivariable controllers utilizes the the mini-
mum principle applied to the linear state equation
with quadatic objective function, the well-known
linear-quadratic problem (LQP). The basic op-
timal control structure for the LQP is linear feed-


back; if the disturbance, d, is non-zero, the LQP
solution consists of proportional feedback plus
feedforward control. Thus the notion of feedfor-
ward control to anticipate the effect of the dis-
turbance, a concept which is now well-established
in control practice (via transfer function
analysis), arises in optimal multivariable con-
trol. By proper choice of the objective function,

One of the more interesting applications is the
control of a fluid catalytic cracker system ...
the distributed parameter version of the LQP
is briefly treated in class by discretization
of the spatial variable-"if you don't like it, lump it."

an optimal PID controller can be computed. For
simple systems this correlates closely with the
PID controller tuned using classical control
theory.'3 Optimal control theory clearly demon-
strates the effect of the integral model; it only
makes the controller more sluggish, but its ad-
vantages include compensation for model errors
and the smoothing of the control action.
The computation of multivariable control via
the LQP is rather straightforward, and there are
"canned" computer programs available for con-
troller design. Such a program, VASP" (Variable
Dimension Automatic Synthesis Program), links
available Fortran subroutines (e. g., integration
of Riccati equation, formation of transition
matrix, etc.) and requires a minimum of pro-
gramming effort, thus permitting the student to
concentrate on the interpretation of his results. In
the second module the student applies the LQP
computation to the distillation column model. The
articles on optimal feedforward feedback control
by Hu and Ramirez'" and Newell et al.' serve
as good supplementary papers.


LQP are also discussed. The recent survey
article by Edgar et al.'" has reviewed the versatili-
ty of LQP theory and its applications; one of the
more interesting applications is the control of a
fluid catalytic cracker system." The distributed
parameter version of the LQP is briefly treated
in class by discretization of the spatial variable
("if you don't like it, lump it"). The discrete

version of the LQP is solved using discrete dy-
namic programming, which permits the discus-
sion of Bellman's principle of optimality. The
discrete LQP is discussed in conjunction with
digital control, and the conversion from con-
tinuous time to discrete time and the definition
of discrete state variables are covered here.
In the third module the subject of continuous
time dynamic optimization is continued with dis-
cussions of the linear minimum time problem and
various algorithms for solving it. Phase plane
analysis is an important tool for understanding
control synthesis, and real-time simulation of the
phase plane on an analog computer readily shows
how difficult it is to perform minimum time con-
trol. While minimum time control is open loop
control, it does exhibit a multivariable feedback
nature in that a switching function based on the
adjoint variables is defined via the minimum
The final section of the course is state and
parameter estimation. This area is relatively
difficult for the student because of the need to
use probability theory. For no noise in the sys-
tem, the Luenberger observer is used; for noisy
systems, the Kalman filtering algorithm must be
introduced. In order to show how a simple se-
quential linear least squares algorithm is de-
veloped (vs. a non-sequential algorithm), the
fourth module utilizes an experiment where the
computer sequentially estimates a single para-
meter in a linear discrete-time equation. This
equation is derived from an energy balance de-
scribing heat transfer in a stirred tank. The
theory follows the presentation of Young.'" This
experiment demonstrates many of the conver-
gence features of sequential estimators while in-
cluding real-life features such as process and
measurement noise as well as modeling errors. It
is simple enough (one unknown parameter, first
order o. d. e.) that the student can interpret the
experimental and computational results. The dis-
crete-time filter is then extended to continuous-
time systems; the analogy to the LQP is pointed
out. The experimental testing of state estimation
by Hamilton et al.'" at the University of Alberta
is a good applications paper for this section.
Due to a lack of time, the course does not
cover topics such as Lyapunov functions (particu-
larly as applied to suboptimal control and model
reference adaptive control), non-interacting con-
trol, or multivariable frequency response design.
(Continued on page 199.)

FALL 1974

4 Cau&e in tae


J. H. OLSON, and G. C. A. SCHUIT
University of Delaw'are
Newlrark, Delaware 19711

tic, and many process improvements result
from discovery of better chemical routes, usually
involving new catalysts. Because catalysis plays
a central role in chemical engineering practice,
it is strongly represented in chemical engineering
teaching and research at Delaware. A graduate
course entitled "Chemistry of Catalytic Processes"
is designed to present a cross section of applied
catalysis within the framework of detailed con-
sideration of important industrial processes. The
course brings together the subjects of chemical
bonding, organic reaction mechanism, solid-state
inorganic chemistry, chemical kinetics, and re-
actor design and analysis. There is no stronger
evidence of the value of integrating chemistry
and chemical engineering than the industrial
successes in catalytic processing.
Five classes of industrial processes are con-
sidered in sequence: catalytic cracking, catalysis
by transition metal complexes, reforming, partial
oxidation of hydrocarbons, and hydrodesulfuriza-
tion. Each class is introduced with a description
of the processes, which is followed by details of
the catalytic chemistry and process analysis and
reactor design.
To the extent that each subject allows, ties are
drawn between the reaction chemistry and process
design. For example, the new zeolite cracking
catalysts are used primarily because they have
high selectivity for gasoline production, but they
also have such high activity compared to the
earlier generation of silica-alumina catalysts that
they must be used diluted in a silica-alumina
matrix to prevent overcracking. Their application
has required redesign of catalytic crackers to ac-
commodate rapid reaction predominantly in the
riser tube (located upstream of what was former-
ly the fluidized-bed reactor) ; redesign must also
accommodate a changed energy balance resulting

from the reduced coke formation on zeolite
catalysts and must promote more complete coke
removal in regeneration. The reactor design may
based on a simplified series-parallel reaction net-
work, on the assumption of a small deviations
from piston flow in the riser, and on a balance
between the energy required for the endothermic
cracking reactions and the energy produced in
coke burn-off from catalyst particles in the re-

There is no stronger evidence of the value
of integrating chemistry and chemical
engineering than the industrial
success in catalytic processing.

The processes are introduced in an order leading
roughly from the simplest to the most complex chemical
concepts and from the best understood to the least well
understood catalytic chemistry (Table 1). Cracking is the
first subject presented because the zeolite catalysts have
known crystalline structures and relatively well defined
acid centers; the cracking reactions proceed via carbonium
ion intermediates, giving well characterized product dis-
tributions. The second subject, catalysis by transition
metal complexes, also involves well defined species and
is unified by the idea of the cis-insertion mechanism,
which is discussed on the basis of ligand field theory and
exemplified in detail by Ziegler-Natta polymerization.
Reforming introduces metal catalysis, the con-
cept of bifunctional reaction mechanism and ties
with acid catalysis. Theory of metal catalysis is
incomplete although solid-state theory and
molecular orbital calculations on small metal
clusters provide insight; a tie still remains to be
drawn between catalysis by metal complexes and
catalysis by clusters of metal atoms. The con-
cluding topics of partial oxidation and hydrode-
sulfurization involve solid state and surface
chemistry of transition metal oxide and sulfide
catalysts; there is a thorough understanding of a
few oxidation catalysts (for example, bismuth
molybdate catalyzing ammoxidation of propy-
lene) but for the most part the chemistry is not


well understood, and the ties between the
chemistry and the process design cannot be well


T HE COHERENCE of the course is provided
by the chemical rather than by the engineer-
ing concepts, and the latter are interwoven as
dictated by their practical value to the various
processes. For example, interphase mass transfer
is considered in analysis and design of the gas-
liquid reactors used in the oxo, Wacker, and vinyl
acetate processes, which involve homogeneous
catalysis by transition metal complexes. Mass
transport in catalyst pores is important in hydro-
desulfurization (affecting rates of the desired re-
actions and rates of reactions giving pore-blocking
deposits) ; the unique phenomena of mass trans-
port in the molecular-scale intracrystalline pores
of zeolites are introduced with catalytic cracking
and form the basis for an introduction to shape-
selective catalysis. Analysis of reactor and
catalyst particle stability is central to the dis-
cussion of catalytic oxidation processes, for which
catalysts are selected and reactors designed to
give high yields of valuable partial oxidation
products and low yields of CO,.
Instrumental methods of analysis essential to
catalyst characterization are introduced as they
are appropriate to the process, giving a represen-
tation of the breadth of their usefulness. For
example, chemisorption measurements, electron
microscopy and x-ray line broadening to deter-
mine metal surface areas and crystallite sizes are
introduced in discussion of catalytic reforming,
which involves supported-metal bifunctional
catalysts. Infrared spectroscopy is useful for
probing the detailed structures of transition metal
complexes (for example, the rhodium complexes
used as oxo catalysts) and for indicating the struc-
tures of acidic centers on zeolite surfaces. Elec-
tron spin resonance and magnetization studies
have provided essential information about oxida-
tion and hydrodesulfurization catalysts contain-
ing transition metal ions.
The course is an attempted synthesis of
chemistry and chemical engineering; the synthesis
is traditional in practice, but not in teaching, and
there is a lack of appropriate secondary literature
sources. Consequently we have prepared a
thorough set of typewritten notes (portions of
which have been published as review articles

(1, 2)). The notes are based largely on primary
literature, and since the literature of industrial
processes does not give a good representation of
current practice, the interpretations may some-
times be out-of-date and erroneous.
Many improvements in the course have re-
sulted from criticisms given by practitioners, and
we have attempted to include students from in-
dustry in classes with first-and-second-year gradu-
ate students. The course has been offered in the
4:30 to 6:00 P.M. time period, which is convenient
to many potential students who are employed
nearby. Response has been favorable enough that
the course is also offered yearly as a one-week
short course. Those attending have been pre-
dominantly industrial chemical engineers and
chemists (in about equal numbers), some travel-
ing from as far as the west coast and Europe. Li

1. Schuit, G. C. A., "Catalytic Oxidation over Inorganic
Oxides as Catalysts," lMeloires de In Societe Royale
dtes Sciences de Liege, Sixieme Serie, Tom I, 227, 1971.
2. Schuit, G. C. A., and Gates, B. C., "Chemistry and
Engineering of Catalytic Hydrodesulfurization," AIChE
J.lo, al 19, 417 (1978:).
Course Outline
A. Processes
1. Catalytic Cracking
a. Process Conditions
b. Reactor Operation
c. Regenerator Operation
2. Hydrocacking and Isomerization
B. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Chemical Bond Theory
a. Atomic Orbitals and Energy Levels
b. Molecular Orbitals
i. Linear Combinations of Atomic Orbitals
ii. Symmetry Aspects
iii. The Secular Determinant
c. Multiple Atom Systems
i. Hybridization Theory
ii. Electron-Deficient, I)elocalized Molecular
2. Carbonium Ions
a. Electron Deficiency Properties
b. Classical and Non-Classical Carbonium Ions
c. Reactivity and Characteristic Reactions
3. Cracking Reactions
a. Thermal Cracking
b. Acid-Catalyzed Cracking
C. Catalysts
1. Amorphous Catalysts
a. Preparation
b. Structure and Surface Chemistry
c. Acidity: Measurement and Correlation

FALL 1974

George Schuit received his Ph.D. from Leiden and worked at
the Royal Dutch Shell Laboratory in Amsterdam before becoming
Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at ihe University of Technology,
Eindhoven, The Netherlands. His research interests are primarily in
solid state inorganic chemistry and catalysis, and his recent publica-
tions are concerned with hydrodesulfurization and selective oxida-
tion of hydrocarbons. He has been on organizing committees for
the Roermond Conferences and the Third International Congress on
Catalysis, is a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences and
is on the editorial board of the Journal of Catalysis. In 1972 he was
National Lecturer of the Catalysis Society and Unidel Distinguished
Visiting Professor at the University of Delaware; he now holds joint
appointments at Eindhoven and Delaware.
Jon Olson obtained a Doctor of Engineering degree at Yale
and worked for E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company before
joining the faculty at Delaware. With wide ranging interests in

2. Crystalline (Zeolite) Catalysts
a. Structure and Surface Chemistry
i. Primary and Secondary Structural Units
ii. Type Y Zeolite
iii. Mordenite
b. Acidity
i. Chemical Probes
ii. Instrumental Probes
iii. Explanation from Structural Considera-
iv. Active Sites and Activity Correlations
I). Reaction Mechanisms
1. Reaction Chemistry Related to Surface Structure
a. Amorphous Catalysts
b. Zeolite Catalysts
2. Hydrogen-Transfer Activity of Zeolites
3. Activity and Selectivity Comparison of Zeolites
and Amorphous Catalysts
4. Reaction Network and Deactivation: Quantitative
E. Influence of Catalytic Chemistry and Mass Trans-
port on Choice of Processing Conditions
1. Superactivity of Zeolites
2. Mass Transport Effects in Zeolites; Shape-
Selective Catalysis
3. Effect of Zeolite Cracking Chemistry on Reactor
and Regenerator Design
F. Quantitative Reactor Design
1. Riser-Tube Cracker Design
2. Regenerator Design
A. Processes
1. Wacker Process
a. Reactions, Product Distribution, and Kinetics
b. Processing Conditions
c. Reactor Design
2. Vinyl Acetate Synthesis
3. Oxo Process (Hydroformylation)
4. Methanol Carbonylation to Acetic Acid
5. Ziegler-Natta Polymerization: Transition from
Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Catalysis
B. Chemical Bond Theory
1. Ligand Field Theory
2. o- and 7r-Bonding in Complexes

chemical engineering, he has recently done research concerning
analysis of fixed-bed catalytic reactors, fouling of chromia/alumina
catalysts, partial oxidation, and automotive emissions control.
Jim Katzer received a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from MIT
and has been at Delaware since 1969. His primary research interests
are catalytic chemistry and mass transport in catalysts. His recent
work has emphasized applications of catalysis to pollution abate-
ment, particularly catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, supported
metal catalysis, catalyst poisoning mechanisms, and transport and
reaction in zeolites.
Bruce Gates received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington.
He did postdoctoral research with a Fulbright grant at the University
of Munich and worked for Chevron Research Company before join-
ing the Delaware faculty in 1969. His current research concerns
hydrodesulfurization, catalysis by transition metal complexes and
design and evaluation of synthetic polymer catalysts.

C. Catalysts
1. Wacker-Pd Chloride
2. Hydroformylation-Co and Rh Carbonyls
3. Carbonylation-Rh-Phosphine Complexes
4. Ziegler-Natta Polymerization-Transition
Metal Chlorides and Metal Alkyls
D. Reaction Mechanisms
1. The General Cis-Insertion Mechanism
a. Experimental Evidence
b. Molecular Orbital Explanation
2. Detailed Mechanisms of Particular Reactions
a. Ethylene Oxidation
b. Hydroformylation
c. Carbonylation
d. Stereospecific Polymerization
E. Quantitative Process Design
1. Design of Gas-Liquid Reactors; Mass Transfer
2. Preparation and Characterization of Solid
a. Transition Metal Complexes Bound to
Inorganic Surfaces
b. Complexes Bound to Organic Matrices
A. Process
1. Principal Chemical Reactions
2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics
3. Supported Metal Catalysts
4. Process Conditions and Reactor Design
B. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Mechanisms of Metal Catalyzed Reactions
a. Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation and H-D
b. Isomerization and Hydrogenolysis
c. Cyclization
d. Aromatization
2. Chemical Bond Theory
a. o-- and 7r-Bonds
b, Delocalized Bonds
-c. :Bands in Metals
d, d-orbital Contribution to Transition Metal
3. Metal Catalysis
a. Electrons and Metal Bond Strength
b. Electrons and Adsorption on Metals


I I ~


c. Theoretical Calculations of Electronic Pro-
perties and Surface Bond Strength
d. Catalytic Activity: Surface Compound
e. Alloys
i. Miscibility Gaps and Surface Composition
ii. Catalytic Activity: Ligand and Geometric
C. Dual-Functional Supported-Metal Catalysts
(Pt AlIO.)
1. The Metal, Practical Considerations
a. Preparation and Characterization
b. Effects of Crystallite Size on Activity
c. Sintering and Poisoning
d. Alloys
2. The Alumina Support
a. Preparation and Properties
b. Structure
c. Development and Control of Acidity
I). Reaction Networks and Reaction Mechanisms
1. Dual-Functional Nature of Catalyst
a. Reaction Steps and Relation to Catalyst
h. Studies with Physically Separated Func-
tions, Mass Transport Considerations
c. Effect of Support Acidity on Reforming
d. Poisons and Poisoning Studies
2. (yclization Reaction Network and Reaction
3. Overall Net work
E. Relation of Processing to Catalytic Chemistry
1. Balancing the Strengths of the Catalyst
2. Mass Transport Effects on Selectivity
3. Optimum Design of Dual-Functional Catalytic
1. Regeneration Procedures Related to Catalyst
Structure and Stability
5. Lumping in Fixed Bed Reactor Design for
Many Reactions

A. Processes
1. Phthalic Anhydride
a. Reactions
h. Process Conditions
2. Maleic Anhydride
3. Acrolein and Acrylonitrile
I. Ethylene Oxide
II. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Chemical Bond Theory
a. Electrostatic Bonds in Solid Oxides
I. Changes in Cation Oxidation State
2. Allylic Intermediates
3. Mars-van Krevelen Mechanism
I. Reaction Network for Naphthalene Oxidation
C. Catalysts
1. Composition and Structure
a. V. ,O and MoO -V,,O
b. Bi..O -MoO
c. Fe.O -MoO
d. UO -Sb. O
e. Cu.O

f. Ag
2. Oxidation Selectivity
a. Correlations
i. Oxygen Bond Strength
ii. Metal Oxide Structure
b. Oxygen Interchange with Metal Oxides
c. Microscopic Considerations, Active Sites
I). Detailed Reaction Mechanisms involving Olefins-
Examples Based on Solid and Intermediate Com-
plex Structures
1. Solid Structures. Bismuth Molybdate and
Uranium Antimony
2. Surface Chemistry
3. Reactant-Surface Interactions
1. Reaction Mechanism
E. Quantitative Reactor Design-The Hot Spot Prob-
1. Influence of Catalytic Chemistry on Choice of
Processing Conditions: the Need for Selective
2. Fluidized Bed Reactors
3. Fixed Bed Reactors
4. Heat and Mass Transfer in Catalyst Particles
5. Catalyst Particle Stability
A. Processes
1. Sulfur-containing compounds in Petroleum and
Coal-l)erived Liquids with Hydrogen
2. Compositions of (o Mo and Ni Mlo Catalysts
3. Processing Conditions
a. Petroleum Distillates
b. Petroleum Residua
c. Coal
I. Reactor Design: Fixed and Fluidized Beds
B. Reactions and Chemistry
1. Model Reactant Compounds
a. Desulfurization Reaction Networks of
Thiophene and Benzothioprenes
b. Kinetics of Hydrodesulfurization of
Thiophene and Benzothiophenes
2. Petroleum Feed Stocks
a. Composition of Feed Stocks
b. Simplified kinetics for Petroleum Feed
C. Catalysts
1. Structure of Cobalt Molybdate and Nickel
Molybdate Catalysts
2. Texture
3. Interaction of Catalyst with the Support
1. Effects of Promotors
5. Catalytic Sites
a. Monolayer Model
b. Intercalation Model
I). Reaction Mechanisms of Model Compounds
E. Process I)esign
1. Relation of Process Design to Catalytic
Chemistry of Hydrodesulfurization and Side
2. Influence of Intraparticle Mass Transport on
Catalyst Effectiveness
3. Catalyst Aging: Pore Blocking and Interstitial
1. Hot Spots and Reactor Stability; Analysis of
Trickle Bed and Slurry Bed Reactors

FALL 1974



Pairdu/e Un irersit I
West Lafa!lette, Indiana 47807

The iteratire process of formulating a mathe-
matical model, design of experiments to test that
model, amaliysis of the data from these experi-
ments, the use of the experimental ,results to
modify the hypothesized model, and the in corpo-
ration of the model in larger systems is one wChich
is fundamental to all branches of engineering.
Although this process s basic to the engineering
a(natlsis of problems and design procedures, there
exist feI' courses in irhich the complete cycle is
treated. The difficulty with teaching the complete
loop by usual methods is that typically the back-
ground of the students is relatively disparate,
therefore one is seldom able to teach to a body
of students with uniform backgrounds. Nonethe-
less, wre feel that such a course is important to
engineering graduates so re hare attempted to
approachh the problem .;,i'i rideo tape.
A significant adranta(ge in treating this type
of subject, where backgrounds may not all be the
same, is offered by! rideo-tape and rideo-tape
cassette capabilities. These tools permit different
stadeInts to use different portions of the same
course, and also permit these students to progress
(it raryi'U rates as theY so desire. We attempted
to design a course which, for educational
( r, ... ,, ire tried to fit to the needs of both con-
tinui!ng education students and full-time students
on the campus, and, in aIddition, created the
course in modular form so that it could be taught
(s rariouss series of self-contained ,mini-courses
to students who wanted onlyi a portion of the
o rerall material.
The 'course is multi-purpose basically in tcwo
different irays. One, there is a combination of sub-
/nits which cat be selected to accomplish the
educational objective of each student, and twro, the
course applies to a Irariety of educational situa-
tions. The rariet!Y of path choices /Iwas accomplish-
ed by designing the course (is a, series of self-con-
tiined minii-courses which can be assembled to

One is, in effect competing with a program like
Sesame Street (with a 6 million dollar budget) in
production and entertainment value while trying to
present a much more sophisticated level of
concepts to a much more critical and
discriminating audience.

form a maxi-course in a variety of wrays, depend-
ing on the education background of the particular
student and his particular educational objective.
The variety of educational situations which the
course can be applied are: a) normal or self-paced
classroom use, b) continuing education use, c)
broadcast TV to larger segments of the com-
munit y. An important but not prim.a/r purpose
of this course is also to furnish a pilot effort
toward a rideo correspondence Master's degree
program which would permit a student (it a re-
mote location to complete requirements for a
Master's degree by selection of tan appropriate
series of rideo courses. The course consists of 43
thirty-minute rideo tapes wIhich are as shoin iv
Table I.

Table 1-Course Content

Curve Fitting
Statistical and Numerical Errors
Differences and Lagrangian Methods
Least Squares
Population Characteristics
Sample Characteristics
Analysis of Variance
Matrix Regression
Dimensional Analysis
Model Building
Time Series
Factorial Designs
Systems Networks






Each of these units has from two to four
parts with the exception of Unit 1 which is a
single part introduction. Each part represents a
30-minute lecture. At Purdue the remaining part
of a 50-minute period is used for discussion. In
each of the units about half of the material pre-
sented is actual examples taken from practice.
UNIT 1 is the introduction and it sets the objective for
the course, which is to interface theory and data. The use
for the interface is to build models, plan experiments,
process data, interpret data, and design data systems.
UNIT 2 is concerned with curve fitting and nomogra-
phy, to permit summarizing data so that it can be inter-
polated and extrapolated, to check theory, and for em-
pirical prediction of new data. The two parts to the curve
fitting problem are: First, to determine the form of curve.
This is usually accomplished by plotting the data in various
ways until a straight line results. Second, to determine
the parameters by fitting a straight line to the rectified
data using the method of selected points, method of
least squares. One of the parts of this unit discusses
nomography, a graphical representation of the function-
al relationship among variables. We give a brief introduc-
tion to methods of constructing nomographs emphasizing
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
UNIT 3 is concerned with statistical and numerical
errors. The object here is to identify and separate sta-
tistical error, those random errors that are associated with
measurement; and systematic error, those that are not
random errors; and further errors that result from ope-
ration on the data numerically. We end the unit with a
discussion of the meaning of accuracy and precision both
in the statistical sense and in the sense of relating these
concepts directly to the numbers involved in experiments.
UNIT 4 treats differences and Lagrangian methods.
One often has to interpolate between data points, es-
pecially when data is in tabular form, and it is also often
necessary either to differentiate or integrate tabulated
data. We discuss the divided differences, backward, for-
ward and central finite differences. We end with a dis-
cussion of Lagrangian methods specifically applied to
numerical differentiation and numerical integration.
In UNIT 5 the principle of least squares is considered
in detail. Also we begin an early discussion of how least
squares and linear regression are related, since we use
linear regression to predict statistical behavior. The
principle of least squares is usually used to fit the data
in regression analysis. We give a discussion of the use of
least squares to identify important variables and con-
sider the more complex polynomial least squares and
nonlinear least squares.
In UNIT 6 population characteristics are discussed so
that we can use statistical models of the various distribu-
tion functions to describe sample spaces. We discuss some
of the simple distributions-the uniform distribution, the
normal distribution-and the meaning of these distribu-
tions in a probability sense.
UNIT 7 is more detailed discussion of probability and
investigates the meaning of experiments, outcomes, sample
spaces and elements of sample spaces, and how these

Robert Greenkorn, after five years as a naval aviator, returned
to Wisconsin to obtain B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering
from the University of Wisconsin, 1954, 1955, and 1957 respectively.
He spent the academic year 1957-58 at the Norwegian Technical
Institute in Norway as a past-doctoral fellow. From 1958 ;o 1963 he
was research engineer with Jersey Production Company in Tulsa and
lecturer in evening division of University of Tulsa. From 1963 to
1965 was Associate Professor of theoretical and applied mechanics at
Marquette University. Associate Professor in ihe School of Chemical
Engineering at Purdue University from 1965 to 1967. Professor and
Head of the School of Chemical Engineering 1967-1973; Acting Head
of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, .une 1973-Aug. 1973.
Asst. Dean for Research, Director, Institute for Interdisciplinary
Engineering Studies, and Associate Director of the Engineering Exp.
Station, Aug. 31, 1972-present. (LEFT)

David Kessler has taught at Purdue University sincee 1964. Prior
to his academic career, he was employed in process engineering and
statistical quality control by the Dow Chemical Company and in
process and product development by ihe Proctor and Gamble Com-
pany. He did his undergraduate work at Purdue and received his
graduate degrees from the University of Michigan. His current re-
search interests are flow in heterogeneous, non-uniform and aniso
tropic porous media, momentum transfer in multiphase flow, and
bioengineering (artificial blood, cardiac contractility, and hemorrhapic
shock). He is co-author with Professor Greenkorn of ihe undergradu-
ate text "Transfer Operations" (McGraw-Hill, 1972). (Right)

B t,' *' ,. .i,

various concepts are utilized in probability formulations.
A short discussion of probability in terms of logic and
Venn diagrams is included. Marginal and conditional
probabilities and the Bayes theorem are also discussed.
In UNIT 8 we discuss sample characteristics, con-
centrating on utilizing the normal distribution from a
designed experiment, look at the probability meaning of
distribution functions in terms of the normalization of
these distribution functions and the relationship to
probability. We discuss the use of various kinds of tabu-
lated probability distribution functions and the distribu-
tion of sample characteristics. The unit ends with a dis-
cussion of confidence intervals and a preliminary treat-
ment of hypothesis testing and type I and type II errors.
These last topics are repeated in more depth in Unit 15.
In UNIT 9 we begin our discussion of experimental de-
sign by introducing the analysis of variance technique-
dissecting total variation in such a way that various kinds
of experimental effects are eliminated. The analysis of
variance allows us to show how experiments may be de-

FALL 1974

Professors Greenkorn (left) and Kessler (right) on the set for ilming
a unit of their multi-purpose video ;ape.

signed so that we can get the most information from the
data. We discuss the one-way classification and two-way
classification (and randomized complete block designs).
The linear models associated with these kinds of designs
are discussed as are the short-cut methods of calculating
the analysis of variance table.

the units on least squares and analysis of variance.
Analysis of variance is used to interpret the meaning of
regression coefficients in the various kinds of regression
models. The "extra sum of squares" principle is introduced
and methods for analyzing the meaning of the various re-
gression coefficients in models that have more than one
independent variable are considered.
In UNIT 11 regression analysis is viewed from the
standpoint of matrix manipulations. There is a short re-
view of linear algebra and matrix theory and then the
matrix approach to regression is discussed with use of
the Doolittle method for determining regression co-
In UNIT 12 we enter a discussion of dimensional
analysis, a systematic way in which the number of
variables required to describe a given experimental situa-
tion is reduced, since normal model building uses dimen-
sionless forms. We also investigate the relationship be-
tween dimensional analysis and the differential equations
which are the models for various experiments.
Model building is considered in UNIT 13 in a philo-
sophical sense and we try to answer the questions: What
is a model? How does it relate to the real world? How
do we build models? Mathematical and physical analogs
are discussed. Example models are formulated through
use of an entity balance.
In UNIT 1-1 we treat time-dependent stochastic process-
es, that is, processes where the parameters of the proba-
bility density and distribution functions are lime-depen-
dent. Much of what we do in engineering is time-depen-
dent and we cannot ignore this time-dependence. Ways
and means of investigating the statistical properties of
systems that do depend on time are considered. The
ergodic assumption is also discussed.

