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Atlas of sea turtle nesting habitat for the wider Caribbean region

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Title:
Atlas of sea turtle nesting habitat for the wider Caribbean region
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Dow, Wendy
Eckert, Karen L.
Palmer, Michael
Kramer, Philip
Publisher:
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network ( WIDECAST )
Publication Date:

Notes

General Note:
WIDECASTtechnical report no. 6

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Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Network
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Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Network
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Executive summary
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
        Page 7
    List of Figures
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Introduction
        Page 10
    Goals and objectives
        Page 11
    Methods
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Results
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Discussion and recommendations
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Literature cited and reviewed
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
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        Page 44
        Page 45
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        Page 48
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        Page 50
        Page 51
    Appendix I: Primary data providers and contributors
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Appendix II: Sea turtle threats survey
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Appendix III: Wider Caribbean Region sea turtle habitat national reports
        Page 65
        Page 66
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    Back Cover
        Page 268
Full Text


An Atlas of Sea
Habitat for
Caribbear


Turtle Nesting
the Wider
SRegion

































For bibliographic purposes this document should be cited as:


Dow, Wendy, Karen Eckert, Michael Palmer and Philip Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea
Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST Technical Report No.
6. Beaufort, North Carolina. 267 pages, plus electronic Appendices.

ISSN: 1930-3025

Cover photo: Kim Maison (Levera National Park, Grenada)

Copies of this publication may be obtained from:

Dr. Karen L. Eckert
Executive Director
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST)
Nicholas School Marine Lab Duke University
135 Duke Marine Lab Road
Beaufort, North Carolina 28516
Tel: (252) 727-1600 / Fax: (252) 504-7648
keckert@widecast.org / www.widecast.org








An Atlas of


Sea Turtle Nesting


Habitat for the Wider
Caribbean Region


SWIDECAST
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtfe Conservation Network


TheNature vny
Conservancy. F
ProteCling nature. Preserving Ide.


Wendy Dow
Karen Eckert



Michael Palmer
Philip Kramer


2007


Generously supported by:


arit6~









Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Preface and Intent


For more than 25 years the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST),
with Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean nations and territories, has linked scien-
tists, conservationists, natural resource users and managers, policy-makers, industry groups,
educators, and other stakeholders together in a collective effort to develop a unified manage-
ment framework, and to promote a region-wide capacity to design and implement scientifically
sound sea turtle conservation programs.

As a Partner Organization of the UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme and its Regional
Programme for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW), WIDECAST is designed to ad-
dress research and management priorities at national and regional levels, both for sea turtles
and for the habitats upon which they depend. We focus on bringing the best available science
to bear on contemporary management and conservation issues, empowering stakeholders to
make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing an operational
mechanism and a framework for cooperation at all levels, both within and among nations.

Network participants are committed to working collaboratively to develop their collective capaci-
ty to manage shared sea turtle populations. By bringing people together and encouraging inclu-
sive management planning, WIDECAST is helping to ensure that utilization practices, whether
consumptive or non-consumptive, do not undermine sea turtle survival over the long term.

This Technical Report asks a deceptively simple question: "Where do sea turtles nest in the
Wider Caribbean Region?" An accurate answer is critical to the recovery of depleted popula-
tions in that it relates directly to the setting of priorities for national and international conserva-
tion action, population monitoring and habitat protection, as well as larger issues of coastal zone
management and land use policy. Taking advantage of modern spatial analysis methods, as
well as the unique expertise (and patience) of more than 120 Caribbean Data Providers and
other experts, we have created the first regional maps of the distribution and abundance of the
annual reproductive effort for all six Caribbean-nesting sea turtles.

This landmark database a collaborative effort between WIDECAST and The Nature Conser-
vancy identifies all known sea turtle nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region (inclusive of
Bermuda and Brazil); 1,311 beaches in all. Because some sites host nesting by multiple spe-
cies, 2,535 species-specific sites are named. In no case were data simply absorbed from other
regional synthesis efforts. We traced each data point to its original source for verification and
rating, discarding many existing records that did not meet our criteria. As a result, data charac-
terized as "Low" quality comprise less than 11% of the database and improving information in
these areas is an ongoing priority.

The database significantly expands our understanding of habitat use, while at the same time
facilitates the creation of operational frameworks to census populations, monitor stock recovery,
and safeguard habitat in ways that have not been possible before. The entire database, avail-
able for interactive uses, is accessible through OBIS-SEAMAP at http://seamap.env.duke.edu/
and at www.widecast.org. Our sincere gratitude is extended to the hundreds of colleagues (Data
Providers and others) who made this project possible, and we hope it sets an example for other
geographic regions to follow.
Karen L. Eckert, Ph.D.
Executive Director
WIDECAST






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6




*
Acknowledgements


A regional assessment of this magnitude could not have been accomplished without the support
and active participation of the Wider Caribbean Region's sea turtle researchers, conservation-
ists, and marine managers. In-depth, collaborative data exercises like this one are possible in
our region because of mutual trust and established partnerships among sea turtle workers, a
reality defined and nurtured by the WIDECAST network for more than 25 years. The concept of
a network is eloquently described by Meadows and colleagues in Beyond the Limits (1992), as
"a web of connections among equals" held together not by force, obligation, material incentive,
or social contract, "but rather shared values and the understanding that some tasks can be
accomplished together that could never be accomplished separately." This database is a superb
example of such an accomplishment.

We are deeply grateful to the more than 120 Data Providers in 43 nations and territories who
participated in this project, generously offering both their time and their expertise, principal
among them being the following:

Anguilla (GB): James Gumbs (Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources); Antigua and
Barbuda: Cheryl Appleton and Tricia Lovell (Fisheries Division), James Richardson and Peri
Mason (Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project); Aruba (NL): Richard van der Wal and Edith van der Wal
(Turtugaruba Foundation); Bahamas: Eleanor Phillips (The Nature Conservancy), Alan Bolten
and Karen Bjorndal (Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research, University of Florida);
Barbados: Julia Horrocks (Barbados Sea Turtle Project, University of the West Indies), Jennifer
Beggs (Mote Marine Laboratory); Belize: Renison Enriquez (Glover Marine Research Reserve),
Isaias Majil (Fisheries Department), Janet Gibson (Wildlife Conservation Society); Bermuda
(GB): Jennifer Gray (Bermuda Turtle Project, Department of Conservation Services); Bonaire
(AN): Kalli De Meyer (Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance), Imre Esser and Mabel Nava (Sea
Turtle Conservation Bonaire); Brazil: Maria Marcovaldi, Luciano Soares, Alexandro Santos,
Claudio Belllini, Augusto Cesar Coelho Dias da Silva, Gustave Lopez, Joao Carlos Thom6, Eron
Paes e Lima, Antonio 'Tonim' de Papua Almeida (Fundagao Pr6-TAMAR); British Virgin
Islands (GB): Bertrand Lettsome, Mervin Hastings and Shannon Gore (Conservation and
Fisheries Department); Cayman Islands (GB): Gina Ebanks-Petrie, Janice Blumenthal and
Joni Solomon (Dept. Environment); Colombia: Elizabeth Taylor and Zunilda Baldonado
(CORALINA), Claudia Ceballos (Iowa State University) and Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas
y Costeras (INVEMAR); Costa Rica: Didiher Chac6n C. (WIDECAST), Caribbean Conservation
Corporation, ASTOP, Estaci6n Las Tortugas, Tortuga Feliz; Cuba: F1lix Moncada G. (Pro-
grama de Tortugas Marinas, CIP), Julia Azanza Ricardo (Universidad de La Habana), Rub6n
Blanco (Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Isla de la Juventud), Fernando
Hernandez (Empresa Nacional para la Conservaci6n de la Flora y Fauna); Curagao (AN): Brian
Leysner (Curagao Underwater Park, CARMABI); Dominica: Seth Stapleton and Rowan Byrne
(Rosalie Sea Turtle Initiative-RoSTI), Stephen Durand (Forestry, Wildlife and Parks Division);
Dominican Republic: Yolanda Le6n (Grupo Jaragua, Univ. Aut6noma de Santo Domingo,
INTEC), Jesus Tomas (University of Valencia); French Guiana (FR): Benoit de Thoisy (Asso-
ciation Kwata), Laurent Kelle (Coordinateur Oc6ans/Cotes, WWF Guianas), Amana Nature
Reserve, Association Kulalasi, Association S6panguy; Grenada: Carl Lloyd and Rebecca King






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


(Ocean Spirits), Marina Fastigi (KIDO Foundation), Gregg Moore (Univ. New Hampshire);
Guadeloupe (FR): Eric Delcroix (R6seau Tortues Marines Guadeloupe), Office National de
For6ts, L'Association Tite, L'Association Kap'Natirel, L'Association Eco-Lambda, Conservatoire
du Littoral, La commune de Terre-de-Haut, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune
Sauvage, L'Association Evasion Tropicale, Association Le GaTac, Le Parc National; Guatema-
la: Colum Muccio (ARCAS), Anabella Barrios (RCA Guatemala), Ana Beatriz Rivas (Fundary
Manabique), Wilma Katz (Coastal Wildlife Club, Florida); Guyana: Annette Arjoon and Michelle
Kalamandeen (Guyana Marine Turtle Conservation Society), Peter C. H. Pritchard (Chelonian
Research Institute); Haiti: Jean Wiener (Foundation pour la Protection de la Biodiversitie
Marine); Honduras: Carlos Molinero (MOPAWI); Jamaica: Andrea Donaldson (National Envi-
ronment and Planning Agency), Rhema Kerr Bjorkland (Center for Marine Conservation, Duke
University); Martinique (FR): S6v6rino Raign6 and Jean-claude Nicolas (SEPANMAR), Claire
Cayol (VCAT ONCFS R6seau Tortues Marines), KAWAN Association, AMEPAS, ONF, Mairie
de SAINTE-ANNE, MAIRIE du DIAMANT; Mexico: F. Alberto Abreu G. (Unidad Acad6mica
Mazatlan, UNAM), Vicente Guzman Hernandez (Direcci6n del Area de Protecci6n de Flora y
Fauna "Laguna de T6rminos" (CONANP), Ciudad del Carmen, Camp.), Eduardo Cuevas (Pro-
natura Peninsula de Yucatan, A.C, M6rida, Yucatan), Laura Sarti and Ren6 Kantun (Comision
Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas), Patrick Burchfield and Luis Jamie Peia (Gladys
Porter Zoo), Augusto Segovia (Yucatan Environment Ministry), Alejandro Arenas, Iiaky Iturbe
and Roberto Herrera (Flora Fauna y Cultura de M6xico, A.C., El Colegio de la Frontera Sur), US
Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Texas Parks and Wildlife
Department, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), Instituto
Nacional de Pesca, Laguna de T6rminos Area de Protecci6n de Flora y Fauna, Marea Azul,
Ecologia, Grupo Ecologista Quelonios A.C., Universidad Aut6noma de Campeche, PEP-UPMP,
La Universidad Aut6noma del Carmen, Enlaces con tu Entorno, Ria Lagartos Reserva de la
Biosfera, Centro Ecol6gico Akumal; Montserrat (GB): John Jeffers (Min. Agriculture, Trade and
Environment); Nicaragua: Cynthia Lagueux and Cathi Campbell (Wildlife Conservation Soci-
ety); Panama: Argelis Ruiz (Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst.), Anne Meylan (Florida Fish
and Wildlife Conservation Commission); Puerto Rico (US): Carlos Diez and Hector Horta
(Dept. Natural and Environmental Resources), Lesbia Montero (Univ. Puerto Rico Sea Grant
Program); Saba (AN): Jan den Dulk and Susan Hurrell (Saba Marine Park); Sint Maarten (AN):
Andy Caballero, Dominique Vissenberg and Beverly Nisbeth (Nature Foundation of Sint
Maarten); Sint Eustatius (AN): Nicole Esteban and Arturo Herrera (St. Eustatius National and
Marine Parks), Emma Harrison (Caribbean Conservation Corporation); St. Kitts and Nevis:
Emile Pemberton (Department of Fisheries), Kimberly Stewart (Ross University), Kate Orchard
(St. Christopher Heritage Society); St. Lucia: Dawn Pierre-Nathoniel (Department of Fisheries);
St. Vincent and the Grenadines: Lucine Edwards (Fisheries Division); Suriname: Maartje
Hilterman (IUCN National Committee of the Netherlands), Edo Goverse (Universiteit van
Amsterdam), Marie-Louise Felix (WWF Marine Turtle Program Office Guianas); Trinidad and
Tobago: Dennis Sammy (Nature Seekers), Tanya Clovis (SOS Tobago), Stephen Poon (Wild-
life Section-Forestry Div.), Scott Eckert (WIDECAST), Suzanne Livingstone (IUCN Global
Marine Species Assessment Programme); Turks and Caicos (GB): Judith Garland-Campbell
(Ministry of Natural Resources), Michelle Fulford-Gardiner (Dept. Environment and Coastal
Resources), Lorna Slade (Providenciales Marine Turtle Monitoring Project); USA: Barbara
Schroeder (NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service), Sandra MacPherson (US Fish and
Wildlife Service), Anne Meylan (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), Donna
Shaver (NPS Padre Island National Seashore), Jerome Phillips (Bon Secour National Wildlife
Refuge); United States Virgin Islands (US): Rafe Boulon (NPS Virgin Islands National Park),
Steve Garner (WIMARCS), Raquel Seybert (The Nature Conservancy), Amy Mackay (St. Croix
Marine Turtle Conservation Project), Zandy Hillis (US National Park Service); Venezuela:
Hedelvy J. Guada (CICTMAR), Vicente Vera (Ministry of Environment).







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



These data and their assembled results and significance remain the property of the Data
Providers who, in collaboration with staff, volunteers and supporters, are the sole reason these
maps could be produced and shared for the benefit of us all. For further information, including
Data Use Agreements, please contact the Data Provider(s) directly. Contact information is pro-
vided in Appendix I of this Technical Report and is also available through the database host,
OBIS-SEAMAP, at http://seamap.env.duke.edu/.


Finally, no progress would have been made without generous and timely financial support from
The Nature Conservancy's Caribbean Marine Program, Pegasus Foundation, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service's Marine Turtle Conservation Fund, and the UNEP-CEP Regional Programme
for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW), enabled by a grant from the U.S. Depart-
ment of State (Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs). World
Wildlife Fund (Latin America and Caribbean Program) supported the development of electronic
appendices and online availability. We are also grateful for the expertise and partnership of
Duke University's OBIS-SEAMAP (Ocean Biogeographic Information System Spatial Eco-
logical Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations) program, which serves as the database host.



EEEE~i EE==== 'EE="E.... ... .... ... ..........::::: ............


Monitoring leatherback sea turtle populations at Querepare
Beach. Venezuela {photo by Mariana Malaveri and Matura
Beach. Trinidad {photo by Scott A. Eckerti: and Kemp s
ridleys at Rancho Nuevo. Mexico (photo by Jainle Penai


-4.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6




*
Executive Summary

Six species of sea turtle nest in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR). In partnership with more
than 120 Data Providers, the spatial database of nesting habitat herein assembled is the most
comprehensive for any region of the world, with 1,311 nesting beaches identified in 43 WCR
nations and territories, inclusive of Bermuda to the north and Brazil to the south. Because some
sites host nesting by multiple species, 2,535 species-specific sites are named. Of these, 77%
are categorized in terms of abundance: <25, 25-100, 100-500, 500-1,000, or >1,000 nesting
crawls per year. Hawksbill and green turtles are the least known, with 33% and 24%, respect-
tively, of all known nesting sites associated with unknown crawl abundances.

Large nesting colonies are rare. Nesting grounds receiving more than 1,000 crawls per year
range from 0.4% (hawksbill) to 7.0% (Kemp's ridley) of all known species-specific sites. For any
species, roughly half of all known nesting sites support fewer than 25 crawls (fewer than 10
reproductively active females) per year. While some nations are making exemplary progress in
identifying and monitoring nesting stocks, consistent sea turtle population monitoring effort is
still lacking in most areas and recent data are scarce in some jurisdictions; two archipelagic
States (Bahamas, St. Vincent and the Grenadines) and Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
have never been completely assessed.

The regulatory landscape is fragmented. Thirty (69.8%) nations and territories prohibit sea tur-
tle exploitation year-around: 29 of 43 jurisdictions mandate indefinite protection (eight of these
allow exemptions for 'traditional' exploitation), while Anguilla has adopted a moratorium set to
expire in 2020. With the exception of the Cayman Islands, legal sea turtle fisheries are based
on minimum size limits (by weight or shell length), targeting large juveniles and adults in contra-
distinction to the best available science on management and recovery.

Threats matrices characterizing a range of risk factors, including those that result in the loss or
degradation of critical habitat, reveal that beach erosion, nest loss to predators or physical
factors, artificial beachfront lighting, direct exploitation of turtles and eggs, and pollution threaten
the survival of sea turtles at their nesting grounds in more than 75% of all WCR nations and
territories. With regard to factors potentially hindering population recovery at foraging grounds,
more than 75% of Caribbean nations and territories cite pollution, fisheries bycatch, entangle-
ment, coral reef and/or seagrass degradation, and losses to hunters, poachers and natural
predators as threatening the survival of sea turtles at sea.

The data collected and assembled will allow for further research and analysis of sea turtle abun-
dance (including population trends at index sites) and habitat use; for example, in conjunction
with other datasets to determine areas of high biodiversity or areas in need of urgent protection.
The database, archived and displayed online by OBIS-SEAMAP (http://seamap.env.duke.edu/),
will be updated regularly and used to establish conservation and management priorities, and to
inform and improve policy at national and regional levels. Future goals of the project are to
research and incorporate seagrass and coral reef data to determine nationally and regionally
significant foraging areas, thus identifying marine areas in need of management attention and
contributing to the development of a network of population monitoring programs, including juv-
enile and adult age classes, at index sites.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6




*
Table of Contents


Preface and Intent 1

Acknowledgements 2

Executive Summary 5

Table of Contents 6

List of Figure and Tables 8

Introduction 10

Goals and Objectives 11

Methods 12

Results 16

Species Distribution: Summary of Findings 16

Active Threats and Protection Policies: Summary of Findings 26

Discussion and Recommendations 34

Literature Cited and Reviewed 38

Appendix I Primary Data Providers and Contributors 52

Appendix II Sea Turtle Threats Survey 61

Appendix III Wider Caribbean Region Sea Turtle Habitat National Reports 65

Anguilla (GB) 66
Antigua & Barbuda 70
Aruba (NL) 75
Bahamas 79
Barbados 83
Belize 87
Bermuda (GB) 91
Bonaire (AN-NL) 95
Brazil 99
British Virgin Islands (GB) 111






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Cayman Islands (GB) 115
Colombia 119
Costa Rica 126
Cuba 130
Curagao (AN-NL) 134
Dominica 138
Dominican Republic 142
French Guiana (FR) 146
Grenada 150
Guadeloupe (FR) 154
Guatemala 158
Guyana 162
Haiti 166
Honduras 170
Jamaica 174
Martinique (FR) 178
Mexico 182
Montserrat (GB) 195
Nicaragua 199
Panama 203
Puerto Rico (US) 207
Saba (AN-NL) 211
Saint Kitts & Nevis 213
Saint Lucia 217
Saint Vincent & the Grenadines 221
Sint Eustatius (AN-NL) 227
Sint Maarten (AN-NL) 231
Suriname 235
Trinidad & Tobago 239
Turks & Caicos Islands (GB) 245
United States Virgin Islands (US) 249
USA 254
Venezuela 263






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6




*
List of Figures and Tables


Figure 1. 14
Caribbean Marine Ecoregions (adapted from Spalding et al. 2007).

Figure 2. 16
Sea turtles nest seasonally at 1,311 sites in 43 countries and territories of the Wider
Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 3. 18
Frequency distribution of sea turtle species associated with the 2,535 species-specific
nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 4. 19
All known nesting sites (n=552) for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Wider
Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 5. 20
All known nesting sites (n=593) for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Wider
Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 6. 21
All known nesting sites (n=470) for leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the
Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 7. 22
All known nesting sites (n=817) for hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the
Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 8. 23
All known nesting sites (n=41) for Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the
Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 9. 24
All known nesting sites (n=62) for olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) in the
Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

Figure 10. 25
Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per year among the 2,535 identified spe-
cies-specific nesting sites for sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Figure 11. 25
Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per species per year for the 2,535 iden-
tified species-specific nesting sites for sea turtle in the Wider Caribbean Region.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Figure 12. 26
Summary of legal regimes protecting sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region, and in-
cluding Bermuda and Brazil.



Table 1. 17
Presence of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Table 2. 18
Number of identified nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermu-
da and Brazil.

Table 3. 27
Threats to sea turtles (on the nesting beach, at sea) in the Wider Caribbean Region. The
proportion of Wider Caribbean nations and territories citing the factor as both present
and constituting a threat to sea turtles.

Table 4. 28
National policy for the protection of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Table 5. 30
Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Table 6. 32
Threats to sea turtles at sea (foraging/migration) in the Wider Caribbean Region.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6





*
Introduction

Sea turtles are late-maturing and long-lived, and are among the most migratory of all Caribbean
fauna. Threats accumulate over long periods of time and can occur anywhere in a population's
range; thus population declines have typically resulted from a combination of factors, both
domestic and foreign. In addition to centuries of largely unmanaged and unsustainable exploita-
tion, sea turtles are accidentally captured in active or abandoned fishing gear, resulting in death
to some tens (and perhaps hundreds) of thousands of turtles annually. Moreover, reef and
seagrass degradation, oil spills, chemical waste, persistent plastic and other marine debris, high
density coastal development, and an increase in ocean-based tourism have damaged or elim-
inated many Caribbean nesting beaches and feeding grounds.

Six sea turtle species are indigenous to the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR).1 All are classified
by the World Conservation Union as "Endangered" or "Critically Endangered" (IUCN 2004). All
six species are listed on Annex II (full protection) of the Protocol concerning Specially Protected
Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol) to the Convention for the Protection and Development of
the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention); Appendix I
(full protection) of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS); Appendix I of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); and, most
recently, recognized as being in need of "protection, conservation and recovery" throughout the
hemisphere by the Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea
Turtles (Hykle 1999, Wold 2002).

In general, and notwithstanding welcome signs of population increase at some protected nest-
ing grounds (Leatherback: Dutton et al. 2005, Green Turtle: Troeng and Rankin 2005; Hawks-
bill: Krueger et al. 2003, Richardson et al. 2004, Diez and van Dam, Chelonia Inc., unpubl. data;
Kemp's Ridley: Marquez et al. 1999), sea turtle populations throughout the WCR are so
severely reduced from historical levels (Carr 1956, Parsons 1962, Rebel 1974, King 1982,
Groombridge and Luxmoore 1989, Ross et al. 1989, Reichart 1993, Jackson 1997, Meylan and
Donnelly 1999, Fleming 2001, Bjorndal and Bolten 2003, Godley et al. 2004, Brautigam and
Eckert 2006) as to be considered by Bjorndal and Jackson (2003) "virtually extinct" from the
standpoint of their role in Caribbean marine ecosystems. Once considered inexhaustible, some
of the largest nesting colonies in the hemisphere, including those of green turtles in the Cayman
Islands (Lewis 1940, Aiken et al. 2001) and hawksbill turtles in Chiriqui, Panama (Carr 1956,
Meylan 1999), have all but vanished.

Intergovernmental meetings devoted to addressing shared management concerns have been
convening in the region for more than two decades (e.g. Bacon et al. 1984, Ogren 1989, Eckert
and Abreu Grobois 2001, IUCN 2002). In November 1999, resource managers and scientists

1 The Wider Caribbean Region (see Figure 1) is defined as comprising the States and territories of the insular Carib-
bean (including the Bahamas), the north-eastern sector of South America (Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas),
Central America, Mexico and the USA to 300N latitude, including the waters of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico,
and the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to these States and territories (UNEP 1983). Because of shared sea turtle stocks,
WIDECAST (and thus this report) also embraces Bermuda to the north and Brazil to the south (Frazer 1985).






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


from 29 WCR nations and territories met in the Dominican Republic and unanimously recom-
mended that "appropriate authorities, organizations, civic groups and other stakeholders pro-
mote scientific research, assessment and monitoring of marine turtles and their habitats, and
standardize methods of data collection and analysis." To this end, delegates agreed inter alia
on the need to "identify (locate), characterize, and rank (as to intensity of use and importance
for management) marine turtle nesting and foraging sites", and to "identify, evaluate and rank
threats to marine turtles and their habitats both domestic and, to the extent practicable,
throughout their ranges" (Santo Domingo Declaration: Eckert and Abreu Grobois 2001: vi, viii).

The fundamental need to identify habitat necessary for the survival of the region's sea turtles
has long been recognized, yet the coastal zone remains one of the least protected environ-
ments in the region and unchecked shoreline development is a serious obstacle to sea turtle
conservation in many areas. Emphasizing local partnerships and data-sharing opportunities
enabled by the WIDECAST network, and taking advantage of modern spatial analysis methods,
we have developed the region's first digital landscape of sea turtle nesting beaches. The land-
scape and supporting databases identify, characterize and rank sites based on only the most
up-to-date information, including an exhaustive literature search and nearly two years of inten-
sive collaboration with more than 120 Data Providers in 43 nations and territories.

In addition to unobstructed sandy beaches for egg-laying, sea turtles need healthy coral reef,
seagrass and hard-bottom habitats for food and refuge, as well as safe passage through com-
plex migratory corridors. These habitats are also at risk, mainly due to intense pressures arising
from changes in water quality, patterns of coastal development and land use, and fisheries and
other extractive industries (e.g. UNEP 1989, 2005, Sullivan Sealey and Bustamante 1999,
Eckert and Abreu Grobois 2001, Fleming 2001, Godley et al. 2004, UNEP/GPA/CATHALAC
2004, Brautigam and Eckert 2006, UNEP/GPA 2006). Notwithstanding, quantitative data on the
status and distribution of marine habitat types are scarce, presenting a significant gap in the
management framework of endangered species, such as sea turtles, that rely on them.

With an aim to definitively "identify, characterize, and rank" nesting habitat across this large
region, and to lay the groundwork for doing the same with foraging habitat, we have developed
National Reports, including maps and constituent data, for each of 43 countries and territories in
the WCR (see Appendix III). These National Reports are also inventoried and available for pub-
lic access at www.widecast.orq, as well as in an interactive format at Duke University's OBIS-
SEAMAP (Ocean Biogeographic Information System Spatial Ecological Analysis of Mega-
vertebrate Populations, Halpin et al. 2006) website: http:// seamap.env.duke.edu/.







Goals and Objectives

Recognizing that depleted and/or declining sea turtle stocks are in need of management and
conservation attention is one thing; reversing population declines and monitoring sustained pop-
ulation recovery is another. Because sea turtles are highly migratory during all life history
stages, they rely on critical habitats in many nations and territories for dispersal, forage, refuge,
mating, migration, and nesting. Consequently, what appears as a decline or a recovery in a
local population may be a direct consequence of the activities of people living hundreds or






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


thousands of kilometers away so that effective management must occur cooperatively and
collaboratively across range States.

Information gaps at local, national and regional levels can have significant consequences to
management policy and conservation success at all levels. Chief among these gaps has been
reliable and updated information concerning the location and status of critical habitat, as well as
the distribution and abundance of the annual breeding effort. In the absence of such informa-
tion, inter-jurisdictional collaboration in the conservation of shared sea turtle stocks including
attempts to cooperatively monitor the success of conservation actions by evaluating, in an
integrated way, population trends at regionally important sites is hindered.

Seeking to address key recommendations of the Santo Domingo Declaration (Eckert and Abreu
Grobois 2001) and to promote the survival of Caribbean sea turtles by increasing our under-
standing of population abundance and habitat use, the objectives of this study were to:

Generate the first standardized and geographically comprehensive spatial database of
active sea turtle nesting beaches in the central western Atlantic Ocean;

Inform policy-making regarding the protection of critical habitat, in particular nesting
habitat, by making population and spatial databases, including information on contem-
porary threats to sea turtle survival, publicly available in print and electronic formats;

Contribute essential species and habitat data to the ecoregional planning processes of
international organizations and intergovernmental entities; and

Promote implementation of regional agreements that protect sea turtles and their habitat:
Convention for the Protection and Development of the Wider Caribbean Region, and the
Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles.







Methods

We utilized data from several different sources to generate the database. The primary sources
of information were bilingual (English, Spanish) questionnaires completed by professional sea
turtle researchers, government officials, conservationists, and informed community leaders in 43
nations and territories.2

The questionnaire was circulated to WIDECAST Country Coordinators and other potential Data
Providers by WIDECAST and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Caribbean Marine Programme
Office in 2002, and then re-circulated to capture updated information in May 2006. The ques-

2 Nesting sites were not documented north of 30N latitude, the northern boundary of the Wider Caribbean Region
(UNEP 1983), meaning that, in the case of USA, nesting north of Florida was not included for any species. Logger-
head turtle, Caretta caretta, nests deposited north of Florida comprise less than 10% of the nation's nesting each
year (NOAA and FWS 2007a); nesting by other species north of Florida ranges from extremely rare to occasional.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


tionnaire asked the Data Provider to identify (name) the nesting beaches for each species of
sea turtle known to nest in the country, the location and length of those nesting beaches, the
number of nesting crawls (binned to 'X' [unknown abundance], <25, 25-100, 100-500, 500-1000
and >1000) made by each species per nesting beach per year,3 and the extent to which the
nesting beach is monitored for sea turtle egg-laying and/or hatching activity.

Nesting sites for the purposes of this analysis are defined as operational management units,
rather than strict geographic entities. The reason for this is that nesting sites are defined and
monitored differently in different locations. Sometimes small beaches, proximal but physically
separated, are viewed as a single "nesting beach" or management unit. Conversely, extensive
beach strands, extending hundreds of kilometers in some cases, are oftentimes segmented
(e.g. because of limited human resources or the logistics of beach access) for the purpose of
monitoring and management. In the former case multiple, typically small, habitats might be
coalesced; in the latter case, extensive shorelines might be divided. We worked closely with
Data Providers to be as consistent, as realistic, and as accurate as possible in every case.

To ensure a comparable landscape we focused on a binned average of nesting crawls per year
- namely, fewer than 25 crawls per year, on average; 25 to 100 crawls per year, on average;
and so on. Not all sea turtle population monitoring efforts differentiate between successful and
unsuccessful nesting, so standardizing on "crawls" (embracing both successful egg-laying and
failed attempts) ensured that all countries could participate in a region-wide assessment. More-
over, we did not want to impose on Data Providers for proprietary details on exactly how many
nests are laid each year, knowing that in many cases these carefully collected numbers are
more suitable for peer-reviewed publication.

Important note: Depending on location, the number of nesting crawls may be 2 to
10 times higher than the number of actual nests. The number of these nests
may, in turn, be 2 to 10 times higher than the number of individual females.
Therefore, the number of crawls is a baseline metric not to be confused with the
number of clutches laid, nor with the always much smaller number of reproduc-
tively active individuals.

We compiled a list of governmental and non-governmental Data Providers, including WIDE-
CAST Country Coordinators and other experts (see Appendix I), developed a relationship with
each Data Provider, and kept in close contact with Data Providers in order to assemble the best
available information during the project timeline. In addition to estimating annual crawl abun-
dance, we asked each Data Provider to provide new (or verify existing) information about sea
turtle status, protection policies, and nesting and foraging threats within the jurisdiction of their
nation or territory. We telephoned each Data Provider in early June 2006 to collect detailed in-
formation about sea turtle threats and to answer any remaining questions. Those who could not
be contacted by telephone received a standardized survey (see Appendix II) by mail or e-mail.

We encouraged Data Providers to supply geographic coordinates for nesting beaches. When
these data were not available, we located nesting beaches from national maps or other sources.
Data from all sources were compiled and annotated in a single ExcelTM file with a separate
worksheet for each country or territory. Finally, a thorough literature review was conducted to
compile nesting site location information and analyze data from peer-reviewed literature, project
reports, national recovery plans, regional assessments, and unpublished manuscripts.

3 The project focused on nesting crawls, including both successful and unsuccessful nesting attempts, as the com-
mon metric to characterize habitat use and estimate population size.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


The spatial organization of the data follows the concept of "Ecoregions" as defined by The
Nature Conservancy (cf. Spalding et al. 2007) (Figure 1). For each country and territory the
dataset includes nesting site data (beach name, latitude and longitude, approximate length,
number of crawls for each species present, activity status [confirming that the nesting beach is
currently active; historical nesting beaches no longer in use were excluded], beach monitoring
status [confirming whether nesting activity is recorded daily, weekly, irregularly, etc.], and the
time period over which the data were collected), Data Provider information, detailed notes on
data points, and references for sources of data other than the primary Data Providers.


Figure 1. Caribbean Marine Ecoregions (adapted from Spalding et al. 2007).


Each data point was given a confidence rating of High, Moderate or Low. A High rating was
assigned to data received and verified directly from WIDECAST Country Coordinators, active
researchers, or other local experts, and to datasets derived from peer-reviewed published liter-
ature or published project reports less than 10 years old. A Moderate rating was assigned to
datasets for which we were not personally familiar with the data source or how the data were
collected, as well as to datasets 10 to 20 years old. A Low rating was given to datasets derived
from non-expert or opportunistic observations, and to datasets more than 20 years old. In this
way we were able to include the most recent nesting data available, while also identifying areas
characterized by outdated information that would benefit from population monitoring efforts.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Data for individual countries and territories were combined to generate regional point and line
shapefiles for nesting habitat using ESRI ArcGISTM version 9.1. Point shapefiles were generated
using latitude and longitude coordinates for each nesting beach. When locations were known,
such as from GPS-based studies, these latitudes and longitudes were used. When locations
were not known, they were estimated with the assistance of Data Providers and local maps.
Nesting site coordinates should be considered approximate, as beach boundaries may change
within and between years. Coordinates are located at the approximate midpoint of each beach.
Line shapefiles were created using nesting beach start and end coordinates, generating a box
around the beach, and clipping the beach from the GSHHS (Global, Self-consistent, Hier-
archical, High-Resolution Shoreline) (Wessel and Smith 1996) shoreline shapefile. The GSHHS
shoreline shapefile has varying resolution depending on geographic location, as it was genera-
ted by combining data in the World Data Bank (resolutions between 500-5000m) and the World
Vector Shoreline (resolutions between 50-500m) (Wessel and Smith 1996). All shapefiles are
projected using the World Geodetic System, Datum 1984 and are in units of decimal degrees.

Inevitably more information was available for some countries than for others. Supplemental data
were often collected through literature reviews, but in some cases (e.g. Haiti, St. Vincent and
the Grenadines) relevant data are extremely scarce from any source. Supplemental data were
also collected through literature reviews to complete the protection policies and threats matrices
when a full suite of information was not available from local Data Providers.

After assembling and organizing all available data, draft maps, reports and database tables
were closely reviewed by the Data Providers. Each National Report (see Appendix III) features
maps of all known sea turtle nesting sites, including species-specific landscapes (historical
nesting beaches are not included if nesting no longer occurs), and tables representing sea turtle
status, protection policies, and contemporary threats to nesting and foraging turtles and habitat.

National Reports (and summary tables) are organized by Ecoregion (TNC 2003, Spalding et al.
2007) and presented as follows: Bahamian, Greater Antilles, Eastern Caribbean, Guianan,
Southern Caribbean, Southwestern Caribbean, Western Caribbean, Southern Gulf of Mexico,
Northern Gulf of Mexico, and Floridian, followed by Bermuda and Brazil. Uniquely coded Beach
Identification Numbers correspond to the underlying database compiled for each country.

Monitoring green turtles on Mona Island, Puerto Rico (photo by Scott Eckert, WIDECAST), Kemp's ridley turtles at Padre Island
National Seashore, USA (photo by Jaime Pena, GPZ), and hawksbill turtles at Carriacou, Grenada (photo by KIDO Foundation).






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6






Results

Species Distribution: Summary of Findings

The assessment involved nearly two years of collaboration with more than 120 Data Providers
and local experts, resulting in a digital inventory of all known sea turtle nesting sites, including
geographic location, colony size, the degree of legal protection afforded nesting females and
their young, and contemporary threats to population survival. Six species nest seasonally on
the continental and island shorelines of the WCR (Table 1). Hawksbills and green turtles nest in
virtually every country, followed by leatherbacks, loggerheads, olive ridleys and Kemp's ridleys,
the latter restricted to nesting sites in the USA and Mexico. In total, 1,311 discrete nesting sites
are identified in 43 countries and territories extending from Bermuda, a British Overseas Terri-
tory in the North Atlantic, south to Brazil (Figure 2). Because discrete sites are sometimes
associated with multiple species, Table 2 reflects a total of 2,535 species-specific nesting sites.


Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat
in the Wider Caribbean Region


so


Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat
GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline
0 Kilometers
0 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000


N

A-


Figure 2. Sea turtles nest seasonally at 1,311 sites in 43 countries and territories
Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.


of the Wider







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Table 1. Presence of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.
Loggerhead Green Leatherback Hawksbill Kemp's Ridley Olive Ridley
Marine Ecoregions Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle Turtle
with Countries/Territories Caretta Chelonia Dermochelys Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Lepidochelys
caretta mydas coriacea imbricata kempfi olivacea
Bahamian
Bahamas N, F N, F N N, F A I
Turks & Caicos Islands (GB) N, IF N, F I N, F A? A?
Greater Antilles
Cuba N, F N, F IN, IF N, F A I
Cayman Islands (GB) N, IF N, F A F A A
Jamaica N, IF N, F N N, F A? A
Haiti N, F N, F N, F? N, F A A
Dominican Republic N, I N, F N N, F A A
Puerto Rico (US) I N, F N, F N, F A I
Eastern Caribbean
British Virgin Islands (GB) IN, IF N, F N N, F A A
US Virgin Islands (US) I N, F N N, F A A
Anguilla (GB) F N, F N N, F A A
Sint Maarten (AN) I N, F N N, F A A
Saba (AN) I IN, F I IN, F A A
Sint Eustatius (AN) IN N, F N N, F A A
Saint Kitts & Nevis I N, F N N, F A A
Antigua & Barbuda I N, F N N, F A A
Montserrat (GB) IN, F? N, F IN, F? N, F A A
Guadeloupe (FR) F N, F N, IF N, F A I
Dominica I N, F N N, F A A
Martinique (FR) F IN, F N, F? N, F A I
Saint Lucia I N, F N N, F A A
Barbados I, F? N, F N N, F A A
Saint Vincent & Grenadines I N, F N N, F A A
Grenada F F N N, F A I
Guianan
French Guiana (FR) I N, F N IN A N
Suriname IF N N N A N, F
Guyana I N,F N N A I
Southern Caribbean
Trinidad & Tobago I N, F N, F N, F A IN, IF
Venezuela N, F N, F N, F N, F A A
Bonaire (AN) N N, F I N, F A A
Curacao (AN) N, F N, F N, IF N, F A I
Aruba (NL) N, IF N, F N N, F A I
Southwestern Caribbean
Colombia N, F N, F N, F? N, F A I
Panama IN, F IN, F N N,F A A
Costa Rica N, F N, F N N, F A A
Nicaragua F N, F N, IF N, F A A
Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida
Honduras N, F N, F N N, F A A
Guatemala N, F N, F N N, F A A
Belize N, F N, F I N, F A? A
Mexico N,F N, F N, F N, F N, F A
USA N,F N,F N,F IN, F N, F A
Bermuda
Bermuda (GB) IN, IF IN, F IF F I A
Brazilian
Brazil N, F N, F N, F? N, F A N, F
N = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Large nesting colonies are rare. Sites receiving more than 500 crawls per year comprise be-
tween <1% and 8% of species-specific totals (Table 2). The largest majority of sites host ex-
tremely small colonies characterized by fewer than 25 crawls per year (perhaps 3-10 individual
turtles). A variable number (0% 33%) of sites for each species are known to support nesting,
but reliable census data pertaining to colony size are not presently available (Table 2).

Table 2. Number of identified nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and
including Bermuda and Brazil.
Number of crawls per year (proportion of total)
Species Total
X <25 25-100 100-500 500-1000 >1000
ere T e 552 76 (.14) 228 (.41) 121 (.22) 87 (.16) 14 (.03) 26 (.05)
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle
e na ds 593 142(.24) 308(.52) 66(.11) 45(.08) 17(.03) 15(.03)
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
ea e a e470 101(.21) 271(.58) 60 (.13) 24 (.05) 4 (.01) 10(.02)
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
e el n ata) 817 268 (.33) 423 (.52) 90(.11) 22 (.03) 11 (.01) 3 (.004)
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle
S 41 0 (.00) 25 (.61) 2 (.05) 11 (.27) 0 (.00) 3 (.07)
(Lepidochelys kemp)i)
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea) 62 5 (.08) 28 (.45) 13(.21) 13(.21) 2 (.03) 1 (.02)
% = Pres::'crni r VlJuln m rn U :ri:.;l 77 7 'Lin;l7.:i r

Collectively, one-third of the identified species-specific nesting sites support hawksbill sea tur-
tles, while approximately 20% support loggerhead, green, or leatherback sea turtles. In contrast,
comparatively few sites support nesting by Kemp's ridley or olive ridley sea turtles (Figure 3).

35


0 25

20
I 20
Z
S15

I 10


Loggerhead Green Turtle Leatherback Hawksbill
Turtle Turtle Turtle
Sea Turtle Species


Kemp's Ridley
Turtle


Figure 3. Frequency distribution of sea turtle species associated with the 2,535 species-specific
nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.


Olive Ridley
Turtle


F_ MM


r






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) generally nest in more temperate latitudes than do
other Caribbean sea turtle species. The majority of nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region
occurs in the USA (Florida)4, where all but 1 of 40 beaches identified as having greater than 500
crawls per year are located (the other is located in Brazil) (Figure 4). Sites reporting between
100 and 500 crawls per year follow the same pattern, being clustered in the northern (Bahamas,
Cuba, Mexico, USA) and southern (Brazil) extremes of the region. Forty-one percent of all
known nesting beaches support fewer than 25 crawls per year; in 14% of sites, data are insuffi-
cient to estimate annual crawl abundance.5 Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail,
and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual
nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories.

1 0


Loggerh
SNesting

Wider C
C1


O .r?^g0


Loggerhead Nesting Habita
SX Crawls per year
o <25 Crawls per year
25-100 Crawls per year
100-500 Crawls per year
500-1000 Crawls per year
>1000 Crawls per year
- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


2,000 3,000 )


Kilometers
4,000


Figure 4. All known nesting sites (n=552) for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the
Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.


4 In all cases (Figures 4-9), in keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean
Region (UNEP 1983), only nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and
included in analyses. Nests deposited north of Florida comprise less than 10% of the nation's loggerhead sea turtle
nesting each year (NOAA and FWS 2007a).
5 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to
estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the "fewer than 25
crawls per year" category.


ead Sea Turtle
Habitat in the

:aribbean Region


0 5001,000


I I


mL~






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) nest throughout the Wider Caribbean Region (Figure 5).
Tortuguero Beach in Costa Rica recorded over 50,000 crawls during the 2005 nesting season
(de Haro and Troeng 2006a) and is by far the largest nesting colony of green turtles in the
region. The 32 beaches reporting more than 500 crawls per year are broadly distributed along
the continental margins of Brazil, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Mexico, Suriname, and the USA
(Florida)6; the only insular sites in this category are in Venezuela (Aves Island) and Cuba. More
than half (52%) of all known nesting beaches support fewer than 25 crawls per year; in 24% of
sites, data are insufficient to estimate annual crawl abundance.7 Refer to Table 1 and Table 2
for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abun-
dance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories.


Green Nesting Habitat
o X Crawls per year
a <25 Crawls per year
a 25-100 Crawls per year
0 100-500 Crawls per year
* 500-1000 Crawls per year
* >1000 Crawls per year
- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


0 500 1,000


2,000 3,000 ) 4.000


Figure 5. All known nesting sites (n=593) for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Wider
Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.


6 In keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), only
nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and included in analyses.
Nesting is rarely reported north of Florida (Woodson and Webster 1999, Williams et al. 2006).

7 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to
estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the "fewer than 25
crawls per year" category.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Many of the largest leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nesting colonies in the world
are found in the Wider Caribbean Region. Ten colonies with more than 1,000 crawls per year
are clustered in the southern (and mostly southeastern) sector of the region (Panama, Trinidad,
Suriname, French Guiana). Four additional sites report between 500 and 1,000 crawls per year
and are more broadly distributed, located in Costa Rica, Guyana, Suriname, and the US Virgin
Islands (Figure 6).8 More than half (58%) of all known nesting beaches support very small
colonies, fewer than 25 crawls per year, and 21% have unknown crawl abundances.9 Refer to
Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the
distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and
territories.


Leatherback Sea Turtle
Nesting Habitat in the
SWider Caribbean Region
R7~~e$


Leatherback Nesting Habita
o X Crawls peryear
* <25 Crawls per year
* 25-100 Crawls per year
* 100-500 Crawls per year
* 500- 1000 Crawls per year
* > 1000 Crawls per year
--GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


0 500 1,000


N>


I Kilometers
2,000 3,000 ) 4.000


Figure 6. All known nesting sites (n=470) for leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in
the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

8 In keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), only
nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and included in analyses.
Occasional nesting is also reported in Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina and a single nesting is known from
Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland (Rabon et al. 2003).
9 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to
estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the "fewer than 25
crawls per year" category.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) nest in typically low densities throughout the
Wider Caribbean Region and nesting does not occur north of Florida in the USA (Meylan and
Redlow 2006). Only three sites Mona Island (Puerto Rico), the west coast of Barbados, and
Punta Xen (Mexico) support more than 1,000 crawls per year (Figure 7). Five countries report
nesting beaches with between 500 and 1,000 crawls per year, half of these sites are situated
along the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico and the others are located in Barbados, Panama, and
the US Virgin Islands. Thirty-six of 817 (4.4%) nesting beaches support more than 100 crawls
per year, in contrast, 52% receive fewer than 25 crawls per year and 33% have unknown crawl
abundances.10 Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see
Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Carib-
bean nations and territories.


Hawksbill Sea Turtle
Nesting Habitat in the
Wider Caribbean Region
--~ w~-


Hawksbill Nesting H
* X Clawls peryea
* <25 Crawls per y
* 25- 100 Crawls pe
* 100-500 Crawls p
* 500-1000 Crawls
* >1000 Crawls per
__GSHHS Caribbei


0 490 980


r
ear
!r year
>er year
per year
r year
an Shoreline
Kilometers
1,960 2,940 3,920


Figure 7. All known nesting sites (n=817) for hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in
the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.




10 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to
estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the "fewer than 25
crawls per year" category.


I M


i






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) nest exclusively in the northern latitudes of the
Wider Caribbean Region (Figure 8), primarily in Mexico and secondarily in the USA (Texas and
Florida).1 As is the case with the hawksbill turtle (Figure 7), there are only three sites known to
receive more than 1,000 crawls per year. These sites are all located in the state of Tamaulipas,
Mexico; the largest of these Rancho Nuevo received approximately 7,866 nests in 2006
(NOAA and FWS 2007b). Every known nesting site can be characterized in terms of an
estimated number of crawls per year; the majority (61%) receive fewer than 25 crawls per year,
but many small colonies are reported to be increasing. Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for addi-
tional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of
the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories.


" N
d[


j??


Kemp's Ridley Nesting Ha at
0 X Crawls per year
a <25 Crawls per year
o 25-100 Crawls per year
o 100-500 Crawls per year
O 500-1000 Crawls per year
O >1000 Crawls per year
--GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


0 490 980


1,960 2,940 )


* )c


SI dKilometers


3,920


'I~ ~s


Figure 8. All known nesting sites (n=41) for Kemp's ridley sea turtles
the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.


(Lepidochelys kempii) in


11 In keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), only
nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and included in analyses. It is
worth noting, in the context of the restricted reproductive range of this species, that nesting, while extremely rare, also
occurs in Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina ("eight total nests recorded between them": Donna
Shaver, Chief, Division of Sea Turtle Science and Recovery, Padre Island National Seashore, US National Park
Service, in litt. 29 October 2007).


Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle
Nesting Habitat in the
Wider Caribbean Region


~-


.. 11112w


i






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) nest primarily in the Guianas, with the largest
nesting colonies located in Brazil, French Guiana, and Suriname (Figure 9). Relatively minor
nesting occurs in Guyana and occasional nesting is reported in Trinidad and Tobago, Curagao,
and other southern Caribbean locations. Nearly half (45%) of all nesting sites support fewer
than 25 crawls per year; only 8% of sites are associated with unknown crawl abundances.12 A
decline of more than 90% in the number of breeding-age adults in Suriname, until recently the
region's largest olive ridley nesting colony, is attributed to fisheries interactions (summarized by
Reichart and Fretey 1993, Reichart et al. 2003). Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional de-
tail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual
nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories.


Olive Ridley Nesting Habita
X Crawls per year
o <25 Crawls per year
25-100 Crawls per year
100-500 Crawls per year
500-1000 Crawls per year
>1000 Crawls per year
GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


0 485 970


1,940 2,910 )


SKilometers
3,880


Figure 9. All known nesting sites (n=62) for olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) in
the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.




12 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to
estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the "fewer than 25
crawls per year" category.


Olive Ridley Sea Turtle
Nesting Habitat in the
Wider Caribbean Region


i


I M







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



In summary, a large majority (50.6%) of nesting sites receive fewer than 25 crawls per year by
any particular species. In contrast, 13.9%, 8.0%, 1.9% and 2.3% receive an estimated 25 to
100, 100 to 500, 500 to 1,000 or more than 1,000 crawls per year, respectively (Figure 10). Ap-
proximately one in four (23.4%) sites cannot, with the information available, be characterized
and ranked by colony size. These are unlikely to be high density nesting grounds. The frequen-
cy distribution for individual species illustrates a similar pattern, although species specific differ-
ences are evident (Figure 11).


50
-

S40
-







0)
10 --


25-100


100-500 500-1000


>1000


Crawls per year

Figure 10. Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per year among the 2,535 identified
species-specific nesting sites for sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.


60

. 50

Z 40
o
E 30

20
U1
10


X <25 25-100 100-500 500-1000 >1000
Crawls per year


Figure 11. Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per species per year for the 2,535
identified species-specific nesting sites for sea turtle in the Wider Caribbean Region.


- U





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6

Active Threats and Protection Policies: Summary of Findings
Of the 43 nations and territories examined, 29 have legislated indefinite complete protection for
sea turtles; in addition to these, Anguilla has adopted a moratorium set to expire in 2020 (Figure
12, Table 4). Eight of the 30 nations and territories, including Anguilla, where sea turtles are
protected year-around, provide for exceptions relating to "traditional" or "subsistence" exploita-
tion. Of these 30 jurisdictions, 22 report the taking of turtles on the nesting beach, 21 report the
taking of turtles at sea, and 22 report the collection of eggs, all in contravention of existing law;
only five describe enforcement of sea turtle protection laws as "adequate".
Thirteen nations and territories operate under regulatory regimes that leave one or more
species seasonally subject to exploitation; with the singular exception of the Cayman Islands
(which recently legislated maximum size limits for the sea turtle fishery), minimum size limits are
the norm.


Completely Protected
Protected (Exemptions for Tradit


l Legal Fisheries
mmomm=-= Kilometers
0 1,000 2,000


Legal Status.of
Sea Turtles within
Exclusive Economic
Zones (EEZs) for the
Wider Caribbean

Region









ional Uses)

r


Figure 12. Summary of legal regimes protecting sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region, and
including Bermuda and Brazil.

In addition to the legal and illegal exploitation of sea turtles and eggs, habitat loss (e.g. beach
erosion, coral reef degradation, artificial beachfront lighting, pollution) and fisheries interactions


c~ bi



i
I ~ I
L. i
j
--2~,_---~1


'


r:






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


top a long list of factors (see Table 3) that threaten the survival of Caribbean sea turtles at their
nesting (Table 5) and foraging (Table 6) grounds. From a region-wide perspective, mechanized
beach cleaning, beach rebuilding (nourishment), offshore lighting, and power plant entrapment
would appear to be least threatening to sea turtle populations.


Table 3. The proportion of Wider Caribbean nations and territories (n=41 in the case of nesting
beaches, nesting being insignificant in Bermuda and Saba; n=43 in the case of foraging
grounds) citing the factor as both present and constituting a threat to sea turtles. Data were as-
sembled from responses to a standardized survey (see Appendix II) completed by local experts
in each jurisdiction. The proportion of nations and territories characterizing the threat as "Fre-
quent" appears in parentheses; this proportion does not differentiate between "Frequent" (F) on
a national scale and "Frequent in Some Areas" (FA).


Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the
Wider Caribbean Region.
Beach Erosion/Accretion .95 (.21)
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors .95 (.18)
Artificial Lighting .85 (.46)
Egg Collection by Humans .85 (.37)
Killing of Nesting Females by Humans .83 (.24)
Pollution .83 (.21)
Nest Loss to Predators .78 (.19)
Exotic (or Loss of Native) Vegetation .68 (.43)
Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other Obstacles .68 (.39)
Beach Vehicular Use .68 (.39)
Sand Mining .68 (.36)
Harassment Due to Increased Human Presence .66 (.19)
Beach Armouring/Stabilization Structures .59 (.17)
Livestock Presence on the Beach .56 (.13)
Mechanized Beach Cleaning .39 (.31)
Beach Nourishment .34 (.07)
Killing of Nesting Females by Predators .32 (.15)

Threats to sea turtles in water (foraging/migration) in the Wider
Caribbean Region.
Pollution .93 (.13)
Fisheries Bycatch .91 (.38)
Entanglement .91 (.26)
Coral Reef Degradation .88 (.13)
Hunting/Poaching .79 (.38)
Predators .77 (.03)
Seagrass Degradation .77 (.09)
Boat/Personal Water Craft Collisions .67 (.07)
Disease/Parasites .67 (.03)
Harassment Due to Increased Human Presence .65 (.14)
Marina and Dock Development .56 (.42)
Dredging .42 (.11)
Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, Transportation .40 (.00)
Offshore Artificial Lighting .21 (.00)
Power Plant Entrapment .14 (.00)







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Table 4. National policy for the protection of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Marine Ecoregions Complete Moratorium Prohibition(s) Closed Minimum Maximum Annual
with Countries/Territories (indefinite) (fixed period) on take season size limits size limits quota
protection
Bahamian
Bahamas No No E, NF, HB Yes Yes No No
Turks & Caicos Islands (GB) No No E, N, NF No Yes No No
Greater Antilles
Cuba Yes* E, N, NF Yes Yes No Yes
Cayman Islands (GB) No* No E, N, NF Yes No Yes Yes
Jamaica Yes __
Haiti No No E, NF Yes No No No
Dominican Republic Yes .
Puerto Rico (US) Yes
Eastern Caribbean
British Virgin Islands (GB) No Yes (LB & LG) E, LB, LG Yes Yes No No
US Virgin Islands (US) Yes
Anguilla (GB) No Yes (until 2020) _
Sint Maarten (AN) Yes
Saba (AN) Yes
Sint Eustatius (AN) Yes __
Saint Kitts & Nevis No No E, N, NF Yes Yes No No
Antigua & Barbuda No No E, N Yes Yes No No
Montserrat (GB) No No No Yes Yes No No
Guadeloupe (FR) Yes ..
Dominica No No E, N, NF Yes Yes No No
Martinique (FR) Yes __
Saint Lucia No No* E, N, NF Yes Yes No No
Barbados Yes
Saint Vincent & Grenadines No No E, N Yes Yes No No
Grenada No No E, N, NF, LB Yes Yes No No
Guianan
French Guiana (FR) Yes
Suriname Yes*
Guyana Yes
Southern Caribbean
Trinidad & Tobago No No E Yes No No No
Venezuela Yes
Bonaire (AN) Yes
Curacao (AN) Yes
Aruba (NL Yes
Southwestern Caribbean
Colombia Yes* HB No No No No
Panama Yes
Costa Rica Yes*
Nicaragua Yes* No Yes No No No
Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida
Honduras Yes* No No No No No
Guatemala Yes* No No No No
Belize Yes* No No No No
Mexico Yes
USA Yes
Bermuda
Bermuda (GB) Yes -
Brazilian
Brazil Yes -
E = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; HB = Hawksbill; LB = Leatherback; LG = Loggerhead; I = Insufficient; See Note(s) in Country Report







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Table 4. National policy for the protection of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.
Reports of Reports of General Penalties
Permits/ Recent pro- Enforcement
Gear Area exploitation/ illegal trade public are an
licenses sections or considered
Restrictions closures sale inter- awareness p s adequate
required penalties adequate
nationally nationally of laws deterrent

No* Yes Yes Yes Yes* No (1) Yes No No
No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Unknown

Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No
Yes No No Yes No No No No No
No Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Yes* Yes Yes Yes Yes* Yes Yes No No

Yes Yes* Yes Yes Yes* Yes Yes* No No
Yes* Yes Yes Yes Yes* Yes Yes No Yes*
Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes
No No* Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes
No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Unknown No Yes
Yes* Yes* Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes
No No No Yes Yes Yes Unknown No No
Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
No No Yes Unknown Yes Yes No Yes
No Yes Yes Yes Yes* Yes Yes No No
No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes
No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown No Yes
Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Unknown

S No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No (1) Yes
No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes* No No
Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown No (I Unknown No Unknown

No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No (1) No
Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Yes No Yes Yes No No (1) No No (I) Yes
No Yes Yes Unknown* Yes No No Yes
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes

No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Unknown No Unknown
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Unknown No Unknown
Yes* Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No (1) Yes* No (I) Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Yes* Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes

Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes

No Yes Yes* No Yes No Yes No (I)
E = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; HB = Hawksbill; LB = Leatherback; LG = Loggerhead; I = Insufficient; See Note(s) in Country Report







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Table 5. Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the Wider Caribbean Region.
Killing of Killing of N Nest Egg H
Nesn of I Nest Loss Harassment
Marine Ecoregions Nesting Nesting Loss to Collection Due to Artifical
with Countries/Territories Females by Females by Predators Abiotic by Lighting
Predators Humans
Humans Predators Factors Humans
Bahamian
Bahamas Yes (R) No No Yes (U) Yes (FA) No Yes (R)
Turks & Caicos Islands (GB) Yes (R) No No Yes (U) Yes (R) No No
Greater Antilles
Cuba Yes(O) No Yes (0) Yes (U) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0)
Cayman Islands (GB) Yes (R) No No Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (0)
Jamaica Yes (F) No Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) No Yes (FA)
Haiti Yes(U) No No Yes (R) Yes (F) No No
Dominican Republic Yes (0) Yes (R) Unknown Unknown Yes (U) No Unknown
Puerto Rico (US) Yes (0) No Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (F)
Eastern Caribbean
British Virgin Islands (GB) Yes (R) No Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (FA) Yes (U)
US Virgin Islands (US) Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (F)
Anguilla (GB) No No Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (U) No Yes (F)
Sint Maarten (AN) Yes (R) No No Yes (U) No Yes (FA) Yes (F)
Saba (AN) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Sint Eustatius (AN) No No No Yes (U) No No Yes (R)
Saint Kitts & Nevis Yes (R) No Yes (0) Yes (U) Yes (R/O) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Antigua & Barbuda No No Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (F)
Montserrat (GB) Yes (R) No Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Unknown Unknown
Guadeloupe (FR) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) No Yes (F)
Dominica Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (0)
Martinique (FR) Yes (0) No Yes (0) Yes (FA) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (F)
Saint Lucia Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0)
Barbados Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (F)
Saint Vincent & Grenadines Yes (0) Unknown Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (FA) Unknown Yes (0)
Grenada Yes (O/F) No Yes (0) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (FA)
Guianan
French Guiana (FR) Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (R/O) Yes (0) Yes (FA)
Suriname No Unknown Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (0) Yes (U)
Guyana Yes(F) No Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (R)
Southern Caribbean
Trinidad & Tobago Yes (F) No Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0)
Venezuela Yes (F) Yes (O/F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (U)
Bonaire (AN) Yes (R) No No Yes (U) No No Yes (R)
Curacao (AN) No No No No No No No
Aruba (NL) No No Yes (R) Yes (0) No Yes (R) Yes (F)
Southwestern Caribbean
Colombia Yes (R/O) Yes (R) Yes (R/O) Yes (U) Yes (F) No Yes (R/O)
Panama Yes (0) No Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (0)
Costa Rica Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) No No
Nicaragua Yes (0) No Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes FA
Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida
Honduras Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (FA)
Guatemala Yes (R) No Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes (R)
Belize No Unknown Yes(U) Yes (U) No Yes (U) Yes (U)
Mexico Yes (O) No Yes(F) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes(F)
USA Yes(R) Yes (R) Yes (O/F) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (R/O) Yes (0)
Bermuda
Bermuda (GB) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Brazilian
Brazil Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (FA)
Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown; NA = Not Applicable







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Table 5. Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the Wider Caribbean Region.
Beach Exotic (or Live-
Beach Beach Beach Mechanized Beach Exotic (or Li
Armouring/ Beach Sand Loss of stock on
Pollution Erosion/ Armo Nourish- Beach Vehicular n N
Stabilization Obstacles Mining Native) the
Accretion ment Cleaning Use
Structures Vegetation Beach

Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (FA) No Yes (0) No No Yes () YesU) No
No No No No No No No No No No

Yes (U) Yes (U) Unknown Yes (FA) Yes (FA) Yes (0) Yes (O) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (0)
No Yes(R) No No Yes R) Yes(R) Yes(R) No Yes(R) No
No Yes(U) Yes(U) No No No No Yes (U) No Yes (U)
Yes(U) Yes(U) No No No No No No No No
Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes (FA) Yes (0) Yes (FA) Yes (F) Yes (R)
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes(R) No Yes (FA) Yes (FA) No Yes(R) Yes(F) Yes (0)

Yes(U) Yes(U) No No Yes(FA) No Yes(R) No Yes(R) Yes(R)
Yes(U) Yes(O) No No Yes U) No Yes (0) No Yes (0) No
No Yes (O) No Yes (0) Yes (F) No Yes (F) Yes (FA) Yes (0) No
Yes(U) Yes(U) No No Yes (0) No Yes (F) No No No
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Yes(U) Yes(O) No No No No Yes (0) Yes (R/O) No Yes (0)
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes(R) Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes(F) Yes (FA) Yes(F) Yes(F)
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R)
Unknown Yes (U) Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Yes (U) Yes (U) Unknown
Yes(U) Yes(U) No No Yes(R) Yes (0) Yes F) YesF) Yes (F) No
Yes(U) Yes(F) Yes (0) Yes(R) Yes (R/O) No Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes(R) Yes(R)
Yes (0) Yes(FA) Yes (F) Unknown No Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes (F) No
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (0) No Yes (0) Yes (0) No Yes (R)
Yes(U) Yes(F) Yes (FA) Yes(R) Yes (FA) Yes (FA) Yes (FA) Yes(R) Yes (F) No
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (0) Yes(R) Yes (0) Yes(R) Yes(R) Yes(F) Yes(R) Yes(R)
Yes(U) Yes(F) Yes (0) No Yes (0) No Yes (0/F) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (F)

No Yes (U) Yes (0) No Yes (FA) Yes (R/0) Yes (R) No No No
Yes(U) Yes(U) No No No No No No No No
Yes(U) Yes(U) No No No No No Yes R) YesR) YesU)

Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) No Yes (U) No Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (R) No
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes () Yes R) Yes F) Yes(R) Yes () Yes () Yes F) Yes ()
Yes(U) Yes(U) No No No No No Yes (FA) No No
No No No No No No No No No Yes(R)
Yes () Yes(O) Yes () Yes (R) Yes F) Yes F) Yes F) No Yes F) No

Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (R/O) No Yes(R) No Yes(U) Yes(R) No Yes (U)
Yes(F) Yes(F) Yes(R) No Yes(R) No Yes(R) Yes (F) No Yes R)
Yes(U) Yes(U) No No No No Yes (0) No Yes (U) No
Yes(F) Yes(FA) Yes (O) No No No No Yes (FA) Yes FA) Yes FA

Yes(F) Yes(F) Yes(R) Yes (U) Yes R) Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes(R) Yes (F) Yes(R)
Yes (F) Yes (R) No No Yes (R) No No No Unknown Yes (U)
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (U) No No No No Yes(U) Yes (U) No
Yes F) Yes(O) Yes F) Yes (O) Yes R) Yes(R) Yes FA) Yes(R) Yes (O) Yes R)
Yes(F) Yes(U) Yes (0) Yes (0) Yes F) Yes F) Yes F) No Yes FA) Yes(R)

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) No Yes (0) No Yes (FA) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (0)
Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown; NA = Not Applicable







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Table 6. Threats to sea turtles at sea (foraging and migration) in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Marine Ecoregions Seagrass Coral Reef Fisheries Hunting/ Pollution Predators Disease/
Pollution Predators
with Countries/Territories Degredation Degredation Bycatch Poaching Parasites

Bahamian
Bahamas Yes (U) Yes (U) No Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Turks & Caicos Islands (GB) Yes Yes Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Greater Antilles
Cuba No Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (R)
Cayman Islands (GB) Unknown Yes (U) Yes (O) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R)
Jamaica No Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes(U) Yes (U) Unknown No
Haiti Yes(U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) No Unknown
Dominican Republic Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R)
Puerto Rico (US) Yes(U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (O) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Eastern Caribbean
British Virgin Islands (GB) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
US Virgin Islands (US) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Anguilla (GB) Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Sint Maarten (AN) Yes(U) Yes (U) Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (U) No Yes (R)
Saba (AN) Yes (U) Yes (U) No Yes (R) Yes (U) Unknown Unknown
Sint Eustatius (AN) Unknown Yes (U) No No Yes (U) Yes (U) No
Saint Kitts & Nevis Yes YesYes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Antigua & Barbuda Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R)
Montserrat (GB) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (U) Unknown Yes (U) Unknown
Guadeloupe (FR) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Dominica Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Unknown Unknown
Martinique (FR) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (R)
Saint Lucia Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R)
Barbados Yes(U) Yes (U) Yes(U) No Yes(U) No Yes (R)
Saint Vincent & Grenadines Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (0) Yes (U) Yes (U) Unknown
Grenada Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (0) Yes (U)
Guianan
French Guiana (FR) No No Yes (F) No No Yes (U) No
Suriname No No Yes (0) No Yes (U) No No
Guyana No No Yes (F) No Unknown Yes (U) No
Southern Caribbean
Trinidad & Tobago Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (R) No
Venezuela Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Bonaire (AN) No Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes(U) Yes (U)
Curacao (AN) No No Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (U) No Yes (U)
Aruba (NL) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) No Yes (0) Unknown Unknown
Southwestern Caribbean
Colombia Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) No
Panama Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (0)
Costa Rica Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (F)
Nicaragua Yes(F) Yes(F) Yes(F) Yes(F) Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes ()
Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida
Honduras Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (F) Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Guatemala Yes (U) Yes (U) Unknown No Yes (F) Yes (U) Unknown
Belize Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes(U) No Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Mexico Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (R)
USA Yes (O) Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes (R) Yes (F) Yes (U) Yes (0)
Bermuda
Bermuda (GB) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (R) No Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (U)
Brazilian
Brazil Unknown Unknown Yes (F) Yes (0) Yes (U) Unknown Yes (U)
Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Table 6. Threats to sea turtles at sea (foraging and migration) in the Wider Caribbean Region.
Harassment Marina & Boat/Personal Offshore
Power Plant Oil & Gas
Due to Dredging Dock Water Craft s Entanglement Artificial
Entrapment Development Lgt
Humans Development Collisions Lighting

No Yes (0) Yes (F) Yes (R) No Yes (U) Yes (R) No
Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (F) Yes (0) No No Yes (R) No

Unknown Yes (U) Yes (U) No No Yes (U) Yes (U) No
Yes (U) No No Yes (R) No No Yes (R) No
No No No No No No Yes (U) No
No No No No No No Yes (U) No
Unknown Yes (R) Yes (FA) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (0) No
Yes (F) Yes(R) Yes (F) Yes (R) No No Yes (F) No

Yes (U) Yes (0) Yes (U) Yes (R) No No Yes (U) No
Yes (U) No No Yes (0) No No Yes (U) No
No Yes (R) Yes (U) No No No Yes (R) No
Yes (R) No Yes (F) Yes (U) No No Yes (U) No
Yes (O) No No No No No Yes (U) No
No No No Yes(R) No Yes (U) No Yes (U)
Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (R/O) No No Yes (0) No
Yes (U) Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes(R) No Yes (U) Yes (R) Yes (R)
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown No Unknown Unknown No
No No Yes (F) No No Unknown Yes (0) No
Yes (U) Yes(R) No Yes(R) No No Yes(F) No
Yes(U) Unknown Yes (FA) Yes (O) No Yes (U) Yes(F) No
Yes(O) No Yes(U) Yes(R) No No Yes (R) No
Yes (FA) No Yes (R) Yes(R) No No Yes (U) No
Yes(O) Yes(O) Yes (0) Yes (0) No No Yes (R) Yes (R)
Yes(F) Yes(F) Yes (F) Yes (O) No No Yes (O) Yes (U)

No No No Yes(R) No Yes (R) Yes(O) No
Yes(O) No No No No No Yes (O) Yes (O)
Yes(R) No No No No No Yes(F) No

No No No Yes(R) No Yes (U) Yes(F) No
Yes(U) Yes(U) Yes (U) Yes (U) No Yes (U) Yes (O/F) Yes (U)
No No Yes(U) No No No Yes (R) No
No No No No No No No No
Yes(U) No Yes(R) Yes (O) No Yes (U) Yes (R) No

Yes (U) No No Yes (R) No Unknown Unknown No
Yes(O) No Yes(R) Yes(U) No Yes(O) Yes(U) No
Yes(U) No No No No Yes (U) Yes (R) No
Yes(F) No Yes(FA) No No Yes (U) Yes(F) No

Yes(O) Yes(R) Yes (R) Yes(R) Yes (R) Yes(O) Yes(U) No
Yes (R) Unknown No Yes (R) No No Yes (F) No
No Yes(U) No No No No Yes(U) No
No No Yes(U) Yes(R) Yes(R) Yes(U) Yes(O) Yes(U)
Yes (R/O) Yes (O/F) Yes (O/F) Yes (O/F) Yes (0 Yes () Yes () Yes (0

Yes(U) Yes(U) No Yes(F) Yes (R) No Yes(F) Yes (R)

Yes(R) Yes (R) Unknown Yes (R) Yes (R) Yes (U) Yes (F) No
Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6




*
discussion and Recommendations

This assessment asks a deceptively simple question: "Where do sea turtles nest in the Wider
Caribbean Region?" An accurate answer is critical to the recovery of depleted populations in
that it relates directly to the setting of priorities for national and international conservation action,
population monitoring and habitat protection, as well as to larger issues of coastal zone man-
agement and land use policy. Taking advantage of modern spatial analysis methods, and in
collaboration with more than 120 Data Providers (Appendix I) and other experts, we have creat-
ed the first regional maps of the distribution and abundance of the annual reproductive effort for
all six species of Caribbean-nesting sea turtles.

Digital templates for collecting, organizing and representing data fundamental to conservation
and management were developed to provide visual summaries of sea turtle presence (including
both distribution and abundance), national protection policies, and a regional landscape of
active threats. The process of developing these templates has stimulated considerable interest
among Caribbean stakeholders in continuing to collaborate both to maintain the resulting data-
bases and to use them to inform policy-making regarding the protection of critical habitat.

By collecting and collating information from field scientists, researchers, government officials,
conservationists and other Data Providers, and conducting a thorough literature review, we
identified areas and sources of high quality sea turtle habitat data, areas where existing infor-
mation is outdated and/or inaccessible, and areas where data do not currently exist. Among the
least accessible information are the geographic coordinates of coastal habitats, emphasizing the
urgent need to collect baseline geospatial data on the distribution and status of important forag-
ing habitat, including coral reef and seagrass environments.

In all, 1,311 discrete nesting sites (generally but not always coincident with natural beach boun-
daries, see Methods) were identified in the 43 nations and territories of the Wider Caribbean
Region (WCR), inclusive of Bermuda to the north and Brazil to the south. Because some sites
host nesting by multiple species, 2,535 species-specific sites were identified. In most countries
the maps (see Appendix III) are deemed comprehensive, but major gaps are presumed to
remain in nations (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Haiti, St. Vincent and the Grenadines) where
a national sea turtle survey has never been documented.

Our research has demonstrated that large nesting colonies are rare. Nesting grounds receiving
more than 1,000 crawls per year range from 0.4% (hawksbill) to 7.0% (Kemp's ridley) of all
known sites. For any species, the far majority (41%-61%, see Table 2) of nesting sites support
fewer than 25 crawls per year, the equivalent of fewer than 10 reproductively active females.

Organized and consistent sea turtle population monitoring effort is still lacking in most areas and
recent data (of any kind) are scarce in some jurisdictions. Two archipelagic States (Bahamas,
St. Vincent and the Grenadines) and Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti) have never been
completely assessed and nesting habitat data provided by local experts in these jurisdictions (as
well as in Antigua and Barbuda, and St. Lucia) are, for the most part, more than a decade old.
Known but unsurveyed (or inconsistently surveyed) nesting sites are marked by an "X" for "un-
known abundance" in the database, identifying gaps that should be filled before a complete






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


landscape of critical habitat can be achieved, and before we can be assured that all major sites
are included in integrated, inter-jurisdictional monitoring programs designed to characterize pop-
ulation trends over biologically relevant landscapes (remembering that sea turtles are migratory)
and evaluate the success or failure of management investment.

It is also clear that while some nations are making exemplary progress in identifying and moni-
toring nesting stocks, others have barely begun and would benefit significantly from the devel-
opment of standardized procedures manuals, peer-training, greater information exchange, and
more consistent financial support. Of the 2,535 species-specific nesting sites identified in the 43
WCR nations and territories surveyed, 23% of these could not be categorized in the simplest
terms of abundance (i.e. <25, 25-100, 100-500, 500-1,000, or >1,000 nesting crawls per year).
The most noteworthy in this regard are the hawksbill and green turtles, where 33% and 24%,
respectively, of known nesting sites are associated with unknown crawl abundances, providing
valuable insight into data gaps and how much we still have to learn about habitat use by these
species. International funding should seek to balance the undisputed value of continuing to sup-
port long-term population datasets, with the necessity of acquiring baseline data in countries
(and for species) for which the least is known.

The majority (30/43 = 69.8%) of nations and territories in the Wider Caribbean Region fully pro-
tect locally occurring sea turtles, but the 'patchwork' approach is less than ideal for species,
such as sea turtles, that are migratory at all life stages. To be effective, the legal framework
protecting sea turtles should be consistent among range States; similarly, habitat protection
policies should be geographically inclusive at the population level and embrace both nesting
and foraging grounds in order to achieve conservation goals. That this is not presently the case
carries consequences for individual turtles swimming between protected and unprotected juris-
dictions, and, presumably, serves to diminish the effectiveness of moratoria and other conser-
vation measures. Recent summaries of WCR sea turtle legislation are available in Fleming
(2001), Chac6n (2002), Reichart et al. (2003), Godley et al. (2004), and Brautigam and Eckert
(2006).

Legal fisheries typically mandate minimum size limits (by weight or shell length) targeting
large juveniles and adults in contradistinction to the best available science on population recov-
ery. Frazer (1989) used the concept of reproductive value a measure of the value to the pop-
ulation of an individual female turtle of a particular age to emphasize the critical importance of
ensuring that large turtles be protected, and noted that the regulatory framework in the WCR
had been focusing sea turtle fisheries "incorrectly for over 350 years". More contemporary
mathematical treatments (e.g. Crowder et al. 1994, Heppell et al. 1999, 2000, 2004) have only
reinforced the conclusion that protecting large juvenile and adult turtles from exploitation is an
essential component of any sustainable sea turtle management regime. While Caribbean fishery
managers recognize that "understanding these [life-history] aspects is fundamental to the
development of management programs" (Santo Domingo Declaration Eckert and Abreu
Grobois, 2001), the regulatory framework has been slow to respond.

Protection of critical habitat nesting beaches, foraging grounds, migratory corridors is less
developed, although many of the beaches that support the region's largest remaining colonies
are in managed or protected status (summarized by Eckert and Hemphill 2005). Protection at
the nesting ground alone is not enough to ensure population survival, as was recently demon-
strated when the world's largest leatherback nesting colony (located on the Pacific coast of
Mexico, where nesting females have been protected since 1990) collapsed as a result of
incidental capture and drowning in the distant gillnet fisheries of Peru and Chile (Eckert and
Sarti 1997). Without first determining stock boundaries and establishing linkages between nest-






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


ing and foraging grounds, and then acting on this information in a policy context to create holis-
tic management regimes, identifying and protecting important nesting sites may not be sufficient
to ensure population survival.