T HE PROBLEM OF INFERENCE and the estimating
of population parameters from experiments in a
detailed manner is discussed in UNIT 15. The meaning
of inference is investigated in terms of the various kinds
of distribution functions. The meaning of hypothesis test-
ing and multiple-hypothesis testing are discussed and
the operating characteristic curve for various kinds of
hypothesis tests is introduced.
In UNIT 16 we consider factorials which are posed as
experimental designs--randomized block and Latin square.
The meaning of factors in experiments is analyzed using
the linear hypothesis and is based on the discussion of
inference and hypothesis testing in the previous unit. We
consider multi-factor experiments and how one confounds
data in a factorial experiment. The use of aliases in de-
signing fractional factorial experiments is also discussed.
In UNIT 17 we look at the total data acquisition and
analysis system. Network models and graph theory are
discussed. Information flow as related to executive pro-
gramming is also considered.


E PRESENTLY TEACH the course in its en-
tirety over the Purdue closed-circuit video
facilities. As can be seen from the network dia-
gram, a number of ways to trace out either the
total course or selected sub-sets are available.
Typical mini-courses might be Units 9, 10, and
11 in Regression or Units 9 and 16 in Experi-
mental Design. Most of the individual Units also
stand alone without reference to other units.
In the future we hope to incorporate all seg-
ments of this course on video cassettes which
can be played over monitors equipped so that the
tape may be stopped without erasing the picture
from the screen. This will permit much greater
economy in presenting graphical material, in that
the student can simply stop the monitor and hold
the picture on the screen rather than wasting
several minutes of tape for a static display.


T IS INTERESTING to observe the reactions
of students when viewing a course on what
looks like a conventional television set. They react
to the course much as one observes groups of
people reacting to television programming in

In the future we hope to incorporate
all segments of the course in video
cassettes which can be played over monitors
equipped so that the tape may be stopped
without erasing the picture.


their home-that is, there is far less reluctance
to create a disturbance, much as one will carry
on a conversation in one's own living room while
the TV set is on. There also is a much greater
need for entertainment value to hold the student's
attention than in an ordinary class room lecture,
because the students, seeing the material on the
television set, expect a far more professional de-
gree of treatment than is true in the ordinary
lecture. One is, in effect, competing with a pro-
gram like Sesame Street (with a six million dollar

FIGURE 1. Network Diagram
budget) in production and entertainment value,
while at the same time attempting to present a
much more sophisticated level of concepts to a
much more critical and discriminating audience.
It is also interesting that the students do not
perceive the pace at which the course is going.
At times they feel that the material is coming
quite slowly when, in fact, because of the compact-
ness of the presentation, material is being pre-
sented at a far greater rate than was ever
possible in an ordinary classroom lecture. Stu-
dents are also far more critical of mistakes that
appear on a television tape than mistakes that
appear in an ordinary classroom lecture. (The
preparers of the tape, of course, should also be
extremely critical of such mistakes because these
mistakes will be perpetuated from .year to year.)
It is interesting that the television tape
prompts a far greater need on the student's part
to be supplied with All the material than does an
ordinary classroom lecture-students appear to
feel that since a course is taught on TV there
should be no need to consult outside references.
Again, this seems to be a psychological set in-
duced by commercial TV viewing. In the future
we may attempt to remedy this by calling for
more response from the class during the television
taping via short questions, etc. This, perhaps, is

one of the strongest reasons why television tapes
must be entertaining-the student cannot parti-
pate by talking back to a television screen in the
same way that a good lecturer can stop and ask
questions at a pertinent point in the presentation,
and listen to feedback from students. At present
there is no practical possibility of branching or
changing pace in a television presentation as there
is in the ordinary classroom lecture. We hope
to circumvent this difficulty to some extent by
keeping individual presentations short and thus
permitting the student to select among a variety
of short presentations so that if the pace becomes
too slow or too fast he can alter the pace to suit
himself. In the future we also hope to tape a
greater variety of example problems so that the
student can go directly to an example problem if
he has difficulty with the theoretical concept which
has been presented on the tape.
In taping the course we used a producer/director and
three cameramen, with visual material on rear-projection
slides and newsprint. The set is shown in the photo. One
of the major difficulties is the preparation of visual ma-
terial (about 1000 items for this course). We hope to do
some work soon on automating much of this with the
computer. Our current production costs (exclusive of
authors) is about $300 per Unit. D
TION wishes to thank the 72 departments whose
advertisements appear in this sixth graduate issue.
We also appreciate the excellent response you gave
to our request for. names of prospective authors. We
regret that, because of space limitations, we were not
able to include some outstanding papers and that
certain areas are not represented. In part our selection
of papers was based on a desire to complement this
issue with those of the previous years. As indicated
in our letter we are sending automatically to each
department for distribution to seniors interested in
graduate school at least sufficient free copies of this
issue for 20"(, of the number of bachelor's degrees re-
ported in "ChE Faculties." Because there was a large
response to our offer in that letter to supply copies
above this basic allocation, we were not able to fully
honor all such requests. However, if you have definite
need for more copies than you received, we may be
able to furnish these if you write us. We also still have
some copies of previous Fall issues available.
We would like to thank the departments not only
for their support of CEE through advertising, but also
through bulk subscriptions. We hope that you will be
able to continue or increase your support next year.
Ray Fahien Editor

FALL 1974


,.!.,,,,,.,, t
l~lr, I~lL \

47 C'oae eoaM e i


University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556

THE COURSE TO BE discussed here is Engi-
!ring 510 "Advanced Thermodynamics," which
is a "core" course in the College of Engineering at
Notre Dame. The only prerequisite is one
semester of undergraduate thermodynamics, so
that engineering graduate students of all
disciplines can qualify for the course. The course
is required for graduate chemical engineers and
is often taken as an elective by engineers of other
disciplines. The latter group of students generally

The challenge is to substantially enlighten and
expand the knowledge of the chemical engineers .
and provide a strong fundamental unit of thermo-
dynamics for the non-chemical engineers who
may compose as much as half of the class.

has a one-semester background from, say, Hol-
man' or Reynolds and Perkins,2 while the chemi-
cal engineers are more thoroughly schooled in
undergraduate thermodynamics, usually having
two semesters of formal study, covering both
physical and chemical thermodynamics, as well as
additional exposure in "material and energy
balances" and in physical chemistry.
The challenge is to present a course that will
substantially enlighten and expand the knowledge
of the chemical engineers, while at the same time
will provide a strong, fundamental unit of
thermodynamics for the non-chemical engineers,
who may compose as much as one-half of the
class. That thermodynamics, a discipline based on
a few fundamental laws and their application, is
taught at the graduate level to chemical engineers
is probably an honest reflection of the fact that
chemical engineers, despite their background, ac-
cept their bachelor's degree with a foundation in

thermodynamics that can be shaken without ex-
cessive effort.
The discussion that follows maps out the ma-
terial covered in the course in its chronological
appearance. The objective is to stress the aspects
of the course that are given the most emphasis
during the semester as well as to give a sense of
the continuity of the topics treated. The several
sections that follow form a rough syllabus of the
course, covering approximately 14 weeks, or 42

1. Review of Concepts (2 weeks)
Before starting a formal presentation of
thermodynamics in a postulationall" manner, a
review of the traditional "inductive" thermo-
dynamics is performed. To make this review at-
tractive, it is presented in a historical context,
much in the spirit of Tisza,3 starting with Galileo
and Torricelli, presenting the caloric theory and
its shortcomings, continuing with the contribu-
tions of Carnot, Kelvin, Mayer, Joule, and finish-
ing with the resolution of thermodynamics into
its laws which occurred in the middle of the nine-
teenth century. Besides providing a review of this
"thermodynamics of cycles," these initial lectures
are designed to show the student that the difficul-
ties that were encountered in the development of
thermodynamics, historically speaking, are the
same difficulties that trouble the contemporary
student of thermodynamics. Besides treating the
laws of thermodynamics and their function, lec-
tures are presented on the concepts of reversibili-
ty and irreversibility, and the temperature con-
cept and its measurement.

2. The Postulational Development of Thermodynamics
(5 weeks).
The only text required for this course is
Callen.4 Lectures structured about the first seven
chapters of Callen are employed with the follow-
ing philosophy: Take away the "laws" of thermo-
dynamics from the student and develop a self-con-


Kraemer D. Luks was educated at Princeton University (B.S.E.,
1963) and the University of Minnesota (Ph.D., 1967). He has been
at the University of Notre Dame since 1967 and is presently Associate
Professor and Director of the Graduate Program in the Department
of Chemical Engineering. His research interests in thermodynamics
are broad, extending from theoretical and applied statistical mechanics
to experimental phase equilibria studies of petroleum and natural
gas systems.

sistent, self-contained mathematically structured
discipline which can be shown to provide the user
with analytical tools equivalent to the "laws."
One drawback to inductive thermodynamics is
that the laws evolving from it are based on ex-
perimental observation (specifically, "thought"
experiments), and the tendency of students is to
develop "rules-of-thumb" which are not complete-
ly general. Consequently, the use of these rules-
of-thumb can often lead to difficulties, much in
the way paradoxes, or apparent contradictions,
arose in the historical development of thermo-
dynamics. A primary function of this develop-
ment is to demonstrate that postulational thermo-
dynamics is applicable to any thermodynamic
problem, including those from which inductive
thermodynamics evolved. Key points of emphasis
in this section are:

The informational content of thermodynamic funda-
mental relationships and the equations of state that
come from them. The roles of the Euler and Gibbs-
Duhem equations in providing the link between equa-
tions of state and fundamental relationships are de-
tailed. The fact that one observes an incomplete set
of equations of state in the laboratory is used to demon-
strate the need for a basis, or reference, for the family
of thermodynamic energy functions (internal energy,
enthalpy, etc.).
* The equivalence of the extremum principles for entropy
and internal energy and their extension by Legendre
transformation to non-isolated systems. The Gibbs
minimum principle for systems at some given (P ,To)
is used later as the starting point for handling complex
chemical systems. (See Section 3.)

The Jacobian transformations in concert with the Max-
well relations, presented as a system for handling ihe
expression of process derivatives in terms of measur-
able quantities such as specific heat at constant pres-
sure CP, isothermal compressibility Ki, and the co-
efficient of thermal expansion a, i. e., the three inde-
pendent derivatives of the P-T basis.

The utility of the third point above can be
accentuated by having the student demonstrate
his capability at developing an H-S diagram for
some substance, or at least the necessary formal-
ism to do so. Generating formulae for isobars and
isotherms in H-S space is fairly straightforward,
but deriving a formula for the coexistence curve
of, say, the saturated vapor is a bit more opposing
(Denbigh"' has a related problem in which an ex-
pression for the specific heat at coexistence for
a phase is desired.):

,d d," +

Along the coexistence curve,
ron equation states

and so
and so



the Clausius-Clapey-


S... ) (2-4)

and where C,, a, v are evaluated for the saturated
vapor phase, and Ah and Av are the enthalpy and
volume changes upon vaporization respectively.

One drawback to inductive thermodynamics is
that laws evolving from it are based on
experimental observation and students
tend to develop "rules of thumb"
which are not completely general.

Mastery of thermodynamic manipulations for
pure substances, such as Jacobian transforma-
tions and Maxwell relations, is essential to de-
veloping confidently the complex expressions that
are required, e.g., to describe mixtures (See Sec-

FALL 1974

`,I r t d t vapor o ti I l"

t -p.

tion 6) while a firm basis of the thermodynamic
extremum principles is necessary to realize the
stability criteria for pure and multicomponent
systems (See Section 5).

3. The Application of the Gibbs Minimum Principle to
Complex Chemical Equilibria (2 weeks).

Zeleznik and Gordon" have applied the Gibbs
minimum principle to a general system of p phases
and m species at some fixed (Po,To), and it is my
experience that incorporation of their derivation
into the course provides a quick, powerful method
for the student to set up a complex chemical
equilibria problem in a form amenable to comput-
er solution. The derivation is lengthy and only the
results will be presented here with accompanying

That thermo is taught at the graduate
level to ChE's is probably a reflection
of the fact that they accept their B.S.
degree with a foundation in thermo that can be
shaken without excessive effort.

For the reacting system above, one solves the
following set of equations:
S. -. (3-1)

I L. t (3-2)
where ai is a chemical subscript for element j in
species i, a is the phase superscript, Ni is moles of
species i, bj" is the total number of gram-atoms of
element j in the system, and Air is a stoichiometric
coefficient for reaction r. The problem thus be-
comes mp equations in mp unknowns, namely, the

set (N) i = ,.... m; a = 1,....,p. Each member
of Equation (3-2) is called a reaction affinity.
If the reaction mechanism is unknown (or
unspecified) the problem enlarges somewhat as
Equation (3-2) is replaced by
+ I o foc 1= ,.....,m. = l,.....,p (3-3)
I J.
The problem is now (mp+l) equations in (mp+l)
unknowns, namely N} as before, and [Xj], j =
1,....,1, which are a set of Lagrangian multipliers
introduced in applying the Gibbs minimum
An important point brought out by this ap-
proach is the equivalence of problems, with and
without a reaction mechanism, as the final equi-

librium state does not depend on the choice of a
particular mechanism but rather on the choice
of permissible species in the system. Elimination
of [hXj from Equation (3-3) will yield Equation
(3-2), i. e., a possible set of reactions.
There are several difficulties inherent in adopt-
ing the Zeleznik-Gordon treatment directly for
instructional purposes:
o Charge must be treated as an "extra" element, to be
electroneutralized rather than conserved. Furthermore,
free electrons are a species as well as a charge. The
definition of species becomes "any entity for which
the concentration at equilibrium is desired."
* In phase equilibria problems, where there are no re-
actions, conservation of elements, Equation (3-1), can
either provide too many or too few constraints. One
must replace Equation (3-1) with a set of equations
conserving species rather than elements. If one has
a problem in which only some of the species are re-
acting and some are not, and they have common ele-
ments, the statement of the problem becomes even more
complicated. It is not satisfactory to consider all re-
actions permissible by stoichiometry as some will have
rates so slow as to be disregarded. For example, in the
phase equilibria of a natural gas system containing
CH,, CH,, and C H,, it is of no interest to consider
the possible reaction:
Q' i + ("311 2C ,Ir
In other words, good judgment must be exercised in
applying the Zeleznik-Gordon scheme.
* A traditional way of describing a m-component vapor-
liquid phase equilibria problem is (See p. 47 of
Reference 9, e.g.):
m + 2 equations:
S= i1,..... ,m

( T, yi])
n 2 unknowns:

The demonstration of the equivalence of this problem
to that of Zeleznik and Gordon is made intricate by the
fact that the Zeleznik-Gordon scheme, by virtue of
solving for {N"), suggests a batch process with finite
phases, while the above problem makes no specification
of phase size. The comparison of the two descriptions
is presented in the course.
4. The Phase Rule (1 week).
The phase rule, written as


S c +

S- c- i. n, (4-2)
where R is restrictions is one of these rules-of-
thumb that most students feel they understand


by the time they reach the graduate level. Be-
cause this is often not the case, I generally start
with an example complicated enough to produce
a myriad of answers for the degrees of freedom
f, and then backtrack, beginning at the beginning.
Rather than deriving the rule as given above, I
state the phase rule as:
"the number of degrees of freedom in the intensive phase
variables = the number of independent intensive phase
variables-the number of restrictions"

For example, consider the 3-component, 3-phase system
(solid-liquid-vapor) where the components will be speci-
fied as A, B, C. The independent intensive variables are
12 in number

and the restrictions are 10:

I ^ i

s =, i A,B,C
Thus f = 2, as can be readily obtained from Equation
(4-1). The difficulty arises interpreting R in Equation
(4-2). Consider the restrictions:
I) I Pr
4, ^ .^= o
In the first, logic dictates that f reduce to 1, and the form
of analysis suggested introduces

i.! 1
The restrictions (2) above do not affect f as there occurs
a "balance":
:x, g are removed from the independent intensive
variables and and can be removed from
the restrictions. Thus the problem is
f = 10- 9 = I
Experience has shown that this detailed approach
increases the student's confidence.
Since the phase rule makes no specification
concerning the size of the phases (indeed, they
could be considered infinite), the effect of "Batch-
ing" or, in a flow process, the setting of flow
rates to a vessel can require careful examination.
For example, consider the single (liquid) phase
esterification reaction of ethyl alcohol and acetic
acid at fixed To,P,,. If one applies the phase rule
Equation (4-2) directly

where R = 3: P
(mp-1 = 1), or f
one batches the

C 4 I + 2 K
= P,, T To, and 1 reaction
= 2. But one recognzies that if
system identically each time,

i. e., fixes [Ni] = [Nio], one gets the same equili-
brium composition in the vessel. Thus, the batch-
ing constitutes 2 restrictions. It can be seen by
noticing that
or r s

for reactants and

where, in this particular case, EQUATION, as
moles are conserved. Thus, e. g.,
S (1 r. I m ti)

and the single variable z replaces the 3 indepen-
(lent variables of the set [x,] (Zxi = 1), and batch-
ing in this case constitutes 2 restrictions.
Furthermore, the quantity (mp-1) used to de-
note reactions in the Zeleznik-Gordon scheme is
really more general than that. One should con-
sider it as representing the number of indepen-
dent affinities, including those whoch describe a
phase transformation:
S- for species i and phases a and p
Care must be taken not to count such a transfor-
mation twice, once as a reaction (transformation)
in the set (mp-1) and once as a chemical equi-
librium. For example, consider a vapor-liquid
equilibrium between CH,, CH,,, C1H,, CO,, typical
of a natural gas mixture prototype. For this
system, mp-1 = 8-3 = 5, yet common sense sug-
gests 4 phase equilibria. The fifth "reaction" is
the one cited in (2) of Section 3. The point here
is not only should that reaction possibility be dis-
carded but also that mp-l includes that 4 chemical
equilibria, i. e., phase transformations.
Applications relating to how many variables
in a real process must be specified to produce a
unique experiment (i. e., reproducible) can as-
sume many forms and can be both interesting
and challenging.

5. Stability Phenomena (2 weeks).

A brief introduction to phase stability
(thermal and mechanical) and diffusional stabili-
ty is presented. Phase stability is discussed in
many texts, e. g., Callen,' and can be demonstrated
easily with the van der Waals equation. Some
mention is made in passing of the fact that the

(Continued on page 198.)

FALL 1974

4 Cauwe in



Case Western Reserve UniversitY!
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
IN THE PAST FIVE YEARS, the areas of re-
search and development interest for chemical
engineers have expanded to include environmen-
tal topics. To see this, one has only to look at ad-
vertisements for industrial positions in our trade
journals or at the listings of active research
areas in graduate programs in the fall issue of
this journal. Yet, coverage of wastewater topics
in most chemical engineering programs is limited
to a few specific examples introduced by instruc-
tors with experience in the field.
This paper describes "Wastewater Engineer-
ing," a graduate course oriented for the specific
needs and backgrounds of chemical engineers. It
evolved under the somewhat unusual circum-
stances that in the 1965-1970 period there were
no active teaching or research programs in En-
vironmental Engineering (or, as it was known
then, Sanitary Engineering) at Case Western
Reserve University. This vacant niche in the
ecology of the School of Engineering has been
occupied by a Graduate Chemical Engineering
Wastewater Program built around the subject
course and a complementary program on Water
Resources in the Systems Engineering Depart-
ment. Further development of "Wastewater Engi-
neering" was fostered by hiring of faculty with
specific background in the field and by a training
grant (jointly administered between Chemical
Engineering and Systems Engineering) from the
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
Manpower and Training.
The graduate chemical engineering course on
wastewater originated in response to a wide ap-
peal for environmentally oriented courses. Many
others enrolled besides chemical engineering
graduate students, including undergraduates
(mainly chemical engineers), graduate students
in other fields and part-time students already
employed in industry. The initial offerings in 1969

and 1970 were as a seminar or special-topics
course. This was followed in 1971 by a structured
course devoted principally to wastewater analyses
and treatment technology. That course also dealt
with water quality criteria and air pollution topics,
hence its title "Environmental Quality: Measure-
ment and Improvement." At the time, it was the
only substantial environmental course, graduate
or undergraduate, available in the engineering
"Wastewater Engineering," the present gradu-
ate course, was first taught in 1973. Now, an
undergraduate course on wastewater or an intro-
ductory Sanitary Engineering course is a pre-
requisite. We assume that the students are
familiar with water quality criteria, units of

Richard Prober received his B.S. from Illinois Institute of Tech-
nology and his M.S. and Ph.D. (1962) from the University of Wis-
consin. His industrial experience includes work with ihe Shell
Development Company and Sybron Corporation Research Center.
He is a member of the American Chemical Society and AIChE. He
is presently an associate professor of chemical engineering at Case
Western Reserve University. (LEFT)

Peter B. Melnyk received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. (1974) from
McMaster University. His technical experience includes work with
the Ontario Pulp and Paper Company and Pollutech Advisory Ser-
vices. He has participated in the Association of Professional Engineers
of Ontario, the Pollution Control Association of Ontario and the
Water Pollution Control Federation. He is presently an assistant
professor of chemical engineering at Case Western Reserve Uni-
versity. (RIGHT)


measurement, wastewater analyses and the com-
mon schemes for municipal wastewater treat-
The discussion here covers both the lecture
topics and associated laboratory experiments. Be-
cause adequate references have been provided,
we only list the lecture topics and discuss the rea-
sons for their selection. In the lectures, Chemical
Engineering methods applied to wastewater tech-
nology take away some of the mystique. Still, em-
pirical methods play a large part in characterizing
wastewaters and their treatment. Hence, the
laboratory is an important complement to the lec-
tures. Since no published laboratory manual is
available, we have consolidated our experience
over the last few years by providing details on
the objectives and suggestions for carrying out
the experiments. Finally, we touch briefly on the
relationship of "Wastewater Engineering" to
other courses in our program.


covered. Each topic is presented starting
with fundamental considerations and proceeding
to rational methods for design specification or
process analysis. Comprehensive problems are as-
signed, based on actual wastewater treatment ex-
perience whenever possible. Table 1 includes
recommended texts. Locating suitable books was
a problem, since environmental engineering texts
generally devote considerable coverage to funda-
mental physical chemistry, transport phenomena
and reaction kinetics.
"Wastewater Engineering," as a course for
specialists in the field, concentrates on the widely
used minimum-operating-cost "workhorse" pro-
cesses, which can remove many pollutants togeth-
er. Biological treatment heads the list of these
Topics, as the unit process of choice for removal
of biodegradable organic pollutants from munici-
pal or industrial wastewaters. It is difficult to con-
ceive of other treatments which could be
economically competitive to biological treatment.
Sedimentation also is stressed, as an integral part
of biological waste treatment processes and, in its
own right, as the unit operation of choice for re-
moval of settleable pollutants. Precipitation is
widely used in municipal and industrial waste-
water treatment for removal of inorganic pollu-
tants by conversion to insoluble forms and sedi-
mentation or other liquid-solid separations. Oxida-
tion-reduction processes are used principally in in-


1. Biological Waste Treatment
(15 lectures)
a. Basic microbiology.
b. Stoichiometric and kinetic
relations of mixed cultures,
including both organic and
inorganic substrates.
c. Biodegradability and respi-
rometric measurements.
d. Biological treatment pro-
cess configurations, includ-
ing auxiliary facilities for
aeration, mixing, and sedi-
e. New developments includ-
ing unsteady-state analy-
sis, use of purified oxygen,
rotating fixed-surface
growth, etc.
2. Sedimentation, Clarification and
Thickening (9 lectures)
a. Flow regimes for gravity
settling, including free-
falling particles, hindered
settling and zone settling.
b. Solids flux concepts and de-
sign methods.
c. Differentiation between re-
quirements for clarifica-
tion vs. those for thicken-
d. Integration of sedimenta-
tion vessel design with the
biological treatment re-
e. Tube-settler operation.
3. Precipitation (9 lectures)
a. Physical chemistry of ionic
b. E If e c t of completing
c. Use of pH-solubility dia-
d. Statistical approaches for
application of laboratory
or pilot data to design.
I. Oxidation-Reduction
(6 lectures)
a. Stoichiometry for common
oxidants and reducing
b. Reaction rate concepts.
c. Oxidation-Reduction Poten-
tial and relations to electro-
chemical processes.


Topics In Wastewater Engineering



Ch. 11

Ch. 3, 12

(h. 2
Stumm and Morgan
(h. 5. S, 10

(h. 8
Stumm and Morgan,'
Ch. 7

FALL 1974

dustrial wastewater treatment, to change in-
organic pollutants either directly into innocuous
forms (e. g., conversion of cyanides to CO, by
chlorine oxidation) or into another form more
tractable for treatment by conventional processes
(e. g., reduction of chromates to trivalent
chromium ions prior to precipitation of the in-
soluble Cr(OH),).

"Wastewater Engineering" on Biological
Waste Treatment, Biological Respirometry, Sedi-
mentation and Thickening, and Precipitation
Processes. They have been selected and developed,
based on the following criteria:
The experiments must complement and relate directly
to the course material.
They must be realistic in the sense that data obtained
from the experiment can be applied to design problems
discussed in class.
It is important that the experiments are carried out in
a manner that allows students to participate and, thus,
obtain "hands on" experience.
The experiments should be organized into laboratory
sessions no longer than about three hours.
The students should be able to operate all necessary
equipment without extensive training.
This experiment provides students with the
opportunity to measure the reaction rates and
stoichiometry of the bio-oxidation of a particular
waste. They obtain the data by monitoring
changes in organic substrate and suspended solids
concentrations occurring for a mixed culture in a
batch reactor. This permits the experiment to
be completed in one laboratory period. A con-
tinuous reactor at steady state would provide
only a single rate measurement during the same
time span.
Careful preparation is needed beforehand to
assure that the rates measured in this experi-
ment approximate those of a full scale system.
The mixed culture must be acclimated to the
waste and mode of operation, and the average
bacteria floe size should be similar to those found
in full scale systems. Both acclimatization and
classification of flocs by size can best be carried
out in a continuous system in which bacteria
are recycled." These steps require a separate re-
actor and consume more time and attention than
the experiment itself. For example, during ac-
climatization care must be taken to avoid filamen-
tous growth on the walls of small reactor vessels.

Such growth represents an active bacteria popula-
tion which is significant on the laboratory scale
but negligible in full-scale operation.
The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) or Total
Carbon analyzers are the most efficient means of
measuring substrate concentrations. Indeed, this
experiment would not be feasible if we had to
use the difficult, inaccurate and time-consuming
B. O. D. or C. 0. D. tests. Suspended solids (a
measure of bacterial culture concentration) are
monitored gravimetrically.
Students calculate yield factors and rate

Wastewater engineering concentrates on
the widely used minimum-operating-cost
"workhorse" processes, which can remove
many pollutants together; biological treatment
heads the list of these topics.

constants for substrate oxidation directly from
the data obtained here. Usually the change in
microbial mass during the batch experiment is
not large enough to obtain a good estimate of the
culture's specific growth rate. This can be better
determined from measurements of sludge wasted
in a continuous system (i e., either full- or bench-
scale). With this additional information, students
are able to: 1) select the operating level of bac-
teria and specify the hydraulic residence time, 2)
specify sludge waste rate, and 3) determine
theoretical aeration requirements for a full scale

a number of points pertinent to biological
waste treatment. A sample of waste is seeded
with bacterial culture and then isolated in a
stirred container with air or oxygen in the gas
cap. Pressure changes resulting from the absorp-
tion of evolved carbon dioxide and uptake of
oxygen by the culture indicate the extent of
oxidation. Inexpensive, direct-reading apparatus
is available commercially. (Hach Chemical Co.
Model 2173), as well as more elaborate electrolytic
equipment which log the data automatically.

*For experiments involving industrial wastes, a com-
mercially available bench scale reactor-settler is recommend-
ed. (Cole Parmer: Bio-Oxidation Reactor). A more ex-
pedient approach is to use samples of a waste (e. g., pri-
mary effluent) and culture (activated sludge return) ob-
tained from a local treatment plant.


This experiment takes a number of days to
run, 3-6 days for carbonaceous oxidation only and
up to 10 days for nitrification. Students are or-
ganized into teams to carry out monitoring around
the clock over the desired period.
Tests carried out simultaneously on a number
of containers demonstrate the effects of bacterial
seeding, stirring, substrate concentration, etc. on
the shape of the uptake curves. This experiment
illustrates the relationships among B. O. D.,
C. O. D. and T. O. C. The students complete this
study with a comparison of the observed uptake
curves to the ideal characteristics proposed in the

Students observe the characteristics of hinder-
ed and zone settling modes, and measure the rates
of settling at each condition. The major apparatus
is simply a 6" I. D. x 7 ft. high plexiglass column
which is equipped with sampling ports. The batch
settling tests are carried out with actual waste-
water samples, (e. g., primary influent and aera-
tion "mixed liquor"). An investigation of each
condition occupies one laboratory period.
The settling rates are determined from
changes in suspended-solids concentration profiles
during settling. In hindered settling studies, the
concentrations are measured directly. In zone-
settling studies, the concentration is estimated
indirectly from the sludge blanket height.
Graphical methods introduced in the lectures are
used to calculate the rates from these profiles.
This permits students to specify the basin areas
required in continuous operations. Comparative
studies with and without flocculation aids would
illustrate their effects on the design specifications.

A precipitation process of considerable local
interest is removal of phosphates. Both stages
of precipitation, nucleation and flocculation, can
be readily investigated in a simple batch reactor
in which mixing is controlled, (i. e., a jar test).
Stirring equipment designed especially for this
experiment is available commercially (Phipps &
Bird Stirrer). Students investigate the effects
the following variables on treatment efficiency:
* Wastewater composition (e. g., solution pH, alkalinity,
particulate concentration, and initial phosphorous con-
* Ratio of ortho- to poly-phosphates,
* Type and dosage of precipitant (e. g., lime, alum or
ferric salts),

* Type and dosage of flocculant aids (e. g., anionic and
cationic polymer), and
* Turbulence level (i. e., mixing intensity).
Though each test can be completed in 30
minutes, a large number of tests are required.
The present state of the art is empirical, and
thus the effects of the above variables must be
determined for each particular waste. Also, as
the composition of a waste usually varies with
time, there is a further problem of determining
chemical dosage which results in the desired re-
moval over a specified percentage of the time.
Both problems require that the students apply
statistical techniques discussed in class. An
efficient approach to experimental design permits
the relative importance of independent variables
to be sorted out in a minimum number of tests.
The problem of specifying suitable levels of the
chemical dosage is solved by a frequency-of-oc-
currence analysis. Because each problem requires
at least 8-10 tests to be carried out, the chemical
analysis must be efficient. For example, an auto-
mated system (Technicon Autoanalyzer II) is
used here to carry out phosphorus measurements.

"Wastewater Engineering" is one of three graduate
chemical engineering courses which deal primarily with
wastewater topics. "Separation Science" deals in part
with the more costly selective membrane and packed-
column processes, which find application for industrial
wastewater treatment either to meet stringent effluent
quality requirements or for recovery byproducts. "Colloidal
Systems" deals with fundamental considerations on co-
agulation and flocculation and on the nature of turbidity.
This adds to understanding of sedimentation and precipi-
tation processes.
These three, plus courses on "water Resources" and
on "Legal, Economic and Political Aspects of Water
Pollution" available through Systems Engineering pro-
vide a core program for chemical engineers specializing
in wastewater. Added to traditional chemical engineering
graduate courses in thermodynamics, transport phenamena
and chemical reaction engineering, this provides a unique
background for professional careers in development and
design of treatment facilities for industrial wastewaters
or for advanced municipal wastewater treatment. A mea-
sure of our success with this program is that all of our
graduate students who have completed it to date are
active in the area.D

'Busch, A. W., Aerobic Biologic(l Treatment of Waste-
waters, Oligodynamics Press, Houston, 1971.
'Weber, W. J., editor, Pihysiochemical I'rocesscs for
Water Quality Control, Wiley, New York, 1972.
:iStumm, W. and Morgan, Aquatic Cliemistry, Wiley,
New York, 1970.

FALL 1974

$1 Qo44^de io


Illinois Institute of Technology!
Chicago, Illinois 60616

T HE CURRENT INTENSE interest in novel
methods of enzyme applications in the food,
pharmaceutical, biomedical and waste treatment
processes obviated the need to augment the food
technology program in our department with a
graduate level course in Enzyme and Biochemical
Engineering. The title implies all engineering as-
pects; however, the essence of the course focused
upon kinetics and reactor design with emphasis on
immobilized enzyme systems. The course was
structured to expose the graduate student and re-
searcher to basic concepts, methodologies, and
techniques in enzyme technology which would
permit rational design and analysis of immobilized
enzyme reactor systems and fermentor reactor

I. Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Action, Preparation and
Immobilization and II. Enzyme and Biological Reactor De-
sign. An attempt is made to develop an appreciation of
how enzymes function, the sensitive and specific nature
of enzymes and the immobilization methods recently de-
veloped which promise to make enzyme utilization in
large scale process feasible. (see Table I).

The course is presented towards a first level
graduate chemical engineering student with
undergraduate transport phenomena, reaction
engineering and mathematics through partial
differential equations desirable. Preferably the
student should have a background in biology
and/or biochemistry. Advanced level biology and
biochemistry students fare reasonably well but
deficiencies in chemical engineering and mathe-
matics courses made aspects of the second part
of the course disconcerting.
Several problem assignments and a term paper
with an oral presentation were the student re-
quirements. Readings in the various topics were

Lawrence L. Tavlarides received his B.S. (1963), M.S. (1964) and
Ph.D. (1968) degrees in Chemical Engineering at the University of
Pittsburgh. Several years of industrial experience were gained with
Gulf Research and Development Company. He pursued postdoctoral
research studies at the Technische Hogeschool in Delft Holland for
one year prior to joining the Chemical Engineering Department at
Illinois Institute of Technology in 1969 as an Assistant Professor.
His research and teaching interests include enzyme kinetics, reactor
analysis and transport phenomena and mixing effects in dispersions.


Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Action, Preparation
and Immobilization

T HE FIRST THREE sections of Part I intro-
duces the student to the biochemistry of
enzymes, the classes of reactions which enzymes
catalyze and the kinetic mechanism postulated to
describe the enzyme action. The biochemistry of
proteins is discussed starting with the amino
acids and how enzyme specificity is determined by


Enzyme and Biochemical Reaction Engineering
Course Outline
Part I. Enzyme Structure, Kinetic Action, Preparation
and Immobilization
A. Structure of Enzymes
B. Classes of Enzyme Reactions
C. Enzyme Kinetics
1). Enzyme Production
E. Enzyme Isolation and Purification
F. Enzyme Immobilization Methods
Part II. Enzyme and Biological Reactor Design
A. Ideal Batch, Tubular and CSTR Reactors
B. Ideal Reactor Concepts with Enzyme Kinetics
('. Fermentation Kinetics and Reactor Design
1). Physical and Chemical Rate Processes in
Heterogenous Immobilized Enzyme Systems
E. Diffusional Influences in Hollow Fiber
F. Immobilized Enzyme Deactivation and Para-
meter Determination
G. Design of Immobilized Enzyme Reactors
Parl III. Student Presentation of Term Papers.


its particular sequence of amino acid residues and
higher order structure. The primary, secondary,
tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins
are discussed with some detail given to the geo-
metry of the peptide bond, a-helix and pleated
sheet structures, and the various types of bonds
which determine higher order structures.
Classes of enzyme reactions such as oxidoreductases.
transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases and ligases
are then presented. Appropriate time is devoted to
enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme sub-
strates complex is presented and then applied to derive
the reaction velocities for competitive, noncompetitive, sub-
strate and product inhibition kinetics. Temperature, pH
effects and enzyme inactivation effects are delineated.
Methods of the determination of rate coefficients are
illustrated. Examples of starch hydrolysis, glucose iso-
merization, and lypase glycerolysis are employed to indi-
cate enzyme kinetics of current interest. Various references
(1-8) were helpful in the preparation of the material.
Methods of enzyme production, isolation and
purification then followed. Examples of the
various plant, animal and micro-organism sources
of enzymes were presented with specific atten-
tion given to the last source. Specific examples
(9-11) illustrated how optimum yields were ob-
tained in these fermentations. Isolation and puri-
fication was presented in three stages of (a) cell
removal, disruption or extraction, (b) initial frac-
tionation techniques, and (c) high resolution
techniques (see Table II). Adequate references
exist (12-30) which delineate specific aspects and
entire enzyme production schemes.
Immobilized enzymes was the last section dis-
cussed in Part I. Excellent reviews are available
(31-36). The methods discussed were covalent
attachment to water insoluble supports, covalent
intermolecular crosslinking, adsorption, contain-
ment within devices and entrapment with cross-
linking polymers.

Enzyme and Biological Reactor Design
Material and energy balances for ideal homo-
geneous batch, CSTR and plug flow reactors with
enzyme and fermentation kinetics are presented
in the first three sections. Michaelis-Menten
kinetics with and without substrate inhibition are
employed. Effects of nonideal flow and possibili-
ties of multiple steady states for substrate inhibi-
tion kinetics are introduced. The Monad model
for fermentation kinetics is presented. Batch and
continuous fermentations are discussed with some
attention to washout phenomena, multistaged
reactors, nonideal flow and micro-mixing effects.
Models of hydrocarbon fermentation are present-

Enzyme and Biochemical Reaction Engineering
Enzyme Isolation and Purification
(Subsection E of Part 1).
Introductory Comments, Enrichment, Yields, Lab. Results.
Solid-Liquid Separation
Disi option of Microorganisms
Initial Fractionation Procedures
Salt Precipitation
Solvent Precipitation
High Resolution Techniques
Gel Filtration-(el Chromatography
Affinity (hromatography

The course introduces the student to
the biochemistry of enzymes and merges the
techniques of chemical reactor engineering
with immobilized enzyme and biochemical
kinetics and exposes methods
of reactor design for these systems.

ed which consider microbial sorption to from
droplets, growth on the droplet surface and within
broth, droplet size distribution and mixing, and
oxygen absorption. Chemical reaction engineer-
ing texts and various other references were em-
ployed (15, 37-42).
The interaction of chemical and physical rate
processes are presented for the single particle.
Various limiting cases such as external mass
transfer with surface reaction, diffusional re-
sistances and reaction within the particle are
discussed and isothermal effectiveness factors are
introduced. Diffusional influences in membrane
catalysts for planar, cylindrical (hollow fiber) or
spherical geometry are also formulated for
Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Overall rate expres-
sions for single particles and membranes are
formulated. Various references employed are
(43-45). To complete the discussion, a formula-
tion of enzyme kinetics with inactivation is pre-
sented for various modes of deactivation. Deacti-
vation parameter estimations for various fluid-
solid reactor configurations as discussed in Leven-
spiel (37) are extended to Michaelis-Menten
kinetics and examples are presented.
The performance equations are employed with the
rate expressions developed to predict conversion for fixed

FALL 1974

bed immobilized enzyme reactors, slurry reactors with
dispersed immobilized enzyme, and tubular membrane
reactors. Modes of reactor operation for deactivating im-
mobilized enzymes to maximize production are discussed
for the glucose isomerase reaction. A fixed bed reactor
with plug flow of fluids is considered and varying tempera-
ture policy (44) or substrate flow rate is employed to
maximize yields and/or maintain constant product
quality. F]


1. M. Dixon and E. C. Webb, Enzymes, 2nd Ed., Academic
Press, Inc. New York, 1964.
2. S. Bernhard, Thie Sl rucre ind FVimnction of Enzymes,
W. A. Benjamin, Inc. New York, 19(8.
SH. Gutfreund, An Introdutio to the Study of
En zuics, John Wiley, Inc. New, 1965.
4. J. M. Reiner, lhlichioor of Enz!tme Systems, Burgess
Publishing Company, Lib. of Cong. Cat. No. 59-8042
Minneapolis 15, Minn. 1959.
K. J. Laidler, The Kinetics of Enzyme Action, Oxford
University Press, London, 1958.
(. John Westley, Enzimel ('otolysis, Harper and Row,
New York, 1969.
7. Notes from CES 7001, Enzyme Technology and its
Enginecring/ A !plir ntions, June 1-5, 1970 Univ. of
Penn. Phila., Pa.
8. L. L. Tavlarides, "Enzyme Kinetics Lectures," pre-
sented at Mof'et Technical Center, CPC, International,
Argo, Illinois.
9. W. W. Windish, N. S. Mharte, "Microbial Amylases,"
Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 7, p 273-304,
10. K. Mizusawa, E. Ichishima, F. Yashida, "Production
of Thermostable Alkaline Proteases by Thermophilic
Shtrptom ces," Applied Microbiology, V17n3, 366-371,
11. L. Nyiri, "Manufacture of Pectinases," Process Bio-
chemistry, V:Mn8, 27 (19(;8), Morgan-Grampian (Pub-
lishers) Ltd.
12. S. Schwimmer, A. B. Pardee, "Principles and Pro-
cedures in the Isolation of Enzyme," Advances in
Enzymology, V14, p 373.
13. S. Aiba, S. Kitai, N. Ishida, J. of Gen. and App.
Microbiol. VS, 109 (1962).
14. N. C. Mahoney, Process Biochemistry, V3n9, 19
15. S. Aiba, A. E. Humphrey, N. F. Millis, Biochemical
Engiiocrring, Academic Press, N. Y., 1965.
16. C. Ambler, J. of Biochem. and Microbiochem. Tech.
!nd Engr., V1, 185 (1959).
17. Nepperas, E. A., 1). E. Hughes, Biotech. & Bioeng.,
V6; 247-70 (1964).
18. J. W. T. Wimpenny, Process Biochem. V2n7, 41
19. J. T. Edsal, "Plasma Proteins and Their Fractiona-
tion," Adv. in Protein Chem. V3, 408 (1947).
20. M. Dixon and E. C. Webb, "Enzyme Fractionation by
Salting Out: a Theor. Note," Adv. in Protein Chem.,
V17, 197 (1963).
21. B. A. Askonas, Biochem. J. V'48, 42 (1951).
22. M. Bier, Elctronphorcsis Theory, Mlethods ndl A Ippli-
trtiols Academic Press, Inc. New York, N. Y. 1959.

23. M. Bier, Electrro cations, Academic Press, Inc., New York, N. Y.
24. M. K. Joustra "Gel Filtration on Agarose Gels,"
Modn. Scpn. Methods of Nacsomolecules and Porticles,
Proy. in Sepon. and Piurification, Vol. 2, 183 (1969).
25. T. C. Laurent, B. Ohrink, K. Hellsing A. Iaosteson
"On the Theoretical Aspects of Gel Chromotography,"
.lodni. Selp. Methods of Manoc.roolrecies and P rticles,
Prog. inl Sepnl- aml Pirification Vol. 2, 199-218,
(1969). Wiley.
2(. P. Cuatrecasas, Adv. in Enzymol. V3.i, 29 (1972).
27. P. H. Clarke and M. D. Lilly, "Enzyme Synthesis
I)uring Growth," in 19th Symposium of Society for
General Microbiology, (1969).
28. R. Davies, "Microbial Extracellular Enzymes, Their
Uses and Some Factors Affecting Their Formation,"
Biochemistry of Industrial Microorganisms ed. by C.
Rainhow and A. M. Rose, Academic Press, 1963.
2!0R.R. Luedeking, "Fermentation Process Kinetics," Bio-
chemical and Biological Engineering Science, Vol. I,
ed. by N. Blakebrough, Academic Press, 1967.
30. J. W. Richards, "Economics of Fermentation Opera-
tion, Parts I and II," Process Biochemistry, Vol. 3,
Nos. 5 & 6 1968.
31. I. H. Silman, and E. Katchalski, Ann. Rev. Biochem.
35, 873.
:32. L. Goldstein, In Methods of Enzymology XIX. G. E.
Perlman and L. Lorand Ed., Academic Press, New
York, p. 935, (1970).
33. E. Katchalski, I. Silman anid R. Goldman, Adv.
Enzymol. 314, 445, (1971).
34. K. Mosbach, Scientific American 224, 26, (1971).
35. R. Goldman, L. Goldstein, and E. Katchalski, In Bio-
chemical Aspects of Reactions on Solid Supports,
Stark, G. R., Ed., Academic Press, New York, p. 1.,
:6. O. R. Zaborsky, Immobilized Enzymes. CRC Press,
Cleveland, Ohio, (1973).
37. O. Levenspiel, ('Chelical Reactioti Eng/inccring, 2nd
Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y. (1972).
38. R. Artis, Introdliutio to the Analysis of Chemic l
Retclors, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J.,
39. J. M. Smith, C(lIicatl Engineering Kinetics, 2n Etl.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N. Y. (1970).
40. L. T. Fan, B. I. Tsai, and L. E. Erickson, "Simul-
taneous Effect of Macromixing and Micromixing on
Growth Processes," AIChE, J. 17 (3), 689 (1971).
41. M. Stamatoudis and L. L. Tavlarides, "Model of
Hydrocarbon Fermentation," paler presented at 75th
National AIChE Meeting, Ietroit, Mich., June 1973.
42. S. P. O'Neill, M. I). Lilly, P. N. Rowe "Multiple
Steady States in CFST Enzyme Reactors," Chem.
Eng. Sci. V26i, 173 (1971).
43. R. Aris Chem. Eng. Sci. Vti, 282 (1957).
44. J. Crank, Matlh. of Diffitsion, Clarendon Press. Ox-
ford, England, 1956.
45. P. R. Roney, "Multiphase Catalysis II Hollow Fiber
Catalysis," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, V13,
431, (1971).
46. W. R. Haas, L. L. Tavlarides, W. J. Wnek, "Optimal
Policy for Reversible Reactions with Deactivation:
Applied to Enzyme Reactors," AIChE, J., July, 1974.


The inside word on the outside world.

JOHN H. SEINFELD, California Institute of
Technology. 1975, 400 pages (tent.), $18.50
Here is a quantitative and rigorous approach to
the basic science and engineering underlying the
air pollution problem. The most comprehensive
single book available on the subject, it provides
an in-depth treatment of air pollution chemistry
atmospheric transport processes, combustion
sources and control methods.

EMIL CHANLETT, University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill. 1973, 608 pages, $17.50. Solutions
centered. This book describes the rationale for
the management and protection of our land, air,
water, and energy resources. The consequences of
mismanagement of the major environmental com-
ponents are examined at three levels: 1) effects
on health; 2) effects on comfort, convenience, ef-
ficiency and esthetics; and 3) effects on the bal-
ance of ecosystems and of renewable resources.
Although scientific and engineering principles are
stressed, the material covered is presented in a
clear, non-mathematical manner to facilitate a
broad understanding by relatively divergent

LINVIL G. RICH, Clemson University. McGraw-
Hill Series in Water Resources and En'iron-
mental Engineering. 1973, 405 pages, $17.50.
Solutions Manual
While covering a broad spectrum of environ-
mental topics, the focus is on the system as a
whole and how its components interact rather
than the components themselves. This systems ap-
proach is used in formulating and analyzing en-
vironmental phenomena, as well as in the selection
and design of engineered facilities needed for con-
trolling the environment. Although water environ-
ment is considered in greatest detail, also included
are air pollution and its control, solid waste man-
agement and radiological health. The mathematics
of systems analysis and computer solutions is used

ROBERT V. THOMANN, Manhattan College.
1972, 286 pages (tent.), $19.50 (tent.)
Using both mathematical models of environmental
responses and management and control schemes,
the text provides a series of analytical tools for
describing and forecasting the effects of the sur-
rounding environment on the water quality of a
stream or estuary, presents information on water
quality criteria and wastewater inputs, estab-
lishes a point of departure for evaluating the
worth of water quality improvement projects and
discusses the benefits of applying cost benefit
analysis to engineering.