The dataset can also be used to determine and analyze the range of threats potentially encoun-
tered by sea turtles while nesting, foraging and migrating throughout the region, and to generate
a suite of index13 nesting beach sites sufficient to monitor sea turtle populations at biologically
relevant scales. Quantitative assessment and monitoring of threats at national and nesting
beach scales is needed in order to determine whether current sea turtle management efforts
and protection policies are measurably reducing threats to and protecting the habitat of sea tur-
tles throughout the region. Creating a standardized regional framework and protocols for moni-
toring threats using sea turtles as a flagship species could also be used as a model for other
managed species, including migratory species dependent on the success of inter-jurisdictional
collaboration and investment.

With an aim to characterize the full range of risk factors, including those that result in the loss or
degradation of critical habitat, we have constructed regionally inclusive threats matrices which,
while general in nature, represent a first attempt to identify and rank the most serious potential
obstacles to population recovery. The matrices broadly identify the presence or absence and
relative frequency (Rare, Occasional, Frequent, Frequent in a particular Area; see Appendix II)
of nesting threats in each jurisdiction.

With regard to nesting populations, more than 75% of Caribbean nations and territories ack-
nowledge that beach erosion/accretion (and/or nest loss to other physical factors), artificial
beachfront lighting, egg collection by humans, the killing of egg-bearing females, and pollution
threaten the survival of sea turtles at their nesting grounds. Artificial lighting and exotic (or loss
of native) vegetation would appear to be the most geographically pervasive threats, with nearly
half (46% and 43%, respectively) of all countries describing them as "Frequent".

With regard to factors potentially hindering population recovery at foraging grounds, more than
75% of Caribbean nations and territories cite pollution, fisheries bycatch, entanglement, coral
reef and/or seagrass degradation, and losses to hunters, poachers and natural predators as
threatening the survival of sea turtles at their foraging grounds or along migratory corridors.
Marina and dock development and hunting/poaching would appear to be the most geographical-
ly pervasive threats, with 42% and 38% of all countries describing them as "Frequent".

Conversely, mechanized beach cleaning, beach nourishment (beach rebuilding), offshore oil
and gas exploration and development, offshore lighting, and power plant entrapment are cited
as present (and posing a threat to sea turtles) in fewer than half of countries and territories and
could be construed to be less important from a conservation investment perspective, at least on
a regional scale. Fewer than 5% of countries describe at-sea predators, disease/parasites, oil
and gas exploration and development, artificial offshore lighting, or power plant entrapment as a
"Frequent" threat to sea turtles.

13 According to Brautigam and Eckert (2006), "characterizing a site, whether foraging or nesting, as an 'Index' site im-
plies the consistent and long-term application of standardized population monitoring protocols to ensure the data are
suitable for trend analysis. Survey boundaries are specifically set and adhered to from year to year, and the survey
area is representative (i.e. it should attempt to represent a range of threat and protection levels, a variety of turtle life
stages, and a range of turtle population densities). The emphasis of this protocol is on establishing index methods for
measuring trends in relative abundance at fixed locations; therefore, the sampling strategies at each Index site should
ideally be structured in a manner that allows inference to a larger area of interest."






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


In summary, we achieved our objectives in generating the first standardized and geographically
comprehensive spatial database of active sea turtle nesting beaches in the central western
Atlantic Ocean. The data collected and assembled will allow for further research and analysis of
sea turtle abundance (including population trends) and habitat use; for example, in conjunction
with other datasets to determine areas of high biodiversity (e.g. through processes such as The
Nature Conservancy's Ecoregional Planning) or areas in need of urgent protection.

Our hope is that the information collected during the project, and archived and displayed in the
online database (http://seamap.env.duke.edu/), will be ever-improving, updated regularly by
Data Providers in each country or territory, and used to establish conservation and management
priorities, inform local and national land use decisions, and improve policy at national and
regional levels. Through this project, all nations in the WCR have been and will continue to be
encouraged to attain higher levels of data quality, completeness, and compatibility by increasing
their efforts to identify and monitor nesting and foraging sites. Improvement in these areas will
also strengthen implementation of regionally negotiated agreements aimed at sustainably
managing shared marine resources; specifically, the Convention for the Protection and Develop-
ment of the Wider Caribbean Region and the Inter-American Convention for the Protection and
Conservation of Sea Turtles.

Future goals of the project are to research and incorporate seagrass and coral reef data to
determine nationally and regionally significant foraging areas, thus identifying marine areas in
need of management attention and contributing to the development of a network of population
monitoring programs, including juvenile and adult age classes, at index sites. Similarly, there is
a need to research and incorporate genetic data (cf. Bowen and Karl 1996, Encalada et al 1998,
Diaz et al. 1999, Bass 1999, Dutton et al 1999, Bowen et al. 1997, 2005, 2006) into the data-
base in order to: highlight and illustrate linkages between nesting and foraging grounds, create
a dialogue on the need to ensure the survival both of large colonies and a representative
landscape of genetic diversity present in widely distributed remnant stocks, and support efforts
to harmonize management policies among range States.






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6





*

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Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


APPENDIX I


Primary Data Providers and Contributors


Monitoring hawksbill and green sea turtle
populations at Jumby Bay, Antigua
(photo by Martha Gilkes); Rosalie Bay,
Dominica (photo by Rowan Byrnei: and
Mona Island. Puerto Rico
[photo by Chelonia, Inc.)







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


ANGUILLA:
James C. Gumbs
Director
Department of Fisheries
& Marine Resources
Crocus Hill
Anguilla, British West Indies
Tel: (264) 497 2871
Fax: (264) 497 8567
iames.qumbs(.qov.ai

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA:
Cheryl Appleton
Chief Fisheries Officer
Fisheries Division
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands
Marine Resources, and
Aqua-Industries
Fisheries Complex, Pt Wharf
St. John's, Antigua
Tel: (268) 462-1372
fisheries(jantiqua.qov.aq

Tricia Lovell
Fisheries Biologist
Fisheries Division
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands
Marine Resources, and
Aqua-Industries
Fisheries Complex, Pt Wharf
St. John's, Antigua
Tel: (268) 462-1372
fisheries(jantiqua.qov.aq

Dr. James Richardson
Scientific Director
Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project
Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
Tel: (706) 542-6036
JAMESIR(OUGA.EDU

Peri Mason
Associate Scientific Director
Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project
c/o Biology Department
Wesleyan University
Middletown, CT 06459
Peri.Mason(.qmail.com

ARUBA:
Dr. Richard van der Wal
Turtugaruba Foundation
C. Huygensstraat #8


Oranjestad, Aruba
Tel: (297) 582-0400
wal@setarnet.aw

Edith van der Wal
Turtugaruba Foundation
C. Huygensstraat #8
Oranjestad, Aruba
Dutch Caribbean
Tel: (297) 582-0400
wal@setarnet.aw

BAHAMAS:
Eleanor Phillips
Bahamas Program Director
The Nature Conservancy
PO Box CB 11398
Caves Village, Bldg 5 (Ste 2)
West Bay Street
Nassau, Bahamas
Tel: (242) 327-2414
Fax: (242) 327-2417
ephillips(@tnc.orq

Dr. Alan Bolten
Archie Carr Center for Sea
Turtle Research
Department of Zoology
University of Florida
Box 118525
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel: (352) 392-5194
Fax: (352) 392-9166
abb(zooloqy.ufl.edu

Dr. Karen Bjorndal
Director
Archie Carr Center
for Sea Turtle Research
Department of Zoology
University of Florida
Box 118525
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel: (352) 392-5194
Fax: (352) 392-9166
kab(@zooloqy.ufl.edu

BARBADOS:
Dr. Julia Horrocks
Professor
Dept. Biological and
Chemical Sciences
University of the West Indies
Cave Hill Campus
Bridgetown, Barbados


Tel: (246) 417-4320
Fax: (246) 417-4325
horrocks@uwichill.edu.bb

Jennifer Beggs
Staff Biologist
Volunteer/Intern Coordinator
Sea Turtle Conservation and
Research Program
Mote Marine Laboratory
1600 Ken Thompson Pkwy
Sarasota, FL 34236
Tel: (941) 388-4441 x 308
Fax: (941) 388-4317
ibeqqs(mote.org

BELIZE:
Janet Gibson
Wildlife Conservation Society
3 St. Edward Street
Belize City, Belize
Tel: (501) 223-3271
Cell: (501) 610-2090
iqibson@btl.net

Renison Enriquez
Biologist
Glover Reef Marine Reserve
1722 Cnr. Cleghorn and
Bakadeer Street
Belize City, Belize
renisone(@vahoo.com

Isaias Majil
MPA Coordinator
Belize Fisheries Department
Princess Margaret Drive
Belize City, Belize
Tel: (501) 224-4552
Fax: (501) 223-2983
isaiasmaiilk@vahoo.com

BERMUDA:
Jennifer Gray
Coordinator
Biodiversity Strategy and
Action Plan, and
Bermuda Turtle Project
Dept Conservation Services
P.O. Box FL 145
Flatts, FLBX
Bermuda
Tel: (441) 293-4464 x122
Fax: (441) 293-6154
iaqrav-c(.qov.bm







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


BRAZIL:
Maria ('Neca') Marcovaldi
President
Fundagao Pr6-TAMAR
Caixa Postal 2219
Rio V6rmelho
CEP: 41950-970
Salvador-Bahia
Brazil
Tel: 55 +71 3676 1045/1113
Fax: 55 +71 3676 1067
neca(@tamar.orq.br

Also from TAMAR:
Luciano Soares
Alexandro Santos
Claudio Belllini
Augusto Cesar Coelho Dias
da Silva
Gustave Lopez
Joo Carlos Thom6
Eron Paes e Lima
Antonio de Papua Almeida

BRITISH VIRGIN
ISLANDS:
Bertrand Lettsome
Chief
Conserv. & Fisheries Dept.
Ministry of Natural Resources
P. O. Box 3323
Road Town, Tortola BVI
Tel: (284) 494-5681, -5682
Fax: (284) 494-2670
bblettsome(.qov.vq

Mervin Hastings
Marine Biologist
Conserv. & Fisheries Dept.
Ministry of Natural Resources
P. O. Box 3323
Road Town, Tortola BVI
Tel: (284) 494-5681, -5682
Fax: (284) 494-2670
mervin hastinqs@(hotmail.com

Shannon Gore
Marine Biologist
Conserv. & Fisheries Dept.
Ministry of Natural Resources
PO Box 3323
Road Town, Tortola BVI
Tel: (284) 494-5681, -5682
Fax: (284) 494-2670
Sd qore(vahoo.com


CAYMAN ISLANDS:
Gina Ebanks-Petrie
Director
Protection & Conserv. Unit
Department of Environment
P. O. Box 486 GT
Grand Cayman
Cayman Islands
Tel: (345) 949-8469
Fax: (345) 949-4020
Gina.Ebanks-Petrie(.qov.ky

Janice Blumenthal
Research Officer
Department of Environment
P. O. Box 486GT
Grand Cayman
Cayman Islands
Tel: 345-949-8469
Fax: 345-949-4020
ianice.blumenthal@o.ov.ky

Joni Solomon
Research Officer II
Department of Environment
P. O. Box 486GT
Grand Cayman
Cayman Islands
Tel: 345-949-8469
Fax: 345-949-4020
Joni.Solomon(.qov.ky

COLOMBIA:
Elizabeth Taylor
Director General
CORALINA
Carretera San Luis
Bigth Km 26
Isla San Andres
Colombia
Tel: (578) 512-8589
Fax (09851)20081
Coralsai(@telecom.com.co

Zunilda Baldonado
Marine Biologist
CORALINA
Carretera San Luis
Bigth Km 26
Isla San Andres
Colombia
Tel: (578) 512-8589
Fax (09851)20081
zunildabh(@vahoo.com


Claudia Ceballos
Department of Ecology,
Evolution & Organismal
Biology, EEB Program
253 Bessey Way
Iowa State University
Arnes, IA 50011
Tel: (515) 294-6363
ceballos(@iastate.edu

Institute de Investigaciones
Marinas y Costeras
(INVEMAR)
www.invemar.org.co

COSTA RICA:
Didiher Chac6n Chaverri
Coordinator para Latin
America, WIDECAST
Apdo. 170-2070
Sabanilla, San Jos6
Costa Rica
Tel: (506) 224-3570
Fax: (506) 253-7524
dchacon(@widecast.orq

Through Didiher Chacon C.,
data from the following
organizations were provided:

Caribbean Conservation
Corporation
www.cccturtle.org

ASTOP
www.parisminaturtles.org

EWT, Estaci6n Las Tortugas
www.ecoteach.org/Fou ndatio
n/lasTortugas.asp

Tortuga Feliz
www.latortugafeliz.com

CUBA:
F6lix Moncada G.
Biologo Pesquero
Jefe del Programa de
Tortugas Marinas
Centro de Investigaciones
Pesqueras (CIP)
5ta. y 248, Barlovento
Playa, La Habana, Cuba
Tel/Fax: (537) 24 5895
felixmoncada2306(yvahoo.es







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Julia Azanza Ricardo
Centro de Investig. Marinas
Universidad de La Habana
Calle 16 #114 e/ 1ra y 3ra
Playa, La Habana, Cuba
Tel: (537) 203-0617
iulia@cim.uh.cu

Fernando Hernandez
Empresa Nacional para la
Conservaci6n de la Flora y
Fauna
La Habana, Cuba

Rub6n Blanco
Ministerio de Ciencia,
Tecnologia y Medio
Ambiente
Isla de la Juventud
Cuba

DOMINICA:
Seth Stapleton
Project Manager
Rosalie Sea Turtle Initiative
c/o WIDECAST
135 Duke Marine Lab Road
Duke University Marine Lab
Beaufort, NC 28516
seth.stapleton@(qmail.com

Stephen Durand
Assistant Forest Officer
Forestry, Wildlife & Parks Div
Botanic Gardens
Roseau, Dominica
Tel: (767) 448-2401 x 3417
Fax: (767) 448-7999
aimperialis@hotmail.com

Rowan Byrne
University of Wales
Aberystwyth UK
rowanbyv@yahoo.com

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:
Dr. Yolanda M. Le6n
Depto. de Ciencias Basicas y
Ambientales,
Universidad INTEC
and, Grupo Jaragua
Santo Domingo
Republica Dominicana
Tel: (809) 567-9271 x426
ymleon(@intec.edu.do


Jesus Tomas
University of Valencia
Cavanilles Research Institute
Aptdo. 22085
Valencia E-46071
Spain
Tel: 34 96 3543685
iesus.tomas(uv.es

FRENCH GUIANA:
Dr. Benoit de Thoisy
Scientific Coordinator
Association Kwata
BP 672
F-97335 Cayenne cedex
Guyane frangaise
Tel/Fax: (594) 38 73 23
thoisvy nplus.qf

Laurent Kelle
WWF Guianas
Bureau Guyane
Coordinateur Oc6ans/C6tes
5 lot Katoury Route de
Montabo
97 300 Cayenne
Guyane frangaise
Tel/Fax: (594) 31 38 28
Int + 594 594 28 79 33
Ikelle@wwf.fr

Through Benoit de Thoisy,
data from the following
organizations were provided:

Amana Nature Reserve
http://reserve.amana.free.fr

Association S6panguy
www.sepanguy.com

Association Kulalasi

FRENCH WEST INDIES:
Martinique:
S6verine Raign6
Coordinator
Marine Turtle Programme
SEPANMAR
7 impasse Constantin
Sylvestre
97200 Fort de France
Martinique, F.W.I.
Tel: 06.96.43.20.90
severine.raiqne(ool.fr


Claire Cayol
V6t6rinaire
VCAT ONCFS R6seau
Tortues Marines
4, Bvd de Verdun
97200 Fort-de-France
Martinique, F.W.I.
Tel: (596) 71 48 72
(696) 23 42 35
Claire.CAYOL(@martinique.
ecologie.gouv.fr

Jean-claude Nicolas
SEPANMAR
7 impasse Constantin
Sylvestre
97200 Fort de France
Martinique, F.W.I.
Tel: 06.96.43.20.90

Through Claire Cayol, data
from the following organiza-
tions were provided:

KAWAN Association
kawan(wanadoo.fr

AMEPAS
assamepas(@orange.fr

ONF

Mairie de SAINTE-ANNE

MAIRIE du DIAMANT

Guadeloupe:
Eric Delcroix
Animateur R6seau Tortues
Marines Guadeloupe
Association Kap'Natirel
C/Diaz Nicolas
Section BOYER
97129 Lamentin, Guadeloupe
Tel: 0690 81 1234
0590 92 7541
erdelcroix(@wanadoo.fr

Through Eric Delcroix,
data from the following
organizations were provided:

Office National de Forets

L'Association Tite







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


L'Association Kap'Natirel

L'Association Eco-Lambda

Conservatoire du Littoral

La commune de Terre-de-
Haut

Office National de la Chasse
et de la Faune Sauvage

L'Association Evasion
Tropicale

Association Le Gafac

Le Parc National

GRENADA:
Carl Lloyd
Director, Ocean Spirits
P. O. Box 1373
Grand Anse
St. George's, Grenada
Tel: (473) 442-2341
carl(@oceanspirits.orq

Becky King
Director, Ocean Spirits
P. O. Box 1373
Grand Anse
St. George's, Grenada
Tel: (473) 442-2341
beckvy@oceanspirits.orq

Marina Fastigi
Director
YWF-Kido Foundation
Kido Ecol. Research Station
Sanctuary, Carriacou
Grenadines of Grenada
kido-vwf@Sspiceisle.com

Dr. Gregg E. Moore
Research Scientist
Jackson Estuarine Lab
85 Adams Point Road
University of New Hampshire
Durham, NH 03824
Tel: (603) 862-5138
Fax: (603) 862-1101
qreqq.moore(junh.edu


GUATEMALA:
Colum Muccio
Director Administrativo y
Desarrollo, ARCAS
4 Ave. 2-47, Sector B5
Zona 8 Mixco
San Crist6bal, Guatemala
Tel/Fax: (502) 478-4096
(Cell): 5704-2563
arcas@intelnet.net.gt
arcaspeten(@hotmail.com

Anabella Barrios
14 av A 15-10 zona 6
Ciudad Guatemala
Guatemala 01006
Tel: (502) 2 289 4219 /
2 254 7444 /2 289 1164
Fax: (502) 2 289 4219
anabella barrios(vahoo.co
m abarrios(.qua.net

Ana Beatriz Rivas Chacon
Biologa
Fundary Manabique
Ciudad Guatemala
Guatemala 01006
Tel: (502) 2 289 4219 /
2 254 7444 /2 289 1164
Fax: (502) 2 289 4219
ab rivas ch(vahoo.com

Wilma Katz
Coastal Wildlife Club
P. O. Box 22
Englewood, FL 34295
Tel: (941) 473-8618
wilmak@ewol.com

GUYANA:
Annette Arjoon
Vice Chairman
Guyana Marine Turtle
Conservation Society
Le Meridien Pegasus
Kingston, Guyana
Tel: (592) 225-4483/4
Fax: (592) 225-0523
qmtcs(@networksqv.com

Michelle Kalamandeen
Project Coordinator
Guyana Marine Turtle
Conservation Society
Le Meridien Pegasus
Kingston, Guyana


Tel: (592) 225-4483/4
Fax: (592) 225-0523
michellek@bbqy.com

Dr. Peter C.H. Pritchard
Director
Chelonian Research Institute
401 South Central Avenue
Oviedo, FL 32765
Tel: (407) 365-6347
Fax: (407) 977-5142
chelonianRI@aol.com

HAITI:
Jean W. Wiener
Director
Fondation pour la Protection
de la Biodiversite Marine
(FoProBiM)
B.P. 642
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Tel: (509) 401-7829
ieanw@foprobim.orq

HONDURAS:
Carlos Molinero
Coordinator
ZENAC/Tortugas Marinas
MOPAWI
Apdo. Postal 2175
Tegucigalpa
Honduras
Tel/Fax: (504) 235-8659
zonamarina(@vahoo.com.mx

JAMAICA:
Andrea Donaldson
Director, Wildlife Unit
National Environment and
Planning Agency
532 Molynes Road
Kingston 10
Jamaica
Tel: (876) 075740 (ext. 2227)
Fax: (876) 754-7595 (-6)
adonaldson(@nepa.qov.im

Rhema Kerr Bjorkland
Ctr Marine Conservation
Nicholas School Marine
Lab Duke University
135 Duke Marine Lab Road
Beaufort, NC 28516
Fax: (252) 504-7648
rhema.biorkland@duke.edu







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


MEXICO:

National Data Coordinator
Dr. F. Alberto Abreu Grobois
Research Scientist
Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y
Limnologia
Unidad Acad6mica Mazatl6n
Apartado Postal 811
Mazatl6n, Sinaloa
82000 M6xico
Tel: 52 (669) 985-2848
Alberto.abreu(iola.icmvl.unam.mx

State Data Providers

Campeche:
Vicente Guzman Hernandez
Jefe de Proyecto Tortugas
Marinas
Dir. Gral. de Vida Silvestre
Del. SEMARNAT Campeche
Oficina Regional Carmen
Av L6pez Mateos x Av.
Heroes del 21 de abril s/n
col. playa norte
Cd. del Carmen, Campeche
M6xico. C.P. 24120
Tel: 52 (938) 382-6270
vquzman(@conanp.qob.mx

Through Vicente Guzman
Hernandez, data from the
following organizations were
provided:

Marea Azul

Ecologia

Grupo Ecologista Quelnios
A.C.

Universidad Aut6noma de
Campeche

PEP-UPMP

La Universidad Aut6noma
del Carmen

Enlaces con tu Entorno

Laguna de T6rminos Area de
Protecci6n de Flora y Fauna
(APFFLT)


Secretaria de Medio
Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales (SEMARNAT)

Yucatan:
Eduardo Cuevas
ProNatura
Calle 32 No. 269
Col. Pinz6n II
M6rida, Yucatan
M6xico. C.P. 97207
Tel: 52 (999) 988-4436
ecuevas(S@pronatura-ppy.or .mx

Augusto Segovia
Yucatan Environment
Ministry

Ren6 Kantin
CONANP

Ria Lagartos Reserva de la
Biosfera

Veracruz:
Adriana Laura Sarti M.
Coordinadora de Proyecto
CONANP
Uxmal 313, Col. Narvarte
M6xico D.F. 3020
M6xico
Tel: (52 55) 56 87 27 31
Fax: (52 55) 56 87 27 31
Isarti(@avantel.net

Tamaulipas:
Patrick Burchfield
Gladys Porter Zoo
ridlevy .qpz.orq

Luis Jaime Penia
Gladys Porter Zoo
ridlevy .qpz.orq

Through Patrick Burchfield
and Luis Jaime Pefia, data
from the following organiza-
tions were provided:

Institute Nacional de la Pesca

Texas Parks and Wildlife
Department

NOAA National Marine
Fisheries Service


US Fish and Wildlife Service

Comision Nacional de Areas
Naturales Protegidas
(CONANP)

Secretaria de Medio
Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales (SEMARNAT)

Quintana Roo:
Alejandro Arenas
Flora Fauna y Cultura de
M6xico, A. C.
www.florafaunaycultura.org

Iiaky Iturbe
Flora Fauna y Cultura de
M6xico, A. C.
www.florafaunavcultura.org

Roberto Herrera
Flora Fauna y Cultura de
M6xico, A. C.
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur
www.florafaunavcultura.org

Through F. Alberto Abreu
Grobois, data from the
following organizations were
provided:

Centro Ecol6gico Akumal

Secretaria de Medio
Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales (SEMARNAT)

MONTSERRAT:
John Jeffers
Chief Fisheries Officer
Ministry of Agriculture, Trade
& Environment
P. O. Box 272
Grove Botanic Station
Montserrat
Tel: (664) 491-2075
Fax: (664) 491-9275

NETHERLANDS
ANTILLES:
Curagao:
Brian Leysner, Manager
Curagao Underwater Park
CARMABI (POB 2090)







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Curagao
Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599 9) 462-4242
leysner(cura.net

Paul Hoetjes
Senior Policy Advisor
Department of Environment
and Nature (MINA)
Ministry of Public Health and
Social Development (VSO)
Schouwburgweg 26
APNA building, Curagao
Netherlands Antilles
Tel. (599-9) 466-9307
Fax: (599-9) 461-0254
paul@mina.vomil.an

Bonaire:
Mabel Nava
Project Director
Sea Turtle Conserv. Bonaire
Kaya Aquamarine 14
P. O. Box 492, Bonaire
Netherlands Antilles
Tel/Fax: (599) 717-5074
navamabel(@hotmail.com

Imre Esser
President
Sea Turtle Conserv. Bonaire
Kaya Aquamarine 14
P. O. Box 492, Bonaire
Netherlands Antilles
Tel/Fax: (599) 717-5074
stcb(@bonaireturtles.orq

Kalli De Meyer
Executive Director
Dutch Caribbean Nature
Alliance (DCNA)
c/o Caribbean Club
Bara di Karta z/n
Hilltop, Bonaire
Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599) 717-5010
Cell: (599) 786-0675
kdm@telbonet.an

Saba:
Jan den Dulk
Manager
Saba Marine Park/Saba
Hyperbaric Facility
P. O. Box 18
The Bottom, Saba


Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599) 416-3295
Fax: (599) 416-3435
snmp@(unspoiledqueen.com

Susan Hurrell
Saba Marine Park/Saba
Hyperbaric Facility
P. O. Box 18
The Bottom, Saba
Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599) 416-3295
Fax: (599) 416-3435
sabasusan(@yahoo.com

Sint Maarten:
Beverly May Nisbeth
Manager
St. Maarten Marine Park
Nature Found. Sint Maarten
Wellsburg Street 1A
Fisherman's Wharf unit 25-26
Cole Bay, Sint Maarten
Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599) 544-4267
Fax: (599) 544-4268
naturesxm(@meqatropic.com

Dominique Vissenberg
Education Coordinator
Nation Found. St. Maarten
Wellsburg Street 1A
Fisherman's Wharf unit 25-26
Cole Bay, Sint Maarten
Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599) 544-4267
Fax: (599) 544-4268
domiviss(@yahoo.com

Andy Caballero
Vice Chairman
Nature Found. Sint Maarten
Wellsburg Street 1A
Fisherman's Wharf unit 25-26
Cole Bay, Sint Maarten
Netherlands Antilles
andvy@naturefoundationsxm.orq


St. Eustatius:
Nicole Esteban, Manager
St. Eustatius National and
Marine Parks
Gallows Bay, St. Eustatius
Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599) 3 182884


Fax: (599)3 182913
manaqer(@statiapark.orq

Arturo Herrera
Sea Turtle Coordinator
St Eustatius National and
Marine Parks
Gallows Bay, St. Eustatius
Netherlands Antilles
Tel: (599) 3 182884
Fax: (599)3 182913
research(@statiapark.orq

Dr. Emma Harrison
Scientific Director
Caribbean Conservation
Corporation
Apartado Postal 246-2050
San Pedro, Costa Rica
Tel: (506) 297-5510
emma(@cccturtle.orq

NICARAGUA:
Dr. Cynthia Lagueux
Conservation Zoologist
Wildlife Conservation Society
Apartado Postal 59
Bluefields, RAAS, Nicaragua
Tel/Fax: (505) 822-1410,
822-2344
claqueux(@wcs.orq

Dr. Cathi Campbell
Assoc Conservation Scientist
Wildlife Conservation Society
Apartado Postal 59
Bluefields, RAAS, Nicaragua
Tel/Fax: (505) 572-0506
ccampbell(wcs.orq

PANAMA:
Argelis Ruiz, Manager
Ctr Tropical Paleoecology
& Archaeology (CTPA)
Smithsonian Tropical
Research Institute (STRI)
P. O. Box 2072,
Balboa, Panama
Tel: (507) 212-8242
Fax: (507) 212-8154
ruiza(si.edu

Dr. Anne Meylan
Florida Fish & Wildlife Comm.
Florida Marine Res. Institute







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


100 8th Avenue SE
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
Tel: (727) 896-8626
Fax: (727) 893-9176
Anne.Meylan@MyFWC.com

PUERTO RICO:
Carlos E. Diez
Endangered Species Progr.
Department of Natural and
Environmental Resources
A.P. 9066600, San Juan
Puerto Rico 00906-6600
Tel: (787) 724-8774 ext. 2237
Fax (787) 724-0365
cediez(caribe.net

Lesbia L. Montero
University of Puerto Rico -
CUH Station
Sea Grant College Program
100 Road 908, Humacao
Puerto Rico 00791-4300
Tel: (787) 850-9385
Fax: (787) 850-0710
cem sg.qwebmail.uprh.edu

Hector Horta
Official de Manejo
Department of Natural and
Environmental Resources
P. O. Box 1186, Fajardo
Puerto Rico 00738
Tel: (787) 860-5628
Fax: (787) 863-5253
hhorta(coqui.net

ST. KITTS & NEVIS:
Emile Pemberton
Fisheries Develop. Officer
Department of Fisheries
Prospect Estate
St. Johns Parish, Nevis
Tel: (869) 469-5521 ext 2161
Fax: (869) 469-1698
masaisimba2004@yvahoo.com

Kimberly Stewart, DVM
St. Kitts Sea Turtle
Monitoring Network
Ross University School of
Veterinary Medicine
P. O. Box 334
Basseterre, St. Kitts
Tel: (869) 669-4268
stewartk7(@hotmail.com


Kate Orchard
Vice President
St. Christopher Heritage Soc.
Bay Road (POB 888)
Basseterre, St. Kitts
Tel/Fax 869 465 5584
orchards(@sisterisles.kn

ST. LUCIA:
Dawn Pierre-Nathoniel
Fisheries Biologist
Department of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture,
Forestry and Fisheries
Pointe Seraphine
Castries, St. Lucia
Tel: (758) 468-4141, -4135
Fax: (758) 452-3853
deptfish@(slumaffe.orq

ST. VINCENT & THE
GRENADINES
Lucine Edwards
Fisheries Officer (Conserv.)
Fisheries Division
Ministry of Agricul. & Labour
Richmond Hill, Kingstown
St. Vincent
Tel: (784) 456 4136
lucine.edwards@.qmail.com

SURINAME:
Maartje Hilterman
Project Officer Asia
Ecosystem Grants Program
IUCN National Committee of
the Netherlands (IUCN NL)
Plantage Middenlaan 2k
1018 DD Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel: 31 (020) 626-1732
Fax: 31 (020) 627-9349
maartie.hilterman@nciucn.nl

Edo Goverse
Reptielen, Amfibieen en
Vissen Onderzoek
Nederland (RAVON)
Universiteit van Amsterdam,
afd. Herpetologie
Postbus 94766
1090 GT Amsterdam
Tel: (020) 525-7332/6624
Fax: (020) 525-5402
qoverse(@science.uva.nl


Dr. Marie-Louise Felix
Marine Turtle Coordinator
WWF Guianas Programme
Paramaribo, Suriname
mlfelix@wwf.sr

TRINIbAD & TOBAGO:
Dennis Sammy
Manager, Nature Seekers
10 MM Toco Main Road
Matura, Trinidad
Tel/Fax: (868) 668-7337
dennispsammy(@qmail.com

Stephen Poon
Forester 1
Wildlife Section, Forestry Div.
Farm Road
St. Joseph, Trinidad
Fax: (868) 645-4288
poon st@hotmail.com

Tanya Clovis
Vice President
SOS Tobago
P. O. Box 27
Scarborough, Tobago
Tel: (868) 639-0026
Fax: (868) 639-8441
tanya clovis(@hotmail.com

Dr. Scott A. Eckert
Director of Science
WIDECAST
Nicholas School Marine
Lab Duke University
135 Duke Marine Lab Road
Beaufort, NC 28516
Tel: (252) 727-1600
seckert(@widecast.org

Dr. Suzanne Livingstone
IUCN GMSA Associate
Old Dominion University
Dept of Biological Sciences
Old Dominion University
Norfolk, VA 23529
Tel: (757) 512-4488
Fax: (757) 638-5283
srliving(q odu.edu
suzanne livincq@hotmail.com

TURKS & CAICOS:
Judith Garland-Campbell
Permanent Secretary







Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Ministry of Natural Resources
Grand Turk
Turks & Caicos Islands
Tel: (649) 946-3306
Fax: (649) 946-3710
decrsouth(@tciway.tc
ilcampbell(.qov.tc

Michelle Fulford-Gardiner
Director
Department of Environment
and Coastal Resources
South Base, Grand Turk
Turks & Caicos Islands
Tel: (649) 946-2801
Fax: (649) 946-4793
mfqardiner(@tciway.tc

Lorna Slade
Marine Biologist
Providenciales Marine Turtle
Monitoring Project
P. O. Box 872
Providenciales
Turks & Caicos Islands
Tel: (649) 941-4641
lorna slade(yahoo.com

U. S. A.
Barbara Schroeder
Natl. Sea Turtle Coordinator
NOAA/ National Marine
Fisheries Service
Protected Resources
1315 East West Hwy
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Tel: (301) 713-2322 ext 147
Fax: (301) 427-2522
Barbara.schroeder(@noaa.qov

Sandra MacPherson
Natl Sea Turtle Coordinator
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
6620 Southpoint Drive South
Suite 310
Jacksonville, FL 32216
Tel: (904) 232-2580 ext. 110
Fax: (904) 232-2404
sandy macpherson(@fws.qov

Dr. Anne Meylan
Florida Fish and Wildlife
Commission


Florida Marine Res. Institute
100 8th Avenue SE
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
Tel: (727) 896-8626
Fax: (727) 893-9176
Anne.Meylan@MyFWC.com

Dr. Donna Shaver
Chief
Division of Sea Turtle
Science and Recovery
Padre Island Natl Seashore
U. S. National Park Service
P. O. Box 181300
Corpus Christi, TX 78480
Tel: (361) 949-8173 ext. 226
Fax: (361) 949-1312
Donna shaver(nps.qov

Jereme Phillips
Wildlife Biologist
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Bon Secour National Wildlife
Refuge
12295 State Highway 180
Gulf Shores, AL 36542
Tel: (251) 540-7720
Jereme Phillips(@fws.qov

U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS:
Rafe Boulon, Chief
Resource Management
Virgin Islands National Park
1300 Cruz Bay Creek
St. John, USVI 00830
Tel: (340) 693-8950 ext 224
Fax: (340) 693-9500
rafe boulon(nps.qov

Steve Garner
Executive Director
WIMARCS
202 Prosperity, Frederiksted
St. Croix, USVI 00840
Tel: (340) 772-1382
Fax: (340) 772-3234
steve.qarner(@wimarcs.orq

Amy MacKay
Director
St. Croix Marine Turtle
Conservation Project
c/o 1034 Adobe Court


Lusby, Maryland 20657
Tel: (340) 690-5274
almackayvumes.edu

Raquel Seybert
Community Develop. Officer
The Nature Conservancy
Eastern Caribbean Program
3052 Estate Little Princess
St. Croix, USVI 00820
Tel: (340) 773-5575
Fax: (340) 773-1613
rseybert(tnc.orq

Zandy Hillis-Starr
Chief of Resource Mgmt
U. S. National Park Service
Buck Island Reef NM
2100 Church Street, # 100
Christiansted, St. Croix
USVI 00821
Tel: (340) 773-1460, ext 235
Fax: (340) 719-1791
zandy hillis-starr(@nps.qov

VENEZUELA:
Hedelvy J. Guada
Director
Centro de Investigaci6n y
Conservaci6n de Tortugas
Marinas-CICTMAR
Apdo. 50.789
Caracas 1050-A
Venezuela
Tel/Fax: (58) (212) 761-6355
Cel: 0414 249-6326
95-79050(@usb.ve

Vicente Vera
Geographer
Oficina Nacional de
Diversidad Biol6gica
Ministerio del Ambiente
Centro Sim6n Bolivar-
Torre Sur, Piso 6
Caracas, D.C. 1010
Venezuela
Tel: 58 (212) 408-2154
Fax: 58 (212) 753-7726
v.vicentel@ (.qmail.com






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


APPENDIX II


Sea Turtle Threats Survey


Green turtles at market in Puerto Cabezas,
Nicaragua (photo by Cynthia Lagueux, Wildlife
Conservation Society;


Green turtle entangled in a fishing net off the coast
of Costa Rica (photo by Didiher Chac6n, WIDECAST)






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


2006 Sea Turtle Threats Survey


Country/Territory:
Contact:
Date/Time:

R = Rare, O = Occasional, F = Frequent, FA = Frequent in a certain Area, U = Unknown


Nesting Threats

Killing of nesting females by humans
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Killing of nesting females by predators
Which predator species? Invasive species?

How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Nest loss to predators
Which predator species? Invasive species?

How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Nest loss to abiotic factors
What factor? Ex. flood, erosion

Egg Collection (by humans)
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Harassment due to increased presence of humans
Ex. tourists discouraging nesting

Artificial lighting
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Pollution
What type of pollution agriculture, petroleum/tar, sewage, industrial runoff, beach litter/debris?
Are these pollutants rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Beach erosion/accretion
Where? When? Caused by storm events? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional,
frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Beach armoring/stabilization structures
Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Beach nourishment
Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Recreation beach equipment and/or other obstacles
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Mechanized beach cleaning
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Beach vehicular use
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Sand mining
Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Exotic (or loss of native) vegetation
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Livestock (presence on the beach)
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?


Foraging/Migration Threats

Seagrass degradation
By what? Ex. Anchor damage, pollution, sedimentation. How extensive is the problem? Rare,
occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Coral reef degradation
By what? Ex. Anchor damage, pollution, sedimentation. How extensive is the problem?
Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Fisheries
Which fisheries? Ex. Trawl, purse seine, hook and line, gill net, pound net, long line, pot/trap,
dynamite/blast, chemical, "nets" undefined.

Are takes by fisheries: Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Hunting/Poaching
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Pollution
What type of pollution agriculture, petroleum (oil), sewage, industrial runoff, pollution (cruise
liners/yachts), marine debris, "declining water quality" undefined

Are these pollutants rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Predators
What species? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular
area?






Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Disease/Parasites
Which diseases or parasites? How many cases have been seen (e.g. How big of a problem is
this?) Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Harassment due to increased human presence
Ex. Snorkelers, divers, increased boat traffic. How often does this occur? Rare, occasional,
frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Dredging
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Marina and dock development
Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Boat/Personal Water Craft collisions
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Power Plant entrapment
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

Oil and gas exploration, development, and transportation
Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?
Entanglement (debris, abandoned gear etc.)
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in particular a particular
area? In what do turtles become entangled?

Offshore artificial lighting
How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?


Other Comments





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


APPENDIX III

Wider Caribbean Region Sea Turtle Habitat National Reports


For ease of reference, the National Reports are presented in alphabetic order and
then color-coded according to their Ecoregion (cf. Spalding et al. 2007). Brazil
(not featured in Spalding et al. 2007), is color-coded in this volume as gray.





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Anguilla Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle F
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle N, F
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle A
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea )
1r = rj-_:-rI.n F = F.jr3._in. nl = rli .- Li l rtjl ri. IF = Irrilqtr_, inl'
For.3. I. I = li'ntfr ,4-qu- l ILirllti-r J t.il ur,, L l.l I = -C.it- r


coy
D


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection No
Moratorium (fixed period) Yes (until 2020)
Prohibition(s) on take _
Closed season -
Minimum size limits _
Maximum size limits-
Annual quota _
Permits/licenses required -
Gear restrictions Yes
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) No
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally No
General public awareness of laws Yes
Recent prosecutions or penalties No
Enforcement considered adequate No
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
- = E,.J r j ri = Bj,_ rjF = r- i-l F _'riil -_


7
0


O o







All

AA114 A
All 3


Kilometers
6 9 12


N

Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

__ GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


Data Provider
James Gumbs
" Department of
Fisheries and
Marine Resources


0 1.5 3
0 1.5 3




Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Anguilla Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Dy


0 -
0E ,o


Hawksbill
Nesting Habitat










Leatherback
Nesting Habitat






cr3



Green
Nesting Habitat


0 0 o0
0


Z co-
2


oAll1


Hawksbill Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
Leatherback Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
Kilometers


Green Nesting Habitat
o <25 Crawls per year
- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


A


0 2 4


8 12 16





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Anguilla Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting
Killing of Nesting Females by
Humans No No evidence but could happen rarely
Killing of Nesting Females by
Predators No
Nest Loss to Predators Yes (R) Ghost crabs
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors Yes (0) Erosion
Egg Collection by Humans Yes (U)
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence No
Artificial Lighting Yes (F)
Pollution No
Beach Erosion/Accretion Yes (0) Caused by storms and natural beach movement
Beach Armouring/Stabilization
Structures No
Beach Nourishment Yes (0)
Recreational Beach Equipment
and/or Other Obstacles Yes (F) On hotel beaches
Mechanized Beach Cleaning No
Beach Vehicular Use Yes (F)
Sand Mining Yes (FA) One major commercially mined beach, R in other areas
Exotic (or Loss of Native)
Vegetation Yes (0) Due to development
Livestock Presence on the
Beach No



Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/Migration
Seagrass Degradation Yes (0) Hurricanes, anchor damage, eutrophication
Hurricanes, disease, anchor damage, eutrophication
Coral Reef Degradation Yes (F) and fishing
Fisheries Bycatch Yes (R) Hook and line, long line, pot/trap and "nets" undefined
Hunting/Poaching Yes (U)
Pollution Yes (R)
Predators Yes (U) Sharks, birds, fish and crabs
Disease/Parasites Yes (U)
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence No
Dredging Yes (R) Occurs with new development
Marina and Dock Development Yes (U) No marinas yet, but plans for new marinas
Boat/Personal Water Craft
Collisions No
Power Plant Entrapment No
Oil and Gas Exploration,
Development, Transportation No
Entanglement Yes (R)
Offshore Artificial Lighting No
C'-. urrenr-: Frequ le : F = F ir -, = I-:' : il.nl'3l F = Freque l F- F Fre.-:uent i'n Clnr U =r U U l rn.-,.n





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Anguilla Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names
All Limestone Bay Al10 Cove Bay
A12 Blackgarden Bay Alll Shoal Bay West
A13 Shoal Bay East A112 Barnes Bay
A14 Captain's Bay A113 Meads Bay
A15 Windward Point Bay A114 Long Bay
A16 Junk's Hole A115 Road Bay
A17 Savannah Bay A116 Katouche Bay
A18 Mimi Bay A117 Crocus Bay
A19 Sandy Hill





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea)
r J = rJe ...1 F = F.:r,-,.i.,.i ir J = I,Tr. .jiii. rJ z l..1 IF = Iilr-.jii-i,









AC
AG33


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection No
Moratorium (fixed period) No
Prohibition(s) on take E, N
Closed season Yes
Minimum size limits Yes
Maximum size limits No
Annual quota No
Permits/licenses required Yes*
Gear restrictions Yes**
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) Yes
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally Yes
General public awareness of laws No
Recent prosecutions or penalties No
Enforcement considered adequate No
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
E = E.J.J- J rirJ til JIF = rJ l-r. F-ri_ l1 - = j1p.I-, I II I ,_ -. l -ii -i _
r,1-qiLIIr -j i.J i, r i[jI-lir, L1'i-J -ri i o FI.i r Ir- ir - -F.-,r 1ii f, i rii rr i iiiiiir,


AG36


pAG2


AG31


Kilometers


0 1 3 6


* Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

SGSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


Data Providers
Cheryl Appleton, Tricia Lovell
Antigua & Barbuda Fisheries
Division, Ministry of Agriculture,
Lands and Fisheries
Jim Richardson, Peri Mason, Seth Stapleton

s Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project


0 1.5 3


6 9 12





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Data Providers
Cheryl Appleton, Tricia Lovell
Antigua & Barbuda Fisheries
Division, Ministry of Agriculture,
Lands and Fisheries

Kilometers


Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

__ GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle N, F
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle A
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea)
r = rJ: i ...l F F.r:.r ,3,. irj Ir I = l r. lr.i rJl-i n,.i IF = I.lr-.ji i-rA l
F,:lr~a3,,,lrI = lr .' nri mllil ra cj ail una 3 ,I,,I r. = ,

,.-



O e
5


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection No
Moratorium (fixed period) No
Prohibition(s) on take E, N
Closed season Yes
Minimum size limits Yes
Maximum size limits No
Annual quota No
Permits/licenses required Yes*
Gear restrictions Yes**
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) Yes
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally Yes
General public awareness of laws No
Recent prosecutions or penalties No
Enforcement considered adequate No
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
E = E ,-i- rj = rj -- rJF = rJ -i- r ,. F r, .l .-- -= Ji] -. p lic.l, -.l 1 lr.:- ', ,


0 1.5 3


6 9 12




Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Hawksbill
stina Habitat


Leatherback
Nesting Habitat


AG7


Green
" Nesting Habitat


Hawksbill Nesting Habitat
X Crawls per year
100-500 Crawls per year
, , Kilometers


AG49y-
Leatherback Nesting Habitat
o X Crawls per year
Green Nesting Habitat
o X Crawls per year
-- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


0 2.5 5


10 15 20


N





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting
Killing of Nesting Females by
Humans No
Killing of Nesting Females by
Predators No
Nest Loss to Predators Yes (U) Mongoose and crabs
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors Yes (U) Flood and erosion
Egg Collection by Humans Yes (0)
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes (R)
Artificial Lighting Yes (F) Major problem along the northwest coast of Antigua
Pollution Yes (U) Beach litter/debris
Beach Erosion/Accretion Yes (U) Caused by storms and natural beach movement
Beach Armouring/Stabilization Along the northwest and southern coast of Antigua -
Structures Yes (U) none on Barbuda
Beach Nourishment Yes (U) On some resort beaches
Recreational Beach Equipment
and/or Other Obstacles Yes (F) Especially around hotels
Mechanized Beach Cleaning Yes (R) On some resort beaches
Beach Vehicular Use Yes (R) Minimal due to barricades
Government controlled mining in Barbuda and some
Sand Mining Yes (U) illegal activity in Antigua
Exotic (or Loss of Native)
Vegetation Yes (U) Especially around hotels and development
Livestock Presence on the
Beach Yes (R) Horseback riding rarely other animals
i. rr -l, Fr .-I ,l ,,, F = F.,3r. CL.' = l,-'-l. i,.,l F = Fr.lIuei, F- = Fr-,.li ,,, i-ru, r Ii i'c..,.iI


Threats to Sea Turtles ForaginglMigration
Seagrass Degradation Yes (U) Development, sedimentaion and anchor damage
Coral Reef Degradation Yes (U) Storms, ship groundings and anchor damage
Fisheries Bycatch Yes (R) Gillnets and "nets" undefined
Hunting/Poaching Yes (U)
Pollution Yes (U) Petroleum/tar, runoff (agriculture) and marine debris
Predators Yes (U) Sharks
Disease/Parasites Yes (R)
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes (U) On the south and west coasts of Antigua
Dredging Yes (U) Primarilly around harbors, not in Barbuda
Marina and Dock Development Yes (R) A few in Antigua, none in Barbuda
Boat/Personal Water Craft
Collisions Yes (R)
Power Plant Entrapment No
Oil and Gas Exploration,
Development, Transportation Yes (U) Transportation
Entanglement Yes (R)
Offshore Artificial Lighting Yes (R) Offshore fuel dock
.. rr-l,- Fr. ,.l.,',, F = F.,3r. C.' = 0. .' ic oi. F = Fr .lue,', F- Fr .le- ,l ,,', i~v irn I- 3 UL'1 = L,-.l





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names
AG1 Jumby Bay Pasture Bay Beach AG27 Hawksbill Bay
AG2 Great Bird Island AG28 Galley Bay
AG3 Guiana Island AG29 Deep Bay
AG4 Long Bay AG30 Hog John Bay
AG5 Devil's Bridge Beach AG31 Sandy Island
AG6 Green Island AG32 Ft. James Beach
AG7 Mill Reef Beaches AG33 Runaway Bay
AG8 Half Moon Bay AG34 Dickenson Bay
AG9 Indian Creek Beach AG35 Soldier Bay
AG10 Windward Bay AG36 White Sand Beach
AG11 Pigeon Point Beach AG37 Jabberwock Beach
AG12 Dieppe Bay AG38 Dutchman Bay
AG13 Turtle Bay AG39 North Beach to Cobb Cove
AG14 Little Rendezvous Bay AG40 Kid Island Beach
AG15 Big Rendezvous Bay AG41 Fishing Creek Beach
AG16 Tuck's Beach AG42 Hog Point to Sea View
AG17 Carlisle Bay AG43 Two Feet Bay
AG18 Curtain Bluff Beach AG44 Ghaut to Pigeon Cliff
AG19 Morris Bay AG45 Pigeon Cliff to Griffen Point
AG20 Johnson's Point AG46 Bleaky Bay Beaches
AG21 Darkwood Beach AG47 Spanish Point Beach
AG22 Fryes Bay AG48 Coco Point East
AG23 Jolly Beach/Lignumvitae Bay AG49 Coco Point Beach
AG24 Pearn's Point Beaches AG50 Coral Group Beaches
SHermitage Bay/TwoFoot 1 Continuous Beach from River to
AG25 AG51
Bay/Royal Bay Billy Point
AG26 Five Islands Estate Beaches





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Aruba Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle N, IF
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle,
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata )
Kemp's Ridley Turtle A
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea) _
rj = rJh ,r.. F = F.:,r.,.ir.. irj 1 = Irr .jIr.I, rJi~ ii.-i IF = IIrr-qJi'nr,
Fi'I.,3- I = Irar ,,-A ,i iv il ,r ,'r .,, irl. P -


Data Providers
Richard and Edith van der Wal
Aruba
Turtugaruba
Foundation


0 1.5 3


N
Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat
Kilometers
2 GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection Yes
Moratorium (fixed period)
Prohibition(s) on take
Closed season-
Minimum size limits-
Maximum size limits
Annual quota
Permits/licenses required
Gear restrictions No
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) No
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally Yes
General public awareness of laws Yes
Recent prosecutions or penalties Yes
Enforcement considered adequate No
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
E = E -- rj = r j i- rJF = r Jl --r,. F- i. io II : = rj- .:.l p li.:. irI.


0 1.5 3


6 9 1;





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Aruba Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Hawksbill
Nesting Habitat


AW4


Green
Nesting Habitat



AW1


Leatherback
Nesting Habitat



AW1


Loggerhead
Nesting Habitat


AW3


Hawksbill Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
Green Nesting Habitat
o <25 Crawls per year


Leatherback Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
25-100 Crawls per year
Loggerhead Nesting Habitat
o <25 Crawls per year
- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


Kilometers


0 2 4


8 12 16


N


ill





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Aruba Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting
Killing of Nesting Females by
Humans No
Killing of Nesting Females by
Predators No
Nest Loss to Predators Yes (R) Crabs and worms
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors Yes (0) Erosion and flood caused by storms and rain
Egg Collection by Humans No
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes (R)
Artificial Lighting Yes (F) Largest problem in Aruba
Pollution Yes (0) Beach litter/debris
Beach Erosion/Accretion Yes (0) Caused by storms and natural beach movement
Beach Armouring/Stabilization
Structures Yes (0)
Beach Nourishment Yes (R)
Recreational Beach Equipment
and/or Other Obstacles Yes (F) Especially on hotel beaches
Mechanized Beach Cleaning Yes (F) Increasing
Beach Vehicular Use Yes (F) On resorts and remote beaches
Sand Mining No
Exotic (or Loss of Native)
Vegetation Yes (F) Concern for hawksbill sea turtles
Livestock Presence on the
Beach No



Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/Migration
Seagrass Degradation Yes (U) Anchor damage, pollution by oil refinery (little research)
Coral Reef Degradation Yes (U) Anchor damage, pollution by oil refinery (little research)
Fisheries Bycatch Yes (R) Hook and line, pot/trap and "nets" undefined
Hunting/Poaching No
Pollution Yes (0) Oil, sewage, cruise liner effluent and marine debris
Predators Unknown
Disease/Parasites Unknown
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes (U)
Dredging No
Marina and Dock Development Yes (R)
Boat/Personal Water Craft
Collisions Yes (0)
Power Plant Entrapment No
Oil and Gas Exploration,
Development, Transportation Yes (U) Refinery transportation, but no exploration
Entanglement Yes (R) Abandoned gear or lines
Offshore Artificial Lighting No





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Aruba Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names
AW1 Dos Playa AW5 Palm Beach
AW2 Boca Grandi AW6 Fishermen's Huts
AW3 Pets Cemetary IAW7 Arashi Beach
AW4 Eagle





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Bahamas Sea Turtle Habitat
I .i- ". 'rlrl-'


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle N, F
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle N, F
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys kempii)
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea )
rJ = r.I ,tliln F = F.r.,jir,j I = Irrfr q,4uLI t r tI r iF = Irfr-q,4L ri
F r.,jin,.j I = i'ifl'fr-q,4Lr i1'uri ti r .Jr_.iil Lu l3 ..3I il i = .C.ilr- l


F -


BS2


BS1


JBS3


* BS6


Im I kilometers


0 37.5 75 150 225 300


SBS4

BBS5 N


* Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection No
Moratorium (fixed period) No
Prohibition(s) on take E, NF, Hawksbill
Closed season Yes
Minimum size limits Yes
Maximum size limits No
Annual quota No
Permits/licenses required No*
Gear restrictions Yes
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) Yes
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally Yes**
General public awareness of laws No (Insufficient)
Recent prosecutions or penalties Yes
Enforcement considered adequate No
Penalties are an adequate deterrent No
E = E,,_ ri = r77.: rjF = [l.-]n.i' F~wi.,l7-: --= [: r, p[li.l:.?l.l i_ ": .r ],trliqi'ir_
"n~inpi: l ~n. r. m-i naj- w. lnt-r Hi- ui l^ U III( l-:-JI .111dJ I-Lir-


Data Providers
Alan Bolten, Karen Bjorndal

rh_ e Rfchle Carr Center
for Sea Turtle Research

Eleanor Phillips
TheNature t
Conservancy. C-
Proteclig nature. Preserving life.


1.\


,GIN


1' l




Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Bahamas Sea Turtle Habitat
I_ i I 11 I'i rh I'-n ii


-\


"" J\ "'\ "




Hawksbill
Nesting Habitat






^%
s






Green
Nesting Habitat


BS4
cz BS5


-\


0 BS4
P BS5


Hawksbill Nesting Habitat
25-100 Crawls per year
Green Nesting Habitat
O 25-100 Crawls per year


, m Kilometers


Leatherback
Nesting Habitat


BS1


BS3





) BS3


-BS(6S
*BS6


Loggerhead
Nesting Habitat


BS5


Leatherback Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
Loggerhead Nesting Habitat
0 25-100 Crawls per year
100-500 Crawls per year
-- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


N


0 70 140


280 420 560


BS2


'-- ',





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Bahamas Sea Turtle Habitat



Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting
Killing of Nesting Females by
Humans Yes (R)
Killing of Nesting Females by
Predators No
Nest Loss to Predators No
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors Yes (U) Erosion due to extreme high tides
Egg Collection by Humans Yes (FA) In Abaco and Eleuthra
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence No
Artificial Lighting Yes (R)
Pollution Yes (U) Beach litter/debris
Beach Erosion/Accretion Yes (U) Erosion during storms
Beach Armouring/Stabilization Frequent in New Providence smaller problem on outer
Structures Yes (FA) islands
Beach Nourishment No
Recreational Beach Equipment
and/or Other Obstacles Yes (0)
Mechanized Beach Cleaning No
Beach Vehicular Use No
Sand Mining Yes (0)
Exotic (or Loss of Native)
Vegetation Yes (U)
Livestock Presence on the
Beach No



Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/Migration
Seagrass Degradation Yes (U) Limited scarring from ship groundings
Coral Reef Degradation Yes (U) Climate change
Fisheries Bycatch No
Hunting/Poaching Yes (U) During open season
Pollution Yes (U) "Declining water quality"
Predators Yes(U) Sharks
Disease/Parasites Yes (U) Fibropapillomas
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence No
Dredging Yes (0)
Marina and Dock Development Yes (F)
Boat/Personal Water Craft
Collisions Yes (R)
Power Plant Entrapment No
Oil and Gas Exploration,
Development, Transportation Yes (U)
Entanglement Yes (R)
Offshore Artificial Lighting No





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Bahamas Sea Turtle Habitat


Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names
BS1 Grand Bahama BS4 Little Inagua
BS2 Great Abaco (east coast and BS5 Great Inagua
BS3 San Salvador BS6 Cay Sal Bank





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Barbados Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle F?
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle N, F
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea )
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle A
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea) A
r 1 = .I ..l F = F.:.r,.ji..lj I il = r .l-.:iiV l ri l J. .' IF = I.fir.l-..ll
I = 'Ir.. i.l' ii ri r'I ..r .j.-.l il. 31i .i,. = --. '


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection Yes
Moratorium (fixed period)
Prohibition(s) on take
Closed season -
Minimum size limits
Maximum size limits _
Annual quota
Permits/licenses required
Gear restrictions No
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) Yes
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally No
General public awareness of laws Yes
Recent prosecutions or penalties No
Enforcement considered adequate No
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
E = EL 1 = r-:I: rI F = r-:ii.j F II-r ,- : = rll -l,- r.l


BB7


Kilometers
8 12 16


- Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


Data Providers
Julia Horrocks, Jennifer Beggs

Barbados Sea Turtle

"7


S2
2 4




Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Barbados Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Green Nesting Habitat


BB3


Kilometers


Hawksbill Nesting Habitat
100-500 Crawls per year
500-1000 Crawls per year
in >1000 Crawls per year
Leatherback Nesting Habitat
25-100 Crawls per year
100-500 Crawls per year
Green Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline

N


A


0 2 4


8 12 16


CC





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Barbados Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting
Killing of Nesting Females by
Humans Yes (0)
Killing of Nesting Females by
Predators Yes (0) Dogs harassment also occasional
Nest Loss to Predators Yes (0) Mongoose, dogs and cats (rare)
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors Yes (F) Flooding and erosion
Egg Collection by Humans Yes (0)
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes (R)
Artificial Lighting Yes (F)
Pollution Yes (U) Agriculture and beach litter/debris
Beach Erosion/Accretion Yes (F) Caused by storms, natural movement and structures
Beach Armouring/Stabilization
Structures Yes (FA)
Beach Nourishment Yes (R)
Recreational Beach Equipment
and/or Other Obstacles Yes (FA)
Mechanized Beach Cleaning Yes (FA) Not a widespread problem
Beach Vehicular Use Yes (FA) Not a widespread problem
Sand Mining Yes (R)
Exotic (or Loss of Native)
Vegetation Yes (F) Loss of vegetation
Livestock Presence on the
Beach No



Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/Migration
On west and south coasts, few patches left anchor
Seagrass Degradation Yes (U) damage, pollution and sedimentation
Anchor damage, sedimentation, over-harvesting of
Coral Reef Degradation Yes (U) herbivorous species and pollution
Fisheries Bycatch Yes (U) Hook and line, gillnet and pot/trap
Hunting/Poaching No
Pollution Yes (U) Agriculture, sewage and industrial runoff
Predators No
Disease/Parasites Yes (R) Fibropapillomas
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes (FA) Greens are attracted to areas where they are fed
Dredging No
Marina and Dock Development Yes (R)
Boat/Personal Water Craft
Collisions Yes (R)
Power Plant Entrapment No
Oil and Gas Exploration,
Development, Transportation No
Entanglement Yes (U) Abandoned fishing gear
Offshore Artificial Lighting No
, ,u l r nr n F i T -I u l l: F = F a = 3 i_ n a l F = F i q l.uIn lI F w = F r_- ,.-l 'rll I 1 "1 i n u n 3 1 _3 U = I. I n l .'', l i





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Barbados Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names
BB1 East Coast Beaches BB5 South Coast Beaches
BB2 Bath Beach BB6 Hilton Beach
BB3 Foul Bay BB7 West Coast Beaches
BB4 Long Beach





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Belize Sea Turtle Habitat
I__ II' l. I i l


SBZ1


meters


0 15 30 60 90 120


BZ3

BZ4
1 BZ7
BZ5
Bza**


- BZ14
BZ15
BZ16


SSea Turtle Nesting Habitat A

GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle N, F
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle,
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle A?
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea )
rJ = rJ.l in.j F = F.r gji[,.j In I raI = nr-q,4U-n rJ. j IF = IrirqU-l' in
F r3.iji,.j I = iIr .lr,* r1 F I iurlll1r .Jl-t l3 l ur3 .. l..- = l' ll


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection Yes*
Moratorium (fixed period)
Prohibition(s) on take_
Closed season No
Minimum size limits No
Maximum size limits No
Annual quota No
Permits/licenses required Yes
Gear restrictions Yes
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) Yes
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally Yes
General public awareness of laws No (Insufficient)
Recent prosecutions or penalties Yes**
Enforcement considered adequate No (Insufficient)
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
E = E.j.j rl = rl z 1rF = rHlmih,j F-inial-1 = fl -p l ,"r .,- p ifr LI,-. I .
T r , J ilb u r l U -_ innl . _', 11 1 2 0-i J4


Data Providers
Isaias Majil

Fisheries
Department

Belize Audubon
S Society

SToledo Institute for
r, : Development and
L' Environment
Wildlife
Conservation
Society

Friends of Nature
OF NATURE
tUJ IUniversity of
. Belize


I I Kilor





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Belize Sea Turtle Habitat
I__________ I I _= n r i -


Hawksbill
Nesting Habitat


Green
Nesting Habitat


BZ7 '
0 BZ6


oBZ15
BZ16


C-.

I'.

3..


BZ B Z3

* BZ6 BZ5
V 00



.,BZ14







SKilometers


Hawksbill Nesting Habitat
X Crawls per year
0 <25 Crawls per year
25-100 Crawls per year
Green Nesting Habitat
o X Crawls per year
o <25 Crawls per year
Loggerhead Nesting Habitat
o <25 Crawls per year
O 25-100 Crawls per year
- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline

N

A


BZ6 BZ5
0o


I'.r

-*1


PBZ14


Loggerhead
Nesting Habitat


0 20 40


80 120 160


Mm M





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Belize Sea Turtle Habitat
i I i 'i ir'i- i ". i _' i i -


Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting
Killing of Nesting Females by
Humans No
Killing of Nesting Females by
Predators Unknown
Nest Loss to Predators Yes (U)
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors Yes (U) Flooding and erosion
Egg Collection by Humans No
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes (U)
Artificial Lighting Yes (U)
Pollution Yes (U) Agriculture, sewage and beach litter/debris
Beach Erosion/Accretion Yes (U) Caused by storm events
Beach Armouring/Stabilization
Structures Yes (U)
Beach Nourishment No
Recreational Beach Equipment
and/or Other Obstacles No
Mechanized Beach Cleaning No
Beach Vehicular Use No
Sand Mining Yes (U)
Exotic (or Loss of Native)
Vegetation Yes (U)
Livestock Presence on the
Beach No



Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/Migration
Seagrass Degradation Yes (U) Anchor damage
Coral Reef Degradation Yes (U) Anchor damage
Fisheries Bycatch Yes (U) Trawl, hook and line, long line, gillnet and pot/trap
Hunting/Poaching No
Pollution Yes (U)
Predators Yes (U)
Disease/Parasites Yes (U) Fibropapillomas
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence No
Dredging Yes(U)
Marina and Dock Development No
Boat/Personal Water Craft
Collisions No
Power Plant Entrapment No
Oil and Gas Exploration,
Development, Transportation No
Entanglement Yes (U)
Offshore Artificial Lighting No





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Belize Sea Turtle Habitat
i I i 'i ir'i- i ". i _' i i -


Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names
Z Rock Point Bacalar Chico B8 G
BZ1 BZ18 Gladden
Marine Reserve
BZ2 Robles Point Bacalar Chico BZ19 Silk
BZ3 Lighthouse Sandbar BZ20 Round Cay
BZ4 Lighthouse North BZ21 Pompion Cay
BZ5 Lighthouse Half BZ22 Ranguana
BZ6 Lighthouse Long BZ23 Red Rock Sapodilla Cayes
BZ7 Turneffe Calabas BZ24 Tom Owen Sapodilla Cayes
BZ8 Manatee Bar/Gales Point BZ25 Northeast Cay Sapodilla Cayes
BZ9 North Stann Creek BZ26 Frank Sapodilla Cayes
BZ10 Tobacco BZ27 Nicholas Sapodilla Cayes
BZ11 Glovers Northeast BZ28 Hunting Sapodilla Cayes
BZ12 South Water Caye BZ29 Lime Sapodilla Cayes
BZ13 Carrie Bow BZ30 Punta Negra
BZ14 Glovers Long BZ31 Punta Ycacos
BZ15 Glovers Middle BZ32 Middle Snake
BZ16 Glovers Southwest BZ33 West Snake
BZ17 Laughing Bird





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Bermuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle IN, IF
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle IN, F
(Chelonia mydas),
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea )
jr = -_:-it.ii. F = F.r3.n. I I r = infr ql t- rl l r .. i. IF = infr q-ili nl
For. I i' II i= nLirirt. -r ,J .iil urf3riti..i l l. i = -C.it- ri


Kilometers


5 7.5 10


N

Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

__ GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection Yes
Moratorium (fixed period)
Prohibition(s) on take_
Closed season -
Minimum size limits-
Maximum size limits-
Annual quota -
Permits/licenses required-
Gear restrictions Yes
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) Yes
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally No
Reports of illegal trade internationally No
General public awareness of laws Yes
Recent prosecutions or penalties No
Enforcement considered adequate Yes
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
E = E i': r = F r" JF = r lJ - i- i F ,- i I!I - = r j. i &p ,i .:.? i.l


Data Provider
Jennifer Gray

. .Bermuda Turtle
Project


= = I I


0 1.252.5




Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Bermuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Loggerhead
Nesting Habitat


Kilometers


Loggerhead Nesting Habitat
o <25 Crawls per year
-- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


0 1 2


4 6 8


N


M M I





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Bermuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007


Threats to Sea Turtles Nesting
Killing of Nesting Females by
Humans NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Killing of Nesting Females by
Predators NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Nest Loss to Predators NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Egg Collection by Humans NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Artificial Lighting NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Pollution NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Beach Erosion/Accretion NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Beach Armouring/Stabilization
Structures NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Beach Nourishment NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Recreational Beach Equipment
and/or Other Obstacles NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Mechanized Beach Cleaning NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Beach Vehicular Use NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Sand Mining NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Exotic (or Loss of Native)
Vegetation NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
Livestock Presence on the
Beach NA Nesting on Bermuda is very infrequent
C I ': .: U [ [ i 'i': T F r .q u e lr l F = F a r e ' = C i:': -3 hc l' 13 l F = F r q l. li l' ll F = F r q u e r ,n t in rn l 3 r _3 U = U r il c l.: '. rl


Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/Migration
Mooring scars, prop and anchor damage and offshore
Seagrass Degradation Yes (U) die offs
Coral Reef Degradation Yes (R) Sedimentation and ship groundings
Fisheries Bycatch Yes (R) Longline and shoreline fishers
Hunting/Poaching No
Pollution Yes (U) Marine debris (plastics)
Predators Yes (U) Sharks
Disease/Parasites Yes (U) Parasites
Harassment Due to Increased
Human Presence Yes(U)
Dredging Yes(U)
Marina and Dock Development No
Boat/Personal Water Craft
Collisions Yes (F)
Power Plant Entrapment Yes (R)
Oil and Gas Exploration,
Development, Transportation No
Entanglement Yes (F)
Offshore Artificial Lighting Yes (R) Fishing lights (spots and sticks)
li'_,u r r -l,' _e F r -qI, E-r ,. F = n, r C i l_:', ,ri n F = F r -q l. rl l F = F r q u .- i riI r , i- n I, = U l 'i h -. r I




Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Bermuda Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST 2007

Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names
BM1 Well Bay BM2 Clearwater Beach





Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6



Bonaire Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Sea Turtle Presence
Loggerhead Turtle N
(Caretta caretta)
Green Turtle N, F
(Chelonia mydas)
Leatherback Turtle
(Dermochelys coriacea)
Hawksbill Turtle
N, F
(Eretmochelys imbricata)
Kemp's Ridley Turtle A
(Lepidochelys kempii) _
Olive Ridley Turtle
(Lepidochelys olivacea)
r = .r. :l Ir.. F = F,:r.l .jlil,.j ir = liir .-Ai..i .l rji ,.. IF = I.fir .- .i i. l
F .r,3i.ji'..j I I ,= Ii re l .lliI i Iii ill I I.. i1'.,i ,31,3rd1. i = P ,_ rl


ANB1


ANB2


Kilometers
8 12 16


N
* Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


National Policy for the Protection of Sea Turtles
Complete (indefinite) protection Yes
Moratorium (fixed period)
Prohibition(s) on take
Closed season-
Minimum size limits-
Maximum size limits
Annual quota
Permits/licenses required Yes
Gear restrictions No
Area closures (MPA, park, reserve) Yes
Reports of exploitation/sale nationally Yes
Reports of illegal trade internationally No
General public awareness of laws No (Insufficient)
Recent prosecutions or penalties No
Enforcement considered adequate No (Insufficient)
Penalties are an adequate deterrent Yes
E = E .i-- r i = rj --i-- r jF = rJ i- ; 'i '.n- F i, ,, _I.I z = r :.l Ap .l i.i:i-. i.


Data Providers
Mabel Nava, Imre Esser
SEA 111 It LE
CONSERVATION
BONAI RE

Kalli De Meyer
Dutch Caribbean
'j ^_. Nature Alliance


0 2 4




Dow et al. (2007) Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6


Bonaire Sea Turtle Habitat
WIDECAST2007


Hawksbill
Nesting Habitat
















Green
Nesting Habitat


Hawksbill Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
25-100 Crawls per year
Green Nesting Habitat
o <25 Crawls per year


Leatherback
Nesting Habitat


Loggerhead
Nesting Habitat


Leatherback Nesting Habitat
<25 Crawls per year
Loggerhead Nesting Habitat
o <25 Crawls per year
- GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline


Kilometers


0 2.5 5


10 15 20


N


LL




Full Text

PAGE 1

An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region Wendy Dow, Karen Eckert, Michael Palmer and Philip Kramer WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 2007

PAGE 2

For bibliographic purposes this document should be cited as: Dow, Wendy, Karen Eckert, Michael Palmer and Philip Kramer. 2007. An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region. The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network and The Nature Conservancy. WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6. Beaufort, North Carolina. 267 pages, plus electronic Appendices. ISSN: 1930-3025 Cover photo: Kim Maison (Levera National Park, Grenada) Copies of this publication may be obtained from: Dr. Karen L. Eckert Executive Director Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) Nicholas School Marine Lab – Duke University 135 Duke Marine Lab Road Beaufort, North Carolina 28516 Tel: (252) 727-1600 / Fax: (252) 504-7648 keckert@widecast.org / www.widecast.org

PAGE 3

An Atlas of Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat for the Wider Caribbean Region Wendy Dow Karen Eckert Michael Palmer Philip Kramer 2007Generously supported by:

PAGE 5

Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 1Preface and Intent For more than 25 years the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), with Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean nations and territories, has linked scientists, conservationists, natural resource users and managers, policy-makers, industry groups, educators, and other stakeholders together in a collective effort to develop a unified management framework, and to promote a region-wide capacity to design and implement scientifically sound sea turtle conservation programs. As a Partner Organization of the UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme and its Regional Programme for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW), WIDECAST is designed to address research and management priorities at national and regional levels, both for sea turtles and for the habitats upon which they depend. We focus on bringing the best available science to bear on contemporary management and conservation issues, empowering stakeholders to make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing an operational mechanism and a framework for cooperation at all levels, both within and among nations. Network participants are committed to working collaboratively to develop their collective capacity to manage shared sea turtle populations. By bringing people together and encouraging inclusive management planning, WIDECAST is helping to ensure that utilization practices, whether consumptive or non-consumptive, do not undermine sea turtle survival over the long term. This Technical Report asks a deceptively simple question: “Where do sea turtles nest in the Wider Caribbean Region?” An accurate answer is critical to the recovery of depleted populations in that it relates directly to the setting of priorities for national and international conservation action, population monitoring and habitat protection, as well as larger issues of coastal zone management and land use policy. Taking advantage of modern spatial analysis methods, as well as the unique expertise (and patience) of more than 120 Caribbean Data Providers and other experts, we have created the first regional maps of the distribution and abundance of the annual reproductive effort for all six Caribbean-nesting sea turtles. This landmark database – a collaborative effort between WIDECAST and The Nature Conservancy – identifies all known sea turtle nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region (inclusive of Bermuda and Brazil); 1,311 beaches in all. Because some sites host nesting by multiple species, 2,535 species-specific sites are named. In no case were data simply absorbed from other regional synthesis efforts. We traced each data point to its original source for verification and rating, discarding many existing records that did not meet our criteria. As a result, data characterized as “Low” quality comprise less than 11% of the database and improving information in these areas is an ongoing priority. The database significantly expands our understanding of habitat use, while at the same time facilitates the creation of operational frameworks to census populations, monitor stock recovery, and safeguard habitat in ways that have not been possible before. The entire database, available for interactive uses, is accessible through OBIS-SEAMAP at http://seamap.env.duke.edu/ and at www.widecast.org Our sincere gratitude is extended to the hundreds of colleagues (Data Providers and others) who made this project possible, and we hope it sets an example for other geographic regions to follow. Karen L. Eckert, Ph.D. Executive Director WIDECAST

PAGE 6

Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 2 Acknowledgements A regional assessment of this magnitude could not have been accomplished without the support and active participation of the Wider Caribbean Region’s sea turtle researchers, conservationists, and marine managers. In-depth, collaborative data exercises like this one are possible in our region because of mutual trust and established partnerships among sea turtle workers, a reality defined and nurtured by the WIDECAST network for more than 25 years. The concept of a network is eloquently described by Meadows and colleagues in Beyond the Limits (1992), as “a web of connections among equals” held together not by force, obligation, material incentive, or social contract, “but rather shared values and the understanding that some tasks can be accomplished together that could never be accomplished separately.” This database is a superb example of such an accomplishment. We are deeply grateful to the more than 120 Data Providers in 43 nations and territories who participated in this project, generously offering both their time and their expertise, principal among them being the following: Anguilla (GB): James Gumbs (Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources); Antigua and Barbuda: Cheryl Appleton and Tricia Lovell (Fisheries Division), James Richardson and Peri Mason (Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project); Aruba (NL): Richard van der Wal and Edith van der Wal (Turtugaruba Foundation); Bahamas: Eleanor Phillips (The Nature Conservancy), Alan Bolten and Karen Bjorndal (Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research, University of Florida); Barbados: Julia Horrocks (Barbados Sea Turtle Project, University of the West Indies), Jennifer Beggs (Mote Marine Laboratory); Belize: Renison Enriquez (Glover Marine Research Reserve), Isaias Majil (Fisheries Department), Janet Gibson (Wildlife Conservation Society); Bermuda (GB): Jennifer Gray (Bermuda Turtle Project, Department of Conservation Services); Bonaire (AN): Kalli De Meyer (Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance), Imre Esser and Mabel Nava (Sea Turtle Conservation Bonaire); Brazil: Maria Marcovaldi, Luciano Soares, Alexandro Santos, Cludio Belllini, Augusto Cesar Coelho Dias da Silva, Gustave Lopez, Joo Carlos Thom, Eron Paes e Lima, Antonio ‘Tonim’ de Papua Almeida (Fundaao Pr-TAMAR); British Virgin Islands (GB): Bertrand Lettsome, Mervin Hastings and Shannon Gore (Conservation and Fisheries Department); Cayman Islands (GB): Gina Ebanks-Petrie, Janice Blumenthal and Joni Solomon (Dept. Environment); Colombia: Elizabeth Taylor and Zunilda Baldonado (CORALINA), Claudia Ceballos (Iowa State University) and Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (INVEMAR); Costa Rica: Didiher Chacn C. (WIDECAST), Caribbean Conservation Corporation, ASTOP, Estacin Las Tortugas, Tortuga Feliz; Cuba: Flix Moncada G. (Programa de Tortugas Marinas, CIP), Julia Azanza Ricardo (Universidad de La Habana), Rubn Blanco (Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa y Medio Ambiente, Isla de la Juventud), Fernando Hernandez (Empresa Nacional para la Conservacin de la Flora y Fauna); Curaao (AN): Brian Leysner (Curaao Underwater Park, CARMABI); Dominica: Seth Stapleton and Rowan Byrne (Rosalie Sea Turtle Initiative-RoSTI), Stephen Durand (Forestry, Wildlife and Parks Division); Dominican Republic: Yolanda Len (Grupo Jaragua, Univ. Autnoma de Santo Domingo, INTEC), Jesus Tomas (University of Valencia); French Guiana (FR): Benoit de Thoisy (Association Kwata), Laurent Kelle (Coordinateur Ocans/Ctes, WWF Guianas), Amana Nature Reserve, Association Kulalasi, Association Spanguy; Grenada: Carl Lloyd and Rebecca King