HAL B. H. COOPER, JR., University of Texas at
Austin, and AUGUST T. ROSSANO, JR., Uni-
versity of Washington. 1971, 278 pages, $13.50.
A discussion of principles and methods used for
testing of gaseous and particulate materials being
emitted from industrial, combustion and other
sources is presented in this informative text.
Organized to give the reader a logical presentation
of the steps taken in source testing, the book in-
cludes an extensive examination of the equipment,
methodology, sampling, and analytical techniques
in use for gaseous and particulate particles.

H. C. PERKINS, University of Arizona. 1974,
407 pages, $15.50. Solutions Manual
To date, this is the only truly engineering-oriented
text on the subject that draws upon the student's
background in analyzing and solving problems in
air pollution. The treatment is sufficiently detailed
to enable chemical, mechanical, and sanitary en-
gineering students to solve a variety of problems.
A complete discussion of the global effects of air
pollution is included along with numerous ap-
plications-type problems.

Prices subject to change without notice.

1221 Avenue of the Americas
N.Y., N.Y. 10020

FALL 1974


Strengthen the

McGRAW-HILL Texts Reinforce

Second Edition
MARK W. ZEMANSKY, Emeritus, City College
of the City University of New York, MICHAEL
M. ABBOTT and H. C. VAN NESS, both of
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 1975, 448 pages
(tent.), $15.00 (tent.). Solutions Manual
Important changes in this revision include a con-
solidation and unification of material resulting in
fewer chapters, the addition of a large number of
worked examples, extensive use of SI units, and
use of the same sign conventions for both work
and heat. Also featured are an expanded treat-
ment of refrigeration and power cycles and ex-
tension of the discussion on flow processes to in-
clude adiabatic flow processes, especially transonic

MERTON C. FLEMINGS, Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology. 1974, 580 pages, $19.50. Solu-
tions Manual
Professor Flemings has written the only book that
treats the engineering side of solidification proc-
esses in depth. Unique in its application of solidi-
builds on the foundation of heat flow, mass trans-
port and interface kinetics. Similarities as well
as differences between processes are highlighted,
and among the processes considered are crystal
growing, shape casting, ingot casting, growth of
composites and splat cooling.

FORD, and CHARLES R. WILKE, all of the
University of California, Berkeley. 1975, 512
pages (tent.), $18.50 (tent.).
Compared to the 1952 version Absorption and
Extraction, this volume is substantially more
sophisticated, providing a much broader coverage
of mass transfer. Emphasis is on the practical
aspects and real problems that demand an under-
standing of theory. Yet, theoretical derivations
are minimized by explicit citation of over 1,100
contemporary references.

JUI SHENG HSIEH, New Jersey Institute of
Technology. 1975, 500 pages (tent.), $16.50 (tent.)
A clear and unified treatment of various thermo-
dynamic systems, this new text illustrates the
wide range of applicability of the basic laws of
thermodynamics. Beginning with a comprehensive
review of the first and second laws, the text ex-
amines thermodynamic relations for single- and
multi-component compressible systems; stability;
phase and chemical equilibrium; thermodynamics
of elastic system, interfacial-tension system, mag-
netic system, and electric system; cryogenics; and
the third law and negative Kelvin temperatures.

DAVID R. GASKELL, University of Pennsyl-
vania. McGrair-Hill Series in Materials Science
and Engineering. 1973, 550 pages, $19.50.
Here is a modern text which details the thermo-
dynamics of high temperature systems encoun-
tered in metallurgy, via systematic development
of the criteria governing equilibria in metal-
lurgical reaction systems. Use of the thermody-
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illustration program using, as examples, real sys-
tems which have been carefully selected to illus-
trate the thermodynamic principles involved.

Third Edition
J. M. SMITH, University of California at Davis,
and H. C. VAN NESS, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute. McGrawr-Hill Series in Chemical Engi-
ineeriing. 1975, 672 pages (tent.), $16.50 (tent.).
Including a new chapter on solution thermody-
namics, the third edition of this successful funda-
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thermodynamics from a chemical engineering
viewpoint. The chapters on phase and chemical-
reaction equilibrium have been rewritten and ex-
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of these topics.

McGraw-Hill Book Company

Chemical Bond.

Student-Professor Relationships.

C. JUDSON KING, University of California,
Berkeley. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engi-
neering. 1971, 736 pages, $19.50. Solutions Manual
This text stresses the many common aspects of
the functioning and analysis of different separa-
tion processes, such as distillation, absorption, and
extraction. Modern computational techniques for
single and multistage separations are considered
with the emphasis on an understanding of the
various conditions which favor different computa-
tional approaches.

STUART W. CHURCHILL, University of Penn-
sylvania. 1974, 510 pages, $19.50. Solutions Man-
Professor Churchill offers a completely new and
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transfer, heat transfer and component transfer is
provided. Discussion focuses on raw, experimental
data rather than on hypothetical processes and

TRANSFER, Second Edition
C. O. BENNETT, University of Connecticut,
Storrs and J. E. MYERS, University of Cali-
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Solutions Manual
Combining a rigorous approach to fundamentals
with an extended treatment of practical problems,
this revision illustrates basic ideas by applications
to industrial processes. The reader is offered an
understanding of the principles which govern the
operation and design of chemical and physical
processes in industry. Mathematics through dif-

ferential equations is used freely, but empirical
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give sufficient data so that the problems can be
done without reference to a handbook. In addition,
50' of the problems are new.

JACK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Uni-
versity. 1974, 608 pages, $16.50. Solutions Manual.
Self-Study Cassettes, $65.00. Self-Study Guide,
All standard thermodynamics topics can be cov-
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HEAT TRANSFER, Third Edition
JACK P. HOLMAN, Southern Methodist Uni-
versity. 1972, 496 pages, $15.50.
This elementary text offers a brief and concise
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$1 QoM4e in



Washington ULnirersit!/
St. Louis, Missouri 63130

Polymers is a one semester (15 weeks) in-
troductory graduate polymer course offered at
Washington University that consists of three
hours of lecture per week and carries three hours
of credit. The material presented is designed to
be of value to a range of engineering students in-
cluding those in the materials science and bio-
medical engineering programs. For many stu-
dents, this is the only polymer course they take.
Accordingly, I try to cover a reasonably broad
spectrum of material. The depth of presentation
is designed to be sufficient for the students to
appreciate the theoretical principles of polymer
science, but it is not sufficient for them to be
polymer specialists.
Because the scope of contemporary polymer
science has become so broad, a one semester
course can never cover more than a small frac-
tion of the knowledge available. Thus, I am high-
ly selective about what is presented. The choice
of subject matter is prejudiced by my industrial
research experience. Regardless of where today's
students ultimately work, I am convinced that
they will encounter many of the same types of
problems that I encountered. These include prob-
lems associated with selection of polymers for a
specific application, deterioration or change in
polymer properties with use, pushing a polymer
product to the limits of its capabilities, and as-
suming lot-to-lot reliability of polymer-containing
products. All of these problems constantly plague
polymer users. Accordingly, I slant the course
material toward polymer characterization, selec-
tion, properties and weaknesses. Being a physical
chemist, I take a physico-chemical approach to all
material presented. The fundamental principles
discussed are kept as simple and logical as I can
make them. I try frequently to introduce practical

examples into the lecture material thereby illus-
trating the various topics discussed. My entire
goal is to maximize long-term retention of useful
knowledge of polymers by the students.


T ABLE 1 CONTAINS an outline of the course
material. I start with polymer nomenclature
and follow this with a discussion of the chemistry
involved in preparing various polymers. I then
cover polymer characterization and polymer struc-
ture property relationships. Polyelectrolytes and
proteins are treated after polymer solution pro-
perties. In addition, I deliberately try to include
illustrative examples of biological or water-soluble
polymers throughout the course. This is done pri-
marily for the benefit of the biomedical students,
but the other students benefit too, since industrial
uses of water-soluble polymers are steadily in-
creasing. As noted previously, all topics are ap-
proached from a polymer user viewpoint. Basic
principles are stressed constantly, but the course
has a definite practical orientation. In order to
visualize the subject matter given, it is appropri-
ate to discuss in more detail the sequence of topics
listed in Table I.

Choice of subject matter is prejudiced by
my industrial research experience ... I slant
the material toward polymer characterization,
selection, properties and weaknesses ... a physical
chemist, I take a physico-chemical approach to all
material presented.

The first topic is nomenclature. At times, one
tends to look upon this as a trivial topic. However,
consistent with my efforts to stress fundamentals,
I spend several lectures on nomenclature. These
introductory lectures also enable me to introduce
the basic concepts of polymer structure.


Table 1
I. Nomenclature
II. Polymer Chemistry
A. Kinetics of polycondensation reactions
1. Kinetics of free radical polymerization
(. Copolymerization kinetics
1). Ionic polymerization reactions
E. Epoxy and urethane curing reactions
III. Polymer Characterization
A. Solution Properties
1. Solubility Behavior
2. Fractionation
3. Molecular Weight Determination
B. Polyelectrolytes and Proteins
C. Bulk Properties of Polymers
1. The Glass Transition and Crystalline
Melting Point
2. Viscoelasticity
3. Rubber Elasticity
IV. Polymer Structure/Property Relationships
A. Factors That Affect the Glass Transition
B. Factors that Affect Crystallinity
C. Structural Analysis of Widely Used Plastics

The students are exposed to the difference be-
tween linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers,
the meaning of stereoregularity, etc. I do my best
to cover a broad spectrum of polymer terms in
common use. The beauty and complexity of
biological polymers from a structural viewpoint
is introduced too. I also expect the students to
learn the chemical structures of a number of
widely used commercial polymers (e. g., polyethy-
lene, poly(vinyl chloride), etc.). To me, knowing
the chemical structures of a number of polymers
provides a mental picture of how various polymers
differ structurally and lays the groundwork for
more meaningful discussion of polymer properties
later in the course.


siderable time going over the chemistry in-
volved in preparing various types of polymers.
This takes about 25'0 of the total semester lec-
ture time. I feel that spending so much time on
polymer chemistry is easily justified, because
polymers are constantly used under conditions
where they depolymerize, oxidize, and or cross-
link. All of these reactions cause profound
changes in polymer properties and occur when
polymers deteriorate with use. By stressing to the
students how polymer molecules are assembled, it
is logical to point out simultaneously how various
polymerization reactions can either be reversed

Curt Thies has been an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at Washington University since January 1973. He is a native of
Michigan. He received a B.S. in Chemistry from Western Michigan
University (1956); M.S. from the Institute of Paper Chemistry (1958);
and Ph.D. in rhe Physical Chemistry of Polymers with a minor in
Chemical Engineering from Michigan State University (1962). Prior
to joining Washington University he had an industrial career cul-
minating with the position of Head of the Polymer Microencapsula-
tion Research Section of NCR. His research and teaching interests
are in the areas of colloid and surface behavior of polymers, microen-
capsulation, and polymer mixtures.

to cause deploymerization or altered to cause
Much of the chemistry discussed relates to
condensation, free radical, and ionic polymeriza-
tion processes. However, I also discuss the various
mechanisms by which epoxy and urethane resins
are cured. I spend time on these latter two
families of polymers because: 1. they are widely
used in situations engineers are likely to en-
counter (e. g., adhesives, foams, and composite
materials) ; 2. it gives me an opportunity to go
over the concept of crosslinking and thermoset
resins in some detail. The level of organic
chemistry presented is always relatively elemen-
tary, but I feel that it suffices to indicate to the
students how the major types of polymerization
reactions differ. I stress polymerization kinetics.
From the kinetic approach, the students learn to
appreciate that polymer chain length, rate of
chain growth, etc., differ for the various poly-
merization process. I try to note how these im-
portant parameters can be controlled to thereby
give the polymer producer a great degree of con-
trol over tailoring polymer molecules for specific
end uses.
The kinetic expressions developed for free
radical copolymerization reactions are also dis-
cussed. Many copolymers are of significant com-
mercial importance and the students should have
a grasp of the fundamental principles that poly-

FALL 1974

mer producers use to minimize or avoid formation
of compositionally heterogenous copolymers. The
discussion of copolymer kinetics also helps the stu-
dents to appreciate the sequence in which
monomers are added to a growing polymer chain
and how differences in the sequence of monomer
addition lead to gross changes in polymer struc-
ture with concomitant changes in properties.


merization reactions, I devote a number of
lectures to polymer characterization. The tech-
niques discussed fall into two broad categories:
those that utilize polymer solution properties and
those that are based on polymer bulk properties.
I begin with the former. One of the first points I
try to make is that few commercial polymers are
pure. Polymer manufacturers inevitably add to
their products a range of additives like light
stabilizers, anti-oxidants, processing aids, etc.
Toxicity of these additives is of critical importance
to those interested in biomedical applications be-
cause they can be leached from the polymer
matrix duringg use. Thus, I stress that the first
step to take in characterizing a polymer sample
is to find out what is present, including the
additives. Infrared spectroscopy is a convenient
means of doing this. In the case of complex mix-
tures, the various components are separated by
differences in solubility. This then leads into a
general discussion of polymer solubility behavior.
I stress that solubility in a range of solvents and
over a range of temperatures not only enables one
to separate complex mixtures and fractionate
polymers into different molecular weight frac-
tions, but also provides insight into the molecular
structure of a polymer (e. g., crystalline polymers
are more insoluble than noncrystalline polymers,
crosslinked polymers are insoluble in all solvents,
After discussing polymer solubility, I swing
into the theory underlying the commonly used
methods of determining polymer molecular weight
and the meaning of the various molecular weight
averages. Included in the presentation is an in-
troduction to gel filtration and gel permeation
chromatography. I spend only about three to four
lectures on these topics, because I am simply
trying to get the students to appreciate how
polymer molecular weights differ from those of
non-polymeric species. I also am constantly warn-
ing them always to specify what molecular weight

average they mean when they quote the molecular
weight of a polymer.
At this point, I begin to discuss what addi-
tion of ionic groups to a polymer chain does to the
polymer and thereby develop the concept of poly-
electrolytes. The discussion of polyelectrolytes, in
turn, serves as a lead into a discussion of pro-
teins. I spend several lectures presenting proteins
and glycoproteins from a polymer chemist's view-
point. The reactions that proteins undergo are not
considered. I focus exclusively upon their primary,
secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure and
the influence that intra-or inter-molecular bond-
ing has upon each of these structures.
After proteins, I treat bulk polymer proper-
ties. The concept of glass transition (T,) and
melting point (T,,) is stressed and attention is
focused upon how these events affect polymer
properties. This involves showing how a polymer's
modulus changes as one passes through T,,, and or
T,. The influence of crosslinking, crosslink density,

The students are exposed to the difference
between linear, branched and crosslinked
polymers, the meaning of stereo-
regularity, etc. The beauty and
complexity of biological polymers
from a structural viewpoint is introduced.

and degree of crystallization on the modulus
temperature curves is used to illustrate how
structural and or morphological changes in a
polymer influence its properties. At this point, the
structural requirements for a polymer to develop
crystallinity and the concept of folded-chain
polymer crystals are also treated. This is followed
by a discussion of the viscoelastic properties of
polymers which involves going through the Voigt,
Kelvin, and four-parameter models of viscoelastici-
ty. The thermodynamics of rubber elasticity is
also covered. Particular emphasis is placed upon
the key structural features of polymers needed for
elastic behavior.
The final portion of the course is devoted to
a discussion of polymer structure property re-
lationships. Structural factors that favor in-
creased T, or T,,, of a polymer are considered. The
effect of copolymerization upon T, or T,, of a
polymer are considered. The effect of copolymeri-
zation upon T, and the degree of crystallinity


exhibited by a polymer is also discussed. I try to
show how polymer structure plays a key role in
determining what properties a polymer has. This
then determines the applications for which a
polymer is suited. In order to drive this point
home, I like to list the T, and T,, values for a
number of widely used polymers. I then go over
the structural features of each polymer and indi-
cate how these have affected its applications.


The required text for the course is Billmeyer's Text-
book of Polymer Science (Second Edition, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1971). I also have developed
a set of lecture notes for parts of the course and pass
these out to the students. The sequence of lecture ma-
terial presentation that I favor differs significantly from
that used by Billmeyer. Since a wide spectrum of sub-
jects is covered, I also find that I like to supplement Bill-
meyer's text with additional material taken from the
reference texts listed in Table II. Thus, I either formulate
by own problems, turn to the example problems in Rosen's
text, or give the homework problems in Rodriguez's book.
My supply of problems is steadily increasing, but I never
have enough. I favor assigning a range of problems that
require relatively little time to solve rather than giving
a limited number of problems that require considerable
time to solve. This exposes the student to a broader range
of problem situations.


I try to provoke class participation by routine-
ly asking lots of questions during the lectures.
These are addressed to the class in general (i. e.,
anyone can volunteer an answer) and tend to be
practical in nature. The questions are designed
to establish dialogue between the students and
myself during class. In this manner, I become
more aware of what concepts they are not grasp-
ing well and can then spend more time on these.
I also try to constantly relate my own experiences
with polymers to them and warn them of some
of the polymer problems that they are likely to
This past year, I was assisted in the course
by Dr. Lawrence Nielsen, a Senior Scientist in
the Corporate Research Department of the Mon-
santo Company and Affiliate Professor in the
Chemical Engineering Department at Washington
University. He is an experienced polymer physi-
cist specializing in the mechanical properties of
polymers and handled the lectures that dealt
with this aspect of polymer science. During his
lectures, the students were exposed to a concise

Flory, P. J., "Principles of
Polymer Chemistry," Cornell
University Press, Ithaca,
New York, 1953.
Saunders, K. J., "Organic
Polymer Chemistry," Chap-
man and Hall, London,
England, 1973.
Rosen, S. L., "Fundamental
Principles of Polymeric
Materials for Practicing
Engineers," Barnes and
Noble, Inc., New York,
N. Y. 1971.
Tobolsky, A. V., "Properties
and Structure of Polymers,"
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
New York, N. Y., 1960.
Neurath, H., "The Proteins,"
Second Edition, Academic
Press, New York, N. Y.,
Rodriguez, F., "Principles
of Polymer Systems," Mc-
Graw-Hill Book Co., New
York, N. Y., 1970.
Miller, M. L., "The Structure
of Polymers," Reinhold
Publishing Corp., New York,
N. Y., 1966.

Supplemental Material Used
Kinetics of polycondensa-
tion plus rubber elasticity.

Organic polymer chemistry,
including ionic polymeriza-
tion processes and cure of
epoxy and urethane resins.
Primarily viscoelasticity. I
also make extensive use of
the example problems given
throughout the text.

Factors affecting the glass
transition, viscoelasticity.

Structure of Proteins.

Homework problems.

Polyelectrolytes and free
radical polymerizations.

survey of the mechanical property behavior of
polymers. The choice of relevant material pre-
sented was something only a seasoned expert
could do and greatly strengthened the overall
content of the course.


Before concluding, I wish to note that the content and
arrangement of a course like this one is subject to con-
stant modification. I am trying to increase the learning
efficiency of the students without forcing too much
knowledge on them too quickly. One means of doing this
involves improving my style of delivery, especially for
those topics which the students seem to consistently have
greatest difficulty. My approach is to simplify the presen-
tation as much as feasible. Furthermore, I am increasing
the number of notes to be handed out before a lecture is
given. In this manner, I hope to devote more of the lec-
ture to class discussion. Only time will tell how success-
ful these efforts are. n

FALL 1974

Table II

Continued from page 167.

Technology, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,
N. J., 1972.
3. R. A. Swalin, Thermodynamics of Solids, John Wiley
and Sons, New York, N. Y., 1962.
4. N. N. Greenwood, Ionic Crystals, Lattice Defects and
Nonstoichiometry, Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New
York, N. Y., 1970.
5. K. Nassau, "The Chemistry of Laser Crystals," in
Applied Solid State Science, Advances in Materials
and Device Research, R. Wolfe and C. J. Kriersman,
eds., Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, N. Y., 1971,
PP. 173-299.
6. M. Zief and R. Speights, eds., Ultrapurification,
Methods and Techniques, M. Dekker, New York, N. Y.,
7. H. Schafer, Chemical Transport Reactions, Academic
Press, New York, N. Y., 1964.
8. W. G. Pfann, Zone Melting, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., New York, N. Y., 2nd Edition, 1966.
9. R. A. Laudise, The Growth of the Single Crystals,
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1972.
10. R. L. Parker, "Crystal Growth Mechanisms: Ener-
getics, Kinetics and Transport," in Solid State Physics,

Advances in Research and Applications, H. Ehren-
reich, F. Seitz and D. Turnbull, eds., Vol. 25, Academic
Press, New York, N. Y., 1970, pp. 152-299.
11. R. M. Burger and R. P. Donovan, eds., Oxidation,
Diffusion and Epitaxy, Prentice-Hall, New York,
N. Y., 1967.
12. S. A. Shaikh, "Chemical Vapor Deposition of
GaAs,_Px, Reactor Design and Growth Kinetics,"
M. S. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Sep-
tember 1972.
13. H. R. Camenzind, Electronic Integrated Systems De-
sign, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, N. Y.,
14. I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish and F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl.
Phys., .t2, 1929 (1971).
15. H. C. Casey, Jr. and F. A. Trumbore, Mater. Sci.
Eng., 6, 69 (1970).
16. A. H. Bobeck and H. D. E. Scovil, Scientific American,
June 1971, pp. 78-89.
17. 1972 Wescon Technical Papers, Session 8, Magnetic
Bubbles, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engi-
neers, San Francisco, Calif.

Continued from page 183.

occurrence of a van der Waals "loop" in the re-
gion of coexistence is a manifestation of the ap-
proximate nature of the equation of state.-
Diffusional stability, or immiscibility phenome-
na, is presented in a manner abstracted from
Prigogine and Defay.6 Margules solution models,
starting with the "regular," are adequate to
demonstrate a broad spectrum of possible im-
miscibility behavior. Prausnitz's discussion of the
subject" is a good complement to this topic.

6. Thermodynamics of Mixtures (2 weeks, or whatever
time remains).

Obviously, two weeks is not enough to do any
justice to the practical aspects of the thermo-
dynamics of mixtures, such as the fugacity and
activity concepts. Often, these few lectures are
given in a qualitive way to provide an overview
of what is presently relevant in chemical thermo-
dynamics. This is generally all that the non-
chemical engineers will desire while the chemical
engineers have refuge in a second course for
which this course is a prerequisite. The second
course is a course in phase equilibria and uses
Prausnitz9 as a text. It will not be discussed here.
In closing, it is satisfying to note that Equa-
tion (3.1-8)-(3.1-14) and Equation (3.4-9)-

(3.4-17) of Prausnitz,' equations for the proper-
ties of mixtures with independent variables (P,T)
and (V,T) relative to an ideal gas basis (T =
T, P = 1 atm absolute), are derivable by stu-
dents of the core course without recourse to the
work of Beattie.'0 D


1. Holman, J. P., "Thermodynamics," McGraw-Hill, Inc.
(1970); 2nd Edition (1974).
2. Reynolds, W. C., and H. C. Perkins, "Engineering
Thermodynamics," McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1970).
3. Tisza, L., "Generalized Thermodynamics," M. I. T.
Press (1970), ps. 5-38.
4. Callen, H. B., "Thermodynamics," John Wiley and
Sons, Inc. (1960), ps. 3-130.
5. Denbigh, K., "The Principles of Chemical Equi-
librium," 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press
(1971), See prob. 8, p. 213-214.
6. Zeleznik, F. J., and S. Gordon, I. & E. C. 60(6), 27-57
7. For example, see Appendix 9 of T. L. Hill's "Statisti-
cal Mechanics," McGraw-Hill, Inc. (1956), ps. 413-
8. Prigogine, I., and R. Defay, "Chemical Thermody-
namics," Longmans (1954), ref. Chapters XV and
9. Prausnitz, J. M., "Molecular Thermodynamics of
Fluid-Phase Equilibria," Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1969).
10. Beattie, J. A., Chem. Rev. 44, 141-192 (1949).


--- I I


Continued from page 171.
This latter approach is an interesting extension of
classical single loop design.20

The course stresses those elements of modern control
theory which appear to have the most promise of eventual
applications and economic justification. The usefulness of
the proposed techniques is tested via simulation and ex-
pel imentation. A pilot plant distillation column has been
chosen as a prototype system for testing multivariable
strategies; focusing on a real system seems to enhance
the students' interest. There is no question that use of a
computer control laboratory strengthens the overall
course, and hopefully the experience will motivate the
students to use multivariable control and estimation to
solve the difficult problems of process operation.
1. Newell, R. B., Fisher, D. G., and Seborg, D. E.,
AIChE J., 18, 976 (1972).
2. Smith, F. B., "Dynamic Modeling and Control of a
Fluid Cat Cra-ker' 76th Natl. AIChE Meeting, Tulsa,
OK, March, 1974.
3. Sage, A.P., "Optimum Systems Control," Prentice-
Hall, England, Englewood Cliffs (1968).
4. Bryson, A. E., and Ho, Y. C., "Applied Optimal
Control," Blaisdell, Waltham (1969).
5. Lapidus, L. and Luus, R., "Optimal Control of Engi-
neering Processes, Blaisdell, Waltham (1967).

6. Koppel, L. B., "Introduction to Control Theory,"
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1968).
7. Ogata, K., "State Space Analysis of Control Systems,"
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1967).
8. Denn, M. M., "Optimization by Variational Methods,"
McGraw-Hill, New York, (1969).
9. Ellis, J. K., and White, G. W. T., Control, April-193,
May-262, June-317 (1965).
10. Topaloglu, T., and Seborg, D. E., Proc. JACC, 309
11. Jameson, A., IEEE Trans. Auto. Cont., AC-15, 345
12. Huckaba, C. E., Franke, F. R., May, F. P., Fairchild,
B. T., and Distefano, G. P., CEP Symp. Ser., 61, No.
55, 126 (1965).
13. O'Conner, G. E., and Denn, M. M., Chem. Engr. Sci.,
27, 121 (1972).
14. White, J. S., and Lee, H. Q., "User's Manual for
VASP," NASA TM X-2417, Washington, D. C.,
October, 1971.
15. Hu, Y. C., and Ramirez, W. F., AIChE J., 18, 479
1(. Edgar, T. F., Vermeychuk, J. G., and Lapidus, L.,
Chem. Engr. Comm., 1, 57 (1973).
17. Schuldt, S. B., and Smith, F. B., Proc. JACC, 270
18. Young, P. C., Control Engr., October, 119, November,
118 (1969).
19. Hamilton, J. C., Seborg, D. E., and Fisher, D. G.,
AIChE J., 19, 901 (1973).
20. MacFarlane, A. G. J., Automatica, 8, 455 (1972).

FALL 1974




Naturally chemical engineers need all the education they can get. At Mobil
many of our people pursue graduate studies while they work. The advan-
tage? The chemical engineer is thrown into the excitement and challenge of
immediate work, gaining practical on-the-job experience. A basic mover at
Mobil, the chemical engineer can be found in all functional areas and in
every echelon of management. At Mobil the primary need for chemical
engineers is and always will be at the Bachelor's level. However, we en-
courage all our employees to take whatever additional studies they feel are
necessary. In other words, they earn while they learn through our tuition
refund plan. Opportunities for chemical engineers are available in a wide
variety of activities in the following functional areas:

Research Exploration & Producing Manufacturing
Transportation & Logistics Marketing M o b

If you're interested, write to: Mr. R. W. Brocksbank, Manager-College Recruiting
Mobil Oil Corporation, Dept. 2133 150 East 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10017 Mo b i


University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506

went home for the Christmas holidays. We
asked them to find the cost of energy sources
such as coal, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas, and
electricity in their hometown. In addition to
passing out the course outline and reading assign-
ments, the first class period was spent tabulating
the students' data. It was interesting to learn
that two students from Kentucky came from
homes heated by coal, and the cost of this coal
was $29 and $31.50, ton. This was quite a jump
from the 1971 national average of $7.07/ton! A
student volunteered to summarize the data on
ditto masters along with the latest national
averages and on the common basis of ('/10 BTU.
Another assignment in this first part of the
course was to find an energy forecast for U. S.
consumption in 1985 or 2000. It was an eye-open-
er for all of us to see the difference in Inter Tech-
nology Corp.'s prediction of 99.3 x 1015 (a com-
posite of 56 predictions) and Chase Manhattan
Bank's 135 x 10'" BTU year for 1985. The hazards
of forecasts were further spelled out by the re-
quired reading of Doan's article (see references
at end of article).

lies heavily on mining for a large fraction
of its gross State product. In the interest of pre-
serving these markets the University of Kentucky
(UK) received State funding starting in 1972
for coal research. This money was to be used for
economic and technical studies related to Ken-
tucky coals.
Projects in the department of chemical engi-
neering included such topics as high temperature
sulfur removal from gases, certain aspects of high
and low BTU gasification, sulfur removal from
coal, and a study of the agglomerating character-

istics of coal. Thus in the Fall of 1972 four
graduate students, three undergraduates and
three post doctoral fellows were carrying out
coal research under the direction of four faculty
members. These numbers were augmented the
following October when the department received
an NSF-RANN grant in conjunction with the
Ashland Oil Corporation. The focus of the re-
search was liquefaction, and four separate proj-
ects in this area were initiated at that time.
During the summer of 1973 it became apparent
that an increasing number of students and
faculty would be involved in energy research. It
was decided that two courses should be offered,
one being an advanced undergraduate-M. S.
level course, the other an M.S.-Ph.D. level
course. The first was to be a complete survey of
all types of energy and energy conversion pro-
cesses. The second would be a course in funda-
mental chemical engineering principles applied to
energy engineering.


T O PROVIDE THE BROAD background needed
to understand the nature of the problems we
designed the first course as a series of lectures
and class discussions that would accomplish the
* Familiarize the learners with the scope of the energy
* Refresh them with the basic engineering principles
needed to ferret out those energy problems requiring
engineering skills for solution from those that require
other skills for solution.
* Provide the opportunity to review in a systematic
fashion certain facets of interest, opportunity and
promise in the energy area.
* Educate them to the energy based raw material needs
of commerce and industry, particularly the CP1.
* Evaluate the short and long term potentials of es-
tablished and novel energy conversion and conservation
processes and practices.

In the short time in which we instigated this
first course we foresaw that a consort of teaching
faculty would be needed to handle both the broad-
ness and depth of the course. Prerequisites were


Charles E. Hamrin, Jr. received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering from Northwestern University. He worked
at the Y-12 Plant of Union Carbide for six years before joining ihe
faculty of the University of Denver. He has been at the University
of Kentucky since 1968 where his teaching has emphasized student
involvement and discovery. (BELOW)
R. L. Kermode received his undergraduate education at Case
Institute of Technology, and an M.S. and Ph.D. (1962) from North-
western University. He has teaching experience at Carnegie-Mellon
University and the University of Kentucky. His research interests are
in the areas of process control and coal liquefaction. (LEFT PHOTO)
J. Thomas Schrodt is an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at the University of Kentucky. He received the B.Ch.E. degree
in 1960 and a Ph.D. in 1966 from the University of Louisville and
a M.S. degree in 1962 from Villanova University. Dr. Schrodt worked
as a Senior Research Engineer for the Tennessee Eastman Company
prior to joining the faculty at U.K. His teaching and research interests
in fundamental thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer.

established for this faculty; each had to have a
proficiency in the basic principles and each had
to have an expertise in one or more of the elected
areas of energy conversion or consumption. This
required in several cases that faculty from other
departments-Professors Cremers, Hahn, and
Stewart from the ME Department-had to be
called into the association. The prerequisites for
students taking the course for credit amounted
to an understanding of classical thermo, fluids
and process principles or some equivalent thereof.
Students from other disciplines desiring to audit
the course were welcomed to sit in. The final class
makeup consisted of 15 undergraduates, 14 Ch.E's
and 1 Ag.E. and 16 Ch.E. graduate students.


T HE COURSE CONTINUED as shown in the
course outline. Thermodynamics was sum-
marized in a handout of 20 important equations
for energy conversion, conservation, entropy flow,
and material transport. Sample problems were
worked using a steam turbine to illustrate energy

balances and a chemical equilibrium problem with
three simultaneous reactions occurring. Three
homework problems covering a steam turbine,
compressible fluid flow, and gasifier reaction
equilibria were assigned and represented the
quantative portion of the course.
Flow sheets and gasifier design for low-BTU
and pipeline quality gas, and for liquefaction,
were presented during the next several weeks.
Data from the Morgantown Gasifier of the USBM,
for the first time using a caking coal (Kentucky
No. 9), were presented to the class. The outlet
gas composition was shown to compare favorably
with a simple model of an adiabatic reactor in
which the water-gas shift reaction was at equi-
librium and methane was being produced by the

C + 2H, CH,

Details of gas cleanup processes including liquid
absorption, dry oxidation, and dry adsorption
were also discussed. Current research at UK in
this latter area was also detailed.
In addition to the text, Newc Energy Tech-
nology (by Hottel and Howard), a key reference
to processes for producing pipeline quality gas
was that of Bituminous Coal Research (see
references). Gasification processes essentially con-
sist of five major units: gasifier, water-gas shift
reactor acid-gas removal system, methanator, and
dryer. Discussion of the various AGA-OCR-USBM
pilot-plant processes emphasized the unique fea-
tures of each in terms of these five units. Lique-
faction coverage was limited to the Sasol plant in
South Africa and the H-Coal process.
In many instances novel learning techniques were
used to draw the students into class participation. For
example, the group process technique of role-playing was
used to discuss solvent refining of coal. Five groups were
formed with leaders being chosen based on highest first
exam scores. In 'z hour, each group was asked to come

FALL 1974

up with a process to remove sulfur from Western Ken-
tucky coal (4% S, about half organic sulfur and half
pyritic sulfur). A 2-minute presentation was to be made
to the Governor and his aides trying to sell them on this
process as part of his $50 million energy package. (This
bill was eventually signed in the Chemical Engineering
Department's Unit Operations Laboratory.) Having re-
ceived the assignment, one group left the room, and we
wondered if they would return. The groups in the room
became actively engaged in discussion, and those stu-
dents doing coal research projects were particularly vocal.
It was the first time for many to verbalize their ideas
of coal processing based on class lectures and outside read-
ing. No new processes evolved but a valuable learning ex-
perience occurred.
The remaining course topics were covered in
one or two sessions except for nuclear which was
presented in three lectures. Professor Bill Conger
of our department covered the hydrogen economy
concept based on his research in collaboration
with Dean Funk.
Two special classes were those led by dis-
tinguished visitors to the Engineering College.
Professor Jimmy Wen, Chairman of the Dept. of
Chemical Engineering at West Virginia, gave an
excellent overview of the short and long term
solutions to the U. S. energy problem. Near the
end of the semester, Professor Jack Howard, co-

author of the text, gave an extemporaneous talk
on tar sands and oil shale which supplemented
the heavy emphasis on coal during most of the

Table 1
I. Energy Consumption, Demand, Transportation,
Storage, and Costs (CEH)
II. Thermodynamic Laws Governing Conservation and
Availability of Energy (JTS)
Ill. Fossil Fuel to Fuel Conversion
A. Low-Btu Gas (JTS)
B. Pipeline Quality Gas (RIK)
C. Synthetic Crude Oil (RIK)
1). Solvent Refined Coal (CEH)
IV. Dependence of Industry on Hydrocarbon Feedstocks
A. Petrochemical (JTS)
B. Steel, Glass, Fertilizer, etc. (RIK)
V. Electrical Power Generation
A. Non-Nuclear (OWS)
B. Nuclear (OJH)
VI. Other Energy Sources
A. Geothermal (JTS)
B. Magnetohydrodynamics (CJC)
C. Solar (CEH)
D. Fuel Cells (RIK)
E. Hydrogen economy (WLC)




CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, in cooperation with the CACHE (Computer Aides to Chemical
Engineering) Committee, is initiating the publication of proven computer-based homework problems as
a regular feature of this journal.
Problems submitted for publication should be documented according to the published "Standards for
CACHE Computer Programs" (September 1971). That document is available now through the CACHE
representative in your department or from the CACHE Computer Problems Editor. Because of space
limitations, problems should normally be limited to twelve pages total; either typed double-spaced or
actual computer listings. A problem exceeding this limit will be considered. For such a problem the article
will have to be extracted from the complete problem description. The procedure to distribute the total
documentation may involve distribution at the cost of reproduction by the author.
Before a problem is accepted for publication it will pass through the following review steps:
1) Selection from among all the contributions an interesting problem by the CACHE Computer Problem
Advisory Board
2) Documentation review (with revisions if necessary) to guarantee adherence to the "Standards for
CACHE Computer Programs"
3) Program testing by running it on a minimum of three different computer systems.
Problems should be submitted to:
Dr. Gary Powers
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Penn. 15213


Continued from page 163.

veloped under the project THEMIS research
grant at LSU. Formulas for all of these methods
have been programmed as a subroutine that com-
putes the parameters of the control algorithm
given the modes, the sampling interval and the
parameters of a first-order plus dead-time (trans-
portation lag or time delay) model of the process.
The students use this subroutine, also the sub-
ject of a former term project in this course, to
observe the responses produced by the different
formulas on systems simulated on the hybrid
The justification of digital control computers
is usually based on the ease and economy of im-
plementing control techniques more sophisticated
than simple feedback. The advanced techniques of
feedforward control, cascade control, elimination
of loop interaction through decoupling, on-line
identification for adaptive control of nonlinear
processes, and dead-time compensation are covered
from the point of view of digital versus analog
implementation. Term projects in these areas are
assigned to individual students. Although use of

S illiill
iI llt ][J l, r

A lint L,[ II,"

the hybrid computer is encouraged with views to
the development of demonstration problems, the
students do not always comply.
The optimization of steady-state process ope-
ration was the first type of computer control ap-
plications and is still one of the most popular.
20-CHEM. ENGINEERING 12281 Jerry
Although the subject of optimization is covered
in detail in another graduate course, an over-
view of the problem is presented from the point
of view of on-line application to processes.
The text used in this course is "Digital Com-
puter Process Control," published by Intext
(1972) and authored by Dr. Cecil L. Smith, Chair-
man of the Department of Computer Science at
LSU and originator of the course. In addition, a
collection of articles covering specific topics is
used as reference material.
In summary, this course offers fairly complete coverage
of the subject of digital computer control of chemical
processes, plus a working control of chemical processes,
plus a working experience through the use of hybrid
simulation of digital control loops. Since the subject matter
is in a state of rapid development, the course itself is in
a state of evolution. The students contribute to this
evolution through their term projects and through con-
structive criticism of the subject matter and methods of


"I- *Ii

Parsons is a Good Place to Work!

There is no limit to the opportunities offered
by Parsons-high salaries, good benefits, ad-
vancement, professional freedom-and a work
environment unequalled anywhere.
Parsons is expanding its operations. Our new
world headquarters will be completed in the
summer of 1974. This $20 million, 400,000
square-foot facility was designed specifically
for our business. It is located in a suburban
area near the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Cali-
fornia, close to some of the country's famous
universities in case you want to further your
academic career-with Parsons' tuition aid plan.

Parsons is one of the leaders in the engineer-
ing design and construction of petroleum re-
fineries, metallurgical plants and chemical
plants. We have prepared a booklet describing
the advantages of working for Parsons-for
your copy of "Parsons is a Good Place to Work,"
write to Personnel Manager,

The Ralph M. Parsons Company
617 West Seventh Street, fP
Los Angeles. Ca. 90017


FALL 1974

$ Review o4


University of California
Berkeley, Calif. 94720
Mass transfer has always been a central theme in
chemical engineering. We have developed a special com-
petence in the design of separation processes from batch
distillation to diffusion plants for enriching uranium-
235-and have had little competition from other branches
in this area. Perhaps chemical engineering would not have
been developed as it has if mechanical engineers had
studied physical chemistry.
The basic tools available to the engineer in the design
of a separation scheme are three: the laws of conserva-
tion of mass, energy, and the elements; data and theory
pertaining to phase equilibria; and knowledge of rates of
transport from one phase to another. The usual plan is to
accomplish a preferential enrichment of a desired species
in a second phase, followed by inexpensive mechanical
separation of the gases, liquids, or solids. It is my in-
tention to talk about the third tool of the design engineer
-knowledge of mass transfer between phases-with a
critical review of the research over the years which has
led to the present state of this art.
This is not only the twentieth anniversary of
the department at Houston but the fiftieth an-
niversary of the publication of "Principles of
Chemical Engineering" by Walker, Lewis, and
McAdams in 1923. That book was a milestone, for
it established chemical engineering as a separate
and unique branch of engineering, and stimulated
the proliferation of chemical engineering depart-
ments in many universities. Its focus on the
quantitative treatment of the unit operations was
challenging and exciting, and the "unit opera-
tions" concept served the profession well for some
twenty years.
The name "chemical engineering" had been
coined by Davis in England some fifty years
earlier, and there was at least one curriculum

labeled "chemical engineering" by 1888. The
early four-year curricula generally consisted of
two years of mechanical engineering and two
years of chemistry. By 1923 the new approach
had much to start with. Physical chemistry was
well developed; multiple effect evaporation and
rectification had been invented in Europe; and
the ideas of reflux and countercurrent staging
had been recognized and analyzed.
The concept of staged operations appears to
be unique to chemical engineering. Several years
ago a well-known mechanical engineer told me
that he had visited Oak Ridge and had been as-
tounded by the plant's capacity to produce
uranium 235. I told him that I had understood
the productive capacity to be an extremely well-
guarded secret, and asked how he had learned
what it was. He answered that it was simple
he had seen the sizes and estimated the r. p. m.
of the circulating gas compressors. I asked him
if he had ever heard of reflux. His reply was "No,
what is reflux?"
There were not many chemical engineers in
the twenties and early thirties, but much was ac-
complished in the development of the unit opera-
tions. McCabe and Thiele, working within a few
feet of each other at M. I. T., independently con-
ceived their graphical representation of Sorel's
algebraic analysis of binary rectification. The
now-familiar friction factor graph was imported
from England and publicized in this country by
chemical engineers. The simpler staged operations
were analyzed, and the McCabe-Thiele diagram
adapted for gas absorption, solvent extraction,
and leaching. The humidity chart had been in-
vented by Grosvenor in 1908 and was published

Professor Sherwood's paper is reproduced by permission of the copyright owner, and was taken from:
Proceedings of the 20th Anniversary Symposium on "Mass Transfer and Diffusion," of the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, University of Houston, held April 5-6, 1973. Other lectures presented at the Symposium were:
"Tomorrow's Challenges," by H. L. Toor; "Today's Problems and Some Approaches to Their Solution," by P. V.
Danckwerts; "Industry Problems in Mass Transfer and Diffusion," by J. R. Fair. In addition the lecturers partici-
pated in a panel discussion on "Developments-Past and Present." Copies of the Symposium are available at a
cost of $5.00 by writing to: Herbert Kent, Executive Officer, ChE Dept. of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004.


in Volume 1 of the Transactions of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, greatly simplify-
ing analyses of drying and air conditioning.

IN THIS PERIOD OF some twenty years prior
to World War II the emphasis was on the
collection and correlation of data intended to be
of direct use by the practicing design engineer.
Industry had few such data and published little,
so schools felt a responsibility to fill the need.
This urge to be immediately helpful to industry
has largely disappeared today; research in schools
is now along more scientific and theoretical
lines, hopefully of value to industry a generation
hence. Our rapport with industry has suffered.
Research on mass transfer between phases
was strong in the twenties and thirties, even as
it is today. Then, as now, the research was mostly
by academics. The film model had been invented
by Nernst in 1904, and by others around the turn
of the century. This was elaborated by Whitman
and Lewis [20, 37] through the concept of additivi-
ty of resistances of two phases in contact. Murph-
ree [221 defined a useful plate or stage efficiency,
which was shown to be related to rate coefficients.
The main variables affecting plate efficiency-
contactor design, fluid properties and the nature
of the phase equilibria-were elucidated in
numerous thesis investigations by graduate stu-
dents. But the most remarkable thing about this
period was the obsession with studies of packed
towers. Most of the experimental work was
carried out in 2- and 3-in. columns, much too
small to provide useful design data for the in-
dustrial process engineer. Data were obtained on
flooding, holdup, and pressure drop as well as
mass transfer rates, and correlations based on
dimensionless groups were developed, without
much reference to any valid theory. The profes-
sion seemed to have a one-track mind, and the
AIChE was referred to as "Packed Tower Insti-
tute." Important as packed towers were, and con-
tinue to be, it appeared that academic investi-
gators had lost their sense of perspective, neg-
lecting other problems of similar relevance and
Let me turn now to a review of the develop-
ments of the theory of mass transfer processes,
with a few critical comments as to which of
these seem now to be of importance, and which
do-not. Even in the twenties we were in moderate-

ly good shape as to how to deal with diffusion
within a single phase. Physical chemists had pro-
vided us with an understanding of diffusion in
gases, and by 1934 we had semi-empirical cor-
relations of diffusion coefficients in binary gas
systems. The classical kinetic theory has since
been developed to allow for interactions between
unlike molecules, and the modern kinetic theory
is adequate for most engineering purposes. There
still is no adequate theory of the liquid state,
however, and we must rely on inadequate em-
pirical correlations of diffusion coefficients in
liquids. Chemical engineers have been major con-
tributors to the development of the useful corre-
lations now available.

T HE MAIN THRUST of the theoretical studies
has been quite logically on mass transfer be-
tween phases, since the understanding of the
factors which determine the rate of transfer is
the basic objective.
If the flow past the interface is laminar,
analysis is often possible by combining the trans-
port relations with equations describing the flow
field. This has been done successfully for laminar
flow in tubes, rotating disks, falling liquid films
on inclined or vertical surfaces, over spheres, and
creeping flow around spheres. The theoretical
analyses for such cases are sometimes better than
the experimental data.

Perhaps ChE is emerging from an era of
empiricism .we have much concern with complex
physical phenomena, and we have not yet arrived
at the point where all can be left
to the computer.

In industrial practice, however, the flow past
the mass-transfer interface is usually turbulent,
and attempts at theoretical analysis have been
frustrated by the lack of an adequate under-
standing of turbulence-especially of turbulence
near a phase boundary. What progress has been
made is due as much to chemical engineers as to
specialists in fluid mechanics. The early approach
was to develop empirical correlations relating
dimensionless groups, such as the mass-transfer
Nusselt number, and the Reynold and Schmidt
numbers. This was hardly a theoretical approach
in any real sense, but has served a useful purpose
over a period of many years.

FALL 1974

One theoretical approach which has fascinated
so many workers is the development of the so-
called "analogies" between mass, momentum,
and heat transfer. If these could be successful,
they would provide a way to use the accumulated
body of knowledge regarding turbulent flow of
fluids for the prediction of mass and heat transfer
coefficients. The first of these was the Reynolds
analogy, which stated that the Stanton number
for heat transfer should be equal to one-half the
Fanning friction factor. This came close to
fitting experimental data on heat transfer in tubes
with gases in turbulent flow, but not for water or
oils. It made no allowance for the different mole-
cular properties of the fluids.
Attempts to clarify the situation focused on
transfer from a turbulent fluid to a solid surface,
as in the case of fully-developed turbulent flow
in a round tube. Consideration of transfer be-
tween two fluids, as from gas to liquid, or be-
tween two immiscible liquids, came later. It was
well established that in pipe flow there is no slip
at the wall, so it seemed logical that turbulent
mixing could play no part in the transport
mechanism as the distance from the wall ap-
proached the mathematical limit of zero. In this
limit the mass transfer flux should be propor-
tional to the flux power of the molecular diffu-
sion coefficient, D. The main turbulent stream is
so well mixed that solute is transported radially
at fluxes much greater than can possibly be ex-
plained by molecular diffusion. In the two limits
of the wall and the main flow the radial flux is
proportional to D' and D", respectively. It is not
surprising that most of our mass transfer corre-
lations show the mass transfer coefficient to be
proportional to D", where n is between zero and
The spectrum of motion from eddies to mole-
cules is suggested by this little verse-authorship
Big size whirls have little whirls
That feed on their velocity

And little whirls have lesser whirls
And so on to viscosity.
It seems logical to assume that molecular and
eddy diffusion take place in parallel, and that the
flux toward the wall can be expressed by a ver-
sion of Fick's law in which the "total diffusivity"
is the sum of the molecular diffusion coefficient,
D, and the eddy diffusion coefficient, E. The first
is a property of a binary mixture, but the eddy
coefficient E depends on the nature of the flow
and the distance from the wall.
By the late twenties the early "stagnant film"
model was realized to be a gross oversimplifica-
tion. Whitman, who is often mistakenly quoted
as having applied it rigorously, noted in 1922
that a sharp boundary was assumed between the
stagnant film and the turbulent core, but that
"actually no such sharp demarcation exists."
Whitman and Lewis did not advocate the film
model; their papers developed a way to add the
resistances of two fluid phases in contact.