PAGE 7

Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 3(Ocean Spirits), Marina Fastigi (KIDO Foundation), Gregg Moore (Univ. New Hampshire); Guadeloupe (FR): Eric Delcroix (Rseau Tortues Marines Guadeloupe), Office National de Forts, L'Association Tit, L'Association Kap'Natirel, L'Association Eco-Lambda, Conservatoire du Littoral, La commune de Terre-de-Haut, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, L'Association Evasion Tropicale, Association Le Gaac, Le Parc National; Guatemala: Colum Muccio (ARCAS), Anabella Barrios (RCA Guatemala), Ana Beatriz Rivas (Fundary Manabique), Wilma Katz (Coastal Wildlife Club, Florida); Guyana: Annette Arjoon and Michelle Kalamandeen (Guyana Marine Turtle Conservation Society), Peter C. H. Pritchard (Chelonian Research Institute); Haiti: Jean Wiener (Foundation pour la Protection de la Biodiversitie Marine); Honduras: Carlos Molinero (MOPAWI); Jamaica: Andrea Donaldson (National Environment and Planning Agency), Rhema Kerr Bjorkland (Center for Marine Conservation, Duke University); Martinique (FR): Svrino Raign and Jean-claude Nicolas (SEPANMAR), Claire Cayol (VCAT ONCFS Rseau Tortues Marines), KAWAN Association, AMEPAS, ONF, Mairie de SAINTE-ANNE, MAIRIE du DIAMANT; Mxico: F. Alberto Abreu G. (Unidad Acadmica Mazatln, UNAM), Vicente Guzmn Hernndez (Direccin del rea de Proteccin de Flora y Fauna “Laguna de Trminos” (CONANP), Ciudad del Carmen, Camp.), Eduardo Cuevas (Pronatura Pennsula de Yucatn, A.C, Mrida, Yucatn), Laura Sarti and Ren Kantn (Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas), Patrick Burchfield and Luis Jamie Pea (Gladys Porter Zoo), Augusto Segovia (Yucatn Environment Ministry), Alejandro Arenas, Iaky Iturbe and Roberto Herrera (Flora Fauna y Cultura de Mxico, A.C., El Colegio de la Frontera Sur), US Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA National Marine Fisherie s Service, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Secretara de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Laguna de Trminos rea de Proteccin de Flora y Fauna, Marea Azul, Ecologa, Grupo Ecologista Quelonios A.C., Universidad Autnoma de Campeche, PEP-UPMP, La Universidad Autnoma del Carmen, Enlaces con tu Entorno, Ra Lagartos Reserva de la Biosfera, Centro Ecolgico Akumal; Montserrat (GB): John Jeffers (Min. Agriculture, Trade and Environment); Nicaragua: Cynthia Lagueux and Cathi Campbell (Wildlife Conservation Society); Panama: Argelis Ruiz (Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst.), Anne Meylan (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission); Puerto Rico (US): Carlos Diez and Hector Horta (Dept. Natural and Environmental Resources), Lesbia Montero (Univ. Puerto Rico Sea Grant Program); Saba (AN): Jan den Dulk and Susan Hurrell (Saba Marine Park); Sint Maarten (AN): Andy Caballero, Dominique Vissenberg and Beverly Nisbeth (Nature Foundation of Sint Maarten); Sint Eustatius (AN): Nicole Esteban and Arturo Herrera (St. Eustatius National and Marine Parks), Emma Harrison (Caribbean Conservation Corporation); St. Kitts and Nevis: Emile Pemberton (Department of Fisheries), Kimberly Stewart (Ross University), Kate Orchard (St. Christopher Heritage Society); St. Lucia: Dawn Pierre-Nathoniel (Department of Fisheries); St. Vincent and the Grenadines: Lucine Edwards (Fisheries Division); Suriname: Maartje Hilterman (IUCN National Committee of the Netherlands), Edo Goverse (Universiteit van Amsterdam), Marie-Louise Felix (WWF Marine Turtle Program Office Guianas); Trinidad and Tobago: Dennis Sammy (Nature Seekers), Tanya Clovis (SOS Tobago), Stephen Poon (Wildlife Section-Forestry Div.), Scott Eckert (WIDECAST), Suzanne Livingstone (IUCN Global Marine Species Assessment Programme); Turks and Caicos (GB): Judith Garland-Campbell (Ministry of Natural Resources), Michelle Fulford-Gardiner (Dept. Environment and Coastal Resources), Lorna Slade (Providenciales Marine Turtle Monitoring Project); USA: Barbara Schroeder (NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service), Sandra MacPherson (US Fish and Wildlife Service), Anne Meylan (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), Donna Shaver (NPS Padre Island National Seashore), Jerome Phillips (Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge); United States Virgin Islands (US): Rafe Boulon (NPS Virgin Islands National Park), Steve Garner (WIMARCS), Raquel Seybert (The Nature Conservancy), Amy Mackay (St. Croix Marine Turtle Conservation Project), Zandy Hillis (US National Park Service); Venezuela: Hedelvy J. Guada (CICTMAR), Vicente Vera (Ministry of Environment).

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 4 These data and their assembled results and significance remain the property of the Data Providers who, in collaboration with staff, volunteers and supporters, are the sole reason these maps could be produced and shared for the benefit of us all. For further information, including Data Use Agreements, please contact the Data Provider(s) directly. Contact information is provided in Appendix I of this Technical Report and is also available through the database host, OBIS-SEAMAP, at http://seamap.env.duke.edu/ Finally, no progress would have been made without generous and timely financial support from The Nature Conservancy’s Caribbean Marine Program, Pegasus Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Marine Turtle Conservation Fund and the UNEP-CEP Regional Programme for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW), enabled by a grant from the U.S. Department of State (Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs). World Wildlife Fund (Latin America and Caribbean Program) supported the development of electronic appendices and online availability. We are also grateful for the expertise and partnership of Duke University’s OBIS-SEAMAP (Ocean Biogeographic Information System – Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations) program, which serves as the database host. Monitoring leatherback sea turtle populations at Querepare Beach, Venezuela ( photo by Mariana Malaver) and Matura Beach, Trinidad ( photo by Scott A. Eckert); and Kemp’s ridleys at Rancho Nuevo, Mexico (photo by Jaime Pena)

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 5 Executive Summary Six species of sea turtle nest in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR). In partnership with more than 120 Data Providers, the spatial database of nesting habitat herein assembled is the most comprehensive for any region of the world, with 1,311 nesting beaches identified in 43 WCR nations and territories, inclusive of Bermuda to the north and Brazil to the south. Because some sites host nesting by multiple species, 2,535 species-specific sites are named. Of these, 77% are categorized in terms of abundance: <25, 25-100, 100-500, 500-1,000, or >1,000 nesting crawls per year. Hawksbill and green turtles are the least known, with 33% and 24%, respecttively, of all known nesting sites associated with unknown crawl abundances. Large nesting colonies are rare. Nesting grounds receiving more than 1,000 crawls per year range from 0.4% (hawksbill) to 7.0% (Kemp’s ridley) of all known species-specific sites. For any species, roughly half of all known nesting sites support fewer than 25 crawls (fewer than 10 reproductively active females) per year. While some nations are making exemplary progress in identifying and monitoring nesting stocks, consistent sea turtle population monitoring effort is still lacking in most areas and recent data are scarce in some jurisdictions; two archipelagic States (Bahamas, St. Vincent and the Grenadines) and Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti) have never been completely assessed. The regulatory landscape is fragmented. Thirty (69.8%) nations and territories prohibit sea turtle exploitation year-around: 29 of 43 jurisdictions mandate indefinite protection (eight of these allow exemptions for ‘traditional’ exploitation), while Anguilla has adopted a moratorium set to expire in 2020. With the exception of the Cayman Islands, legal sea turtle fisheries are based on minimum size limits (by weight or shell length), targeting large juveniles and adults in contradistinction to the best available science on management and recovery. Threats matrices characterizing a range of risk factors, including those that result in the loss or degradation of critical habitat, reveal that beach erosion, nest loss to predators or physical factors, artificial beachfront lighting, direct exploitation of turtles and eggs, and pollution threaten the survival of sea turtles at their nesting grounds in more than 75% of all WCR nations and territories. With regard to factors potentially hindering population recovery at foraging grounds, more than 75% of Caribbean nations and territories cite pollution, fisheries bycatch, entanglement, coral reef and/or seagrass degradation, and losses to hunters, poachers and natural predators as threatening the survival of sea turtles at sea. The data collected and assembled will allow for further research and analysis of sea turtle abundance (including population trends at index sites) and habitat use; for example, in conjunction with other datasets to determine areas of high biodiversity or areas in need of urgent protection. The database, archived and displayed online by OBIS-SEAMAP ( http://seamap.env.duke.edu/ ), will be updated regularly and used to establish conservation and management priorities, and to inform and improve policy at national and regional levels. Future goals of the project are to research and incorporate seagrass and coral reef data to determine nationally and regionally significant foraging areas, thus identifying marine areas in need of management attention and contributing to the development of a network of population monitoring programs, including juvenile and adult age classes, at index sites.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 6 Table of ContentsPreface and Intent 1 Acknowledgements 2 Executive Summary 5 Table of Contents 6 List of Figure and Tables 8 Introduction 10 Goals and Objectives 11 Methods 12 Results 16 Species Distribution: Summary of Findings 16 Active Threats and Protection Policies: Summary of Findings 26 Discussion and Recommendations 34 Literature Cited and Reviewed 38 Appendix I Primary Data Providers and Contributors 52 Appendix II Sea Turtle Threats Survey 61 Appendix III Wider Caribbean Region Sea Turtle Habitat National Reports 65 Anguilla (GB) 66 Antigua & Barbuda 70 Aruba (NL) 75 Bahamas 79 Barbados 83 Belize 87 Bermuda (GB) 91 Bonaire (AN-NL) 95 Brazil 99 British Virgin Islands (GB) 111

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 7Cayman Islands (GB) 115 Colombia 119 Costa Rica 126 Cuba 130 Curaao (AN-NL) 134 Dominica 138 Dominican Republic 142 French Guiana (FR) 146 Grenada 150 Guadeloupe (FR) 154 Guatemala 158 Guyana 162 Haiti 166 Honduras 170 Jamaica 174 Martinique (FR) 178 Mexico 182 Montserrat (GB) 195 Nicaragua 199 Panama 203 Puerto Rico (US) 207 Saba (AN-NL) 211 Saint Kitts & Nevis 213 Saint Lucia 217 Saint Vincent & the Grenadines 221 Sint Eustatius (AN-NL) 227 Sint Maarten (AN-NL) 231 Suriname 235 Trinidad & Tobago 239 Turks & Caicos Islands (GB) 245 United States Virgin Islands (US) 249 USA 254 Venezuela 263

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 8 List of Figures and Tables Figure 1. 14 Caribbean Marine Ecoregions (adapted from Spalding et al. 2007). Figure 2. 16 Sea turtles nest seasonally at 1,311 sites in 43 countries and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 3. 18 Frequency distribution of sea turtle species associated with the 2,535 species-specific nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 4. 19 All known nesting sites (n=552) for loggerhead sea turtles ( Carettacaretta ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 5. 20 All known nesting sites (n=593) for green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 6. 21 All known nesting sites (n=470) for leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 7. 22 All known nesting sites (n=817) for hawksbill sea turtles ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 8. 23 All known nesting sites (n=41) for Kemp’s ridley sea turtles ( Lepidochelys kempii ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 9. 24 All known nesting sites (n=62) for olive ridley sea turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Figure 10. 25 Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per year among the 2,535 identified species-specific nesting sites for sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region. Figure 11. 25 Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per species per year for the 2,535 identified species-specific nesting sites for sea turtle in the Wider Caribbean Region.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 9Figure 12. 26 Summary of legal regimes protecting sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Table 1. 17 Presence of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region. Table 2. 18 Number of identified nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. Table 3. 27 Threats to sea turtles (on the nesting beach, at sea) in the Wider Caribbean Region. The proportion of Wider Caribbean nations and territories citing the factor as both present and constituting a threat to sea turtles. Table 4 28 National policy for the protection of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region. Table 5 30 Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the Wider Caribbean Region. Table 6. 32 Threats to sea turtles at sea (foraging/migration) in the Wider Caribbean Region.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 10 IntroductionSea turtles are late-maturing and long-lived, and are among the most migratory of all Caribbean fauna. Threats accumulate over long periods of time and can occur anywhere in a population’s range; thus population declines have typically resulted from a combination of factors, both domestic and foreign. In addition to centuries of largely unmanaged and unsustainable exploitation, sea turtles are accidentally captured in active or abandoned fishing gear, resulting in death to some tens (and perhaps hundreds) of thousands of turtles annually. Moreover, reef and seagrass degradation, oil spills, chemical waste, persistent plastic and other marine debris, high density coastal development, and an increase in ocean-based tourism have damaged or eliminated many Caribbean nesting beaches and feeding grounds. Six sea turtle species are indigenous to the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR).1 All are classified by the World Conservation Union as “Endangered” or “Critically Endangered” (IUCN 2004). All six species are listed on Annex II (full protection) of the Protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol) to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention); Appendix I (full protection) of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS); Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); and, most recently, recognized as being in need of “protection, conservation and recovery” throughout the hemisphere by the Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles (Hykle 1999, Wold 2002). In general, and notwithstanding welcome signs of population increase at some protected nesting grounds ( Leatherback : Dutton et al. 2005, Green Turtle : Trong and Rankin 2005; Hawksbill : Krueger et al. 2003, Richardson et al. 2004, Diez and van Dam, Chelonia Inc., unpubl. data; Kemp’s Ridley : Mrquez et al. 1999), sea turtle populations throughout the WCR are so severely reduced from historical levels (Carr 1956, Parsons 1962, Rebel 1974, King 1982, Groombridge and Luxmoore 1989, Ross et al. 1989, Reichart 1993, Jackson 1997, Meylan and Donnelly 1999, Fleming 2001, Bjorndal and Bolten 2003, Godley et al. 2004, Brutigam and Eckert 2006) as to be considered by Bjorndal and Jackson (2003) “virtually extinct” from the standpoint of their role in Caribbean marine ecosystems. Once considered inexhaustible, some of the largest nesting colonies in the hemisphere, including those of green turtles in the Cayman Islands (Lewis 1940, Aiken et al.2001) and hawksbill turtles in Chiriqu, Panama (Carr 1956, Meylan 1999), have all but vanished. Intergovernmental meetings devoted to addressing shared management concerns have been convening in the region for more than two decades (e.g. Bacon et al. 1984, Ogren 1989, Eckert and Abreu Grobois 2001, IUCN 2002). In November 1999, resource managers and scientists 1The Wider Caribbean Region (see Figure 1) is defined as comprising the States and territories of the insular Caribbean (including the Bahamas), the north-eastern sector of South America (C olombia, Venezuela, the Guianas), Central America, Mexico and the USA to 30N latitude, including the waters of the Caribbea n Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to these States and territories (UNEP 1983). Because of shared sea turtle stocks, WIDECAST (and thus this report) also embraces Bermuda to the north and Brazil to the south (Frazer 1985).

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 11from 29 WCR nations and territories met in the Dominican Republic and unanimously recommended that “appropriate authorities, organizations, civic groups and other stakeholders promote scientific research, assessment and monitoring of marine turtles and their habitats, and standardize methods of data collection and analysis.” To this end, delegates agreed inter alia on the need to “identify (locate), characterize, and rank (as to intensity of use and importance for management) marine turtle nesting and foraging sites”, and to “identify, evaluate and rank threats to marine turtles and their habitats – both domestic and, to the extent practicable, throughout their ranges” ( Santo Domingo Declaration : Eckert and Abreu Grobois 2001: vi, viii ). The fundamental need to identify habitat necessary for the survival of the region’s sea turtles has long been recognized, yet the coastal zone remains one of the least protected environments in the region and unchecked shoreline development is a serious obstacle to sea turtle conservation in many areas. Emphasizing local partnerships and data-sharing opportunities enabled by the WIDECAST network, and taking advantage of modern spatial analysis methods, we have developed the region’s first digital landscape of sea turtle nesting beaches. The landscape and supporting databases identify, characterize and rank sites based on only the most up-to-date information, including an exhaustive literature search and nearly two years of intensive collaboration with more than 120 Data Providers in 43 nations and territories. In addition to unobstructed sandy beaches for egg-laying, sea turtles need healthy coral reef, seagrass and hard-bottom habitats for food and refuge, as well as safe passage through complex migratory corridors. These habitats are also at risk, mainly due to intense pressures arising from changes in water quality, patterns of coastal development and land use, and fisheries and other extractive industries (e.g. UNEP 1989, 2005, Sullivan Sealey and Bustamante 1999, Eckert and Abreu Grobois 2001, Fleming 2001, Godley et al. 2004, UNEP/GPA/CATHALAC 2004, Brutigam and Eckert 2006, UNEP/GPA 2006). Notwithstanding, quantitative data on the status and distribution of marine habitat types are scarce, presenting a significant gap in the management framework of endangered species, such as sea turtles, that rely on them. With an aim to definitively “identify, characterize, and rank” nesting habitat across this large region, and to lay the groundwork for doing the same with foraging habitat, we have developed National Reports, including maps and constituent data, for each of 43 countries and territories in the WCR (see Appendix III). These National Reports are also inventoried and available for public access at www.widecast.org as well as in an interactive format at Duke University’s OBISSEAMAP (Ocean Biogeographic Information System – Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations, Halpin et al. 2006) website: http:// seamap.env.duke.edu/ Goals and Objectives Recognizing that depleted and/or declining sea turtle stocks are in need of management and conservation attention is one thing; reversing population declines and monitoring sustained population recovery is another. Because sea turtles are highly migratory during all life history stages, they rely on critical habitats in many nations and territories for dispersal, forage, refuge, mating, migration, and nesting. Consequently, what appears as a decline or a recovery in a local population may be a direct consequence of the activities of people living hundreds or

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 12thousands of kilometers away – so that effective management must occur cooperatively and collaboratively across range States. Information gaps at local, national and regional levels can have significant consequences to management policy and conservation success at all levels. Chief among these gaps has been reliable and updated information concerning the location and status of critical habitat, as well as the distribution and abundance of the annual breeding effort. In the absence of such information, inter-jurisdictional collaboration in the conservation of shared sea turtle stocks – including attempts to cooperatively monitor the success of conservation actions by evaluating, in an integrated way, population trends at regionally important sites – is hindered. Seeking to address key recommendations of the Santo Domingo Declaration (Eckert and Abreu Grobois 2001) and to promote the survival of Caribbean sea turtles by increasing our understanding of population abundance and habitat use, the objectives of this study were to: Generate the first standardized and geographically comprehensive spatial database of active sea turtle nesting beaches in the central western Atlantic Ocean; Inform policy-making regarding the protection of critical habitat, in particular nesting habitat, by making population and spatial databases, including information on contemporary threats to sea turtle survival, publicly available in print and electronic formats; Contribute essential species and habitat data to the ecoregional planning processes of international organizations and intergovernmental entities; and Promote implementation of regional agreements that protect sea turtles and their habitat: Convention for the Protection and Development of the Wider Caribbean Region, and the Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles. MethodsWe utilized data from several different sources to generate the database. The primary sources of information were bilingual (English, Spanish) questionnaires completed by professional sea turtle researchers, government officials, conservationists, and informed community leaders in 43 nations and territories.2The questionnaire was circulated to WIDECAST Country Coordinators and other potential Data Providers by WIDECAST and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Caribbean Marine Programme Office in 2002, and then re-circulated to capture updated information in May 2006. The ques2 Nesting sites were not documented north of 30N latitude, the northern boundary of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), meaning that, in the case of USA, nesting north of Florida was not included for any species. Loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta nests deposited north of Florida comprise less than 10% of the nation’s nesting each year (NOAA and FWS 2007a); nesting by other species north of Florida ranges from extremely rare to occasional.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 13tionnaire asked the Data Provider to identify (name) the nesting beaches for each species of sea turtle known to nest in the country, the location and length of those nesting beaches, the number of nesting crawls (binned to ‘X’ [unknown abundance], <25, 25-100, 100-500, 500-1000 and >1000) made by each species per nesting beach per year,3 and the extent to which the nesting beach is monitored for sea turtle egg-laying and/or hatching activity. Nesting sites for the purposes of this analysis are defined as operational management units, rather than strict geographic entities. The reason for this is that nesting sites are defined and monitored differently in different locations. Sometimes small beaches, proximal but physically separated, are viewed as a single “nesting beach” or management unit. Conversely, extensive beach strands, extending hundreds of kilometers in some cases, are oftentimes segmented (e.g. because of limited human resources or the logistics of beach access) for the purpose of monitoring and management. In the former case multiple, typically small, habitats might be coalesced; in the latter case, extensive shorelines might be divided. We worked closely with Data Providers to be as consistent, as realistic, and as accurate as possible in every case. To ensure a comparable landscape we focused on a binned average of nesting crawls per year – namely, fewer than 25 crawls per year, on average; 25 to 100 crawls per year, on average; and so on. Not all sea turtle population monitoring efforts differentiate between successful and unsuccessful nesting, so standardizing on "crawls" (embracing both successful egg-laying and failed attempts) ensured that all countries could participate in a region-wide assessment. Moreover, we did not want to impose on Data Providers for proprietary details on exactly how many nests are laid each year, knowing that in many cases these carefully collected numbers are more suitable for peer-reviewed publication. Important note : Depending on location, the number of nesting crawls may be 2 to 10 times higher than the number of actual nests. The number of these nests may, in turn, be 2 to 10 times higher than the number of individual females. Therefore, the number of crawls is a baseline metric not to be confused with the number of clutches laid, nor with the always much smaller number of reproductively active individuals. We compiled a list of governmental and non-governmental Data Providers, including WIDECAST Country Coordinators and other experts (see Appendix I), developed a relationship with each Data Provider, and kept in close contact with Data Providers in order to assemble the best available information during the project timeline. In addition to estimating annual crawl abundance, we asked each Data Provider to provide new (or verify existing) information about sea turtle status, protection policies, and nesting and foraging threats within the jurisdiction of their nation or territory. We telephoned each Data Provider in early June 2006 to collect detailed information about sea turtle threats and to answer any remaining questions. Those who could not be contacted by telephone received a standardized survey (see Appendix II) by mail or e-mail. We encouraged Data Providers to supply geographic coordinates for nesting beaches. When these data were not available, we located nesting beaches from national maps or other sources. Data from all sources were compiled and annotated in a single ExcelTM file with a separate worksheet for each country or territory. Finally, a thorough literature review was conducted to compile nesting site location information and analyze data from peer-reviewed literature, project reports, national recovery plans, regional assessments, and unpublished manuscripts. 3 The project focused on nesting crawls, including both successful and unsuccessful nesting attempts, as the common metric to characterize habitat use and estimate population size.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 14The spatial organization of the data follows the concept of “Ecoregions” as defined by The Nature Conservancy (cf. Spalding et al. 2007) (Figure 1). For each country and territory the dataset includes nesting site data (beach name, latitude and longitude, approximate length, number of crawls for each species present, activity status [confirming that the nesting beach is currently active; historical nesting beaches no longer in use were excluded], beach monitoring status [confirming whether nesting activity is recorded daily, weekly, irregularly, etc.], and the time period over which the data were collected), Data Provider information, detailed notes on data points, and references for sources of data other than the primary Data Providers. Figure 1. Caribbean Marine Ecoregions (adapted from Spalding et al. 2007). Each data point was given a confidence rating of High, Moderate or Low. A High rating was assigned to data received and verified directly from WIDECAST Country Coordinators, active researchers, or other local experts, and to datasets derived from peer-reviewed published literature or published project reports less than 10 years old. A Moderate rating was assigned to datasets for which we were not personally familiar with the data source or how the data were collected, as well as to datasets 10 to 20 years old. A Low rating was given to datasets derived from non-expert or opportunistic observations, and to datasets more than 20 years old. In this way we were able to include the most recent nesting data available, while also identifying areas characterized by outdated information that would benefit from population monitoring efforts.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 15Data for individual countries and territories were combined to generate regional point and line shapefiles for nesting habitat using ESRI ArcGIS™ version 9.1. Point shapefiles were generated using latitude and longitude coordinates for each nesting beach. When locations were known, such as from GPS-based studies, these latitudes and longitudes were used. When locations were not known, they were estimated with the assistance of Data Providers and local maps. Nesting site coordinates should be considered approximate, as beach boundaries may change within and between years. Coordinates are located at the approximate midpoint of each beach. Line shapefiles were created using nesting beach start and end coordinates, generating a box around the beach, and clipping the beach from the GSHHS (Global, Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-Resolution Shoreline) (Wessel and Smith 1996) shoreline shapefile. The GSHHS shoreline shapefile has varying resolution depending on geographic location, as it was generated by combining data in the World Data Bank (resolutions between 500-5000m) and the World Vector Shoreline (resolutions between 50-500m) (Wessel and Smith 1996). All shapefiles are projected using the World Geodetic System, Datum 1984 and are in units of decimal degrees. Inevitably more information was available for some countries than for others. Supplemental data were often collected through literature reviews, but in some cases (e.g. Haiti, St. Vincent and the Grenadines) relevant data are extremely scarce from any source. Supplemental data were also collected through literature reviews to complete the protection policies and threats matrices when a full suite of information was not available from local Data Providers. After assembling and organizing all available data, draft maps, reports and database tables were closely reviewed by the Data Providers. Each National Report (see Appendix III) features maps of all known sea turtle nesting sites, including species-specific landscapes (historical nesting beaches are not included if nesting no longer occurs), and tables representing sea turtle status, protection policies, and contemporary threats to nesting and foraging turtles and habitat. National Reports (and summary tables) are organized by Ecoregion (TNC 2003, Spalding et al. 2007) and presented as follows: Bahamian, Greater Antilles, Eastern Caribbean, Guianan, Southern Caribbean, Southwestern Caribbean, Western Caribbean, Southern Gulf of Mexico, Northern Gulf of Mexico, and Floridian, followed by Bermuda and Brazil. Uniquely coded Beach Identification Numbers correspond to the underlying database compiled for each country. Monitoring green turtles on Mona Island, Puerto Rico ( photo by Scott Eckert, WIDECAST), Kemp’s ridley turtles at Padre Island National Seashore, USA ( photo by Jaime Pena, GPZ), and hawksbill turtles at Carriacou, Grenada (photo by KIDO Foundation).

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 16 ResultsSpecies Distribution: Summary of Findings The assessment involved nearly two years of collaboration with more than 120 Data Providers and local experts, resulting in a digital inventory of all known sea turtle nesting sites, including geographic location, colony size, the degree of legal protection afforded nesting females and their young, and contemporary threats to population survival. Six species nest seasonally on the continental and island shorelines of the WCR (Table 1). Hawksbills and green turtles nest in virtually every country, followed by leatherbacks, loggerheads, olive ridleys and Kemp’s ridleys, the latter restricted to nesting sites in the USA and Mexico. In total, 1,311 discrete nesting sites are identified in 43 countries and territories extending from Bermuda, a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic, south to Brazil (Figure 2). Because discrete sites are sometimes associated with multiple species, Table 2 reflects a total of 2,535 species-specific nesting sites. Figure 2. Sea turtles nest seasonally at 1,311 sites in 43 countries and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 17 Table 1. Presence of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.Marine Ecoregions with Countries/Territories Loggerhead Turtle Caretta caretta Green Turtle Chelonia mydas Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Kemp's Ridley Turtle Lepidochelys kempii Olive Ridley Turtle Lepidochelys olivacea Bahamian BahamasN, FN, FNN, FAI Turks & Caicos Islands (GB)N, IFN, FIN, FA?A? Greater Antilles CubaN, FN, FIN, IFN, FAI Cayman Islands (GB)N, IFN, FAFAA JamaicaN, IFN, FNN, FA?A HaitiN, FN, FN, F?N, FAA Dominican RepublicN, IN, FNN, FAA Puerto Rico (US)IN, FN, FN, FAI Eastern Caribbean British Virgin Islands (GB)IN, IFN, FNN, FAA US Virgin Islands (US)IN, FNN, FAA Anguilla (GB)FN, FNN, F A A Sint Maarten (AN)IN, FNN, FAA Saba (AN)IIN, FIIN, FAA Sint Eustatius (AN)INN, FNN, FAA Saint Kitts & NevisIN, FNN, FAA Antigua & BarbudaIN, FNN, F A A Montserrat (GB)IN, F?N, FIN, F?N, FAA Guadeloupe (FR)FN, FN, IFN, FAI DominicaIN, FNN, FAA Martinique (FR)FIN, FN, F?N, FAI Saint LuciaIN, FNN, FAA BarbadosI, F?N, FNN, F A A Saint Vincent & GrenadinesIN, FNN, FAA GrenadaFFNN, FAI Guianan French Guiana (FR)IN, FNINAN SurinameIFNNNAN, F GuyanaIN, FNNAI Southern Caribbean Trinidad & TobagoIN, FN, FN, FAIN, IF VenezuelaN, FN, FN, FN, FAA Bonaire (AN)NN, FIN, FAA Curacao (AN)N, FN, FN, IFN, FAI Aruba (NL)N, IFN, FNN, F A I Southwestern Caribbean ColombiaN, FN, FN, F?N, FAI PanamaIN, FIN, FNN, FAA Costa RicaN, FN, FNN, FAA NicaraguaFN, FN, IFN, FAA Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida HondurasN, FN, FNN, FAA GuatemalaN, FN, FNN, FAA BelizeN, FN, FIN, FA?A MexicoN, FN, FN, FN, FN, FA USAN, FN, FN, FIN, FN, FA Bermuda Bermuda (GB)IN, IFIN, FIFFIA Brazilian Brazil N, FN, FN, F?N, FAN, FN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 18Large nesting colonies are rare. Sites receiving more than 500 crawls per year comprise between <1% and 8% of species-specific totals (Table 2). The largest majority of sites host extremely small colonies characterized by fewer than 25 crawls per year (perhaps 3-10 individual turtles). A variable number (0% 33%) of sites for each species are known to support nesting, but reliable census data pertaining to colony size are not presently available (Table 2). X <2525-100100-500500-1000>1000Loggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )55276 (.14)228 (.41)121 (.22)87 (.16)14 (.03)26 (.05)Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )593142 (.24)308 (.52)66 (.11)45 (.08)17 (.03)15 (.03)Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )470101 (.21)271 (.58)60 (.13)24 (.05)4 (.01)10 (.02)Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )817268 (.33)423 (.52)90 (.11)22 (.03)11 (.01)3 (.004)Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )410 (.00)25 (.61)2 (.05)11 (.27)0 (.00)3 (.07) Oli ve Ridl ey T ur tl e( Lepidochelys olivacea )625 (.08)28 (.45)13 (.21)13 (.21)2 (.03)1 (.02)X = Presence, but unknown crawl abundanceTable 2. Number of identified nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.SpeciesTotal Number of crawls per year (proportion of total) Collectively, one-third of the identified species-specific nesting sites support hawksbill sea turtles, while approximately 20% support loggerhead, green, or leatherback sea turtles. In contrast, comparatively few sites support nesting by Kemp’s ridley or olive ridley sea turtles (Figure 3). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Loggerhead Turtle Green TurtleLeatherback Turtle Hawksbill Turtle Kemp's Ridley Turtle Olive Ridley TurtleSea Turtle SpeciesPercent of Identified SpeciesSpecific Nesting SitesFigure 3. Frequency distribution of sea turtle species associated with the 2,535 species-specific nesting sites in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 19Loggerhead sea turtles ( Caretta caretta ) generally nest in more temperate latitudes than do other Caribbean sea turtle species. The majority of nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region occurs in the USA (Florida)4, where all but 1 of 40 beaches identified as having greater than 500 crawls per year are located (the other is located in Brazil) (Figure 4). Sites reporting between 100 and 500 crawls per year follow the same pattern, being clustered in the northern (Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico, USA) and southern (Brazil) extremes of the region. Forty-one percent of all known nesting beaches support fewer than 25 crawls per year; in 14% of sites, data are insufficient to estimate annual crawl abundance.5 Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories. Figure 4. All known nesting sites (n=552) for loggerhead sea turtles ( Carettacaretta ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. 4 In all cases (Figures 4-9), in keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), only nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and included in analyses. Nests deposited no rth of Florida comprise less than 10% of the nation’s loggerhead sea turtle nesting each year (NOAA and FWS 2007a). 5 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the “fewer than 25 crawls per year” category.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 20Green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) nest throughout the Wider Caribbean Region (Figure 5). Tortuguero Beach in Costa Rica recorded over 50,000 crawls during the 2005 nesting season (de Haro and Trong 2006a) and is by far the largest nesting colony of green turtles in the region. The 32 beaches reporting more than 500 crawls per year are broadly distributed along the continental margins of Brazil, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Mexico, Suriname, and the USA (Florida)6; the only insular sites in this category are in Venezuela (Aves Island) and Cuba. More than half (52%) of all known nesting beaches support fewer than 25 crawls per year; in 24% of sites, data are insufficient to estimate annual crawl abundance.7 Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories. Figure 5. All known nesting sites (n=593) for green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. 6 In keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), only nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and included in analyses. Nesting is rarely reported north of Florida (Woods on and Webster 1999, Williams et al. 2006). 7 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the “fewer than 25 crawls per year” category.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 21Many of the largest leatherback sea turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea ) nesting colonies in the world are found in the Wider Caribbean Region. Ten colonies with more than 1,000 crawls per year are clustered in the southern (and mostly southeastern) sector of the region (Panama, Trinidad, Suriname, French Guiana). Four additional sites report between 500 and 1,000 crawls per year and are more broadly distributed, located in Costa Rica, Guyana, Suriname, and the US Virgin Islands (Figure 6).8 More than half (58%) of all known nesting beaches support very small colonies, fewer than 25 crawls per year, and 21% have unknown crawl abundances.9 Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories. Figure 6. All known nesting sites (n=470) for leatherback sea turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. 8 In keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), only nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and included in analyses. Occasional nesting is also reported in Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina and a single nesting is known from Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland (Rabon et al. 2003). 9 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the “fewer than 25 crawls per year” category.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 22Hawksbill sea turtles ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) nest in typically low densities throughout the Wider Caribbean Region and nesting does not occur north of Florida in the USA (Meylan and Redlow 2006). Only three sites – Mona Island (Puerto Rico), the west coast of Barbados, and Punta Xen (Mexico) – support more than 1,000 crawls per year (Figure 7). Five countries report nesting beaches with between 500 and 1,000 crawls per year, half of these sites are situated along the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico and the others are located in Barbados, Panama, and the US Virgin Islands. Thirty-six of 817 (4.4%) nesting beaches support more than 100 crawls per year, in contrast, 52% receive fewer than 25 crawls per year and 33% have unknown crawl abundances.10 Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories. Figure 7. All known nesting sites (n=817) for hawksbill sea turtles ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. 10 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the “fewer than 25 crawls per year” category.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 23Kemp’s ridley sea turtles ( Lepidochelys kempii )nest exclusively in the northern latitudes of the Wider Caribbean Region (Figure 8), primarily in Mexico and secondarily in the USA (Texas and Florida).11 As is the case with the hawksbill turtle (Figure 7), there are only three sites known to receive more than 1,000 crawls per year. These sites are all located in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico; the largest of these – Rancho Nuevo – received approximately 7,866 nests in 2006 (NOAA and FWS 2007b). Every known nesting site can be characterized in terms of an estimated number of crawls per year; the majority (61%) receive fewer than 25 crawls per year, but many small colonies are reported to be increasing. Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories. Figure 8. All known nesting sites (n=41) for Kemp’s ridley sea turtles ( Lepidochelys kempii ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. 11 In keeping with the defined northern boundary (30N latitude) of the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP 1983), only nesting beaches in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida were mapped and included in analyses. It is worth noting, in the context of the restricted reproductive range of this species, that nesting, while extremely rare, also occurs in Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and North Caro lina (“eight total nests record ed between them”: Donna Shaver, Chief, Division of Sea Turtle Science and Recovery, Padre Island National Seashore, US National Park Service, in litt 29 October 2007).

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 24Olive ridley sea turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea )nest primarily in the Guianas, with the largest nesting colonies located in Brazil, French Guiana, and Suriname (Figure 9). Relatively minor nesting occurs in Guyana and occasional nesting is reported in Trinidad and Tobago, Curaao, and other southern Caribbean locations. Nearly half (45%) of all nesting sites support fewer than 25 crawls per year; only 8% of sites are associated with unknown crawl abundances.12 A decline of more than 90% in the number of breeding-age adults in Suriname, until recently the region’s largest olive ridley nesting colony, is attributed to fisheries interactions (summarized by Reichart and Fretey 1993, Reichart et al. 2003). Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for additional detail, and the National Reports (see Appendix III) for the distribution and abundance of the annual nesting effort in individual Caribbean nations and territories. Figure 9. All known nesting sites (n=62) for olive ridley sea turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. 12 The general view of local experts is that beaches where nesting is known to occur but where data are insufficient to estimate colony size (e.g. number of crawls per year), are low density sites most likely to fall in the “fewer than 25 crawls per year” category.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 25In summary, a large majority (50.6%) of nesting sites receive fewer than 25 crawls per year by any particular species. In contrast, 13.9%, 8.0%, 1.9% and 2.3% receive an estimated 25 to 100, 100 to 500, 500 to 1,000 or more than 1,000 crawls per year, respectively (Figure 10). Approximately one in four (23.4%) sites cannot, with the information available, be characterized and ranked by colony size. These are unlikely to be high density nesting grounds. The frequency distribution for individual species illustrates a similar pattern, although species specific differences are evident (Figure 11). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 X<2525-100100-500500-1000>1000Crawls p er y earPercent of Identified SpeciesSpecific Nesting SitesFigure 10. Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per year among the 2,535 identified species-specific nesting sites for sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 X<2525-100100-500500-1000>1000Crawls per yearPercent of Identified SpeciesSpecific Nesting Sites Loggerhead Turtle Green Turtle Leatherback Turtle Hawksbill Turtle Kemp's Ridley Turtle Olive Ridley TurtleFigure 11. Frequency distribution of the number of crawls per species per year for the 2,535 identified species-specific nesting sites for sea turtle in the Wider Caribbean Region.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 26Active Threats and Protection Policies: Summary of FindingsOf the 43 nations and territories examined, 29 have legislated indefinite complete protection for sea turtles; in addition to these, Anguilla has adopted a moratorium set to expire in 2020 (Figure 12, Table 4). Eight of the 30 nations and territories, including Anguilla, where sea turtles are protected year-around, provide for exceptions relating to “traditional” or “subsistence” exploitation. Of these 30 jurisdictions, 22 report the taking of turtles on the nesting beach, 21 report the taking of turtles at sea, and 22 report the collection of eggs, all in contravention of existing law; only five describe enforcement of sea turtle protection laws as “adequate”. Thirteen nations and territories operate under regulatory regimes that leave one or more species seasonally subject to exploitation; with the singular exception of the Cayman Islands (which recently legislated maximum size limits for the sea turtle fishery), minimum size limits are the norm. Figure 12. Summary of legal regimes protecting sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region, and including Bermuda and Brazil. In addition to the legal and illegal exploitation of sea turtles and eggs, habitat loss (e.g. beach erosion, coral reef degradation, artificial beachfront lighting, pollution) and fisheries interactions

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 27top a long list of factors (see Table 3) that threaten the survival of Caribbean sea turtles at their nesting (Table 5) and foraging (Table 6) grounds. From a region-wide perspective, mechanized beach cleaning, beach rebuilding (nourishment), offshore lighting, and power plant entrapment would appear to be least threatening to sea turtle populations. Table 3. The proportion of Wider Caribbean nations and territories (n=41 in the case of nesting beaches, nesting being insignificant in Bermuda and Saba; n=43 in the case of foraging grounds) citing the factor as both present and constituting a threat to sea turtles. Data were assembled from responses to a standardized survey (see Appendix II) completed by local experts in each jurisdiction. The proportion of nations and territories characterizing the threat as “Frequent” appears in parentheses; this proportion does not differentiate between “Frequent” (F) on a national scale and “Frequent in Some Areas” (FA). Beach Erosion/Accretion .95 (.21) Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors .95 (.18) Artificial Lighting .85 (.46) Egg Collection by Humans .85 (.37) Killing of Nesting Females by Humans .83 (.24) Pollution .83 (.21) Nest Loss to Predators .78 (.19) Exotic (or Loss of Native) Vegetation .68 (.43) Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other Obstacles .68 (.39) Beach Vehicular Use .68 (.39) Sand Mining .68 (.36) Harassment Due to In creased Human Presence .66 (.19) Beach Armouring/Stabilization Structures .59 (.17) Livestock Presence on the Beach .56 (.13) Mechanized Beach Cleaning .39 (.31) Beach Nourishment .34 (.07) Killing of Nesting Females by Predators .32 (.15) Pollution .93 (.13) Fisheries Bycatch .91 (.38) Entanglement .91 (.26) Coral Reef Degradation .88 (.13) Hunting/Poaching .79 (.38) Predators .77 (.03) Seagrass Degradation .77 (.09) Boat/Personal Water Craft Collisions .67 (.07) Disease/Parasites .67 (.03) Harassment Due to In creased Human Presence .65 (.14) Marina and Dock Development .56 (.42) Dredging .42 (.11) Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, Transportation .40 (.00) Offshore Artificial Lighting .21 (.00) Power Plant Entrapment .14 (.00)Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the Wider Caribbean Region. Threats to sea turtles in water (foraging/migration) in the Wider Caribbean Region.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 28 Marine Ecoregions with Countries/Territories Complete (indefinite) protection Moratorium (fixed period) Prohibition(s) on take Closed season Minimum size limits Maximum size limits Annual quota Bahamian Bahamas No NoE, NF, HBYesYesNoNo Turks & Caicos Islands (GB)NoNoE, N, NFNoYesNoNo Greater Antilles CubaYes*–E, N, NFYesYesNoYes Cayman Islands (GB)No*NoE, N, NFYesNoYesYes JamaicaYes–––––– HaitiNoNoE, NF YesNoNoNo Dominican RepublicYes–––––– Puerto Rico (US)Yes – – – – – – Eastern Caribbean British Virgin Islands (GB)NoYes (LB & LG)E, LB, LGYesYesNoNo US Virgin Islands (US)Yes–––––– Anguilla (GB)NoYes (until 2020)––––– Sint Maarten (AN)Yes–––––– Saba (AN)Yes–––––– Sint Eustatius (AN)Yes–––––– Saint Kitts & NevisNoNoE, N, NFYesYesNoNo Antigua & BarbudaNoNoE, NYesYesNoNo Montserrat (GB)NoNoNoYesYesNoNo Guadeloupe (FR)Yes–––––– DominicaNoNoE, N, NFYesYesNoNo Martinique (FR)Yes–––––– Saint LuciaNoNo*E, N, NFYesYesNoNo BarbadosYes–––––– Saint Vincent & GrenadinesNoNoE, NYesYesNoNo GrenadaNoNoE, N, NF, LBYesYesNoNo Guianan French Guiana (FR)Yes–––––– SurinameYes*–––––– GuyanaYes–––––– Southern Caribbean Trinidad & TobagoNoNoEYesNoNoNo VenezuelaYes–––––– Bonaire (AN)Yes–––––– Curacao (AN)Yes–––––– Aruba (NL)Yes–––––– Southwestern Caribbean ColombiaYes*–HBNoNoNoNo PanamaYes–––––– Costa RicaYes*–––––– NicaraguaYes*–NoYesNoNoNo Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida HondurasYes*–NoNoNoNoNo GuatemalaYes*––NoNoNoNo BelizeYes*––NoNoNoNo MexicoYes–––––– USAYes–––––– Bermuda Bermuda (GB)Yes–––––– Brazilian Brazil Yes – – – – – – E = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; HB = Hawksbill; LB = Leatherback; LG = Loggerhead; I = Insufficient; See Note(s) i n Country ReportTable 4. National policy for the protection of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 29 Permits/ licenses required Gear restrictions Area closures Reports of exploitation/ sale nationall y Reports of illegal trade internationall y General public awareness of laws Recent prosecutions or penalties Enforcement considered adequate Penalties are an adequate deterrent No*YesYesYesYes*No (I)YesNoNo NoNoYesYesYesNoNoNoUnknown YesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYes YesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYes –NoYesYesNoYesYesNoNo YesNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNo –NoYesYesYesNoNoNoNo Yes*YesYesYesYes*YesYesNoNo YesYes*YesYesYes*YesYes*NoNo Yes*YesYesYesYes*YesYesNoYes* –YesNoYesNoYesNoNoYes –NoNo*YesYesNoYesNoYes –YesYesNoNoYesNoNoYes –NoYesYesNoYesNoYesYes NoYesNoYesYesYesUnknownNoYes Yes*Yes*YesYesYesNoNoNoYes NoNoNoYesYesYesUnknownNoNo –YesYesYesNoYesYesNoYes NoNoYesYesYesYesYesNoNo –NoNoYesUnknownYesYesNoYes NoYesYesYesYes*YesYesNoNo –NoYesYesNoYesNoNoYes NoYesYesYesYesYesUnknownNoYes YesYesNoYesYesYesNoNoUnknown –NoYesYesYesYesYesNo (I)Yes NoYesYesYesNoYesYes*NoNo YesYesYesUnknownUnknownNo (I)UnknownNoUnknown NoYesYesYesYesNoYesNo (I)No –YesYesYesYesNoYesNoYes YesNoYesYesNoNo (I)NoNo (I)Yes –NoYesYesUnknown* YesNoNoYes –NoNoYesYesYesYesNoYes NoYesYesYesYesNoUnknownNoUnknown YesYesYesYesYesNoYesNoNo –YesYesYesYesNoYesNoYes NoYesNoYesYesYesYesNoNo NoYesYesYesYesNoUnknownNoUnknown Yes*YesYesYesYesNoYesNoYes YesYesYesYesYesNo (I)Yes*No (I)Yes –YesYesYesYesYesNoNoYes Yes*YesYesNoNoYesNoYesYes –YesYesNoNoYesNoYesYes – NoYesYes*NoYesNoYesNo (I)E = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; HB = Hawksbill; LB = Leatherback; LG = Loggerhead; I = Insufficient; See Note(s) i n Country ReportTable 4. National policy for the protection of sea turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 30 Marine Ecoregions with Countries/Territories Killing of Nesting Females by Humans Killing of Nesting Females by Predators Nest Loss to Predators Nest Loss to Abiotic Factors Egg Collection by Humans Harassment Due to Humans Artifical Lighting Bahamian BahamasYes (R)NoNoYes (U)Yes (FA)NoYes (R) Turks & Caicos Islands (GB)Yes (R)NoNoYes (U)Yes (R)NoNo Greater Antilles CubaYes (O)NoYes (O)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O) Cayman Islands (GB)Yes (R)NoNoYes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (O) JamaicaYes (F)NoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)NoYes (FA) HaitiYes (U)NoNoYes (R)Yes (F)NoNo Dominican RepublicYes (O)Yes (R)UnknownUnknownYes (U)NoUnknown Puerto Rico (US)Yes (O)NoYes (F)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F) Eastern Caribbean British Virgin Islands (GB)Yes (R)NoYes (R)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (FA)Yes (U) US Virgin Islands (US)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F) Anguilla (GB)NoNoYes (R)Yes (O)Yes (U)NoYes (F) Sint Maarten (AN)Yes (R)NoNoYes (U)NoYes (FA)Yes (F) Saba (AN)NANANANANANANA Sint Eustatius (AN)NoNoNoYes (U)NoNoYes (R) Saint Kitts & NevisYes (R)NoYes (O)Yes (U)Yes (R/O)Yes (U)Yes (U) Antigua & BarbudaNoNoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F) Montserrat (GB)Yes (R)NoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)UnknownUnknown Guadeloupe (FR)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)NoYes (F) DominicaYes (F)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (O) Martinique (FR)Yes (O)NoYes (O)Yes (FA)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F) Saint LuciaYes (F)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O) BarbadosYes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F) Saint Vincent & GrenadinesYes (O)UnknownYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (FA)UnknownYes (O) GrenadaYes (O/F)NoYes (O)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (FA) Guianan French Guiana (FR)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (R/O)Yes (O)Yes (FA) SurinameNoUnknownYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (U) GuyanaYes (F)NoYes (R)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (R) Southern Caribbean Trinidad & TobagoYes (F)NoYes (R)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O) VenezuelaYes (F)Yes (O/F)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (U) Bonaire (AN)Yes (R)NoNoYes (U)NoNoYes (R) Curacao (AN)NoNoNoNoNoNoNo Aruba (NL)NoNoYes (R)Yes (O)NoYes (R)Yes (F) Southwestern Caribbean ColombiaYes (R/O)Yes (R)Yes (R/O)Yes (U)Yes (F)NoYes (R/O) PanamaYes (O)NoYes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (O) Costa RicaYes (F)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)NoNo NicaraguaYes (O)NoYes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (FA) Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida HondurasYes (R)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (FA) GuatemalaYes (R)NoYes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (R) BelizeNoUnknownYes (U)Yes (U)NoYes (U)Yes (U) MexicoYes (O)NoYes (F)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F) USAYes (R)Yes (R)Yes (O/F)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (R/O)Yes (O) Bermuda Bermuda (GB)NANANANANANANA Brazilian Brazil Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (FA)Table 5. Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the Wider Caribbean Region.Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown; NA = Not Applicable

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 31 Pollution Beach Erosion/ Accretion Beach Armouring/ Stabilization Structures Beach Nourishment Beach Obstacles Mechanized Beach Cleaning Beach Vehicular Use Sand Mining Exotic (or Loss of Native) Ve g etation Livestock on the Beach Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (FA)NoYes (O)NoNoYes (O)Yes (U)No NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo Yes (U)Yes (U)UnknownYes (FA)Yes (FA)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (O) NoYes (R)NoNoYes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)NoYes (R)No NoYes (U)Yes (U)NoNoNoNoYes (U)NoYes (U) Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (FA)Yes (O)Yes (FA)Yes (F)Yes (R) Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)NoYes (FA)Yes (FA)NoYes (R)Yes (F)Yes (O) Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoYes (FA)NoYes (R)NoYes (R)Yes (R) Yes (U)Yes (O)NoNoYes (U)NoYes (O)NoYes (O)No NoYes (O)NoYes (O)Yes (F)NoYes (F)Yes (FA)Yes (O)No Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoYes (O)NoYes (F)NoNoNo NANANANANANANANANANA Yes (U)Yes (O)NoNoNoNoYes (O)Yes (R/O)NoYes (O) Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (FA)Yes (F)Yes (F) Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R) UnknownYes (U)UnknownUnknownUnknownUnknownUnknownYes (U)Yes (U)Unknown Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoYes (R)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)No Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (R/O)NoYes (O)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (R) Yes (O)Yes (FA)Yes (F)UnknownNoYes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F)No Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (O)NoYes (O)Yes (O)NoYes (R) Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (FA)Yes (R)Yes (FA)Yes (FA)Yes (FA)Yes (R)Yes (F)No Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (R) Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (O)NoYes (O)NoYes (O/F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F) NoYes (U)Yes (O)NoYes (FA)Yes (R/O)Yes (R) NoNoNo Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoNoNoNoYes (R)Yes (R)Yes (U) Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (U)NoYes (U)NoYes (O)Yes (F)Yes (R)No Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (O) Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoNoNoNoYes (FA)NoNo NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoYes (R) Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)NoYes (F)No Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R/O)NoYes (R)NoYes (U)Yes (R)NoYes (U) Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (R)NoYes (R)NoYes (R)Yes (F)NoYes (R) Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoNoNoYes (O)NoYes (U)No Yes (F)Yes (FA)Yes (O)NoNoNoNoYes (FA)Yes (FA)Yes (FA) Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (R) Yes (F)Yes (R)NoNoYes (R)NoNoNoUnknownYes (U) Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)NoNoNoNoYes (U)Yes (U)No Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (FA)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (R) Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)NoYes (FA)Yes (R) NANANANANANANANANANA Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)NoYes (O)NoYes (FA)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (O)Table 5. Threats to sea turtles on the beach (nesting/hatching) in the Wider Caribbean Region.Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown; NA = Not Applicable

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 32 Marine Ecoregions with Countries/Territories Seagrass Degredation Coral Reef Degredation Fisheries Bycatch Hunting/ Poaching PollutionPredators Disease/ Parasites Bahamian BahamasYes (U)Yes (U)NoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) Turks & Caicos Islands (GB)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) Greater Antilles CubaNoYes (U)Yes (F)Y es (F)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (R) Cayman Islands (GB)UnknownYes (U)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R) JamaicaNoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)UnknownNo HaitiYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)NoUnknown Dominican RepublicYes (U)Yes (U) Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R) Puerto Rico (US)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) Eastern Caribbean British Virgin Islands (GB)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) US Virgin Islands (US)Yes (U)Yes (U)Y es (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (U) Anguilla (GB)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (U) Sint Maarten (AN)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)NoYes (R) Saba (AN)Yes (U)Yes (U)NoYe s (R)Yes (U)UnknownUnknown Sint Eustatius (AN)UnknownYes (U)NoNoYes (U)Yes (U)No Saint Kitts & NevisYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) Antigua & BarbudaYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R) Montserrat (GB)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (U)UnknownYes (U)Unknown Guadeloupe (FR)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) DominicaYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Y es (F)Yes (U)UnknownUnknown Martinique (FR)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (R) Saint LuciaYes (U)Yes (U)Y es (R)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R) BarbadosYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)NoYes (U)NoYes (R) Saint Vincent & GrenadinesYes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (U)Yes (U)Unknown GrenadaYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (U) Guianan French Guiana (FR)NoNoYes (F)NoNoYes (U)No SurinameNoNoYes (O)NoYes (U)NoNo GuyanaNoNoYes (F)NoUnknownYes (U)No Southern Caribbean Trinidad & TobagoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (R)No VenezuelaYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) Bonaire (AN)NoYes (R)Yes (R)Ye s (R)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) Curacao (AN)NoNoYes (U)Yes (R)Yes (U)NoYes (U) Aruba (NL)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)NoYes (O)UnknownUnknown Southwestern Caribbean ColombiaYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)No PanamaYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (O) Costa RicaYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (F) NicaraguaYes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Y es (F)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (O) Western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida HondurasYes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F )Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (U) GuatemalaYes (U)Yes (U)UnknownNoYes (F)Yes (U)Unknown BelizeYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)NoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) MexicoYes (R)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (R) USAYes (O)Yes (F)Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (U)Yes (O) Bermuda Bermuda (GB)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (R)NoYes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U) Brazilian Brazil UnknownUnknownYes (F)Yes (O)Yes (U)UnknownYes (U)Table 6. Threats to sea turtles at sea (foraging and migration) in the Wider Caribbean Region.Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 33 Harassment Due to Humans Dredging Marina & Dock Development Boat/Personal Water Craft Collisions Power Plant Entrapment Oil & Gas Development Entanglement Offshore Artificial Lighting NoYes (O)Yes (F)Yes (R)NoYes (U)Yes (R)No Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (F)Yes (O)NoNoYes (R)No UnknownYes (U)Yes (U)NoNoYes (U)Yes (U)No Yes (U)NoNoYes (R)NoNoYes (R)No NoNoNoNoNoNoYes (U)No NoNoNoNoNoNoYes (U)No UnknownYes (R)Yes (FA)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (O)No Yes (F)Yes (R)Yes (F)Yes (R)NoNoYes (F)No Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (U)Yes (R)NoNoYes (U)No Yes (U)NoNoYes (O)NoNoYes (U)No NoYes (R)Yes (U)NoNoNoYes (R)No Yes (R)NoYes (F)Yes (U)NoNoYes (U)No Yes (O)NoNoNoNoNoYes (U)No NoNoNoYes (R)NoYes (U)NoYes (U) Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (R/O)NoNoYes (O)No Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (R)Yes (R)NoYes (U)Yes (R)Yes (R) UnknownUnknownUnknownUnknownNoUnknownUnknownNo NoNoYes (F)NoNoUnknownYes (O)No Yes (U)Yes (R)NoYes (R)NoNoYes (F)No Yes (U)UnknownYes (FA)Yes (O)NoYes (U)Yes (F)No Yes (O)NoYes (U)Yes (R)NoNoYes (R)No Yes (FA)NoYes (R)Yes (R)NoNoYes (U)No Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)NoNoYes (R)Yes (R) Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (F)Yes (O)NoNoYes (O)Yes (U) NoNoNoYes (R)NoYes (R)Yes (O)No Yes (O)NoNoNoNoNoYes (O)Yes (O) Yes (R)NoNoNoNoNoYes (F)No NoNoNoYes (R)NoYes (U)Yes (F)No Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)Yes (U)NoYes (U)Yes (O/F)Yes (U) NoNoYes (U)NoNoNoYes (R)No NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo Yes (U)NoYes (R)Yes (O)NoYes (U)Yes (R)No Yes (U)NoNoYes (R)NoUnknownUnknownNo Yes (O)NoYes (R)Yes (U)NoYes (O)Yes (U)No Yes (U)NoNoNoNoYes (U)Yes (R)No Yes (F)NoYes (FA)NoNoYes (U)Yes (F)No Yes (O)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (O)Yes (U)No Yes (R)UnknownNoYes (R)NoNoYes (F)No NoYes (U)NoNoNoNoYes (U)No NoNoYes (U)Yes (R)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (O)Yes (U) Yes (R/O)Yes (O/F)Yes (O/F)Yes (O/F)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O)Yes (O) Yes (U)Yes (U)NoYes (F)Yes (R)NoYes (F)Yes (R) Yes (R)Yes (R)UnknownYes (R)Yes (R)Yes (U)Yes (F)NoTable 6. Threats to sea turtles at sea (foraging and migration) in the Wider Caribbean Region.Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 34 Discussion and RecommendationsThis assessment asks a deceptively simple question: “Where do sea turtles nest in the Wider Caribbean Region?” An accurate answer is critical to the recovery of depleted populations in that it relates directly to the setting of priorities for national and international conservation action, population monitoring and habitat protection, as well as to larger issues of coastal zone management and land use policy. Taking advantage of modern spatial analysis methods, and in collaboration with more than 120 Data Providers (Appendix I) and other experts, we have created the first regional maps of the distribution and abundance of the annual reproductive effort for all six species of Caribbean-nesting sea turtles. Digital templates for collecting, organizing and representing data fundamental to conservation and management were developed to provide visual summaries of sea turtle presence (including both distribution and abundance), national protection policies, and a regional landscape of active threats. The process of developing these templates has stimulated considerable interest among Caribbean stakeholders in continuing to collaborate both to maintain the resulting databases and to use them to inform policy-making regarding the protection of critical habitat. By collecting and collating information from field scientists, researchers, government officials, conservationists and other Data Providers, and conducting a thorough literature review, we identified areas and sources of high quality sea turtle habitat data, areas where existing information is outdated and/or inaccessible, and areas where data do not currently exist. Among the least accessible information are the geographic coordinates of coastal habitats, emphasizing the urgent need to collect baseline geospatial data on the distribution and status of important foraging habitat, including coral reef and seagrass environments. In all, 1,311 discrete nesting sites (generally but not always coincident with natural beach boundaries, see Methods) were identified in the 43 nations and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR), inclusive of Bermuda to the north and Brazil to the south. Because some sites host nesting by multiple species, 2,535 species-specific sites were identified. In most countries the maps (see Appendix III) are deemed comprehensive, but major gaps are presumed to remain in nations (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Haiti, St. Vincent and the Grenadines) where a national sea turtle survey has never been documented. Our research has demonstrated that large nesting colonies are rare. Nesting grounds receiving more than 1,000 crawls per year range from 0.4% (hawksbill) to 7.0% (Kemp’s ridley) of all known sites. For any species, the far majority (41%-61%, see Table 2) of nesting sites support fewer than 25 crawls per year, the equivalent of fewer than 10 reproductively active females. Organized and consistent sea turtle population monitoring effort is still lacking in most areas and recent data (of any kind) are scarce in some jurisdictions. Two archipelagic States (Bahamas, St. Vincent and the Grenadines) and Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti) have never been completely assessed and nesting habitat data provided by local experts in these jurisdictions (as well as in Antigua and Barbuda, and St. Lucia) are, for the most part, more than a decade old. Known but unsurveyed (or inconsistently surveyed) nesting sites are marked by an “X” for “unknown abundance” in the database, identifying gaps that should be filled before a complete

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 35landscape of critical habitat can be achieved, and before we can be assured that all major sites are included in integrated, inter-jurisdictional monitoring programs designed to characterize population trends over biologically relevant landscapes (remembering that sea turtles are migratory) and evaluate the success or failure of management investment. It is also clear that while some nations are making exemplary progress in identifying and monitoring nesting stocks, others have barely begun and would benefit significantly from the development of standardized procedures manuals, peer-training, greater information exchange, and more consistent financial support. Of the 2,535 species-specific nesting sites identified in the 43 WCR nations and territories surveyed, 23% of these could not be categorized in the simplest terms of abundance (i.e. <25, 25-100, 100-500, 500-1,000, or >1,000 nesting crawls per year). The most noteworthy in this regard are the hawksbill and green turtles, where 33% and 24%, respectively, of known nesting sites are associated with unknown crawl abundances, providing valuable insight into data gaps and how much we still have to learn about habitat use by these species. International funding should seek to balance the undisputed value of continuing to support long-term population datasets, with the necessity of acquiring baseline data in countries (and for species) for which the least is known. The majority (30/43 = 69.8%) of nations and territories in the Wider Caribbean Region fully protect locally occurring sea turtles, but the ‘patchwork’ approach is less than ideal for species, such as sea turtles, that are migratory at all life stages. To be effective, the legal framework protecting sea turtles should be consistent among range States; similarly, habitat protection policies should be geographically inclusive at the population level and embrace both nesting and foraging grounds in order to achieve conservation goals. That this is not presently the case carries consequences for individual turtles swimming between protected and unprotected jurisdictions, and, presumably, serves to diminish the effectiveness of moratoria and other conservation measures. Recent summaries of WCR sea turtle legislation are available in Fleming (2001), Chacn (2002), Reichart et al. (2003), Godley et al. (2004), and Brutigam and Eckert (2006). Legal fisheries typically mandate minimum size limits (by weight or shell length) – targeting large juveniles and adults in contradistinction to the best available science on population recovery. Frazer (1989) used the concept of reproductive value – a measure of the value to the population of an individual female turtle of a particular age – to emphasize the critical importance of ensuring that large turtles be protected, and noted that the regulatory framework in the WCR had been focusing sea turtle fisheries “incorrectly for over 350 years”. More contemporary mathematical treatments (e.g. Crowder et al. 1994, Heppell et al. 1999, 2000, 2004) have only reinforced the conclusion that protecting large juvenile and adult turtles from exploitation is an essential component of any sustainable sea turtle management regime. While Caribbean fishery managers recognize that “understanding these [life-history] aspects is fundamental to the development of management programs” ( Santo Domingo Declaration – Eckert and Abreu Grobois, 2001), the regulatory framework has been slow to respond. Protection of critical habitat – nesting beaches, foraging grounds, migratory corridors – is less developed, although many of the beaches that support the region’s largest remaining colonies are in managed or protected status (summarized by Eckert and Hemphill 2005). Protection at the nesting ground alone is not enough to ensure population survival, as was recently demonstrated when the world’s largest leatherback nesting colony (located on the Pacific coast of Mexico, where nesting females have been protected since 1990) collapsed as a result of incidental capture and drowning in the distant gillnet fisheries of Peru and Chile (Eckert and Sarti 1997). Without first determining stock boundaries and establishing linkages between nest-

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 36ing and foraging grounds, and then acting on this information in a policy context to create holistic management regimes, identifying and protecting important nesting sites may not be sufficient to ensure population survival. The dataset can also be used to determine and analyze the range of threats potentially encountered by sea turtles while nesting, foraging and migrating throughout the region, and to generate a suite of index13 nesting beach sites sufficient to monitor sea turtle populations at biologically relevant scales. Quantitative assessment and monitoring of threats at national and nesting beach scales is needed in order to determine whether current sea turtle management efforts and protection policies are measurably reducing threats to and protecting the habitat of sea turtles throughout the region. Creating a standardized regional framework and protocols for monitoring threats using sea turtles as a flagship species could also be used as a model for other managed species, including migratory species dependent on the success of inter-jurisdictional collaboration and investment. With an aim to characterize the full range of risk factors, including those that result in the loss or degradation of critical habitat, we have constructed regionally inclusive threats matrices which, while general in nature, represent a first attempt to identify and rank the most serious potential obstacles to population recovery. The matrices broadly identify the presence or absence and relative frequency (Rare, Occasional, Frequent, Frequent in a particular Area; see Appendix II) of nesting threats in each jurisdiction. With regard to nesting populations, more than 75% of Caribbean nations and territories acknowledge that beach erosion/accretion (and/or nest loss to other physical factors), artificial beachfront lighting, egg collection by humans, the killing of egg-bearing females, and pollution threaten the survival of sea turtles at their nesting grounds. Artificial lighting and exotic (or loss of native) vegetation would appear to be the most geographically pervasive threats, with nearly half (46% and 43%, respectively) of all countries describing them as “Frequent”. With regard to factors potentially hindering population recovery at foraging grounds, more than 75% of Caribbean nations and territories cite pollution, fisheries bycatch, entanglement, coral reef and/or seagrass degradation, and losses to hunters, poachers and natural predators as threatening the survival of sea turtles at their foraging grounds or along migratory corridors. Marina and dock development and hunting/poaching would appear to be the most geographically pervasive threats, with 42% and 38% of all countries describing them as “Frequent”. Conversely, mechanized beach cleaning, beach nourishment (beach rebuilding), offshore oil and gas exploration and development, offshore lighting, and power plant entrapment are cited as present (and posing a threat to sea turtles) in fewer than half of countries and territories and could be construed to be less important from a conservation investment perspective, at least on a regional scale. Fewer than 5% of countries describe at-sea predators, disease/parasites, oil and gas exploration and development, artificial offshore lighting, or power plant entrapment as a “Frequent” threat to sea turtles. 13 According to Brutigam and Eckert (2006), “characterizing a site, whether foraging or nesting, as an 'Index' site implies the consistent and long-term application of standardized population monitoring protocols to ensure the data are suitable for trend analysis. Survey boundaries are specifically set and adhered to from year to year, and the survey area is representative (i.e. it should attempt to represent a range of threat and protection levels, a variety of turtle life stages, and a range of turtle p opulation densities). The emphasis of this protocol is on establishing index methods for measuring trends in relative abundance at fixed locations; therefore, the sampling strateg ies at each Index site should ideally be structured in a manner that allows inference to a larger area of interest.”

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 37In summary, we achieved our objectives in generating the first standardized and geographically comprehensive spatial database of active sea turtle nesting beaches in the central western Atlantic Ocean. The data collected and assembled will allow for further research and analysis of sea turtle abundance (including population trends) and habitat use; for example, in conjunction with other datasets to determine areas of high biodiversity (e.g. through processes such as The Nature Conservancy’s Ecoregional Planning) or areas in need of urgent protection. Our hope is that the information collected during the project, and archived and displayed in the online database ( http://seamap.env.duke.edu/ ), will be ever-improving, updated regularly by Data Providers in each country or territory, and used to establish conservation and management priorities, inform local and national land use decisions, and improve policy at national and regional levels. Through this project, all nations in the WCR have been and will continue to be encouraged to attain higher levels of data quality, completeness, and compatibility by increasing their efforts to identify and monitor nesting and foraging sites. Improvement in these areas will also strengthen implementation of regionally negotiated agreements aimed at sustainably managing shared marine resources; specifically, the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Wider Caribbean Region and the Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles. Future goals of the project are to research and incorporate seagrass and coral reef data to determine nationally and regionally significant foraging areas, thus identifying marine areas in need of management attention and contributing to the development of a network of population monitoring programs, including juvenile and adult age classes, at index sites. Similarly, there is a need to research and incorporate genetic data (cf. Bowen and Karl 1996, Encalada et al 1998, Daz et al. 1999, Bass 1999, Dutton et al 1999, Bowen et al. 1997, 2005, 2006) into the database in order to: highlight and illustrate linkages between nesting and foraging grounds, create a dialogue on the need to ensure the survival both of large colonies and a representative landscape of genetic diversity present in widely distributed remnant stocks, and support efforts to harmonize management policies among range States.

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 52 APPENDIX I Primary Data Providers and Contributors Monitoring hawksbill and green sea turtle populations at Jumby Bay, Antigua ( photo by Martha Gilkes); Rosalie Bay, Dominica ( photo by Rowan Byrne); and Mona Island, Puerto Rico ( photo by Chelonia, Inc.)

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 53ANGUILLA: James C. Gumbs Director Department of Fisheries & Marine Resources Crocus Hill Anguilla, British West Indies Tel: (264) 497 2871 Fax: (264) 497 8567 james.gumbs@gov.ai ANTIGUA & BARBUDA: Cheryl Appleton Chief Fisheries Officer Fisheries Division Ministry of Agriculture, Lands Marine Resources, and Aqua-Industries Fisheries Complex, Pt Wharf St. John’s, Antigua Tel: (268) 462-1372 fisheries@antigua.gov.ag Tricia Lovell Fisheries Biologist Fisheries Division Ministry of Agriculture, Lands Marine Resources, and Aqua-Industries Fisheries Complex, Pt Wharf St. John’s, Antigua Tel: (268) 462-1372 fisheries@antigua.gov.ag Dr. James Richardson Scientific Director Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project Institute of Ecology University of Georgia Athens, GA 30602 Tel: (706) 542-6036 JAMESIR@UGA.EDU Peri Mason Associate Scientific Director Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project c/o Biology Department Wesleyan University Middletown, CT 06459 Peri.Mason@gmail.com ARUBA: Dr. Richard van der Wal Turtugaruba Foundation C. Huygensstraat #8 Oranjestad, Aruba Tel: (297) 582-0400 wal@setarnet.aw Edith van der Wal Turtugaruba Foundation C. Huygensstraat #8 Oranjestad, Aruba Dutch Caribbean Tel: (297) 582-0400 wal@setarnet.aw BAHAMAS: Eleanor Phillips Bahamas Program Director The Nature Conservancy PO Box CB 11398 Caves Village, Bldg 5 (Ste 2) West Bay Street Nassau, Bahamas Tel: (242) 327-2414 Fax: (242) 327-2417 ephillips@tnc.org Dr. Alan Bolten Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research Department of Zoology University of Florida Box 118525 Gainesville, FL 32611 Tel: (352) 392-5194 Fax: (352) 392-9166 abb@zoology.ufl.edu Dr. Karen Bjorndal Director Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research Department of Zoology University of Florida Box 118525 Gainesville, FL 32611 Tel: (352) 392-5194 Fax: (352) 392-9166 kab@zoology.ufl.edu BARBADOS : Dr. Julia Horrocks Professor Dept. Biological and Chemical Sciences University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus Bridgetown, Barbados Tel: (246) 417-4320 Fax: (246) 417-4325 horrocks@uwichill.edu.bb Jennifer Beggs Staff Biologist Volunteer/Intern Coordinator Sea Turtle Conservation and Research Program Mote Marine Laboratory 1600 Ken Thompson Pkwy Sarasota, FL 34236 Tel: (941) 388-4441 x 308 Fax: (941) 388-4317 jbeggs@mote.org BELIZE : Janet Gibson Wildlife Conservation Society 3 St. Edward Street Belize City, Belize Tel: (501) 223-3271 Cell: (501) 610-2090 jgibson@btl.net Renison Enriquez Biologist Glover Reef Marine Reserve 1722 Cnr. Cleghorn and Bakadeer Street Belize City, Belize renisone@yahoo.com Isaias Majil MPA Coordinator Belize Fisheries Department Princess Margaret Drive Belize City, Belize Tel: (501) 224-4552 Fax: (501) 223-2983 isaiasmajil@yahoo.com BERMUDA: Jennifer Gray Coordinator Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, and Bermuda Turtle Project Dept Conservation Services P.O. Box FL 145 Flatts, FLBX Bermuda Tel: (441) 293-4464 x122 Fax: (441) 293-6154 jagray-c@gov.bm

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 54BRAZIL : Maria (‘Neca’) Marcovaldi Presidente Fundaao Pr-TAMAR Caixa Postal 2219 Rio Vrmelho CEP: 41950-970 Salvador-Bahia Brazil Tel: 55 +71 3676 1045/1113 Fax: 55 +71 3676 1067 neca@tamar.org.br Also from TAMAR: Luciano Soares Alexandro Santos Cludio Belllini Augusto Cesar Coelho Dias da Silva Gustave Lopez Joo Carlos Thom Eron Paes e Lima Antonio de Papua Almeida BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS: Bertrand Lettsome Chief Conserv. & Fisheries Dept. Ministry of Natural Resources P. O. Box 3323 Road Town, Tortola BVI Tel: (284) 494-5681, -5682 Fax: (284) 494-2670 bblettsome@gov.vg Mervin Hastings Marine Biologist Conserv. & Fisheries Dept. Ministry of Natural Resources P. O. Box 3323 Road Town, Tortola BVI Tel: (284) 494-5681, -5682 Fax: (284) 494-2670 mervin_hastings@hotmail.com Shannon Gore Marine Biologist Conserv. & Fisheries Dept. Ministry of Natural Resources PO Box 3323 Road Town, Tortola BVI Tel: (284) 494-5681, -5682 Fax: (284) 494-2670 Sd_gore@yahoo.com CAYMAN ISLANDS : Gina Ebanks-Petrie Director Protection & Conserv. Unit Department of Environment P. O. Box 486 GT Grand Cayman Cayman Islands Tel: (345) 949-8469 Fax: (345) 949-4020 Gina.Ebanks-Petrie@gov.ky Janice Blumenthal Research Officer Department of Environment P. O. Box 486GT Grand Cayman Cayman Islands Tel: 345-949-8469 Fax: 345-949-4020 janice.blumenthal@gov.ky Joni Solomon Research Officer II Department of Environment P. O. Box 486GT Grand Cayman Cayman Islands Tel: 345-949-8469 Fax: 345-949-4020 Joni.Solomon@gov.ky COLOMBIA : Elizabeth Taylor Directora General CORALINA Carretera San Luis Bigth Km 26 Isla San Andres Colombia Tel: (578) 512-8589 Fax (09851) 20081 Coralsai@telecom.com.co Zunilda Baldonado Marine Biologist CORALINA Carretera San Luis Bigth Km 26 Isla San Andres Colombia Tel: (578) 512-8589 Fax (09851) 20081 zunildabh@yahoo.com Claudia Ceballos Department of Ecology, Evolution & Organismal Biology, EEB Program 253 Bessey Way Iowa State University Arnes, IA 50011 Tel: (515) 294-6363 ceballos@iastate.edu Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (INVEMAR) www.invemar.org.co COSTA RICA : Didiher Chacn Chaverri Coordinator para Latin America, WIDECAST Apdo. 170-2070 Sabanilla, San Jos Costa Rica Tel: (506) 224-3570 Fax: (506) 253-7524 dchacon@widecast.org Through Didiher Chacon C., data from the following organizations were provided : Caribbean Conservation Corporation www.cccturtle.org ASTOP www.parisminaturtles.org EWT, Estacin Las Tortugas www.ecoteach.org/Foundatio n/lasTortugas.asp Tortuga Feliz www.latortugafeliz.com CUBA: Flix Moncada G. Biologo Pesquero Jefe del Programa de Tortugas Marinas Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras (CIP) 5ta. y 248, Barlovento Playa, La Habana, Cuba Tel/Fax: (537) 24 5895 felixmoncada2306@yahoo.es