INCE MASS TRANSFER at a phase boundary
depends on the varying eddy diffusivity it is
evident that any theory of the overall process will
necessarily require a theory of the variation of E
with the flow conditions and the distance from
the wall. The first attempt to allow for the large
variation of E with distance in the vicinity of the
wall was made in 1932 by a well-known chemical
engineer, the late E. V. Murphree [22]. Murphree
assumed the total diffusivity to vary as the cube
of the distance from the wall, y, up to some limit
y,, beyond which the parabolic velocity deficiency
law determined the nature of the flow in the bulk
or turbulent core. This semi-empirical approach
correlated data on heat transfer in pipes over a
limited range of Prandtl numbers, which the Rey-
nolds analogy had failed to do.
1939 saw the publication of Von Karman's
elegant analysis [34] of the possibilities of de-
veloping a unified theory of mass, heat, and mo-

Professor Sherwood joined the Berkeley faculty in 1970, after spending most of his professional life at M.I.T.
After five years with the O.S.R.D. during the war, he was Dean of Engineering at M.I.T. from 1948-1954. Many
of his publications have dealt with various aspects of mass transfer, and "Mass Transfer" is the title of a new
book now in press, written jointly with R. L. Pigford and C. R. Wilke. He is the recipient of the Walker, Found-
er's, and Lewis awards of the AIChE, the Murphree award of the A.C.S., and the Presidential Medal for
II I r ~ llar ~ lI '


mentum transport from a turbulent stream to a
solid wall; this had been a fascinating idea since
Reynolds' time. Eddies appear to transport mass,
heat, or momentum by similar if not identical
processes, so it seemed logical that E could be
equated, or related to, the eddy viscosity. The
similarity of the three processes is suggested by
comparing the Reynolds modification of the
Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in the

aOy + + Ua +zxa
S ux dU aux / ] 9g a
ay \y P uay]u + z J z -l u uz ] p ax
-aT -T aT I /a T PC
UX +UY +Uzz =pc-- Ldx -pcpxt
S ((2)
+ (k-pp t)+ (k pC
ay aT -- az aT --

aYA aA aA A
x + Uy + Uz aX Dx
^^^-^, -
+ -D -uyYA ) + ( A zY')
ay ayY A dz -auY

It is noted that the similarity is not comply
momentum is a vector but temperature and i
fractions are scalars. The first equation has
extra term involving pressure gradient. Furt
more, as Beddingfield and Drew [1] have she
the equation for mass transfer is valid as wri
only for low concentrations of the species b,
transferred if diffusion velocities are to be
lated to a plane of no net molal transport
order to gain the advantage that D in bir
gas systems is then independent of concentrate
A remarkable general correlation of velc
profiles for turbulent flow in pipes had I
developed by workers in fluid mechanics, f
which the eddy viscosity could be obtai
Velocity profiles for both gases and liquids
a wide range of Reynolds numbers were re
sented by a single curve of u' vs. yl, w]
u* is a dimensionless local velocity, and y+
dimensionless distance from the wall. The E
viscosity is obtained from the slope of this cu
Von Karman wrote simple equations for t]
segments of the u' y' function, and different
ed these to obtain the eddy viscosity as a f
tion of y He then assumed the eddy diffu
coefficient to be equal to the eddy viscosity,
integrated the heat flux equation from wal

bulk fluid. The result was an equation relating
the Stanton number for heat transfer to the fric-
tion factor and the Prandtl number, which agreed
quite well with data on heat transfer data for
gases and various liquids. The corresponding equa-
tion for mass transfer is easily obtained and has
the same form.
Von Karman's publication precipitated a
minor avalanche of variations of the analogy
idea, and these are still coming out (33, 35, 36).
Von Karman's analysis can be understood by
noting the basic equations employed, here written
for mass transfer:

d d(Op) 12r
Tg = -(Z+Ev) = f p 2 -
c Tg )dy 2 Av r
u+ = f (y+)

+ U + (ro-r) UAv
u v
UAv f_



(3) E rwz dy-' D
"w du

ete: A = kc (CAv -Cw) = -(D +E dc

I Av 2
St kc f

A, f(Sc)

The function of the Schmidt number stems from
the assumed relation between u' and y+; the
variation of St with the Reynolds number appears
in the friction factor.
Various simplifying assumptions are involved
in arriving at the last equation by the derivation
outlined. Most of these are reasonable, though it
is now known that Ej, and E, may differ sub-
stantially. In fact Von Karman's analysis, and
later modifications of it, represent heat transfer
data for turbulent flow in pipes quite well. Most
of the heat transfer data involved Prandtl
numbers in the range of about 0.5 to 35. The
theory failed, however for heat transfer to liquid
metals, which have very small Prandtl numbers.
Of more importance in chemical engineering, the
analysis failed seriously for high Schmidt num-
bers. In the liquid systems of interest to chemical
engineers the Schmidt numbers range from
several hundred to several thousand. Much re-

FALL 1974

search has been directed towards improving this
situation by modifying the analogy approach.
In liquid systems with high Schmidt numbers
the concentration boundary layer is exceedingly
thin, that is, almost all of the concentration drop
occurs within a few microns of the wall, generally
at y from zero to perhaps 2. There are essentially
no data on the velocity profiles in this region; it is
too close to the wall for measurements by Pitot
tubes. Furthermore, since in this region u' and
y' are very nearly equal, the precision in getting
E, by Eq. 6 is very poor. It appears now that it
may be some years before we have a quantative
understanding of this region very near the wall;
current research using optical techniques indi-
cates that the flow patterns there are quite com-
In this dilemma, numerous analysts have
simply assumed the needed function. Anyone can
develop a new "analogy" by doing this. It doesn't
matter whether one assumes a new u+ y+ re-
lation, or E, as a function of y-, or, more directly,
E,, as a function of y or y By trial and error one
can find a basic function which will lead to an
integrated final equation fitting the data over a
wide range of Prandtl and Schmidt numbers.

IT SEEMS TO ME that there have been more
"analogies" developed in this way than we
have any need for. Most involve too much of an
aspect of assuming the answer to be called
theoretical accomplishments. What we seem to
need is new and better techniques for studying
the wall region. Nedderman [231 and Fowles [291
have employed optical methods to record direc-
tion and speed of particles flowing very near the
wall. Interferometric and laser techniques may
work, and Kline's photographs [18] of dye streaks
and tiny bubbles are fascinating. Already the
idea of a laminar sublayer has been made obso-
lete-by observation, not by theory.
Now let me go back to 1934 and comment
on the remarkably simple and useful Chilton- Col-
burn analogy, which may be expressed in the

kc Sc2/3 h Pr2/3 f (9)
UAv Cpp UAv 2

I suspect that this was based on (a) the observa-
tion that the simple Reynolds analogy held for
heat transfer when Pr was near unity, (b) the
fact that Pr'' had been shown theoretically to

apply to transport through a laminar boundary
layer, (c) the apparent validity of the simple
empirical function 1.0 Pr'2/ to represent heat
transfer data over a limited range of Pr, and (d)
an intuitive guess that because of the similarity
of the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer k,.

SSt 3 87 xld3 at Sc 1.0
F dO-n Mez
i Fie. and Metner

1 0o-<

o Heat Transfer
AI Mass Transfer
SMcAdams Heat
Transfer to Gases

Re= 10,000

Chilton and Colburn

Von Karman

Wasan and Wilke
Io0 1000 10 000

s r X Pr -Cp,
FIG. 1 Plot of Sc vs Pr for Re 00.
FIG. I Plot of Sc vs Pr for Re=10,000.

should vary with Sc in the same way that h does
with Pr. In any case it has been found to agree
surprisingly well with a large amount of subse-
quent data. The first equality seems to be general
for turbulent flow; and second when there is only
"skin friction" with no form drag. It is interest-
ing that the proper choice of constants in
Murphree's analysis will make it agree with Chil-
ton and Colburn [5].
Let me summarize this review of the analogies
by showing how several of them compare with
data on heat and mass transfer for fully de-
veloped turbulent flow in a tube. Figure 1 is a
graph of St vs. Sc or Pr for Re=10,000, with
lines representing five of the better-known analo-
gies. The open circles represent data on heat
transfer to gases, water, oils, molten salt, organic
liquids, and aqueous solutions of sugars. These
were collected from the extensive literature by
Friend and Metzner [11I. The solid points at large
Sc represent the excellent data of Myerink and
Friedlander [21] and of Harriott and Hamilton
1141 on the dissolution of tubes of slightly soluble
solid organic acids. The solid points at 0.6 are Gilliland's data 112] for vaporization of
liquids into air in a wetted-wall column. McAdam's
correlation for heat transfer to gasses is shown
as line A-A.
At Sc=l, all of the lines shown pass near
St = /.f 3.87 x 10:, which the Reynolds analogy
requires. Friend and Metzner's line passes
through the data points, as is perhaps to be ex-

In o0


pected, since their analogy is based on the data
points represented by the open circles. The
recent analogy developed by Notter and Sleicher
1241, based on carefully selected heat transfer
data, agrees closely with Friend and Metzner.
The Von Karman line, based on the general cor-
relation of velocity profiles, does poorly. This is
because Von Karman took the eddy diffusivity to
be zero from the wall to y- = 5; it is now clear
that a very small amount of eddy diffusion at low
values of y' can be quite important at large Sc.
The most remarkable thing about this comparison
is the fact that the Chilton-Colburn analogy does
as well as it does; their equation was proposed at
a time when there were no data on heat transfer
above a Pr of about 20, and no data on mass
transfer at Sc greater than 2.6. It is also notable
that this graph represents an enormous range
of flow conditions and of physical properties of
the fluids.
I have discussed these analogies at some
length because they constitute a major effort to
develop a theory of mass transfer between phases
in the important turbulent regime. There are
also the "models," of which the first was the
"stagnant film" model. It implies that the trans-
port rate should be proportional to the first power
of the molecular diffusion coefficient, which is
not true, but it can still be successfully employed
for a variety of purposes. It gives reliable pre-
dictions of the ratio of the mass transfer flux
with simultaneous chemical reaction to that at-
tained without chemical reaction under similar
conditions. It does equally well in predicting the
effect of convective fluxes in the direction of
diffusion on the rates of mass or heat transfer.

NUMEROUS MODELS OF the conditions at a
phase boundary have been proposed to pro-
vide a basis for a theory of interphase mass
transfer. The three best known are the stagnant
film model, the penetration theory, and the turbu-
lent boundary layer model. The allowance for the
variation of eddy diffusivity with distance from
the wall, as in the analogies, is the basis of the
turbulent boundary layer model.
The penetration model pictures small fluid ele-
ments contacting the phase boundary for brief
periods during which transient diffusion occurs,
and then being replaced by fresh fluid from the
bulk. This was suggested by Higbie in 1935 [161

as applicable to bubbles moving in a liquid, and
to gas-liquid contacting in packed towers, where
freshly mixed liquid is supplied to successive
packing elements. It lead to the conclusion that
the transport flux should be proportional to the
square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient.
This has been found to be approximately true in
a wide variety of flow systems, including the ab-
sorption, of sparingly soluble gases in packed
An important extension of the penetration
theory was proposed by Professor Danckwerts in
1951 [71. Whereas Higbie had taken the exposure
time to be the same for. all of the repeated con-
tacts of the fluid with the interface, Danck-
werts employed a wide spectrum of contact
times and averaged the varying degrees of pene-
tration. Like the Higbie model, this concept leads
to the conclusion that the transport flux should
be proportional to the square root of D. It is not
generally believed that fluid eddies reach a fixed
interface, such as the wall of a tube, but there is
increasing evidence that this may be so. The
model makes particularly good sense when applied
to conditions at the interface between a gas and
a stirred liquid. Watching the surface of a swift
but deep river, or of a well-stirred liquid in a
laboratory vessel, it is not hard to discern fluid
elements which come up from below and then
appear to move back down after brief periods
of contact with the air at the surface.
As applied in the simplest cases, these four
models lead to the following equations for the
mass transfer coefficient k,.:

Fil y

Percil oyik


( 11)


kc = 2 '-t
C V77T

Surface-Renewal: kc = D

Turbulent Boundary Layer:

U Av
kc 2 fs
f+A f(Sc)


The first three, to be useful, require knowledge
of the effective film thickness, y,,, the contact

FALL 1974

time, t, or the fractional rate of surface renewal,
s. The last requires that f, (Sc) be specified, which
could be done if the variation of eddy diffusivity
through the boundary layer were known. Little
is known about y,,, t, s, or f, (Sc), so as theories
all four models are incomplete.
It is interesting that the models described per-
haps owe their origin to Osborne Reynolds [27]
who wrote in 1874 that the heat flux to a wall "is
proportional to the internal diffusion of the fluid
at and near the surface," and states that the heat
flux depends on two things: "1. the natural in-
ternal diffusion of the fluid when at rest, and 2.
the eddies caused by the visible motion which
mixes the fluid up and continually brings fresh
particles into contact with the surface. The first
of these causes is independent of the velocity of
the fluid. The second cause, the effect of the
eddies, arises entirely from the motion of the
fluid. ."
T IS NOT POSSIBLE for me to cover much of
the development of the various theories used
in practice by chemical engineers, even in the re-
stricted area of mass transfer, but let me com-
ment on two other important theoretical develop-
ments. The first is mass transfer with simul-
taneous chemical reaction, the subject of
numerous papers in our journals. This started in
1929 by Hatta [15], who employed the film model
to develop a theory of gas absorption followed
by reaction in the liquid, as in the absorption of
CO, by alkaline solutions. Following Hatta there
has been a proliferation of theoretical analyses of
all kinds of cases thought to be of practical im-
portance, and useful generalizations, notably by
Hoftyzer and Van Krevelen [17] and by Brian
[3, 41. Hatta's use of the film model was suspect,
but Danckwerts and Kennedy [8] have shown
that the penetration model gives essentially the
same results in many instances.
These theories do not predict rates of mass
transfer, but generally lead to equations express-
ing the enhancement of the rate by the simul-
taneous reaction, that is, the ratio of the rate
with chemical reaction to that for physical ab-
sorption. Professor Danckwerts' recent book 191
summarizes the whole subject, with special
reference to the absorption of acid gases by alka-
line solutions, so important in the manufacture of
hydrogen and of synthetic natural gas.
It might seem that some of the cases analyzed

will never find practical application, but one can-
not predict. When I recently had occasion to
analyze the process of SO. absorption by a sus-
pension of limestone particles in a stack gas
scrubber I was surprised and pleased to find this

It is not generally believed that fluid
eddies reach a fixed interface, such
as the wall of a tube, but there is
increasing evidence that this may be so.

case analyzed in a published paper (26). How-
ever, it may be that we are running into the law
of diminishing returns in pursuing these analyses,
and that more experimental studies are in
order. There is nothing like a surprising new fact
to stimulate the development of better concepts
and theories.
Another area in which we have made great
progress is that of diffusion and reaction in
porous catalysts. This subject is of great practical
importance because of the enormous success of
catalytic processes in the chemical and petroleum
industries. The pioneering papers of the U. S.
chemical engineer Thiele [32], and the Russian
Zeldowitsch [38] in 1939, started a flurry of ex-
perimental and theoretical studies. We have now
learned a lot about bulk and Knudsen diffusion in
pores of simple geometry, and are beginning to
tackle the much more difficult problem of sur-
face diffusion. All kinds of cases have been
analyzed, assuming both power-law and Lang-
muir-Hinshelwood kinetics, heat effects, and
various geometrics of the catalyst particle. The
decrease in the effectiveness factor with increase
in particle size is understood at least qualitative-
ly, although I find highly successful catalyst re-
search people in industry who use the theory
so little that they think a low effectiveness factor
indicates a relatively inactive catalyst.
Apart from the present mystery regarding
surface diffusion, the stumbling blocks to better
development of the theory would appear to be
inadequate understanding of the mechanism of
surface catalysis, and the difficulty of describing
the complex structure of a porous solid by one or
two numbers.
Many industrial processes involve the absorp-
tion of reacting gases by a liquid containing sus-
pended particles of a catalyst. This operation was
described quantitatively in 1932 by three chemists
[6], who showed the merit of plotting the recipro-


cal of the rate vs. the reciprocal of the catalyst
loading in the slurry. The intercept, correspond-
ing to infinite catalyst loading, is a measure of
the mass transfer resistance to the absorption of
the gas. The situation has been generally under-
stood by chemical engineers for 40 years, but
there are still some chemists who attempt to
analyze such processes by power-law or other
kinetics when the controlling factor is actually
the rate of gas absorption.

FINALLY, LET ME COMMENT briefly on the
phenomenon of interfacial turbulence, or the
Marangoni effect. Spontaneous emulsification of
two liquids has been known for many years, but
the important role of interfacial turbulence on
mass transfer at an interface was brought
forcibly to the attention of chemical engineers
by Lewis and Pratt in 1953 [19], and by Jim Wei
[28] in the course of his doctorate research in
1957. As mass transfer takes place, the solute
concentration, and consequently, the interfacial
tension vary from spot to spot over the surface.
This causes spreading and contraction of the sur-
face elements, which "is so rapid that the mo-
mentum of the spreading liquid is sufficient to
break the center of the point source and expose
subjacent liquid drawn from below the surface
(10)." The result is surface renewal, usually with
development of ripples, and an increase in the rate
of mass transfer. The effect depends on the direc-
tion of the mass transfer flux, and the phenome-
non obviously introduces new and difficult prob-
lems in attempts at theoretical analyses of mass
transfer between two fluid phases.
Research directed to an understanding of the
role of interfacial turbulence on mass transfer
has proliferated in the last twenty years. This is
proper, since the effect can be quite large, and re-
quires major adjustment of the simple two-film
picture. Excellent pictures of the phenomenon
have been published by Dr. H. Sawistowski of Im-
perial College, London, and by others. The first
important theoretical attacks appear to be those
of Pearson [25] and of Sternling and Scriven [30];
Brian's recent introduction of the Gibbs layer ad-
sorption extends the theory and is evidently a
major contribution [21. But the theory of this
phenomenon, of real practical importance, is still
in its infancy. Its development to the point of
practical application in design presents a
challenge to chemical engineers inclined towards

theoretical studies. Do not tackle it without a
thorough background in physical and colloid
Chemical engineers can be proud of the de-
velopment of the profession since Walker, Lewis,
and McAdams in 1923. The chemical and petro-
leum industries have prospered, with the help of
U.S.-trained chemical engineers. Plants have been
built and operated successfully, usually at a profit.
But our contributions to the theory of mass
transfer between phases have not been remark-
able, at least within the definition of a theory as
being valid for quantitative a priori predictions
useful in design. A major difficulty is that we
desire theories applicable in turbulent flow, and
not much basically new has been learned about
turbulence in the last 40 years.
However, chemical engineers have developed
a unique skill in using the form of a theory. A
modest theory is better than no theory at all.
Even the simple equation q = UAAt for heat
transfer enables us to eliminate two variables and
concentrate our attention on the manner in which
the heat transfer coefficient varies with the
geometry and the fluid flow. There are many
examples of this. The Van Laar equations for
binary vapor-liquid equilibria were rejected by
scientists because the theory did not work in the
prediction of the constants. But chemical engi-
neers found the form of the theory to be remark-
ably good--two data points are enough to provide

It may be that we are running into the
law of diminishing returns .and that more
experimental studies are in order. There is
nothing like a surprising new fact to stimulate
the development of better concepts and theories.

the Van Laar constants, and make it possible to
predict complete y-x diagrams for complex
binaries, including azeotropes.
Similarly, the models of the mechanism of
mass transfer between phases provide the form
if not the substance of a theory, and make it
possible to develop correlations of experimental
data on a rational and useful basis.
It is too much to expect that in fifty years we
would have developed a fundamental and quan-
titative theory which would enable us to predict
rates of mass transfer in turbulent flow. That
is a goal for the future, probably requiring more

FALL 1974

progress in understanding turbulence. Such a
theory would be a feat comparable to the develop-
ment of the kinetic theory of gases, and these are
not frequent.


T HERE HAVE, OF COURSE, been a number
of theoretical accomplishments about which
chemical engineers can be proud. The wet-bulb
thermometer is a fascinating example. This de-
vice was not understood until about 100 years
ago, when Maxwell, using what amounted to our
film theory, explained the dynamic equilibrium
established when the rate of heat transfer from
air to wet wick just equalled the latent heat of
vaporization of the water evaporating at the wet-
bulb temperature. About 1910 it was noticed by
Willis Carrier that the wet-bulb temperature
coincided with the calculated temperature of
adiabatic saturation. Why should this be? It was
some years later that W. K. Lewis and J. H.
Arnold explained this. The ratio of the heat trans-
fer coefficient, air to wet-bulb, to the mass trans-
fer coefficient determining vaporization, depends
on the molecular properties of air and water, and
these just happen to have values such that the
equations for the wet-bulb depression and for
adiabatic saturation become quantitatively identi-
cal. Carrier's observations for water wet-bulbs
were explained, but were shown to be based on a
remarkable natural coincidence, and not general
for other gases and liquids.
These studies established the ratio of heat
and mass transfer coefficients for air and water
vapor. This led to Merkel's ingenious analysis of
cooling tower operation and the engineering de-
sign method used today. It is remarkable that a
theoretical analysis of the wet-bulb thermometer
provided the basis for a simple and practical de-
sign procedure for cooling towers. Merkels'
method also applies in the design of dehumidifiers.
I am sure that G. I. Taylor does not think of
himself as a chemical engineer, but we need people
like him in chemical engineering. In 1954 he de-
veloped a theory of longitudinal dispersion in
open pipes, based on a generalized correlation of
velocity profiles in turbulent flow [31]. Figure 2
indicates how well the theory works. The points
and dotted curve show the dispersion of a radio-
active tracer pulse after flowing 43 miles in an
oil pipe-line in hilly country [13]. The solid curve
is predicted by the Taylor theory. The agreement
seems only fair, but is really quite remarkable in

view of the fact that the tracer took 85,000
seconds to travel the 43 miles to the test station.
The predicted dispersion coefficient was 594 cm'
sec.; the value required to fit the data is about
twice that. The Taylor theory did not allow for
pumps and elbows in the line.


400 200 0 200 400
Time (sec)
FIG. 2. Comparison between theory and experiment.

years, but we have much yet to do. It would
seem that new complications, such as interfacial
turbulence, are appearing more frequently than
theory advances. In my judgment the major goal
is a basic theory of the mechanism of mass
transfer between phases in turbulent flow. To at-
tain this we shall need a better understanding of
flow conditions at a phase boundary. I believe
chemical engineers are as likely to provide this
as specialists in fluid mechanics, but it seems that
it may be some years before we have it.
Of perhaps equal importance is a theory of
mass transfer with simultaneous chemical re-
action at a catalyst surface. The mass transfer
elements of such theory are in fair shape, but
surface catalysis is still an empirical art. Realiz-
ing this, chemical engineers are joining chemists
in a growing program of research on catalysis.
Many chemical engineering departments now
have strong programs of basic research on
catalysis. Perhaps the reason for this trend is the
realization that the chemical reactor is the heart
of the industrial chemical process, and that the
unit operations are often peripheral.
Perhaps chemical engineering is emerging from an
era of empiricism. Electrical engineers need only the


Pipe Line: L = 43 miles; d = 10 in.;
Re = 24,000

Taylor Theory

Tracer Pulse Test

physical properties of their components; from there on de-
sign is a job for the computer. We have much more con-
cern with complex physical phenomena, and we have not
yet arrived at the point where all can be left to the com-
puter. In a way I hope we never will, for chemical en-
gineering is so much more fun when we don't know very
Pending the ultimate development of theory, we con-
tinue to do well. Very large plants are designed, on the
basis of empiricism or half-formed theory, and operate.
There are no more failures than encountered by bridge
designers, who have a complete theory of stresses in a
structure. Some of our industrial processes even make
money, and provide our profession not only with a liveli-
hood but satisfying careers for chemical engineers. E


C = concentration, g moles/cm:
C, = heat capacity, g cal/(g mole) (K)
I) = molecular diffusion coefficient, cm"/sec.
E = eddy diffusion coefficient, cm" sec.
E, = eddy diffusion coefficient for mass transfer,
E,. = eddy viscosity, cm-'/sec.
f = Fanning friction factor
= conversion factor (=32.2 in English system of
J. = molal diffusion flux of A in absence of super-
posed convection, g moles/(sec) (cm2).
k = thermal conductivity, g cal/(sec) (cm2')
( K/cm)
k. = mass transfer coefficient, cm sec.
P = pressure, g/cm"
IPr = Prandtl number, = Cp /k
r = radial distance from axis of tube, cm.
r, = tube radius, cm.
s = fractional rate of surface renewal, sec-'.
Sc = Schmidt number, = p/pD = p/D
St = Stanton number = k,./U,,
t = fluctuating temperature, -K
T = time-mean temperature, K
u = fluctuating velocity, cm/sec.
u, = dimensionless velocity, defined by Equation 5
U = time-mean average velocity, cmisec.
= time-mean velocity at a point, in x-direction,
cm, sec.
x, y, x = coordinates, cm.
y = distance in direction of diffusion, cm.
y, = film thickness, cm.
y+ = dimensionless distance from wall, defined by
Equation 5
Y.\ = time-mean mole fraction
Y' = fluctuating mole fraction
= viscosity, g/(sec) (cm).
v, = kinematic viscosity, = p p, cm-'/sec.
p = density, g'/cm:.


1. Beddingfield, C. H. and T. B. Drew, Ind. Eng. Chem,
42 1164 (1950).
2. Brian, P. L. T., et 0l., A.I.Ch.E. J., 17 765 (1971) ; 18
231, 582 (1972).