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 55Julia Azanza Ricardo Centro de Investig. Marinas Universidad de La Habana Calle 16 #114 e/ 1ra y 3ra Playa, La Habana, Cuba Tel: (537) 203-0617 julia@cim.uh.cu Fernando Hernandez Empresa Nacional para la Conservacin de la Flora y Fauna La Habana, Cuba Rubn Blanco Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa y Medio Ambiente Isla de la Juventud Cuba DOMINICA : Seth Stapleton Project Manager Rosalie Sea Turtle Initiative c/o WIDECAST 135 Duke Marine Lab Road Duke University Marine Lab Beaufort, NC 28516 seth.stapleton@gmail.com Stephen Durand Assistant Forest Officer Forestry, Wildlife & Parks Div Botanic Gardens Roseau, Dominica Tel: (767) 448-2401 x 3417 Fax: (767) 448-7999 aimperialis@hotmail.com Rowan Byrne University of Wales Aberystwyth UK rowanby@yahoo.com DOMINICAN REPUBLIC : Dr. Yolanda M. Len Depto. de Ciencias Bsicas y Ambientales, Universidad INTEC and, Grupo Jaragua Santo Domingo Republica Dominicana Tel: (809) 567-9271 x426 ymleon@intec.edu.do Jesus Tomas University of Valencia Cavanilles Research Institute Aptdo. 22085 Valencia E-46071 Spain Tel: 34 96 3543685 jesus.tomas@uv.es FRENCH GUIANA : Dr. Benoit de Thoisy Scientific Coordinator Association Kwata BP 672 F-97335 Cayenne cedex Guyane franaise Tel/Fax: (594) 38 73 23 thoisy@nplus.gf Laurent Kelle WWF Guianas Bureau Guyane Coordinateur Ocans/Ctes 5 lot Katoury Route de Montabo 97 300 Cayenne Guyane franaise Tel/Fax: (594) 31 38 28 Int + 594 594 28 79 33 lkelle@wwf.fr Through Benoit de Thoisy, data from the following organizations were provided : Amana Nature Reserve http://reserve.amana.free.fr Association Spanguy www.sepanguy.com Association Kulalasi FRENCH WEST INDIES : Martinique: Sverine Raign Coordinator Marine Turtle Programme SEPANMAR 7 impasse Constantin Sylvestre 97200 Fort de France Martinique, F.W.I. Tel: 06.96.43.20.90 severine.raigne@ool.fr Claire Cayol Vtrinaire VCAT ONCFS Rseau Tortues Marines 4, Bvd de Verdun 97200 Fort-de-France Martinique, F.W.I. Tel: (596) 71 48 72 (696) 23 42 35 Claire.CAYOL@martinique. ecologie.gouv.fr Jean-claude Nicolas SEPANMAR 7 impasse Constantin Sylvestre 97200 Fort de France Martinique, F.W.I. Tel: 06.96.43.20.90 Through Claire Cayol, data from the following organizations were provided : KAWAN Association kawan@wanadoo.fr AMEPAS assamepas@orange.fr ONF Mairie de SAINTE-ANNE MAIRIE du DIAMANT Guadeloupe: Eric Delcroix Animateur Rseau Tortues Marines Guadeloupe Association Kap'Natirel C/Diaz Nicolas Section BOYER 97129 Lamentin, Guadeloupe Tel: 0690 81 1234 0590 92 7541 erdelcroix@wanadoo.fr Through Eric Delcroix, data from the following organizations were provided : Office National de Forts L'Association Tit

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 56L'Association Kap'Natirel L'Association Eco-Lambda Conservatoire du Littoral La commune de Terre-deHaut Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage L'Association Evasion Tropicale Association Le Gaac Le Parc National GRENADA : Carl Lloyd Director, Ocean Spirits P. O. Box 1373 Grand Anse St. George’s, Grenada Tel: (473) 442-2341 carl@oceanspirits.org Becky King Director, Ocean Spirits P. O. Box 1373 Grand Anse St. George’s, Grenada Tel: (473) 442-2341 becky@oceanspirits.org Marina Fastigi Director YWF-Kido Foundation Kido Ecol. Research Station Sanctuary, Carriacou Grenadines of Grenada kido-ywf@spiceisle.com Dr. Gregg E. Moore Research Scientist Jackson Estuarine Lab 85 Adams Point Road University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824 Tel: (603) 862-5138 Fax: (603) 862-1101 gregg.moore@unh.edu GUATEMALA : Colum Muccio Director Administrativo y Desarrollo, ARCAS 4 Ave. 2-47, Sector B5 Zona 8 Mixco San Cristbal, Guatemala Tel/Fax: (502) 478-4096 (Cell): 5704-2563 arcas@intelnet.net.gt arcaspeten@hotmail.com Anabella Barrios 14 av A 15-10 zona 6 Ciudad Guatemala Guatemala 01006 Tel: (502) 2 289 4219 / 2 254 7444 / 2 289 1164 Fax: (502) 2 289 4219 anabella_barrios@yahoo.co m abarrios@gua.net Ana Beatriz Rivas Chacon BiologaFundary ManabiqueCiudad Guatemala Guatemala 01006 Tel: (502) 2 289 4219 / 2 254 7444 / 2 289 1164 Fax: (502) 2 289 4219 ab_rivas_ch@yahoo.com Wilma Katz Coastal Wildlife Club P. O. Box 22 Englewood, FL 34295 Tel: (941) 473-8618 wilmak@ewol.com GUYANA : Annette Arjoon Vice Chairman Guyana Marine Turtle Conservation Society Le Meridien Pegasus Kingston, Guyana Tel: (592) 225-4483/4 Fax: (592) 225-0523 gmtcs@networksgy.com Michelle Kalamandeen Project Coordinator Guyana Marine Turtle Conservation Society Le Meridien Pegasus Kingston, Guyana Tel: (592) 225-4483/4 Fax: (592) 225-0523 michellek@bbgy.com Dr. Peter C.H. Pritchard Director Chelonian Research Institute 401 South Central Avenue Oviedo, FL 32765 Tel: (407) 365-6347 Fax: (407) 977-5142 chelonianRI@aol.com HAITI : Jean W. Wiener Director Fondation pour la Protection de la Biodiversite Marine (FoProBiM) B.P. 642 Port-au-Prince, Haiti Tel: (509) 401-7829 jeanw@foprobim.org HONDURAS : Carlos Molinero Coordinator ZENAC/Tortugas Marinas MOPAWI Apdo. Postal 2175 Tegucigalpa Honduras Tel/Fax: (504) 235-8659 zonamarina@yahoo.com.mx JAMAICA: Andrea Donaldson Director, Wildlife Unit National Environment and Planning Agency 53 Molynes Road Kingston 10 Jamaica Tel: (876) 075740 (ext. 2227) Fax: (876) 754-7595 (-6) adonaldson@nepa.gov.jm Rhema Kerr Bjorkland Ctr Marine Conservation Nicholas School Marine Lab Duke University 135 Duke Marine Lab Road Beaufort, NC 28516 Fax: (252) 504-7648 rhema.bjorkland@duke.edu

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 57MEXICO: National Data Coordinator Dr. F. Alberto Abreu Grobois Research Scientist Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia Unidad Acadmica Mazatln Apartado Postal 811 Mazatln, Sinaloa 82000 Mxico Tel: 52 (669) 985-2848 Alberto.abreu@ola.icmyl.unam.mx State Data Providers Campeche: Vicente Guzmn Hernndez Jefe de Proyecto Tortugas Marinas Dir. Gral. de Vida Silvestre Del. SEMARNAT Campeche Oficina Regional Carmen Av Lpez Mateos x Av. Hroes del 21 de abril s/n col. playa norte Cd. del Carmen, Campeche Mxico. C.P. 24120 Tel: 52 (938) 382-6270 vguzman@conanp.gob.mx Through Vicente Guzmn Hernndez, data from the following organizations were provided : Marea Azul Ecologia Grupo Ecologista Quelnios A.C. Universidad Autnoma de Campeche PEP-UPMP La Universidad Autnoma del Carmen Enlaces con tu Entorno Laguna de Trminos rea de Proteccin de Flora y Fauna (APFFLT) Secretara de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT) Yucatn: Eduardo Cuevas ProNatura Calle 32 No. 269 Col. Pinzn II Mrida, Yucatn Mxico. C.P. 97207 Tel: 52 (999) 988-4436 ecuevas@pronatura-ppy.org.mx Augusto Segovia Yucatn Environment Ministry Ren Kantn CONANP Ra Lagartos Reserva de la Biosfera Veracruz: Adriana Laura Sarti M. Coordinadora de Proyecto CONANP Uxmal 313, Col. Narvarte Mxico D.F. 3020 Mxico Tel: (52 55) 56 87 27 31 Fax: (52 55) 56 87 27 31 lsarti@avantel.net Tamaulipas: Patrick Burchfield Gladys Porter Zoo ridley@gpz.org Luis Jaime Pea Gladys Porter Zoo ridley@gpz.org Through Patrick Burchfield and Luis Jaime Pea, data from the following organizations were provided : Instituto Nacional de la Pesca Texas Parks and Wildlife Department NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service US Fish and Wildlife Service Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) Secretara de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT) Quintana Roo: Alejandro Arenas Flora Fauna y Cultura de Mxico, A. C. www.florafaunaycultura.org Iaky Iturbe Flora Fauna y Cultura de Mxico, A. C. www.florafaunaycultura.org Roberto Herrera Flora Fauna y Cultura de Mxico, A. C. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur www.florafaunaycultura.org Through F. Alberto Abreu Grobois, data from the following organizations were provided : Centro Ecolgico Akumal Secretara de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT) MONTSERRAT : John Jeffers Chief Fisheries Officer Ministry of Agriculture, Trade & Environment P. O. Box 272 Grove Botanic Station Montserrat Tel: (664) 491-2075 Fax: (664) 491-9275 NETHERLANDS ANTILLES : Curaao: Brian Leysner, Manager Curaao Underwater Park CARMABI (POB 2090)

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 58Curaao Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599 9) 462-4242 leysner@cura.net Paul Hoetjes Senior Policy Advisor Department of Environment and Nature (MINA) Ministry of Public Health and Social Development (VSO) Schouwburgweg 26 APNA building, Curaao Netherlands Antilles Tel. (599-9) 466-9307 Fax: (599-9) 461-0254 paul@mina.vomil.an Bonaire: Mabel Nava Project Director Sea Turtle Conserv. Bonaire Kaya Aquamarine 14 P. O. Box 492, Bonaire Netherlands Antilles Tel/Fax: (599) 717-5074 navamabel@hotmail.com Imre Esser President Sea Turtle Conserv. Bonaire Kaya Aquamarine 14 P. O. Box 492, Bonaire Netherlands Antilles Tel/Fax: (599) 717-5074 stcb@bonaireturtles.org Kalli De Meyer Executive Director Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance (DCNA) c/o Caribbean Club Bara di Karta z/n Hilltop, Bonaire Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599) 717-5010 Cell: (599) 786-0675 kdm@telbonet.an Saba: Jan den Dulk Manager Saba Marine Park/Saba Hyperbaric Facility P. O. Box 18 The Bottom, Saba Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599) 416-3295 Fax: (599) 416-3435 snmp@unspoiledqueen.com Susan Hurrell Saba Marine Park/Saba Hyperbaric Facility P. O. Box 18 The Bottom, Saba Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599) 416-3295 Fax: (599) 416-3435 sabasusan@yahoo.com Sint Maarten: Beverly May Nisbeth Manager St. Maarten Marine Park Nature Found. Sint Maarten Wellsburg Street 1A Fisherman's Wharf unit 25-26 Cole Bay, Sint Maarten Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599) 544-4267 Fax: (599) 544-4268 naturesxm@megatropic.com Dominique Vissenberg Education Coordinator Nation Found. St. Maarten Wellsburg Street 1A Fisherman's Wharf unit 25-26 Cole Bay, Sint Maarten Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599) 544-4267 Fax: (599) 544-4268 domiviss@yahoo.com Andy Caballero Vice Chairman Nature Found. Sint Maarten Wellsburg Street 1A Fisherman's Wharf unit 25-26 Cole Bay, Sint Maarten Netherlands Antilles andy@naturefoundationsxm.org St. Eustatius: Nicole Esteban, Manager St. Eustatius National and Marine Parks Gallows Bay, St. Eustatius Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599) 3 182884 Fax: (599) 3 182913 manager@statiapark.org Arturo Herrera Sea Turtle Coordinator St Eustatius National and Marine Parks Gallows Bay, St. Eustatius Netherlands Antilles Tel: (599) 3 182884 Fax: (599) 3 182913 research@statiapark.org Dr. Emma Harrison Scientific Director Caribbean Conservation Corporation Apartado Postal 246-2050 San Pedro, Costa Rica Tel: (506) 297-5510 emma@cccturtle.org NICARAGUA : Dr. Cynthia Lagueux Conservation Zoologist Wildlife Conservation Society Apartado Postal 59 Bluefields, RAAS, Nicaragua Tel/Fax: (505) 822-1410, 822-2344 clagueux@wcs.org Dr. Cathi Campbell Assoc Conservation Scientist Wildlife Conservation Society Apartado Postal 59 Bluefields, RAAS, Nicaragua Tel/Fax: (505) 572-0506 ccampbell@wcs.org PANAMA : Argelis Ruiz, Manager Ctr Tropical Paleoecology & Archaeology (CTPA) Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) P. O. Box 2072, Balboa, Panam Tel: (507) 212-8242 Fax: (507) 212-8154 ruiza@si.edu Dr. Anne Meylan Florida Fish & Wildlife Comm. Florida Marine Res. Institute

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 59100 8th Avenue SE St. Petersburg, FL 33701 Tel: (727) 896-8626 Fax: (727) 893-9176 Anne.Meylan@MyFWC.com PUERTO RICO : Carlos E. Diez Endangered Species Progr. Department of Natural and Environmental Resources A.P. 9066600, San Juan Puerto Rico 00906-6600 Tel: (787) 724-8774 ext. 2237 Fax (787) 724-0365 cediez@caribe.net Lesbia L. Montero University of Puerto Rico – CUH Station Sea Grant College Program 100 Road 908, Humacao Puerto Rico 00791-4300 Tel: (787) 850-9385 Fax: (787) 850-0710 cem_sg@webmail.uprh.edu Hector Horta Oficial de Manejo Department of Natural and Environmental Resources P. O. Box 1186, Fajardo Puerto Rico 00738 Tel: (787) 860-5628 Fax: (787) 863-5253 hhorta@coqui.net ST. KITTS & NEVIS: Emile Pemberton Fisheries Develop. Officer Department of Fisheries Prospect Estate St. Johns Parish, Nevis Tel: (869) 469-5521 ext 2161 Fax: (869) 469-1698 masaisimba2004@yahoo.com Kimberly Stewart, DVM St. Kitts Sea Turtle Monitoring Network Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine P. O. Box 334 Basseterre, St. Kitts Tel: (869) 669-4268 stewartk7@hotmail.com Kate Orchard Vice President St. Christopher Heritage Soc. Bay Road (POB 888) Basseterre, St. Kitts Tel/Fax 869 465 5584 orchards@sisterisles.kn ST. LUCIA : Dawn Pierre-Nathoniel Fisheries Biologist Department of Fisheries Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Pointe Seraphine Castries, St. Lucia Tel: (758) 468-4141, -4135 Fax: (758) 452-3853 deptfish@slumaffe.org ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES Lucine Edwards Fisheries Officer (Conserv.) Fisheries Division Ministry of Agricul. & Labour Richmond Hill, Kingstown St. Vincent Tel: (784) 456 4136 lucine.edwards@gmail.com SURINAME : Maartje Hilterman Project Officer Asia Ecosystem Grants Program IUCN National Committee of the Netherlands (IUCN NL) Plantage Middenlaan 2k 1018 DD Amsterdam The Netherlands Tel: 31 (020) 626-1732 Fax: 31 (020) 627-9349 maartje.hilterman@nciucn.nl Edo Goverse Reptielen, Amfibien en Vissen Onderzoek Nederland (RAVON) Universiteit van Amsterdam, afd. Herpetologie Postbus 94766 1090 GT Amsterdam Tel: (020) 525-7332/6624 Fax: (020) 525-5402 goverse@science.uva.nl Dr. Marie-Louise Felix Marine Turtle Coordinator WWF Guianas Programme Paramaribo, Suriname mlfelix@wwf.sr TRINIDAD & TOBAGO : Dennis Sammy Manager, Nature Seekers 10 MM Toco Main Road Matura, Trinidad Tel/Fax: (868) 668-7337 dennispsammy@gmail.com Stephen Poon Forester 1 Wildlife Section, Forestry Div. Farm Road St. Joseph, Trinidad Fax: (868) 645-4288 poon_st@hotmail.com Tanya Clovis Vice President SOS Tobago P. O. Box 27 Scarborough, Tobago Tel: (868) 639-0026 Fax: (868) 639-8441 tanya_clovis@hotmail.com Dr. Scott A. Eckert Director of Science WIDECAST Nicholas School Marine Lab Duke University 135 Duke Marine Lab Road Beaufort, NC 28516 Tel: (252) 727-1600 seckert@widecast.org Dr. Suzanne Livingstone IUCN GMSA Associate Old Dominion University Dept of Biological Sciences Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA 23529 Tel: (757) 512-4488 Fax: (757) 638-5283 srliving@odu.edu suzanne_living@hotmail.com TURKS & CAICOS: Judith Garland-Campbell Permanent Secretary

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 60Ministry of Natural Resources Grand Turk Turks & Caicos Islands Tel: (649) 946-3306 Fax: (649) 946-3710 decrsouth@tciway.tc jlcampbell@gov.tc Michelle Fulford-Gardiner Director Department of Environment and Coastal Resources South Base, Grand Turk Turks & Caicos Islands Tel: (649) 946-2801 Fax: (649) 946-4793 mfgardiner@tciway.tc Lorna Slade Marine Biologist Providenciales Marine Turtle Monitoring Project P. O. Box 872 Providenciales Turks & Caicos Islands Tel: (649) 941-4641 lorna_slade@yahoo.com U. S. A. Barbara Schroeder Natl. Sea Turtle Coordinator NOAA / National Marine Fisheries Service Protected Resources 1315 East West Hwy Silver Spring, MD 20910 Tel: (301) 713-2322 ext 147 Fax: (301) 427-2522 Barbara.schroeder@noaa.gov Sandra MacPherson Natl Sea Turtle Coordinator U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 6620 Southpoint Drive South Suite 310 Jacksonville, FL 32216 Tel: (904) 232-2580 ext. 110 Fax: (904) 232-2404 sandy_macpherson@fws.gov Dr. Anne Meylan Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission Florida Marine Res. Institute 100 8th Avenue SE St. Petersburg, FL 33701 Tel: (727) 896-8626 Fax: (727) 893-9176 Anne.Meylan@MyFWC.com Dr. Donna Shaver Chief Division of Sea Turtle Science and Recovery Padre Island Natl Seashore U. S. National Park Service P. O. Box 181300 Corpus Christi, TX 78480 Tel: (361) 949-8173 ext. 226 Fax: (361) 949-1312 Donna_shaver@nps.gov Jereme Phillips Wildlife Biologist U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge 12295 State Highway 180 Gulf Shores, AL 36542 Tel: (251) 540-7720 Jereme_Phillips@fws.gov U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS : Rafe Boulon, Chief Resource Management Virgin Islands National Park 1300 Cruz Bay Creek St. John, USVI 00830 Tel: (340) 693-8950 ext 224 Fax: (340) 693-9500 rafe_boulon@nps.gov Steve Garner Executive Director WIMARCS 202 Prosperity, Frederiksted St. Croix, USVI 00840 Tel: (340) 772-1382 Fax: (340) 772-3234 steve.garner@wimarcs.org Amy MacKay Director St. Croix Marine Turtle Conservation Project c/o 1034 Adobe Court Lusby, Maryland 20657 Tel: (340) 690-5274 almackay@umes.edu Raquel Seybert Community Develop. Officer The Nature Conservancy Eastern Caribbean Program 3052 Estate Little Princess St. Croix, USVI 00820 Tel: (340) 773-5575 Fax: (340) 773-1613 rseybert@tnc.org Zandy Hillis-Starr Chief of Resource Mgmt U. S. National Park Service Buck Island Reef NM 2100 Church Street, # 100 Christiansted, St. Croix USVI 00821 Tel: (340) 773-1460, ext 235 Fax: (340) 719-1791 zandy_hillis-starr@nps.gov VENEZUELA: Hedelvy J. Guada Directora Centro de Investigacin y Conservacin de Tortugas Marinas-CICTMAR Apdo. 50.789 Caracas 1050-A Venezuela Tel/Fax: (58) (212) 761-6355 Cel: 0414 249-6326 95-79050@usb.ve Vicente Vera Geographer Oficina Nacional de Diversidad Biolgica Ministerio del Ambiente Centro Simn Bolvar – Torre Sur, Piso 6 Caracas, D.C. 1010 Venezuela Tel: 58 (212) 408-2154 Fax: 58 (212) 753-7726 v.vicente1@gmail.com

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 61 APPENDIX II Sea Turtle Threats Survey Hawksbill shell bracelets from Bocas del Toro, Panama ( photo by R. Merel) Green turtles at market in Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua ( photo by Cynthia Lagueux, Wildlife Conservation Society) Green turtle entangled in a fishing net off the coast of Costa Rica ( photo by Didiher Chacn, WIDECAST)

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 622006 Sea Turtle Threats Survey Country/Territory: ___________________________________________________ Contact: ___________________________________________________________ Date/Time: _________________________________________________________ R = Rare O = Occasional F = Frequent FA = Frequent in a certain Area U = Unknown Nesting Threats Killing of nesting females by humans How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Killing of nesting females by predators Which predator species? Invasive species? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Nest loss to predators Which predator species? Invasive species? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Nest loss to abiotic factors What factor? Ex. flood, erosion Egg Collection (by humans) How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Harassment due to increased presence of humans Ex. tourists discouraging nesting Artificial lighting How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Pollution What type of pollution – agriculture, petroleum/tar, sewage, industrial runoff, beach litter/debris? Are these pollutants rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Beach erosion/accretion Where? When? Caused by storm events? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Beach armoring/stabilization structures Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 63Beach nourishment Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Recreation beach equipment and/or other obstacles How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Mechanized beach cleaning How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Beach vehicular use How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Sand mining Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Exotic (or loss of native) vegetation How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Livestock (presence on the beach) How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Foraging/Migration Threats Seagrass degradation By what? Ex. Anchor damage, pollution, sedimentation. How extensive is the problem? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Coral reef degradation By what? Ex. Anchor damage, pollution, sedimentation. How extensive is the problem? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Fisheries Which fisheries? Ex. Trawl, purse seine, hook and line, gill net, pound net, long line, pot/trap, dynamite/blast, chemical, “nets” – undefined. Are takes by fisheries: Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Hunting/Poaching How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Pollution What type of pollution – agriculture, petroleum (oil), sewage, industrial runoff, pollution (cruise liners/yachts), marine debris, “declining water quality” undefined Are these pollutants rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Predators What species? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area?

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 64Disease/Parasites Which diseases or parasites? How many cases have been seen (e.g. How big of a problem is this?) Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Harassment due to increased human presence Ex. Snorkelers, divers, increased boat traffic. How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Dredging How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Marina and dock development Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Boat/Personal Water Craft collisions How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Power Plant entrapment How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Oil and gas exploration, development, and transportation Where? How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Entanglement (debris, abandoned gear etc.) How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in particular a particular area? In what do turtles become entangled? Offshore artificial lighting How often does this occur? Rare, occasional, frequent, or frequent in a particular area? Other Comments

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Dow et al (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 65APPENDIX III Wider Caribbean Region Sea Turtle Habitat National Reports For ease of reference, the National Reports are presented in alphabetic order and then color-coded according to their Ecoregion (cf. Spalding et al. 2007). Brazil (not featured in Spalding et al. 2007), is color-coded in this volume as gray.

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Anguilla Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineAI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AI5 AI6 AI7 AI8 AI9 AI10 AI11 AI12 AI13 AI14 AI15 AI16 AI17 036912 1.5 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii ) A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionNo Moratorium (fixed period)Yes (until 2020)Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females WIDECAST 2007 Data ProviderJames Gumbs Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 66

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Anguilla Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatAI2 0481216 2 Kilometers AI11 AI10 AI5 AI4 AI5 AI4 AI1 AI17 AI16 AI15 AI14 AI13 AI12 AI11 AI4 AI3 AI1 AI2 AI14 AI13 AI12 AI10 AI5 AI6 AI7 AI8 AI9Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 67

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Anguilla Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansNoNo evidence but could happen rarelyKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (R)Ghost crabsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (U)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingYes (F)PollutionNoBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (O)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentYes (O)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (F)On hotel beachesMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (F)Sand MiningYes (FA)One major commercially mined beach, R in other areasExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (O)Due to developmentLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (O)Hurricanes, anchor damage, eutrophicationCoral Reef DegradationYes (F) Hurricanes, disease, anchor damage, eutrophication and fishingFisheries BycatchYes (R)Hook and line, long line, pot/trap and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingYes (U)PollutionYes (R)PredatorsYes (U)Sharks, birds, fish and crabsDisease/ParasitesYes (U)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingYes (R)Occurs with new developmentMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U)No marinas yet, but plans for new marinasBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (R)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 68

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Anguilla Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 AI1Limestone BayAI10Cove Bay AI2Blackgarden BayAI11Shoal Bay West AI3Shoal Bay EastAI12Barnes Bay AI4Captain's BayAI13Meads Bay AI5Windward Point BayAI14Long Bay AI6Junk's HoleAI15Road Bay AI7Savannah BayAI16Katouche Bay AI8Mimi BayAI17Crocus Bay AI9Sandy HillBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 69

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Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta ) IGreen Turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) N, FLeatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea ) NHawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) N, FKemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii ) A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent AG1 AG2 AG3 AG4 AG5 AG6 AG9 AG8 AG7 AG10 AG14AG13 AG11 AG12 AG17 AG18 AG19 AG16 AG15 AG20 AG21 AG23 AG22 AG24 AG25 AG26 AG27 AG28 AG29 AG30 AG31 AG34 AG33 AG32 AG37 AG36 AG35 AG38 Complete (indefinite) protection No Moratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, NClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredYes*Gear restrictionsYes**Area closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; *Vessel license required to enter industry under new Fisheries Act; **For all fishing industry 036912 1.5 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersCheryl Appleton, Tricia Lovell Antigua & Barbuda Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries Jim Richardson, Peri Mason, Seth Stapleton Jumby Bay Hawksbill Project Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 70

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Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta ) IGreen Turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) N, FLeatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea ) NHawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) N, FKemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii ) A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent AG41 AG40 AG39 AG44 AG43 AG42 AG45 AG46 AG47 AG48 AG49 AG50 AG51 036912 1.5 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protection No Moratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, NClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredYes*Gear restrictionsYes**Area closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; *Vessel license required to enter industry under new Fisheries Act; **For all fishing industry WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersCheryl Appleton, Tricia Lovell Antigua & Barbuda Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 71

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Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatAG1 05101520 2.5 Kilometers AG5 AG4 AG3 AG2 AG8 AG7 AG6 AG9 AG10 AG11 AG37 AG36 AG35 AG32 AG33 AG34 AG12 AG31 AG30 AG29 AG28 AG23 AG26 AG24 AG22 AG21 AG20 AG18 AG19 AG17 AG16 AG15 AG14 AG13 AG39 AG37 AG45 AG46 AG49 AG8 AG7 AG51 AG40 AG42 AG41 AG43 AG44 AG45 AG47 AG46 AG48 AG49 AG50 AG51 AG39 AG40AG41 AG43 AG44 AG45 AG49 AG51 AG6 AG9 AG10 AG12 AG17 AG15 AG14 AG13 AG18 AG19 AG22 AG21 AG24 AG26 AG25 AG30 AG28 AG27 AG38 AG38 AG34 AG26 AG24 AG18 AG19 AG17 AG15 AG8 AG7 AG31Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 72

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Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansNoKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U)Mongoose and crabsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Artificial LightingYes (F)Major problem along the northwest coast of AntiguaPollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (U) Along the northwest and southern coast of Antigua none on Barbuda Beach NourishmentYes (U)On some resort beachesRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (F)Especially around hotelsMechanized Beach CleaningYes (R)On some resort beachesBeach Vehicular UseYes (R)Minimal due to barricades Sand MiningYes (U) Government controlled mining in Barbuda and some illegal activity in AntiguaExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (U)Especially around hotels and developmentLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Horseback riding rarely other animalsThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Development, sedimentaion and anchor damageCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Storms, ship groundings and anchor damageFisheries BycatchYes (R)Gillnets and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingYes (U)PollutionYes (U)Petroleum/tar, runoff (agriculture) and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (R)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)On the south and west coasts of AntiguaDredgingYes (U)Primarilly around harbors, not in BarbudaMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (R)A few in Antigua, none in BarbudaBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)TransportationEntanglementYes (R)Offshore Artificial LightingYes (R)Offshore fuel dockOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 73

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Antigua & Barbuda Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 AG1Jumby Bay Pasture Bay BeachAG27Hawksbill Bay AG2Great Bird IslandAG28Galley Bay AG3Guiana IslandAG29Deep Bay AG4Long BayAG30Hog John Bay AG5Devil's Bridge BeachAG31Sandy Island AG6Green IslandAG32Ft. James Beach AG7Mill Reef BeachesAG33Runaway Bay AG8Half Moon BayAG34Dickenson Bay AG9Indian Creek BeachAG35Soldier Bay AG10Windward BayAG36White Sand Beach AG11Pigeon Point BeachAG37Jabberwock Beach AG12Dieppe BayAG38Dutchman Bay AG13Turtle BayAG39North Beach to Cobb Cove AG14Little Rendezvous BayAG40Kid Island Beach AG15Big Rendezvous BayAG41Fishing Creek Beach AG16Tuck's BeachAG42Hog Point to Sea View AG17Carlisle BayAG43Two Feet Bay AG18Curtain Bluff BeachAG44Ghaut to Pigeon Cliff AG19Morris BayAG45Pigeon Cliff to Griffen Point AG20Johnson's PointAG46Bleaky Bay Beaches AG21Darkwood BeachAG47Spanish Point Beach AG22Fryes BayAG48Coco Point East AG23Jolly Beach/Lignumvitae BayAG49Coco Point Beach AG24Pearn's Point BeachesAG50Coral Group Beaches AG25 Hermitage Bay/TwoFoot Bay/Royal Bay AG51 Continuous Beach from River to Billy Point AG26Five Islands Estate BeachesBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 74

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Aruba Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineAW1 AW2 AW4 AW3 AW5 AW6 AW7 036912 1.5 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProvidersRichard and Edith van der Wal Turtugaruba Foundation WIDECAST 2007 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, IF Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii ) A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 75

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Aruba Sea Turtle HabitatAW7 Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatAW7 AW5 AW4 AW1 AW2 AW6 AW1 AW3 0481216 2 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 76

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Aruba Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansNoKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (R)Crabs and wormsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)Erosion and flood caused by storms and rainEgg Collection by HumansNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Artificial LightingYes (F)Largest problem in ArubaPollutionYes (O)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (O)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (O)Beach NourishmentYes (R)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (F)Especially on hotel beachesMechanized Beach CleaningYes (F)IncreasingBeach Vehicular UseYes (F)On resorts and remote beachesSand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F)Concern for hawksbill sea turtlesLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, pollution by oil refinery (little research)Coral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, pollution by oil refinery (little research)Fisheries BycatchYes (R)Hook and line, pot/trap and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingNoPollutionYes (O)Oil, sewage, cruise liner effluent and marine debrisPredatorsUnknownDisease/ParasitesUnknownHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (R)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (O)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)Refinery transportation, but no explorationEntanglementYes (R)Abandoned gear or linesOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 77

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Aruba Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 AW1Dos PlayaAW5Palm Beach AW2Boca GrandiAW6Fishermen's Huts AW3Pets CemetaryAW7Arashi Beach AW4EagleBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 78

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Bahamas Sea Turtle HabitatBS2 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineBS1 BS3 BS5 BS4 BS6 075150225300 37.5 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protection No Moratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, NF, HawksbillClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNo*Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYes**General public awareness of lawsNo (Insufficient)Recent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Yes for foreigners; ** Attempts have been made to enter the United States and Cuba WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersAlan Bolten, Karen Bjorndal Eleanor Phillips Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 79

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Bahamas Sea Turtle Habitat BS5 0140280420560 70 KilometersLeatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting HabitatBS5 BS4 BS5 BS6 BS2 BS1 BS3 BS2 BS4 WIDECAST 2007Loggerhead Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 80

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Bahamas Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansYes (R)Killin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Erosion due to extreme high tidesE gg Collection b y HumansYes (FA)In Abaco and EleuthraHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingYes (R)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Erosion during stormsBeach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresYes (FA) Frequent in New Providence smaller problem on outer islands Beach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (O)Mechanized Beach Cleanin g NoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand Minin g Yes (O)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (U)Livestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Limited scarring from ship groundingsCoral Reef De g radationYes (U)Climate changeFisheries BycatchNoHuntin g /Poachin g Yes (U)During open seasonPollutionYes (U)"Declining water quality"PredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingYes (O)Marina and Dock DevelopmentYes (F)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)Entan g lementYes (R)Offshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 81

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Bahamas Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 BS1Grand BahamaBS4Little Inagua BS2Great Abaco (east coast and BS5Great Inagua BS3San Salvado r BS6Cay Sal BankBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 82

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Barbados Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineBB1 BB2 BB3 BB4 BB5 BB6 BB7 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I, F? Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii ) A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent 0481216 2 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes Reports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersJulia Horrocks, Jennifer Beggs Barbados Sea Turtle Project Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 83

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Barbados Sea Turtle HabitatBB1 BB2 BB5 BB4 BB7 BB3Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting HabitatHawksbill Nesting Habitat 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting HabitatLeatherback Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 0481216 2 Kilometers BB3 BB6 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 84

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Barbados Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansYes (O)Killin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsYes (O)Dogs harassment also occasionalNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Mongoose, dogs and cats (rare)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (F)Flooding and erosionE gg Collection b y HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Artificial Li g htin g Yes (F)PollutionYes (U)Agriculture and beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (F)Caused by storms, natural movement and structuresBeach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresYes (FA)Beach NourishmentYes (R)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (FA)Mechanized Beach Cleanin g Yes (FA)Not a widespread problemBeach Vehicular UseYes (FA)Not a widespread problemSand Minin g Yes (R) Exotic ( or Loss of Native ) VegetationYes (F)Loss of vegetationLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U) On west and south coasts, few patches left anchor damage, pollution and sedimentationCoral Reef DegradationYes (U) Anchor damage, sedimentation, over-harvesting of herbivorous species and pollutionFisheries B y catchYes (U)Hook and line, gillnet and pot/trapHuntin g /Poachin g NoPollutionYes (U)Agriculture, sewage and industrial runoffPredatorsNoDisease/ParasitesYes (R)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (FA)Greens are attracted to areas where they are fedDred g in g NoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (R)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntan g lementYes (U)Abandoned fishing gearOffshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 85

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Barbados Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 BB1East Coast BeachesBB5South Coast Beaches BB2Bath BeachBB6Hilton Beach BB3Foul BayBB7West Coast Beaches BB4Long BeachBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 86

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Belize Sea Turtle Habitat 0306090120 15 Kilometers BZ1 BZ2 BZ4 BZ3 BZ6 BZ5 BZ7 BZ8 BZ9 BZ10 BZ11 BZ14 BZ16 BZ15 BZ12 BZ13 BZ18 BZ21 BZ17 BZ20 BZ19 BZ22 BZ23 BZ24 BZ29 BZ28 BZ27 BZ26 BZ25 BZ30 BZ32 BZ33 BZ31 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed seasonNoMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes Reports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNo (Insufficient) Recent prosecutions or penaltiesYes**Enforcement considered adequateNo (Insufficient) Penalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except for Licensed Traditional Use; ** Only one case in 2004 WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersIsaias Majil Fisheries Department Belize Audubon Society Toledo Institute for Development and Environment Wildlife Conservation Societ y Friends of Nature University of Belize Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )I Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A? Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 87

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Belize Sea Turtle Habitat 04080120160 20 Kilometers Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per yearBZ2 BZ1 BZ14 BZ5 BZ6 BZ1 BZ2 BZ4 BZ3 BZ5 BZ6 BZ8 BZ14 BZ6 BZ7 BZ8 BZ9 BZ10 BZ15 BZ16 BZ18 BZ17 BZ19 BZ31 BZ13 BZ12 BZ30 BZ33 BZ32 BZ20 BZ21 BZ23 BZ24 BZ22 BZ25 BZ26 BZ27 BZ28 BZ29 BZ11 Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 88

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Belize Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansNoKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsUnknownNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Flooding and erosionEgg Collection by HumansNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)Artificial LightingYes (U)PollutionYes (U)Agriculture, sewage and beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by storm eventsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (U)Beach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningYes (U)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (U)Livestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damageCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damageFisheries BycatchYes (U)Trawl, hook and line, long line, gillnet and pot/trapHunting/PoachingNoPollutionYes (U)PredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingYes (U)Marina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (U)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 89

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Belize Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 BZ1 Rock Point Bacalar Chico Marine Reserve BZ18Gladden BZ2Robles Point Bacalar Chico BZ19Silk BZ3Lighthouse SandbarBZ20Round Cay BZ4Lighthouse NorthBZ21Pompion Cay BZ5Lighthouse HalfBZ22Ranguana BZ6Lighthouse LongBZ23Red Rock Sapodilla Cayes BZ7Turneffe CalabasBZ24Tom Owen Sapodilla Cayes BZ8Manatee Bar/Gales PointBZ25Northeast Cay Sapodilla Cayes BZ9North Stann CreekBZ26Frank Sapodilla Cayes BZ10TobaccoBZ27Nicholas Sapodilla Cayes BZ11Glovers NortheastBZ28Hunting Sapodilla Cayes BZ12South Water CayeBZ29Lime Sapodilla Cayes BZ13Carrie BowBZ30Punta Negra BZ14Glovers LongBZ31Punta Ycacos BZ15Glovers MiddleBZ32Middle Snake BZ16Glovers SouthwestBZ33West Snake BZ17Laughing BirdBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 90