:. Brian, P. L. T., J. F. Hurley, and E. H. Hasseltine.
A.I.Ch.E. J., 7 22(6 (1961).
4. Brian, P. I.. T., A.I.Ch.E. J., 10 5 (19(;4).
5. Chilton, T. H. and A. P. Colburn, Ind. Eng. Chem.,
26 1183 (1934).
6. Iavis, H. S., G. Thompson, and G. S. Crandall,
J. A. C. S., 5., 2340 (1932).
7. Danckwerts, P. V., Ind. Eng. Chem., 43 1460 (1951).
8. Danckwerts, P. V. and A. M. Kennedy, Trans. Inst.
Chem. Eng. (London) 32, Suppl. S 49 (1954).
9. I)anckwerts, P. V., "Gas-Liquid Reactions," McGraw-
Hill Book Co., New York, 1970.
10. Ellis, S. R. M. and M. Biddulf, Chem. Eng. Sci., 21
1107 (1966).
11. Friend, W. L. and A. B. Metzner, A.I.Ch.E. J., 4
393 (1958).
12. Gilliland, E. R. and T. K. Sherwood, Ind. Eng. Chem.,
26 516 (1934).
13. Hull, 1). E. and J. W. Kent, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44,
2745 (1952).
14. Harriott, P. and R. M. Hamilton, Chem. Eng. Sci., o0
1073 (1965).
15. Hatta, S.. Tech. Rept. Tohoku Imp. Univ., S 1 (1928-
16. Higbie, R., Trans. AIChE, 31 365 (1935).
17. Hoftyzer, P. J. and D. W. Van Krevelen, Trans. Inst.
Chem. Eng. (London), 32 Suppl., 560 (1954).
18. Kline, S. J., and P. W. Runstadler, ASME Paper 58-
A-64 (1964).
19. Lewis, J. B. and H. C. R. Pratt 171 1155 (1953).
20. Lewis, W. K. and W. G. Whitman, Ind. Eng. Chem.,
t1 1215 (1924).
21. Meyerink, E. S. C. and S. K. Friedlander, Chem. Eng.
Sci., 17 121 (19(;2).
22. Murphree, E. V., Ind. Eng. Chem., 24 726 (1932).
2:. Nedderman, R. M., Chem. Eng. Sci., 16 120 (1961).
24. Notter, R. H. and C. A. Sleicher, Chem. Eng. Sci. 26
161 (1971).
25. Pearson, J. K. A., J. Fluid Mech., 4 489 (1958).
26. Ramachandran, P. A. and M. M. Sharma, 24 1681
27. Reynolds, 0., Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc., 14 7
(1874) ; reprinted in "Papers on Mechanical and
Physical Subjects," Vol. 1, p. 81, Cambridge Univ.
Press (1900).
38. Zeldowitsch, J. B., Acta Physicochim, U.S.R.S. 10
1030 (1957).
29. Sherwood, T. K., K. A. Smith, and PI. E. Fowles,
Chem. Eng. Sci., 2.? 1225 (1968).
:0. Sternling, C. V. and L. E. Scriven, A.I.Ch.E. J., 5
514 (1959).
31. Taylot, G. I., "Scientific Papers," G. K. Batchelor,
ed. Vol. II, p. 466. Camhridge Univ. Press, 1960.
32. Thiele, E. W., Ind. Eng. Chem., 31 916 (1939).
33. Vieth, W. R., J. H. Porter, and T. K. Sherwood, Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fund., 2 1 (1963).
:4. Von Karman, Th., Trans, ASME 61 705 (1939).
:5. Wasan, 1). T., C. L. Tien, and C. R. Wilke, A.I.Ch.E.
J., 9 568 (196(;3).
36. Wasan, D. T. and C. R. Wilke, Int. J. Heat and Mass
Transfer, 7 87 (1964).
37. Whitman, W. G., Chem. and Met. Eng., 29 146 (1932).
38. Zeldowitsch, J. B., Acta Physicochim, U.R.S.S. 10
583 (1939).

FALL 1974



Standard Oil Company of California
An equal opportunity employer

Put your education and Ideas to work on the world-
wide problem of providing more energy. Challenging
career opportunities available. Excellent salary.
Liberal benefits. Advancement. All the responsibilities
you can handle. Apply:
J.D.Strickler-Professional Employment
225 Bush Street
San Francisco, CA. 94104

PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere in which the
student finds himself and the strong emphasis on basic
chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in his
program of study. In this way a student can properly pre-
pare himself for a productive career of research, develop-
ment, or teaching in a rapidly changing and expanding
technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special terminal M.S. option, involving either research
or an integrated design project, is a newly added feature
to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. de-
gree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to
the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further

advanced study.
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor J. H. Seinfeld
Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91109
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1975.


WILLIAM H. CORCORAN, Professor and Vice-
President for Institute Relations
Ph.D. (1948), California Institute of Technology
Kinetics and catalysis; plasma chemistry; bio-
medical engineering; air and water quality.
Ph.D. (1954), University of Illinois
Aerosol chemistry and physics; air pollution;
biomedical engineering; interfacial transfer; dif-
fusion and membrane transport.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
Vice-Provost, and Dean of Graduate Studies
Ph.D. (1955), California Institute of Technology
Liquid state physics and chemistry; statistical

JOHN H. SEINFELD, Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Control and estimation theory; air pollution.
FRED H. SHAIR, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental problems.

Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
ROBERT W. VAUGHAN, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Illinois
Solid state and surface chemistry.

W. HENRY WEINBERG, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.


The chemical engineering department at the University of Arizona is young and
dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and MS and Ph.D.
Graduate Programs. Financial support is available through government grants and
contracts, teaching and research assistantships, traineeships, and industrial grants.
The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engi-


WILLIAM P. COSART, Asst. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,

JOST O.L. WENDT, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics Interfacial Phenomena

RICHARD D. WILLIAMS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., Princeton University, 1972
Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Engineering, Energy and
Environmental Problems, Kinetics of Heterogenous Re-
action-Applications to the Minerals Industry.

DON H. WHITE, Professor and Head
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JAMES WM. WHITE, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1968
Real-Time Computing, Process Instrumentation and Con-
trol, Model Building and Simulation

Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a grow-
ing, modern city of 400,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere.

For further information,
write to:

Dr. J. W. White, Chairman
Graduate StudY Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
TH.cson, Arizona 85721 L



Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid
Ph.D. Candidates: up to $5,000/year.
M.Sc. and M.Eng. Candidates: up to $4,000/year.
Commonwealth Scholarships, Industrial Fellowships
and limited travel funds are available.
Tuition: $535/year.
Married students housing rent: $140/month.
Room and board, University Housing: $115/month.
Ph.D. Degree
Qualifying examination, minimum of 13 half-year
courses, thesis.
M.Sc. Degree
5-8 half-year courses, thesis.
M.Eng. Degree
10 half-year courses, 4-6 week project.
Department Size
12 Professors, 3 Post-doctoral Fellows,
30-40 Graduate Students.
Return postcard or write to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E6

Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Hetero-
geneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michigan): Process
Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applica-
tions, Process Design.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria,
Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pol-
lution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Ap-
plied Mathematics.
F. D. Otto, Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer, Computer
Design of Separation Processes, Environmental Engi-
D. Quon, (Associate Dean), Sc.D. (M.I.T.): Applied Math-
ematics, Optimization, Statistical Decision Theory.

D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volu-
metric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermo-
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy
Economics and Supply.
D. E. Seborg, Ph.D. (Princeton): Process Control, Ad-
aptive Control, Estimation Theory.
F. A. Seyer, Ph.D. (Delaware): Turbulent Flow, Rheo-
logy of Complex Fluids.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kine-
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics
and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns.

Department Facilities
Located in new 8-story Engineering Centre.
Excellent complement of computing and analytical
-IBM 1800 (real-time) computer
-EAI 590 hybrid computer
-AD 32 analog computer
-IBM 360/67 terminal
-Weissenberg Rheogoniometer
-Infrared spectrophotometer
-Research and industrial gas chromatographs

The University of Alberta
One of Canada's largest universities and engineering
Enrollment of 18,000 students.
Co-educational, government-supported,
Five minutes from city centre, overlooking scenic river

Fast growing, modern city; population of 440,000.
Resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra,
professional sports.
Major chemical and petroleum processing centre.
Within easy driving distance of the Rocky Mountains
and Jasper National Park.

FALL 1974



~r r~;

..r-- .,-_in _
II 1. .il
... ..I'
k' *Ii?'l: :1~.'
~i~:'~i~~'*~sT".,*E~;"?E:r -.:;U












Alexis T. Bell
Lee F. Donaghey
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
C. Judson King (Chairman)
Scott Lynn
David N. Lyon
Robert P. Merrill
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
Robert L. Pigford
John M. Prausnitz
Mitchel Shen
Thomas K. Sherwood
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermeulen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
Berkeley, California 94720


Write- Graduate Chemical Engineering
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15213

FALL 1974


Newark, Delaware 19711

The University of Delaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and
practice in the art and science of chemical engineering:
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.

A Ph.D. degree.

The regular faculty are:

Gianni Astarita (1/2 time)
C. E. Birchenall
H. W. Blanch
M. M. Denn
B. C. Gates
J. R. Katzer
R. L. McCullough
A. B. Metzner

The adjunct and research f
dustrial practice are:

L. A. DeFrate --
W. H. Manogue _
E. L. Mongan, Jr.
F. E. Rush, Jr.
R. J. Samuels
A. B. Stiles -
K. F. Wissbrun

J. H. Olson
C. A. Petty
T. W. F. Russell
S. I. Sandier
G. C. A. Schuit ('/2 time)
J. M. Schultz
James Wei

faculty who provide extensive association with in-

-Heat, mass and momentum transfer
--- Catalysis, reaction engineering
-Design and process evaluation
--Mass transfer-distillation, absorption, extraction
-Polymer science
-Polymer engineering

For information and admissions materials contact:
A. B. Metzner, Chairman




M.S. & Ph.D. Programs
Including Intensive Study in

Energy supply and demand
Fuel combustion processes
Coal liquefaction and gasification processes
Rates and equilibria of atmospheric reactions
Process and system control, and gas cleaning
Diffusion, and modelling of urban atmospheres

Advanced waste treatment and water reclamation
Design of physical and chemical processes
Biochemical reactor design

Excellent financial support is available
in the form of Environmental Protection Agency
Traineeships, fellowships & assistantships.

Electroichemical engineering React r design
Process control Transpirit
WRITE TO: R B, Chjrnman
Dept. oI Chemical Engineering





On the southern brow of the Hill Campus, Clarkson's massive new Science Center now stands complete, its laboratories, classrooms, and corridors
teeming with student activity. The $5.5-million structure is the first educational building to be constructed "on the hill."


R. J. NUNGE-Prof. and Chmn. (Ph.D., 1965, Syracuse University)
Transport phenomena, multistream forced convection transport proc-
esses, structure of pulsating turbulent flow, flow through porous
media, atmospheric transport processes, transient dispersion.
D. T. CHIN-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1969, University of Pennsylvania)
Electrochemical engineering, transport phenomena, mass transfer at
R. COLE-Assoc. Prof. and Exec. Officer. (Ph.D., 1966, Clarkson College
of Technology) Boiling heat transfer, bubble dynamics, boiling nuclea-
D. O. COONEY-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1966, University of Wisconsin)
Mass transfer in fixed beds, biomedical engineering.
E. J. WOVIS-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington) Heat trans-
Fer and fluid mechanics associated with two-phase flow, convective dif-
fusion, aerosol physics, transport phenomena, Mathematical modeling.
J. ESTRIN-Prof. (Ph.D., 1960, Columbia University) Nucleation phenom-
ena, crystallization.
E. W. GRAHAM-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of California,
Berkeley) Chemical reaction kinetics and related theoretical problems,
catalysis, fuel cells, air pollution.
J. L. KATZ-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1963, University of Chicago) Homo-
geneous nucleation of vapors, homogeneous boiling, heterogeneous
nucleation, aerosols, nucleation of voids in metals, thermal conduc-
tivity of gases.

R. A. SHAW-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1967, Cornell University) Nuclear en-
gineering, reverse osmosis, radioactive tracers, environmental effects
of power generation.
H. L. SHULMAN-Prof., Dean of Eng. and Vice Pres. of the College.
(Ph.D., 1950, University of Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, packed col-
umns, adsorption of gases, absorption.
R. S. SUBRAMANIAN-Asst. Prof. (Ph.D., 1972, Clarkson College of
Technology) Heat and mass transfer problems, unsteady convective
diffusion-miscible dispersion, chromatographic and other interphase
transport systems, fluid mechanics.
T. J. WARD-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1959, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)
Process control, nuclear engineering, ceramic materials.
G. R. YOUNGQUIST-Assoc. Prof. (Ph.D., 1962, University of Illinois)
Adsorption, crystallization, diffusion and flow in porous media.

For information concerning Assistantships and
Fellowships contact the Graduate School Office,
Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New
York 13676


university offlorida

offers you

Phenomena &
Drag-reducing polymers
greatly modify the
familiar bathtub vortex,
as studied here
by dye injection.


Thermodynamics &
Statistical Mechanics
Illustrating hydrogen-bonding forces
between water molecules.

and muclL more...

A young, dynamic faculty
Wide course and program selection
Excellent facilities
Year-round sports

I lTh

& Control
Part of a
computerized distillation
control system.

Biomedical Engineering &
Interfacial Phenomena
Oxygen being extracted from a
substance similar to blood plasma.

Write to:
Dr. John C. Biery, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering Room 227
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611








Financial Aid


Head, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004

The Real World

of Chemical

The University of Houston is located in the midst of the
largest complex of chemical and petrochemical activity in
the world. This environment provides unequalled oppor-
tunities for graduate students in .... THE REAL WORLD
Houston is the national center for manufacturing, sales, research and
design in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. Most of the major
oil and petrochemical companies have plants and research installations
in the Houston area. The headquarters of many of these organizations
are here.

The world famous Texas Medical Center is located in Houston.

The NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is located in the Houston area.

There is continuous interaction through seminars, courses and
research between the faculty and graduate students of this depart-
ment and the engineers and scientists of this large technical community.
The research of 14 faculty members encompass a wide range of
subjects in chemical engineering. Faculty members are active in the
interdisciplinary areas of biomedical, environmental urban and
systems engineering.
The department is one of the fastest growing in the nation. The
current enrollment includes 50 seniors and 45 full-time graduate
students; a 200% increase in the enrollment over the past 5 years.
Research grants and contracts currently in progress exceed 1.2
million dollars.
Over S900,000 of modern research equipment is located in 50,000
square feet of research and office space.

Fellowship stipends are available to qualified applicants.

The temperate Gulf Coast area with its year-round outdoor weather
offers unlimited recreational opportunities. An equal number of
cultural opportunities exist in the sixth largest and fastest-growing
city in the country. Houston has an outstanding symphony orchestra
several theatre companies, fine museums, and a stimulating intellect-
ual community.


The Department of Energy Engineering


Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of



Faculty and Research ,ctitities in
lDaid S. Hacker
Ph.D., Nnrthwestern University, 1954
Associate Professor
James I'. Hartnett
Ph.D.. University of ('lifornia at Berkeley. 1951
Professor and Head of the Department
Larry M. Joseph
Ph.D.. UIniverritn of Michigan. 1971
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.lI.. Cornell Uiniversit). 1961
(. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D.. University of Oklahoma, 1969
Associate Profe,-sor
Irsing F. Miller
Ph.D.. I'niter-ity of Michigan. 1960
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D.. Calcutta Llniversity, 1956
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Insi;tule of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor

chemicall kinetics; combustion, mass
t' ansport phenomena; chemical process design,
particulate transport phenomena
Forced convection, mass transfer cooling,
non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and heat transfer

Process dynamics and control, simulation
and process analysis

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer
processes, molecular lasers

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of
fluids, solids, and solutions; kinetics of liquid
reactions, cryohioengineering
Chemical engineering, bioengineering, membrane
transport processes, mathematical modeling

Transport properties of fluids and solids,
heat and mass transfer, isotope separation,
fixed and fluidized bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, optimiza-
tion, environmental and pollution problems

The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:

Professor Harold A. Simon. Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Energy Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle
Box 4348, Chicago. Illinois 60680





First Land Grant school (1862). Largest College of Engineering west of the
Mississippi River and fifth largest in the U.S. Ranks ninth in Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering. Current enrollment of 250 undergraduates and
50 grad students in Chemical Engineering.

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Five year integrated program for M.E.

Graduate faculty of 13 in Chemical Engineering having a variety of back-
grounds and interests.

New, fully equipped Chemical Engineering building with 50,000 square
feet of laboratory, office, and classroom space. Adjacent to computer
center and to library. Excellent technical support from Engineering Research
Institute and technical service groups. Affiliation with the Ames Laboratory,
the only National Laboratory of the U.S. AEC located on a university campus.


International reputation in the following areas:

Biochemical Engineering (Tsao)
Biomedical Engineering (Seagrave)
Coal Research (Wheelock)
Crystallization (Larson)




Fluidization (Wheelock)
Polymer Kinetics (Abraham)
Process Chemistry (Burnet)
Simulation (Burkhart)

Outstanding programs also in electronic instrumentation, computer appli-
cations to process control, air and water pollution control, extraction, thermo-
dynamics, kinetics and reaction engineering, liquid metals technology, fluid
mechanics and rheology, heat and mass transfer, and interfacial and surface

Teaching and research assistantships and industrial fellowships available.

Ames, a small city of 40,000 in central Iowa. Site of the Iowa State Center
(pictured above), which hosts the annual Ames International Orchestra
Festival and athletic events of the Big Eight Conference.

Write to:
George Burnet, Head
Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering
Iowa State University of Science and Technology
Ames, Iowa 50010


Department of Chemical

and Petroleum Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Chemical Engineering
M.S. Program
Petroleum Engineering
Doctor of Engineering (D.E.)
M.S. in Petroleum Management

The Department is the recent recipient of a large state grant for
research in the area of Tertiary Oil Recovery to assist the Petro-
leum Industry.

Financial assistance is
available for Research Assistants
and Teaching Assistants

Research Areas

Transport Phenomena

Fluid Flow in Porous Media

Process Dynamics and Control
Water Resources and
Environmental Studies

Mathematical Modeling of
Complex Physical Systems

Reaction Kinetics and
Process Design

Nucleate Boiling

High Pressure, Low Temperature
Phase Behavior

For Information and Applications write:

Floyd W. Prestun, Chairman
Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas, 66044
Phone (913) UN4-3922


Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering

Three graduate degree programs in several subject areas are offered in the
Field of Chemical Engineering at Cornell University. Students may enter a
rj-ear-h-orenled course of study leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philo-
s: phy or Maater of Science, or may study for the professional degree of
/AIs'er of Engineering (Chemical). Graduate work may be done in the follow-
ing subject areas.
Chemical Eng;neering (general)
Thermodynam-is; applied mathematics; transport phenomena, including fluid
micchhnics, heat transfer, and diffusional operations.
Separation and purification of biochemicals; fermentation engineering and
r,'ated sub e:ts in biochemistry and microbiology; mathematical models of
processes in pharmacology and environmental toxicology; artificial organs.

Chemical Microscopy
Light and electron microscopy as applied in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Kinetics and Catalysis
Homogeneous k:netics; catalysis by solids and enzymes; catalyst deactivation; mass transfer and reaction; optimization of reactor design.
Chemical Proces-es and Process Control
AdJanced plant design; process development; petroleum refining; chemical
engineering economics; process control; related courses in statistics and com-
puter methods.
Materials Engineering
Polymeric materials and related course work in chemistry, materials, mechanics,
metallurgy, and solid-state physics, biomaterials.
Nuclear Process Engineering
Nuclear and reactor engineering and selected courses in applied physics and

Faculty Members and Research Interests
John L. Anderson, Ph.D. Membrane transport, bioengineering.
Kenneth B. Bischoff, Ph.D. Medical and microbiological bioengineering, chemi-
cal reaction engineering.
George G. Cocks, Ph.D. Light and electron microscopy, properties of materials,
solid-state chemistry, crystallography.
Robert K. Finn, Ph.D. Continuous fermentation, agitation and aeration, pro-
cessing of biochemicals, electrophoresis, microbial conversion of hydrocarbons.
Peter Harriott, Ph.D. Kinetics and catalysis, process control, diffusion in mem-
branes and porous solids.
J. Eldred Hedrick, Ph.D. Economic analyses and forecasts, new ventures deve-
Ferdinand Rodriguez, Ph.D. Polymerization, properties of polymer systems.
George F. Scheele, Ph.D. Hydrodynamic stability, coalescence, fluid mechanics
of liquid drops and jets, convection-distorted flow fields.
Michael L. Shuler, Ph.D., Biochemical engineering.
Julian C. Sm;th, Chem.E. Conductive transfer processes, heat transfer, mixing,
mechanical separations.
James F. Stevenson, Ph.D. Chemical engineering applications to biomedical
problems; rheology.
Raymond G. Thorpe, M.Chem.E. Phase equilibria, fluid flow, kinetics of poly
Robert L. Von Berg, Sc.D. Liquid-liquid extraction, reaction kinetics, effect of
radiation on chemical reactions.
Herbert F. Wiegandt, Ph.D. Crystallization, petroleum processing, saline-water
conversion, direct contact heat transfer.
Charles C. Winding, Ph.D. Degradation of polymers, polymer compounding,
filler-polymer systems, differential thermal analysis.
Robert York, Sc.D. Molecular sieves, chemical market analyses, chemical eco-
nomics, process development, design, and evaluation.

FURTHER INFORMATION. Write to Professor K. B. Bischoff, Olin Hall of Chemical
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850











of Technology



For decades to come, the chemical engineer
will play a central role in fields of national
concern. In two areas alone, energy and the
environment, society and industry will turn
to the chemical engineer for technology and
management in finding process related so -
lutions to critical problems. M.I.T. has con-
sistently been a leader in chemical engineer-
ing education with a strong working relation-
ship with industry for over a half century.
For detailed information, contact Professor
Raymond F. Baddour, Head of the Depart -
ment of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.

Raymond F. Baddour
Lawrence B. Evans
Paul J. Flory
Hoyt C. Hottel
John P. Longwell
James E. Mark
Herman P. Meissner
Edward W. Merrill
J. Th. G. Overbeek
J. R. A. Pearson

Robert C. Reid
Adel F. Sarofim
Charles N. Satterfield
Kenneth A. Smith
J. Edward Vivian
Glenn C. Williams
Clark K. Colton
Jack B. Howard
Michael Modell

C. Michael Mohr
James H. Porter
Robert C. Armstrong
Donald B. Anthony
Lloyd A. Clomburg
Robert E. Cohen
Richard G. Donnelly
Samuel M. Fleming
Ronald A. Hites
Jefferson W. Tester

Department of Chemical Engineering



Contact Dr. M. R. Strunk, Chairman

Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

Established fields of specialization in which re-
search programs are in progress are:

(1) Fluid Turbulence and Drag Reduction Studies
-Drs. J. L. Zakin and G. K. Patterson

(2) Electrochemistry and Fuel Cells-Dr. J. W.

(3) Heat Transfer (Cryogenics) Dr. E. L. Park, Jr.

(4) Mass Transfer Studies-Dr. R. M. Wellek

(5) Structure and Properties of Polymers-Dr. K.
G. Mayhan

In addition, research projects are being carried
out in the following areas:
(a) Optimization of Chemical Systems-Prof. J. L.
(b) Evaporation through non-Wettable Porous
Membranes-Dr. M. E. Findley
(c) Multi-component Distillation Efficiencies-Dr.
R. C. Waggoner

(d) Gas Permeability Studies-Dr. R. A. Prim-

(e) Separations by Electrodialysis Techniques-
Dr. H. H. Grice

(f) Process Dynamics and Control-Drs. M. E.
Findley, R. C. Waggoner, and R. A. Mollen-

(g) Transport Properties, Kinetics and enzymes
and catalysis-Dr. O. K. Crosser and Dr. B. E.
(h) Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
-Dr. D. B. Manley

Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and

Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid

is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.






F I U pl ll
_. **-*p:3- "'-m -i

.I :4


R. C. Ackerberg
R. F. Benenati
W. Brenner
J. J. Conti
C. D. Han
M. A. Hnatow
R. D. Patel
E. Pearce
E. N. Ziegler

Air Pollution
Catalysis, Kinetics, and Reactors
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical Modelling
Polymerization Reactions
Process Control
Rheology and Polymer Processing


Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and New York University School of
Engineering and Science

Department of
Chemical Engineering
Programs leading to c'a.te .. Engineer rnd
Doctor's dereasc A eai- of 5:udy and research:
chemical englrcc'ing, polymer r clone and
engineering biorq eyyr, rinr and rnv ronmienta

Fellowships and Research Assistantships
are available.
For further information contact
Professor C. D. Han
Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Polytechnic Institute of New York
333 Jay Street
Brooklyn, New York 11201



graduate education


Chemical Engineering ?



M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Offered
with Research In

Separation Processes

Kinetics and Mass Transfer

Petroleum Research

Unit Processes

Thermodynamic Properties

Catalysis and Applied Chemistry

Air Environment


Nuclear Technology

Transport Properties

Lubrication and Rheology

And Other Areas

Prof. Lee C. Eagleton, Head
160 Chemical Engineering Building
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa. 16802



The cultural advantages and historical assets of
a great city, including the incomparable Phila-
delphia Orchestra are within walking distance
of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety

of college and professional sports at hand. A
complete range of recreational facilities exists
within the city. The Pocono Mountains and the
New Jersey shore are within a two hour drive.


The University of Pennsylvania is an Ivy League
School emphasizing scholarly activity and ex-
cellence in graduate education. A unique feature
of the University is the breadth of medically
related activities including those in engineering.
In recent years the University has undergone

a great expansion of its facilities, including
specialized graduate student housing. The De-
partment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineer-
ing has attracted national and international atten-
tion because of its rapid rise to excellence.


The faculty includes two members of the Na-
tional Academy of Engineering and three recip-
ients of the highest honors awarded by the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Every
staff member is active in graduate and under-
Stuart W. Churchill (Michigan)
Elizabeth Dussan V. (Johns Hopkins)
William C. Forsman (Pennsylvania)
David J. Graves (M.I.T.)
A. Norman Hixson (Columbia)
Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia)
Ronald L. Klaus (R.P.I.)
Energy Utilization and Conservation
Enzyme Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Computer-Aided Design
Chemical Reactor Analysis
Electrochemical Engineering

graduate teaching, in research, and in profes-
sional work. Close faculty association with in-
dustry provides expert guidance for the student
in research and career planning.

Mitchell Litt (Columbia)
Alan L. Myers (California)
Melvin C. Molstad (Yale)
Leonard Nanis (Columbia)
Daniel D. Perlmutter (Yale)
John A. Quinn (Princeton)
Warren D. Seider (Michigan)

Environmental and Pollution Control
Polymer Engineering
Process Simulation
Surface Phenomena
Separations Techniques
Biochemical Engineering

For further information on graduate studies in this dynamic setting, write to:
Dr. A. L. Myers, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 19174.


Department of

R. P. Andres-Molecular beams, intermolecular
forces, microparticles, nucleation phenomena.
R. C. Axtmann-Fusion reactor technology,
environmental studies of fusion and geothermal
power, synthetic fuel production.
R. L. Bratzler-Bioengineering: cardiovascular
transport phenomena, extra corporeal devices.
John K. Gillham-Mechanical spectrometry of
polymeric solids, synthesis, characterization
and pyrolysis of polymers.
E. F. Johnson-Fusion reactor technology, moltei
salts (kinetic and thermodynamic properties,
catalysis), process control.
M. D. Kostin-Chemical kinetics, bioengineering,
transport phenomena, applications of quantum
Leon Lapidus-Numerical analysis in chemical
engineering, computer-aided design techniques,
identification and control of reaction systems.
Bryce Maxwell-Shear-induced crystallization of
polymers, melt structure recovery, polymer mixir
and blending.
D. F. Ollis-Heterogeneous and homogeneous
catalysis, biochemical engineering.
William B. Russel-Fluid mechanics, dynamics of
colloidal systems.
D. A. Saville-Fluid mechanics, behavior of
particulate systems, electrical phenomena in fluid
W. R. Schowalter-Fluid mechanics, rheology.
N. H. Sweed-Fixed bed sorption processes,
chemical reactor engineering, honeycomb catalys
coal processing (gasification and liquifaction).
G. L. Wilkes-Morphology and properties of blocl
and segmented copolymers, crystallization of
polymers, biopolymers and biomaterials.

Princeton offers two programs of graduate study,
one leading to the degree of Master of Science
in Engineering, the other to that of Doctor of
Philosophy. Students are admitted to either
program but the first year is arranged so as to
accommodate changes from one to the other
without difficulty. Work for the MSE can be
completed in one year. Three to four years beyond
the baccalaureate is the usual length of study for
the PhD. Because of the faculty's varied research
interests the incoming student has considerable
flexibility in choosing a research topic. Financial
support is available in the form of fellowships
and research assistantships for the academic year
and summer months. For detailed information

Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical Engineering
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540




offers graduate study programs in Chemical Engineering leading
to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with opportunities for specialization in:


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, established in 1824
"for the application of science to the common purposes
of life," has grown from a school of engineering and
applied science into a technological university, serving
some 3500 undergraduates and over 1000 graduate
It is located in Troy, New York, about 150 miles
north of New York City and 180 miles west of Boston.
Troy, Albany, and Schenectady together comprise the
heart of New York's Capital District, an upstate metro-
politan area of about 600,000 population. These his-
toric cities and the surrounding countryside provide the
attractions of both urban and and rural life.
Scenic streams, lakes and mountains, including the
Hudson River, Lake George, the Green Mountains of
Vermont, the Berkshires of Massachusetts, and portions
of the Adirondack Forest Preserve, are within easy
driving distance, and offer many attractions for those
interested in skiing, hiking, boating, hunting, fishing,

For full details write Mr. R. A. Du Mez, Director of Graduate
Admissions, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York

FALL 1974

Graduate Study

(-. in Chemical Engineering

at Rice University

Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with backgrounds in
the fundamental principles of Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the
student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary
proficiency for conducting independent research. A large number of research programs are pursued in various
areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint
program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M.D.-Ph.D. and M.D.-M.S. degrees is also available.

The Department has approximately 35 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several
post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers
12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio,
outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in
keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the top 15 Chemical Engineer-
ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to a recent
evaluation by the American Council of Education.

Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Optimization, Stability, and Process Control
Systems Analysis and Process Dynamics
Rheology and Fluid Mechanics
Polymer Science

Blood Flow and Blood Trauma
Blood Pumping Systems

Rice University
Rice is a privately endowed, nonsectarian, coeduca-
tional university. It occupies an architecturally attrac-
tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine
residential area, 3 miles from the center of Houston.
There are approximately 2200 undergraduate and 800
graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a
complete university with programs in the various fields
of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer-
ing. It has an excellent library with extensive holdings.
The academic year is from September to May. As there
are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly
four months for research. The school offers excellent
recreational and athletic facilities with a completely
equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes
outdoor sports, such as tennis, golf, and sailing year-
round activities.

Full-time graduate students receive financial support
with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of
$333-400 per month.

Address letters of inquiry to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Rice University
Houston, Texas 77001

With a population of nearly two million, Houston is the
largest metropolitan, financial, and commercial center
in the South and Southwest. It has achieved world-wide
recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical
complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities
at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned
Spacecraft Center.
Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and
recreational attractions. It has a well-known resident
symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company,
which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse
H. Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann
Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium, and
Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astro-
dome is the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers
and the site of many other events.




between the mountains and the sea

Offers the M.S., the M.E. and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineer-
ing. Strong interdisciplinary support in chemistry, physics, math-
ematics, materials and computer science.

Research and teaching assistantships, and fellowships, are

For particulars and application forms write to:
Dr. M. W. Davis, Jr., Chairman
Chemical Engineering Program
College of Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, S. C. 29208

B. L. Baker, Professor, Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process
design, environmental problems, ion transport)
M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951
(Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treat-
J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer,
fluid mechanics)
P. E. Kleinsmith, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University, 1972
(Transport phenomena, statistical mechanics)
F. P. Pike, Professor, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in
liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria)
J. M. Tarbell, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1974 (Thermo-
dynamics, process dynamics)

FALL 1974


Programs for the degrees of Master of
Science and Doctor of Philosophy are
offered in both Chemical and Metal-
lurgical Engineering. The Master's pro-
gram may be tailored as a terminal one
with emphasis on professional develop-
ment, or it may serve as preparation for
more advanced work leading to the
Doctorate. Specialization in Polymer
Science and Engineering is available at
both levels.


William T. Becker
Donald C. Bogue
Charlie R. Brooks
Edward S. Clark
Oran L. Culberson
John F. Fellers
George C. Frazier
Hsien-Wen Hsu
Homer F. Johnson, Department Head
Stanley H. Jury
Carl D. Lundin
Charles F. Moore
Ben F Oliver. Professor-in-Charge
of Metallurgical Engineering
Joseph J. Perona
Joseph E. Spruiell
E. Eugene Stansbury
James L. White





Studies in

Chemical &




Process Dynamics and Control
Sorption Kinetics and Dynamics of
Packed Beds
Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge
Studies of Macromolecules
Development and Synthesis of New
Engineering Polymers
Fiber and Plastics Processing
X-Ray Diffraction. Transmission and
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Solidification, Zone Refining
and Welding
Cryogenic and High Temperature
Flow and Fracture in Metallic and
Polymeric Systems
Solid State Kinetics

Financial Assistance

Sources available include graduate
teaching assistantships, research assis-
tantships, and industrial fellowships.

Knoxville and

With a population near 200,000, Knox-
ville is the trade and industrial center of
East Tennessee. In the Knoxville Audi-
torium-Coliseum and the University
theaters, Broadway plays, musical and
dramatic artists, and other entertain-
ment events are regularly scheduled.
Knoxville has a number of points of his-
torical interest, a symphony orchestra,
two art galleries, and a number of
museums. Within an hour's drive are
many TVA lakes and mountain streams
for water sports, the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park with the Gatlin-
burg tourist area, two state parks, and
the atomic energy installations at Oak
Ridge, including the Museum of Atomic


Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916




P. O. Box 6312
University, Alabama 35486

% A Land Grant University of Alabama



Financial Assistance: For Further Information, Write:
Research and Teaching Assistantships, Head, Chemical Engineering Department
Industrial Fellowships Are Available Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830

FALL 1974

Chemical Engineerinq Department
Areas of Interest
Transport kinetic processes
(Center for thermochemical studies)
High pressure technology
Environmental quality control
Energy resources
(Combustion Research Center)
Nuclear Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Dee H. Barker
Calvin H. Bartholomew
James J. Christensen
Ralph L. Coates
Joseph M. Glassett
H. Tracy Hall
Richard W. Hanks

45 miles south of Salt Lake City in
scenic Provo at the base of the
Wasatch Mountains
Financial Assistance Available
Research Assistantships
Teaching Assistantships
Available up to $6,500 yr.

M. Duane Horton
James F. Jackson
John L. Oscarson
Bill J. Pope
L. Douglas Smoot
Grant M. Wilson

Dr. Richard W. Hanks
350G ESTB, Chemical Engineering
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84601



For admission, address
Dr. Paul H. DeHoff
Coordinator of Graduate Studies

* Graduate degrees granted: Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
* Some courses for graduate credit are available in the evenings.
* Typical research interests of the faculty include the areas of: mass transfer, particularly dis-
tillation, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid extraction; thermodynamics; reaction kinetics; catalyst deac-
tivation; process dynamics and control; metallurgy and the science of materials; mathematical model-
ing; numerical analysis; statistical analysis.
* Assistantships and scholarships are available.
* For the usual candidate, with a B.S. in Chemical Engineering, the equivalent of thirty semester-
hours of graduate credit including a thesis is the requirement for graduation.





R. L. Bell:
R. G. Carbonell
A. P. Jackman:
B. J. McCoy:
J. M. Smith:
S. Whitaker:

Mass Transfer, Bio Medical Engineering
Enzyme Kinetics, Quantum Mechanics
Process Dynamics, Thermal Pollution
Molecular Theory, Transport Processes
Water Pollution, Reactor Design
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena

To Receive Applications for Admission and Financial Aid Write To:
Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California
Davis, California 95616




Henri J. Fenech
Owen T. Hanna
Duncan A. Mellichamp
John E. Myers

G. Robert Odette
A. Edward Profio
Robert G. Rinker
Orville C. Sandall

For information, please write to: Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106

FALL 1974

Case Institute of Technology


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Current Research Topics
Environmental Engineering Crystal Growth and Materials
Coal Gasification Engineering Applications of Lasers
Simulation and Control Process Development
Catalysis and Surface Chemistry Biomedical Engineering
General Information
Case Institute of Technology is a privately endowed institution with a tradition
of excellence in Engineering and Applied Science since 1880. In 1967 Case Insti-
tute and Western Reserve University joined together. The enrollment, endowment
and faculty make Case Western Reserve University one of the leading private
schools in the country. The modern, urban campus is located in Cleveland's Uni-
versity Circle, an extensive concentration of education, scientific, social and cultural
For more information, contact: Graduate Student Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106




-Major urban educational center
-New, prize-winning laboratory building and
facilities-Rhodes Hall
-National Environmental Research Center (EPA) adjacent
to campus
-Major computer facilities: digital, analog, hybrid
-Graduate specialization in-process dynamics & control,
polymers, applied chemistry, systems, foam fraction-
ation, air pollution control, biomedical, power gen-
eration, heat transfer.
Inquiries to: Dr. David B. Greenberg, Head
Dept. of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221



Chemical Engineering Department

M.S. and Doctoral Programs


Alley, F. C., Ph.D., U. North Carolina-Air Pollution, Unit Operations
Barlage, W. B., Ph.D., N. C. State-Transfer Processes in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Beard, J. N., Ph.D., L.S.U., Chemical Kinetics, Hybrid Computation
Beckwith, W. F., Ph.D., Iowa State-Transport Phenomena
Edie, D. D., Ph.D., U. Virginia-Polymay
Harshman, R. C., Ph.D., Ohio State-Chemical and Biological Kinetics, Design
Littlejohn, C. E., Ph.D., V.P.I.-Mass Transfer
Melsheimer, SS., Ph.D. Tulane-Process Dynamics, Applied Mathematics
Mullins, J. C., Ph.D., Georgia Tech-Thermodynamics, Adsorption
FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-Fellowships, Assistantships, Traineeships
C. E. Littlejohn, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, S. C. 29631




1964 rO


Pollution Control

Transport Processes

The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study
leading to the doctorate at another institution. Financial assistance is available.

Department of Chemical Engineering
The Cleveland State University
Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street
Cleveland. Ohio 44115


---------------L*the *-

un^^^lll ,T/*iversi* *,ty^^

^^^^^^^^^ ofn

fcoT 1 l t^ icu1


financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships

location Beautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut,
convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England

We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities
for an education at UCONN, please write to:

Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, Connecticut 06268


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas
of Polymer Science, Biochemical and Food Engineering, Gas Engineering, Bio-
medical Engineering, and Particle Technology.

W. M. Langdon
R. E. Peck
B. S. Swanson
L. L. Tavlarides
J. S. Vrentas
D. T. Wasan
H. Weinstein

Environmental Control and Process Design
Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics
Process Dynamics and Controls
Biochemical Engineering and Reactor Engineering
Polymer Science and Transport Phenomena
Mass Transfer and Particle Dynamics
Biomedical Engineering and Reactor Engineering

For inquiries write to: D. T. Wasan, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Department
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd Street
Chicago, Illinois 60616


M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering
most aspects of Chemical Engineering.
Research projects concentrate in
four main areas:

Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-

Financial Aid Available
Uo to $5,000 Per Year
Professor B. G. Kyle
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66502


FALL 1974

Lehigh University

Department of Chemical Engineering

M. CHARLES Center for
C. W. CLUMP Surface &
A. S. FOUST Coatings
W. L. LUYBEN Research
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015

Graduate Enrollment- 80


Hamilton, Ontario, Canada


R. B. Anderson (Ph. D., Iowa) . . Ca
M. H. I. Baird (Ph.D., Cambridge) . . Os
A. Benedek (Ph.D., U. of Washington) . W
J. L. Brash (Ph.D., Glasgow) . . Po
C. M. Crowe (PhD., Cambridge) . .. Op
I. A. Feuerstein (Ph.D., Massachusetts) . Bic
A. E. Hamielec (Ph.D., Toronto) . . Po
J. W. Hodgins (Ph.D., Toronto) . . Po
r. W. Hoffman (Ph.D., McGill) . . He
J. F. MacGregor (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . . Sta
K. L. Murphy (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . . W
L. W. Shemilt (Ph.D., Toronto) . . M
W. J. Snodgrass (Ph.D., U. of N. Carolina, Chapel Hill) Mc
J. Vlachopoulos (D.Sc., Washington U.) . Po
T. W airegi (Ph.D., McGill) . . Flu
D. R. Woods (Ph.D., Wisconsin) . Int
J. D. Wright (Ph.D., Cambridge) . Prc

talysis, Adsorption, Kinetics
cillatory Flows, Transport Phenomena
istewater Treatment, Novel Separation Techniques
lymer Chemistry, Use of Polymers in Medicine
timization, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Simulation
logical Fluid and Mass Transfer
lymer Reactor Engineering, Transport Processes
lymerization, Applied Chemistry
at Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engr., Simulation
itistical Methods in Process Analysis, Computer Control
wastewater Treatment, Physicochemical Separations
ss Transfer, Corrosion
idelling of Aquatic Systems
lymer Rheology and Processing, Transport Processes
id Mechanics, (Bubbles, drops and Solid Particles)
erfacial Phenomena, Particulate Systems
ocess Simulation and Control, Computer Control
CONTACT: Dr. J. W. Hodgins, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7


Faculty- 19

Pollution Control
Process Dynamics
Computer Control
Kinetics and Catalysis
Ecological Modeling
Write: Chemical Engineering Department Suear Technology
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803





L. B. HEIN, Ph.D., Department Head


M. W. BREDEKAMP, Ph.D. Instrumentation, Process Dynamics and Control
E. R. EPPERSON, M.S. Phase Equilibria
D. W. HUBBARD, Ph.D. Lake Studies, Mixing Phenomena, Turbulent Flow
J. T. PATTON, Ph.D. Biosynthesis, Waste Treatment, Petroleum Recovery
A. J. PINTAR, Ph.D. -Energy Conveision, Transport Phenomena, Applied Mathematics
J. M. SKAATES, Ph.D. Fluid-Solid Reactions, Catalysis, Reactor Design
E. T. WILLIAMS, Ph.D. Improvement of Pulpwood Yield

Financial assistance available in the form of Fellowships and Assistantships.

For more information, write to:

DR. L. B. HEIN, Head
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering




The University of Michigan awarded its first
Chemical Engineering M.S. in 1912 and Ph.D.
in 1914. It has moved with the times since and
today offers a flexible program of graduate
study that allows emphases ranging from fun-
damentals to design.
The Chemical Engineering Department, with
21 faculty members and some 65 graduate stu-
dents, has opportunities for study and research
in areas as diverse as: thermodynamics, reactor
design, transport processes, mathematical and
numerical methods, optimization, mixing, rheol-
ogy, materials, bioengineering, electrochemical
engineering, production-pipelining-storage of oil
and gas, coal processing, and pollution control.

The M.S. program may be completed in 10
months and does not require a thesis. The Pro-
fessional Degree requires thirty-hours beyond
the Master's and a professional problem. The
Ph.D. program has recently been revamped to
expedite entry into a research area as early in
the program as possible.

For further Information and applications,
Prof. Brice Carnahan
Chairman of the Graduate Committee
The University of Michigan
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104

FALL 1974



Applications are invited for Monash University
Research Scholarships tenable in the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering. The awards are
intended to enable scholars to carry out under
supervision, a programme of full-time advanced
studies and research which may lead to the
degrees of Master of Engineering Science and/
or Doctor of Philosophy.

Facilities are available for work in the general
fields of:
Solid-gas Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Packed Tubular Reactors
Crystal Nucleation and Growth
Computer Control and Optimisation

Gas Absorption with Reaction
Waste Treatment Engineering
Process Dynamics
Biochemical Engineering
Fluid Particle Mechanics
Mixing of Liquids
Submerged Combustion

Scholarships carry a tax-free stipend of $A3,050
per annum. Detailed information about the
awards and the necessary application forms may
be obtained from the Academic Registrar. Tech-
nical enquiries should be addressed to the
Chairman of Department, Professor O. E. Potter.
Postal Address: Monash University, Wellington
Road, Clayton,
Victoria, 3168, Australia.


I1\1)11\( TO THtI ,11 .S. 01H Ph.I). I THlE \11\S OF:

Iiochemical Engineering
Computer Applications
Food Processing

Poly meriza tion
Tray Efficiencies and Dynamics
and other areas

FlR) \PICPL I(. \Ti\S \Ni) INIO(I, \TIO\ ON
I1\ \ (N I \I. \SSIST\NCi Il'I'iK TO:

Prof W. A. Scheller, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508

Tired of pollution, traffic jams and the big city life?
That is one reason why you might consider spending the next two or three years in Fredericton, working
for an M.Sc. or Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering at
Here are some more reasons:
Small, friendly department with a well established research record and an active social life.
Variety of interesting research projects in fire science and molecular sieve technology as well as in traditional areas of chemical
Financial support ($4800-5500) including payment for some easy but interesting teaching duties.
Fredericton is situated in the scenic Saint John river valley. Excellent recreational facilities including sailing, skiing, hunting and
fishing are all available within a few minutes drive from the campus.
The Faculty and their Research Interests

D. D. Kristmanson (Ph.D. London)
J. Landau (Ph.D. Prague) .
K. F. Loughlin (Ph.D. U.N.B.) .
C. Moreland (Ph.D. Birmingham)
D. R. Morris (Ph.D. London) .
J. J. C. Picot (Ph.D. Minnesota) .
D. M. Ruthven (Ph.D. Cambridge)

F. R. Steward (Sc.D. M.I.T.) .
For further information write to:

Mixing, pollution control
Mass transfer, liquid extraction
Molecular sieves
Fluid-solid systems, process dynamics
Electrochemistry, Corrosion
Transport phenomena in liquid crystals
Sorption and diffusion in molecular sieves; adsorption separa-
tion processes
Combustion, radiation, furnace design and fire science
D. M. Ruthven
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, N.B.

FALL 1974


M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Enqineering

Offering Research Opportunities in
.. Coal Gassification
., Desalinization
Polymer Science
Hydrogen Economy
WMini Computer Applications to
Process Control
Process Simulation
S r Radioactive Waste Management
... and more

Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque!

For further information, write:
Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
The University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering

Faculty and research interests:

J. A. Bergantz
D. R. Brutvan
H. T. Cullinan, Jr
P. Ehrlich
W. N. Gill
R. J. Good
J. A. Howell
K. M. Kiser
P. J. Phillips
W. H. Ray
E. Ruckenstein
J. Szekely
T. W. Weber
S. W. Weller

energy sources, gas-solid reactions
staged operations
multicomponent mass transfer, transport properties
polymeric materials, thermodynamics
dispersion, reverse osmosis
surface phenomena, adhesion of living cells
biological reactors, waste treatment
blood flow, turbulence, pollution in lakes
polymer morphology, structure and properties
optimization, polymerization reactors
catalysis, interfacial phenomena, bioengineering
process metallurgy, gas-solid and solid-solid reactions
process control, dynamics of adsorption
catalysis, catalytic reactors

Financial aid is available

For full information and application materials, please contact:
Dr. Harry T. Cullinan, Jr.
Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, New York 14214



offers programs leading to the M.S., M.Ch.E. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engi-
neering. Active research programs leading to approximately 50 journal publica-
tions per year are offered in all classical and contemporary research areas of
chemical engineering. The proximity of a large number of polymer-related re-
search facilities at the nearby Research Triangle Park and the various offices and
laboratories of the Environmental Protection Agency in and near the Park stimu-
lates strong research programs in polymers and air pollution technology at North
Carolina State University. Graduate students are further stimulated by beaches
and mountains, an early spring and a late fall, and the sister universities of Duke
and UNC Chapel Hill. Our distinguished senior faculty of K. O. Beatty Jr., J. K.
Ferrell, H. B. Hopfenberg, Warren L. McCabe, E. M. Schoenborn, E. P. Stahel and
V. T. Stannett join their colleagues in inviting your application to study chemical
engineering in North Carolina.






* Environmental Engineering Process Analysis, Design and Control
Reaction Kinetics Polymer Engineering
Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
Nuclear Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Rheology Unit Operations
Energy Sources and Conversion Process Dynamics and Sir
Optimization and Advanced Mathematical Methods
Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering
Graduate Study Brochure Available On Request
WRITE: Aldrich Syverson, Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210






The University of Oklahoma
Engineering Center
202 W. Boyd Room 23
Norman, Oklahoma 73069


FALL 1974

These are some of the challenging specialties
Syou can follow in graduate programs
leading to degrees of M.S. in chemical/petroleum engineering
or Ph.D. in chemical engineering.
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical/Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15261

[nIlilT Lirsil)

! Pitislibu.h


write to Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
Lafayette, Ind. 47907

Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering
MSc and PhD Degree Programs

D.W. Bacon "ii \,,,ns
H.A. Becker ,n ii
D.H. Bone h ,,i,,,n,,,
S.C. Cho ih.), .n t.iun
R.H C lark Imii), i >,i, i ,,I ,>,
R.K. Code rii) ..mi
J. Downie n'i) i,,, ,,
J.E. Ellsworth ,h
C.C. Hsu I, I,...,
J.D Raal > ir .
T.R. W arriner i,,i- .i, nk .
B.W. Wojciechowski i, m ).1..

* Waste Processing
water and waste treatment
applied microbiolog,
biochemical engineering

* Chemical Reaction
,tatistical design
polymer studies

* Transport Processes
com butllon
fluid mechanic,

Dr. B. W. Wojciechowski
Department of Chemical
Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario



MS & PhD Programs

T. L. Donaldson
R. F. Eisenberg
M. R. Feinberg
J. R. Ferron
J. C. Friedly
R. H. Heist
F. J. M. Horn
H. R. Osmers
H. J. Palmer
H. Saltsburg
W. D. Smith, Jr.
G. J. Su

Mass Transfer, Membranes, Enzyme Catalysis
Inorganic Composites, Physical Metallurgy
Formal Chemical Kinetics, Continuum Mechanics
Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics
Process Dynamics, Optimal Control & Design
Nucleation, Atmospheric Chemistry, Solids
Chemical Processing Theory, Applied Mathematics
Rheology, Polymers, Biological & Ecological Processes
Interfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes
Surface & Solid-State Chemistry, Molecular Beams
Kinetics & Reactor Design, Computer Applications
Glass Science & Technology, Thermodynamics

For information write: J. R. Ferron, Chairman

FALL 1974




Water Renovation Transport Phenomena
Biomedical Engineering Separation Processes
Membrane Processes Mathematical Modeling
Desalination Rheology

Wayne S. Amato
Allen J. Barduhn
James M. Mozley
Philip A. Rice

S. Alexander Stern
Gopal Subramanian
Chi Tien
Raffi M. Turian

Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among
the hills of Central New York State. A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering,
science, the social sciences, and the humanities exists at the university. The many diversified activities
conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both specific and general
educational goals.
As a part of this medium sized research oriented university, the Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of the
faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research, independent study and the general
atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation.

For Information:
Contact: Chairman
Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science
Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York 13210

Stipends range from $2,000 to $4,500
with most students receiving $3,400-
$4,000 per annum in addition to remit-
ted tuition privileges.



Think about a meaningful study program in chemical engi-
neering at Texas A&M University.
TAMU's graduate program is designed to produce engineers
who can apply both rigorous theoretical principles and prac-
tical plant experience to solve the real problems of industry
and society.
Here at TAMU, beyond the reach of urban sprawl, there is
an exciting blend of modern academics and traditionally
warm Texas friendliness, enabling you to get the very best
guidance and instruction possible.

For an information packet and application materials, write to:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Texas A&M University
College Station,
Texas 77843

Full Text
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