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Bermuda Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 02.557.510 1.25 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )IN, IF Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )IN, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )IF Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )I Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyNoReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable BM1 BM2 WIDECAST 2007 Data ProviderJennifer Gray Bermuda Turtle Project Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 91

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Bermuda Sea Turtle HabitatLoggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineBM1 BM2Loggerhead Nesting Habitat 02468 1 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 92

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Bermuda Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentNest Loss to PredatorsNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentEgg Collection by HumansNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentArtificial LightingNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentPollutionNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentBeach Erosion/AccretionNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentBeach NourishmentNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentMechanized Beach CleaningNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentBeach Vehicular UseNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentSand MiningNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentLivestock Presence on the BeachNANesting on Bermuda is very infrequentThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U) Mooring scars, prop and anchor damage and offshore die offsCoral Reef DegradationYes (R)Sedimentation and ship groundingsFisheries BycatchYes (R)Longline and shoreline fishersHunting/PoachingNoPollutionYes (U)Marine debris (plastics)PredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (U)ParasitesHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes(U)DredgingYes(U)Marina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (F)Power Plant EntrapmentYes (R)Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (F)Offshore Artificial LightingYes (R)Fishing lights (spots and sticks)Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U= Unknown; NA = Not Applicable Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 93

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Bermuda Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 BM1Well Ba y BM2Clearwater BeachBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 94

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Bonaire Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineANB1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )I Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent 0481216 2 Kilometers ANB2 ANB3 ANB4 ANB5 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsNo (Insufficient) Recent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNo (Insufficient) Penalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable ANB6 ANB7 WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersMabel Nava, Imre Esser Kalli De Meyer Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 95

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Bonaire Sea Turtle HabitatANB7Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat 05101520 2.5 Kilometers ANB7ANB7 ANB4 ANB3 ANB1 ANB1 ANB2 ANB6 ANB5 WIDECAST 2007Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 96

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Bonaire Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Very rare one female killed in 2006Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Erosion caused by storm eventsEgg Collection by HumansNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingYes (R)Very recent problem (2006)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by storm eventsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningYes (FA)Onima; Lagun and Waski Kemba (destroyed) Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationNoCoral Reef DegradationYes (R)Some (very little) degradation, disease and bleachingFisheries BycatchYes (R)Hook and line, long line and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingYes (R)PollutionYes (U)Sewage, cruise ship/yachts and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)Fish and birdsDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U)One section on the west coastBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (R)Fishing lineOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 97

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Bonaire Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 ANB1Playa ChikituANB5Light House Beach Resort ANB2Boca OnimaANB6Donkey Beach ANB3LagunANB7No Name Beach ANB4Fisherman's HutsBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 98

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineBR1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )N, FN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent BR2 BR3 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes*Reports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentNo (Insufficient)National Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Native Indian 080160240320 40 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersMaria Marcovaldi, Luciano Soares, Alexandro Santos, Cludio Belllini Projeto TAMAR IBAMA Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 99

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Rio Grande do Norte and PernambucoBR1 BR2 BR3 Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat 0100200300400 50 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat 100-500 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 100

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Sergipe Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )N, FN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent BR4 BR5 BR6 BR7 BR8 BR9 BR10 BR11 BR12 BR13 BR14 BR15 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes*Reports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentNo (Insufficient)National Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Native Indian 010203040 5 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersMaria Marcovaldi, Luciano Soares, Alexandro Santos, Augusto Cesar Coelho Dias da Silva Projeto TAMAR IBAMA Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 101

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Sergipe BR4 BR5 BR6 BR7 BR8 BR9 BR10 BR11 BR12 BR13 BR14 BR15 Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat 020406080 10 KilometersOlive Ridley Nesting HabitatHawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineBR4 BR5 BR6 BR7 BR8 BR9 BR10 BR11 BR12 BR13 BR14 BR15 BR4 BR5 BR6 BR7 BR8 BR10 BR11 BR12 BR13 BR14 BR15 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 102

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Bahia Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )N, FN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent BR28 BR16 BR17 BR18 BR19 BR20 BR21 BR22 BR23 BR24 BR25 BR26 BR27 BR29 BR31 BR32 BR33 BR34 BR35 BR36 BR37 BR38 BR39 BR30 BR44 BR45 BR46 BR43 BR42 BR41 BR40 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes*Reports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentNo (Insufficient)National Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Native Indian 020406080 10 Kilometers BR47 WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersMaria Marcovaldi, Luciano Soares, Alexandro Santos, Gustave Lopez Projeto TAMAR IBAMA Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 103

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat BahiaHawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year BR28 BR16 BR17 BR18 BR19 BR20 BR21 BR22 BR23 BR24 BR25 BR26 BR27 BR29 BR31 BR32 BR33 BR30 0255075100 12.5 KilometersGreen Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls pe ryearBR28 BR16 BR17 BR18 BR19 BR20 BR21 BR22 BR24 BR25 BR26 BR27 BR29 BR31 BR32 BR33 BR34 BR35 BR36 BR30 BR16 BR17 BR18 BR19 BR20 BR21 BR22 BR24 BR25 BR26 BR27 BR29 BR31 BR32 BR30 BR28 BR33 BR35 BR17 BR20 BR22 BR23 BR28 BR26 BR27 BR29 BR31 BR32 BR37 BR38 BR39 BR44 BR45 BR46 BR43 BR42 BR41 BR40 BR36 BR38 BR39 BR46 BR37 BR38 BR39 BR40 BR44 BR45 BR43 BR42 BR34 BR35 BR36 BR37 BR38 BR39 BR44 BR45 BR46 BR43 BR42 BR41 BR40 BR47 BR47 BR46Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 104

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Esprito Santo Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )N, FN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent BR48 BR49 BR50 BR51 BR52 BR53 BR54 BR55 BR56 BR58 BR57 BR59 BR60 BR61 BR62 BR63 BR64 BR65 BR66 BR67 BR70 BR69 BR68 BR71 BR72 BR73 BR74 BR77 BR76 BR75 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes*Reports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentNo (Insufficient)National Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Native Indian 0306090120 15 Kilometers BR98 Data ProvidersMaria Marcovaldi, Luciano Soares, Alexandro Santos, Joo Carlos Thom Projeto TAMAR IBAMA WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 105

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Esprito SantoHawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year BR48 BR49 BR50 BR51 BR52 BR53 BR54 BR55 BR56 BR58 BR57 BR59 BR60 BR61 BR62 BR63 BR64 BR65 BR66 BR67 BR70 BR69 BR68 BR71 BR72 BR73 BR74 BR77 BR76BR75 060120180240 30 Kilometers BR51 BR98 BR51 BR53 BR55 BR59 BR61 BR62 BR50 BR51 BR52 BR53 BR54 BR56 BR58 BR61 BR62 Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting HabitatLeatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 106

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Rio de Janeiro Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )N, FN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent BR97 BR96 BR95 BR94 BR93 BR92 BR91 BR90 BR78 BR79 BR80 BR82 BR81 BR83 BR84 BR85 BR86 BR87 BR88 BR89 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes*Reports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentNo (Insufficient)National Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Native Indian 020406080 10 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersMaria Marcovaldi, Luciano Soares, Alexandro Santos, Eron Paes e Lima Projeto TAMAR IBAMA Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 107

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Rio de JaneiroLoggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline BR97 BR96 BR95 BR94 BR93 BR92 BR91 BR90 BR78 BR79 BR80 BR82 BR81 BR83 BR84 BR85 BR86 BR87 BR88 BR89 020406080 10 KilometersLoggerhead Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 108

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansYes (O)In areas not monitored by TamarKillin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsYes (R)DogsNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Foxes, pigs and dogsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)Flood and erosionE gg Collection b y HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Tourist encounters with nesting femalesArtificial Li g htin g Yes (FA)PollutionYes (U)Sewage, garbage, tar and oilBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by natural eventsBeach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresYes (R)Beach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (O)Only in particular areasMechanized Beach Cleanin g NoBeach Vehicular UseYes (FA)Sand Minin g Yes (R)Exotic ( or Loss of Native ) VegetationYes (U) Coconut palm trees exotic, but present for the last 500 yearsLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (O)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSea g rass De g radationUnknownCoral Reef De g radationUnknownFisheries BycatchYes (F) Gillnets, fix cages, trawls, floating cages, pelagic longline and pelagic drift netsHuntin g /Poachin g Yes (O)In areas not monitored by TamarPollutionYes (U)Petroleum, sewage and marine debrisPredatorsUnknownDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Dred g in g Yes (R)Marina and Dock DevelopmentUnknownBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentYes (R)Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)Entan g lementYes (F)Fishing net debrisOffshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 109

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Brazil Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 BR1Atol das RocasBR50Conceicao da Barra BR2Fernando de NoronhaBR51Guriri BR3PipaBR52Barra Nova BR4CabeoBR53Campo Grande BR5FunilBR54Barra Seca BR6Pta dos ManguesBR55Pontal do Ipiranga BR7TigreBR56Ipiranga BR8Santa IsabelBR57Ipiranguinha BR9Lagoa RedondaBR58Degredo BR10PirambuBR59Cacimbas BR11RatoBR60Monsaras BR12Barra dos CoqueirosBR61Povoao BR13CaueiraBR62Comboios BR14AbaisBR63Nova Almeida BR15Boa ViagemBR64Costa Bela BR16Mangue SecoBR65Jacareipe BR17CoqueiroBR66Baleia BR18DunasBR67Manguinhos BR19VaporBR68Bicanga BR20LoteBR69Carapebus BR21Costa AzulBR70Praia Mole BR22SiribinhaBR71Mae Ba BR23PoasBR72Alem BR24Corre NBR73Guanabara BR25Barra de ItaririBR74Balaco BR26SalinasBR75Santa Helena BR27RibeiroBR76Costa Azul BR28BaixiosBR77Areia Preta BR29MamucaboBR78Tatagiba BR30SubamaBR79Barrinha BR31MassarandupiBR80Praia do Sonho BR32Porto SaupeBR81Gargau BR33Santo AntonioBR82Praia do Sul BR34SaupeBR83Convivencia BR35ImbassaBR84Pontal BR36Praia do ForteBR85Atafona BR37ItacimirimBR86Balneario BR38GuarajubaBR87Chapeu do Sol BR39JacupeBR88Grussai BR40BertaBR89Iquipari BR41ArembepeBR90Caminho das Conchas BR42Santa MariaBR91A BR43JauBR92Maria Rosa BR44Busca VidaBR93Farolzinho BR45BuraquinhoBR94Farol BR46ItapuBR95Barra do Furado BR47SalvadorBR96So Miguel BR48Praia 2BR97Flexeira BR49ItanasBR98Ilha da TrindadeBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 110

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British Virgin Islands Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 06121824 3 Kilometers VG42 VG53 VG50 VG51 VG1 VG43 VG4 VG3 VG2 VG44 VG45 VG46 VG48 VG47 VG49 VG52 VG5 VG6 VG7 VG8 VG20 VG19 VG18 VG17 VG21 VG22 VG25 VG24 VG23 VG16 VG9 VG10 VG13 VG12 VG11 VG14 VG15 VG26 VG27 VG28 VG29 VG30 VG32 VG31 VG33 VG34 VG35 VG36 VG41 VG40 VG39 VG37 VG38 VG54 VG55 VG58 VG57 VG56 VG59 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )IN, IF Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionNo Moratorium (fixed period)Yes (Leatherback & Loggerhead)Prohibition(s) on take E, Leatherback, LoggerheadClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsYes*Area closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYes**General public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYes***Enforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; For sea turtle direct take, not for other fisheries; ** Generally from BVI to USVI; *** Pending court trial (2006) Data ProvidersMervin Hastings, Bertrand Lettsome, Shannon Gore Conservation and Fisheries Department WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 111

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British Virgin Islands Sea Turtle HabitatHawksbill Nesting HabitatVG52 010203040 5 Kilometers VG53 VG52 VG59Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per yearVG50 VG59 VG54 VG55 VG50 VG50 VG50 VG51 VG50 VG54 VG55 VG50 VG50 VG50 VG33 VG35 VG34 VG1 VG2 VG3 VG5 VG49 VG30 VG29 VG6 VG7 VG8 VG9 VG10 VG16 VG27 VG13 VG17 VG24 VG22 VG21 VG20 VG19 VG18 VG23 VG28 VG26 VG39 VG38 VG37 VG36 VG48 VG47 VG46 VG45 VG44 VG41 VG43 VG42 VG40 VG50 VG32 VG34 VG4 VG7 VG8 VG15 VG14 VG12 VG11 VG26 VG25 VG4 VG6 VG8 VG30 VG29 VG16 VG31 VG33 VG34 VG17 VG23 VG25 Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 112

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British Virgin Islands Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (R)BirdsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (R)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (FA)Artificial LightingYes (U)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (FA)Mechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (R)Sand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (R)Livestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)SedimentationCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Fisheries BycatchYes (R)Long line, chemical and pot/trapHunting/PoachingYes (O)During open and closed seasonsPollutionYes (U) Agriculture, sewage, cruise ships/yachts, industrial runoff and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)Sharks and fishDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingYes (O)Marina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U)Plans for more developmentBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (U)Gear and potsOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 113

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British Virgin Islands Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 VG1White Bay Jost Van DykeVG31Optuntia Point Prickly Pear VG2Crawl Beach Little Jost Van VG32Deep Bay Virgin Gorda VG3Sandy Spit Beach Sandy SpitVG33Oil Nut Bay Virgin Gorda VG4Sandy Cay Beach Sandy CayVG34Bercher's Bay Virgin Gorda VG5 Northwest Coast Little Thatch Island VG35North Lee Bay Fallen Jerusalem VG6Smuggler's Cove TortolaVG36 Grape Tree Landing Ginger Island VG7Long Bay-Belmont TortolaVG37The Sound Beach Ginger Island VG8Capoon's Bay TortolaVG38Wedego Bay Ginger Island VG9Brewer's Bay TortolaVG39South Bay Ginger Island VG10Larmer's Bay TortolaVG40Coral Bay Cooper Island VG11Trunk Bay TortolaVG41Salt Island Bay Salt Island VG12Rogues Bay TortolaVG42Sound Beach Salt Island VG13Cooten Bay TortolaVG43South Bay Salt Island VG14Josiah's Bay TortolaVG44Big Reef Bay Peter Island VG15Lambert Beach TortolaVG45Little Reef Bay Peter Island VG16North Beach Guana IslandVG46White Bay Peter Island VG17Dig-a-Low Beach Guana IslandVG47Sand Pierre Bay Peter Island VG18North Bay Great CamanoeVG48West of Key Point Peter Island VG19Cam Bay Great CamanoeVG49Pelican Island VG20West End Beaches Scrub IslandVG50West End Anegada VG21North Bay Scrub IslandVG51Ruffling Point Anegada VG22West South Beach Scrub IslandVG52Northwest Point Anegada VG23 East End/South Bay Little Camanoe VG53Cow Wreck Bay Anegada VG24Lloyd's Beach TortolaVG54Windlass Anegada VG25Long Bay Beef IslandVG55Soldier Wash Anegada VG26Trellis Bay Beef IslandVG56Anegada VG27Bluff Bay Beef IslandVG57Anegada VG28Well Bay Beef IslandVG58Loblolly Bay Anegada VG29Halfmoon Bay TortolaVG59East Point Anegada VG30Sophie Bay TortolaBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 114

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Cayman Islands Sea Turtle HabitatKY1 KY2 KY3 KY5 KY6 KY7 KY8 KY4 KY9 02468 1 Kilometers Loggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, IF Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )A Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = AbsentSea Turtle Presence KY10 KY11 KY12 KY13 KY14 KY15 KY16 KY17 KY18 KY19 KY20 KY21 KY22 KY23 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat Cayman Islands Shoreline Data ProvidersGina Ebanks-Petrie, Janice Blumenthal, Joni Solomon Department of Environment WIDECAST 2007 Complete (indefinite) protectionNo*Moratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, N, NFClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsYesAnnual quotaYesPermits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Traditional harvest Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 115

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Cayman Islands Sea Turtle HabitatKY2 KY3 KY4 KY5 KY1 KY7 KY8 KY9 KY5Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat 036912 1.5 KilometersLoggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Cayman Islands Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per yearKY6 KY10 KY11 KY12 KY15 KY16 KY17 KY18 KY20 KY21 KY22 KY23 KY2 KY7 KY6 KY8 KY9 KY10 KY11 KY15 KY16 KY17 KY18 KY12 KY13 KY14 KY19 KY20 KY22 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 116

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Cayman Islands Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (R)Erosion (<10 nests/year)Egg Collection by HumansYes (R)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Artificial LightingYes (O)PollutionNoBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (R)Beach Erosion caused by storm eventsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R)Mechanized Beach CleaningYes (R)Beach Vehicular UseYes (R)Sand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (R)Livestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationUnknownCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, sedimentation, declining water qualityFisheries BycatchYes (O)Hook and line and pot/trapHunting/PoachingYes (R)PollutionYes (R)Marine debrisPredatorsYes (R)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (R)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (R)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 117

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Cayman Islands Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 KY1Rum Point KY13Bodden Town KY2Miller's BeachKY14Beach Bay KY3Chrisholm RoadKY15Bat Cave Beach KY4Little SpottsKY16Spots Beach KY5Barefoot GardensKY17Spots Dock KY6Spotters WayKY18Prospect Point KY7Morrits TortugaKY19South Sound KY8East EndKY20SS808 KY9Half Moon BayKY21Seven Mile Beach KY10CottageKY22Sand Hole Road KY11Frank SoundKY23Barkers KY12Pease BayBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 118

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Colombia Sea Turtle HabitatCO1 060120180240 30 Kilometers CO2 CO3 CO4 CO7 CO6 CO5 CO9 CO10 Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take HawksbillClosed seasonNoMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)Yes Reports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentUnknownNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except for Subsistence Take Data ProvidersElizabeth Taylor, Zunilda Baldonado Claudia Ceballos Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 119

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Colombia Sea Turtle HabitatCO1 CO2 CO3 CO4 CO2 CO5 CO7 CO6 CO10 CO9 CO2 CO2 CO1 CO3 CO3 CO4 CO9 CO9 CO10 CO10 CO5 CO7 CO6 070140210280 35 KilometersLoggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per yearLoggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 120

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Colombia Sea Turtle Habitat CO11 CO19 CO18 CO17 CO16 CO15 CO14 CO13 CO12 CO36 CO35 CO34 CO32 CO33 CO20 CO21 CO22 CO23 CO24 CO25 CO26 CO27 CO28 CO29 CO30 CO31 080160240320 40 Kilometers CO37 CO40 CO38 CO42 CO43 CO39 CO41 CO46 CO45 CO44 CO47 CO48 CO49 CO53 CO54 CO50 CO51 CO52 CO57 CO56 CO55 CO58 CO60 CO59 CO81 CO82 CO94 CO93 CO90 CO91 CO92 CO89 CO88 CO87 CO86 CO85 CO84 CO83 CO95 CO75 CO76 CO77 CO78 CO80 CO65 CO64 CO63 CO61 CO69 CO68 CO67 CO66 CO74 CO73 CO72 CO62 CO70 CO79 CO71 CO117 CO116 CO115 CO111 CO112 CO113 CO116 CO114 CO110 CO109 CO108 CO107 CO106 CO105 CO104 CO103 CO102 CO96 CO97 CO98 CO99 CO101 CO100 Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take HawksbillClosed seasonNoMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)Yes Reports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentUnknownNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except for Subsistence Take Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Data ProvidersElizabeth Taylor, Zunilda Baldonado Claudia Ceballos WIDECAST 2007 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 121

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Colombia Sea Turtle Habitat CO11 CO19 CO18 CO17 CO16 CO15 CO14 CO13 CO12 CO36 CO35 CO34 CO32 CO33 CO20 CO21 CO22 CO23 CO24 CO25 CO26 CO27 CO28 CO30 CO31 080160240320 40 Kilometers CO37 CO40 CO38 CO42 CO43 CO39 CO41 CO46 CO45 CO44 CO47 CO48 CO49 CO53 CO54 CO50 CO51 CO52 CO57 CO56 CO55 CO60 CO59 CO81 CO82 CO94 CO93 CO90 CO91 CO92 CO89 CO88 CO87 CO86 CO85 CO84 CO83 CO95 CO75 CO76 CO77 CO78 CO80 CO65 CO64 CO63 CO61 CO69 CO68 CO67 CO66 CO74 CO73 CO72 CO62 CO70 CO79 CO71 CO117 CO116 CO115 CO111 CO112 CO113 CO116 CO114 CO110 CO109 CO108 CO107 CO106 CO105 CO104 CO103 CO102 CO101 CO100 CO11 CO19 CO18 CO17 CO16 CO14 CO12 CO32 CO20 CO21 CO22 CO23 CO24 CO25 CO26 CO27 CO28 CO29 CO30 CO31 CO81 CO82 CO94 CO93 CO90 CO91 CO92 CO89 CO88 CO87 CO86 CO85 CO84 CO83 CO95 CO75 CO76 CO78 CO80 CO68 CO67 CO74 CO73 CO72 CO70 CO79 CO71 CO117 CO116 CO115 CO111 CO112 CO113 CO116 CO114 CO110 CO109 CO108 CO107 CO106 CO105 CO104 CO103 CO102 CO101 CO100 Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per yearLeatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 122

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Colombia Sea Turtle Habitat CO36 CO35 CO34 080160240320 40 Kilometers CO38 CO60 CO59 CO81 CO82 CO94 CO93 CO90 CO91 CO92 CO89 CO88 CO87 CO86 CO85 CO84 CO83 CO95 CO75 CO76 CO78 CO80 CO65 CO64 CO63 CO61 CO69 CO68 CO67 CO66 CO74 CO73 CO72 CO62 CO70 CO79 CO71 CO117 CO116 CO115 CO111 CO112 CO113 CO116 CO114 CO110 CO109 CO108 CO107 CO106 CO105 CO104 CO103 CO102 CO96 CO97 CO98 CO99 CO101 CO100 CO58 CO60 CO59 CO81 CO82 CO94 CO93 CO90 CO91 CO92 CO89 CO88 CO87 CO86 CO85 CO84 CO83 CO95 CO75 CO76 CO78 CO80 CO65 CO64 CO63 CO61 CO69 CO68 CO67 CO66 CO74 CO73 CO72 CO62 CO70 CO79 CO71 CO117 CO116 CO115 CO111 CO112 CO113 CO116 CO114 CO110 CO109 CO108 CO107 CO106 CO105 CO104 CO103 CO102 CO101 CO100 Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting HabitatCO39 Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Loggerhead Neting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 123

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Colombia Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R/O)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (R)Dogs in ArchipelagoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (R/O)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingYes (R/O)PollutionYes (U)Agriculture, sewage, industrial runoff, beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)ErosionBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (R/O)Beach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R)Mechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (U)Sand MiningYes (R)Frequent in Cispata DamquielExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (U)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Coral Reef DegradationYes (U)Fisheries BycatchYes (U)Hunting/PoachingYes (F)PollutionYes (U)Marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationUnknownEntanglementUnknownOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 124

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Colombia Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 CO1Cayo SerranillaCO62Gairaca CO2SerranaCO63Neguanje CO3Cayo RoncadorCO64Cinto CO4ProvidenciaCO65Guachaquita CO5Johnny Ca y CO66Palamarito CO6Sprat Ba y CO67El Medio CO7Rocky Ca y CO68Boca del Saco CO8Sound Bay CO69Playa Brava CO9CourtownCO70El Cabo CO10AlbuquerqueCO71Arrecifes CO11ZapsurroCO72Gumarra CO12CapurganaCO73Montanita CO13Bahia RufinoCO74Rinconcito CO14Playa AmarillaCO75Piscinita CO15Bahia PinorroaCO76Canaveral CO16SoledadCO77Castilletes CO17AcandiCO78Cuchicampo CO18ChilingosCO79Naranjo CO19PlayonaCO80Mata de Platano CO20GoletaCO81Mendiguaca CO21PlayetaCO82Guachaca CO22BolitaCO83Valencia CO23Playa SardiCO84Buritaca CO24TriganaCO85Don Diego CO25San PachoCO86Quintana CO26Rio CiegoCO87Los Achotes CO27Villa ClaretCO88Palomino CO28TitumateCO89San Salvador CO29La CandelariaCO90Playa Larga CO30MorenoCO91Rio Ancho CO31TarenaCO92Corelca CO32Pta La DesgraciaCO93Cano Lagarto CO33Punta CaimanCO94El Sequion CO34DamaquielCO95Dibulla CO35UveroCO96Boca del Apure CO36San Juan de UrabaCO97Jarrajarraru CO37Isla TortuguillaCO98Media Luna CO38Rio CedroCO99Los Cocos CO39MonitosCO100Pusheo CO40La Playeta, I. BaruCO101Bahia Hondita CO41Isla FuerteCO102Punta Gallinas CO42Los VenadosCO103Taroa CO43Los TinajonesCO104Taroita CO44Isla TintipanCO105Punta Huayapain CO45Isla MangleCO106Punta Estrella CO46Isla PalmaCO107Cabo Falso CO47Punta SecaCO108Neimao CO48BalsillaCO109Puerto Lodo CO49MajagualCO110Chichibacoa CO50Isla ArenaCO111Santa Cruz CO51Isla RosarioCO112Playa Rocosa CO52Isla TesoroCO113Punta Espada CO53La Cieba, I. BaruCO114Parajimaru CO54Pl. Blanca, I. BaruCO115Puerto Ingles CO55Punta CanoaCO116Puerto Lopez CO56Arroyo de PiedraCO117Punta Castilletes CO57BocacanoaCO118Cabo Tiburon CO58Drumond PapareCO119Maasima y CO59Bonito GordoCO120Nazareth CO60ConchaCO121Nueva York CO61ChengueCO122Pt. Caliente PlayetaBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 125

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Costa Rica Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineCR1 CR7 CR6 CR5 CR4 CR3 CR2 CR8 020406080 10 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period) … Prohibition(s) on take … Closed season … Minimum size limits … Maximum size limits … Annual quota … Permits/licenses required … Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except for eggs at Ostinal WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersDidiher Chacon Chaverri Asociacin ANAI Caribbean Conservation Corporation Estacin Las Tortugas La Tortugas Feliz ASTOP Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 126

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Costa Rica Sea Turtle HabitatCR1 CR7 CR6 CR5 CR4 CR3 CR2 CR8 0255075100 12.5 Kilometers CR1 CR1 CR2 CR1 CR8 CR8 CR5 CR3 CR3Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting HabitatCR6 CR6 CR2 CR5Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 127

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Costa Rica Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (F)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (F)JaguarsNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Erosion <1% in Gandoca and 5-10% in NegraEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Some places 100% loss, others <1% (ex. Gandoca)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingNoPollutionYes (U)Sewage, runoff and beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Erosion Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)Sand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (U) Deforestation causes tree litter and debris on beaches inhibiting access by femalesLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Sedimentation is frequent due to deforestationCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Pollution and sedimentationFisheries BycatchYes (R)GillnetHunting/PoachingYes (F)PollutionYes (U)Sewage, marine debris and agricultural runoffPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (F) 30% of Greens caught in the in-water study have fibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)EntanglementYes (R)Caught in gillnetsOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 128

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Costa Rica Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 CR1TortugueroCR5Cahuita CR2ParisminaCR6Negra CR3PacuareCR7Erlin CR4Isla UvitaCR8GandocaBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 129

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Cuba Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineCU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU5 CU6 CU7 0100200300400 50 Kilometers CU11 CU10 CU9 CU8 Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take E, N, NF Closed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaYesPermits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except for Traditional Use Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )IN, IF Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersFelix Moncada, Gonzalo Nodarse, Yosvani Medina, Erich Escobar, Carlos Rodrguez Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras, Ministerio de la Industria Pesquera Julia Azanza Ricardo Universidad de La Habana; Centro de Investigaciones Marinas Rubn Blanco Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa y Medio Ambiente, Isla de la Fernando Hernandez Empresa Nacional para la conservacin de la Flora y Fauna Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 130

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Cuba Sea Turtle HabitatCU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU5 CU6 CU7 0160320480640 80 KilometersCU8 CU11 CU10 CU9 CU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU5 CU6 CU7 CU8 CU11 CU10 CU9 CU5 CU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU6 CU7Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatCU8 CU11 CU10 CU9Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 131

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Cuba Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansYes (O)More frequent on mainlandKillin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Pigs and dogsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)FloodE gg Collection b y HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Artificial Li g htin g Yes (O)PollutionYes (U)Petroleum/tar, sewage and industrial runoffBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Erosion and accretionBeach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresUnknownBeach NourishmentYes (FA)In Varandero and MantanzasRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (FA)In tourist areasMechanized Beach Cleanin g Yes (O)In tourist areasBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)In tourist areasSand Minin g Yes (R)Near VaranderoExotic ( or Loss of Native ) VegetationYes (R)Livestock Presence on the BeachYes (O)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSea g rass De g radationNoCoral Reef De g radationYes (U)Anchor damage, other unknownFisheries B y catchYes (F)Trawl, gillnet, pound net and pot/trapHuntin g /Poachin g Yes (F)PollutionYes (R)Petroleum/tar, sewage and industrial runoffPredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesYes (R)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceUnknownDred g in g Yes (U)Marina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)Entan g lementYes (U)Offshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 132

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Cuba Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 CU1Peninsula de GuanahacabibesCU7Cayera de Doce Leguas CU2Cayera de San FelipeCU8Cayo Santa Maria CU3Guanal, Isle of Pines CU9Cayo Guillermo CU4Cayo CampoCU10Cayo Peredon Grande Cayo CU5Cayo RosarioCU11Cayo Fragosa CU6Cayo Largo del Su r Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 133

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Curaao Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineANC1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, IF Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent ANC3 ANC2 ANC4 ANC5 ANC6 ANC8 ANC7 ANC9 ANC11 ANC10 ANC12 ANC14 ANC13 06121824 3 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period) … Prohibition(s) on take … Closed season … Minimum size limits … Maximum size limits … Annual quota … Permits/licenses required … Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYes Reports of illegal trade internationallyUnknown* General public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Some suspected trade to Venezuela Data ProviderBrian Leysner Caribbean Research and Management of Biodiversity Foundation WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 134

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Curaao Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatANC13 ANC4 ANC6 Loggerhead Nesting Habitat 09182736 4.5 Kilometers ANC8 ANC8 ANC4 ANC4 ANC1 ANC10 ANC11 ANC12 ANC14 ANC8Loggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 135

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Curaao Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansNoKillin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsNoE gg Collection b y HumansNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial Li g htin g NoPollutionNoBeach Erosion/AccretionNoBeach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach Cleanin g NoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand Minin g NoExotic ( or Loss of Native ) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSea g rass De g radationNoCoral Reef De g radationNoFisheries B y catchYes (U)Hook and lineHuntin g /Poachin g Yes (R)PollutionYes (U)MinimalPredatorsNoDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDred g in g NoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntan g lementNoOffshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 136

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Curaao Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 ANC1Un Boka ANC8North Beach Klein Curacao ANC2Dos BokaANC9Blauwbaai ANC3Boka DjegoANC10Daaibooi ANC4Boka MansalinaANC11Porto Marie ANC5Boka KortaleinANC12Santu Pretu ANC6Boka BraunANC13Groot Knip ANC7Boka BergantinANC14Playa KalkiBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 137

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Dominica Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineDM1 DM2DM3 DM4 DM5DM6 DM7 DM8 DM9 DM10 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent DM11 DM12 DM13 DM14 DM15 DM16 DM17 DM18 DM19 DM20 DM21 DM22 DM23 DM24 06121824 3 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, N, NFClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable DM39 DM38 DM37 DM36 DM35 DM34 DM33 DM32 DM25 DM26 DM27 DM28 DM29 DM31 DM30 Data ProvidersSeth Stapleton, Rowan Byrne Stephen Durand Foresty, Fish and Parks Division WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 138

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Dominica Sea Turtle HabitatDM20 DM1 DM21 DM22 DM23 DM24Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat 06121824 3 KilometersGreen Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per yearDM2DM5 DM4 DM3 DM6 DM7 DM8 DM9 DM10 DM11 DM12 DM13 DM14 DM15 DM16 DM17 DM18 DM19 DM36 DM1 DM2DM5 DM4 DM3 DM6 DM7 DM8 DM9 DM10 DM11 DM12 DM13 DM14 DM20 DM21 DM15 DM16 DM17 DM18 DM19 DM25 DM26 DM27 DM28 DM29 DM30 DM31 DM32 DM33 DM34 DM35 DM36 DM37 DM38 DM39 DM38 DM28 DM30 DM31 DM32 DM33 DM1 DM5 DM4 DM3 DM6 DM7 DM8 DM9 DM10 DM11 DM12 DM15 DM20 DM21 DM17 DM18 DM19 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 139

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Dominica Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (F)Frequent on north coast and west coastKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (R)Nest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Dogs, crabs and herons (frequent near urban areas)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (F) Major problem especially on northeast and southwest coastsEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Occurs on all coasts (less frequent in the southeast)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (F)Frequent on the north and southeast coastsArtificial LightingYes (O)Traffic lights and construction of new airport facilitiesPollutionYes (U)Agriculture, beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (F) Erosion major problem caused by sand mining and natural erosion; sedimentation problem at Londonderry and airport construction at Melville Hall Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (O)Coulibistrie, near Roseau and ColihautBeach NourishmentYes (R)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R/O)Occasional on the west coast, rare on the east coastMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)Sand MiningYes (O)Illegal, but occurs on the north and west coastsExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (R)Livestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U) West coast loss due to sedimentation and eutrophication; seagrass rare on east coastCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Bleaching, runoff, sedimentation, debris and fish potsFisheries BycatchYes (F)Gillnet (frequent in the southwest)Hunting/PoachingYes (F)PollutionYes (U)Agriculture, marine debris and sedimentationPredatorsUnknownSharksDisease/ParasitesUnknownHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingYes (R)On the west coastMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (F)In active and abandoned gillnets and potsOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 140

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Dominica Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 DM1ThibaudDM21Plaisance Bay DM2BatibouDM22Soufriere Bay/ Scotts Head DM3SwaierDM23Point Michael DM4HampsteadDM24New Town DM5Hodges BayDM25Roseau DM6L'anse NoirDM26Canefield Airport DM7L'anse TortueDM27Massacre DM8Woodford Hill BayDM28Layou DM9Big BottomDM29Saint Joseph DM10Walker's Rest BayDM30Mero DM11Jimmy's BayDM31Macoucherie DM12Londonderry Bay (Cabana)DM32Salisbury DM13MarigotDM33Batalie DM14Pagua Bay (Hatten Garden)DM34Dublanc DM15St. David Bay (Castle Bruce)DM35Coconut Beach DM16Petite Soufriere BayDM36Prince Rupert Bay/Portsmouth DM17Rosalie BayDM37Douglas Bay DM18Ravine CyriqueDM38Toucari DM19Secret BeachDM39Cottage Bay DM20La Plaine/Point GirandBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 141

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Dominican Republic Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineDO1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent DO2 DO3 DO4 DO5 DO6 DO7 DO8 DO10 DO11 DO12 DO16 DO15 DO14 DO13 DO17 DO9 0306090120 15 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersYolanda Leon, Jesus Tomas Grupo Jaragua Inc. Instituto Tecnolgico de Santo Domingo University of Valencia Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 142

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Dominican Republic Sea Turtle HabitatDO4Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting HabitatDO4 DO3 DO1 DO2 DO5 DO6 DO5 DO6 DO6 DO6 DO5 DO7 DO9 DO10 DO11 DO12 DO13 DO13 060120180240 30 Kilometers DO17 DO14 DO15 DO16 DO17 DO14 DO15 DO16 DO8Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineDO8 DO5 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 143

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Dominican Republic Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (O)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (R)Nest Loss to PredatorsUnknownNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsUnknownEgg Collection by HumansYes (U)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingUnknownPollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)ErosionBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (O)Beach NourishmentYes (R)Future project to nourish three tourist beachesRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (F)Mostly beach chairs on hotel beachesMechanized Beach CleaningYes (FA)On resort beachesBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)Sand MiningYes (FA)Macao, Salinas Dunes National ParkExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F) Most shoreline vegetation has been replaced by coconut grovesLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Goats, horses and mulesThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Pollution and removal by developmentCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Pollution, sedimentation, coral bleaching and diseaseFisheries BycatchYes (F)Purse seine, gillnet, pot/trap and hookah divingHunting/PoachingYes (F)PollutionYes (U)Sewage and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (R)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceUnknownDredgingYes (R)Boca ChicaMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (FA)New marinas on east and northern coastsBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentYes (R)Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (R)EntanglementYes (O)Monofilament lines and netsOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 144

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Dominican Republic Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 DO1Sosa-Boca del YsicaDO10 Playas de Oviedo (San Luis, Mosquea, Inglesa) DO2Nagua Gran EsteroDO11Cabo Beata Cabo Falso DO3Boca del Estero Las TerrenasDO12Isla Beata DO4 Playa Las Terrenas Cabo Saman DO13Playas de Pedernales Lanza Z DO5Playa Nisibon Boca del MaimonDO14 Playas de Pedernales Baha de las Aguilas DO6Playa Macao Cabeza de ToroDO15Playas de Pedernales La Cueva DO7 Boca del Maimon Boca del Ro Anamuya DO16 Playas de Pedernales Cabo Rojo DO8Isla SaonaDO17Playas de Pedernales Bucn Y DO9Los Arroyos EnriquilloBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 145

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French Guiana Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineGF2 GF3 GF4 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period) … Prohibition(s) on take … Closed season … Minimum size limits … Maximum size limits … Annual quota … Permits/licenses required … Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNo (Insufficient)Penalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable GF1 0255075100 12.5 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersBenoit de Thoisy, Laurent Kelle Association Kulalasi Association KWATA Societe, d'Etudes, de Protection et d'Amenagement de la Nature en Guyane World Wildlife Fund France Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )IN Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )NN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 146

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French Guiana Sea Turtle HabitatGF1 GF3 GF4 GF4Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Olive Ridley Nesting HabitatGF4 GF4 GF3 GF3 GF2 GF1 GF2 04080120160 20 Kilometers GF2Green Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 147

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French Guiana Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Olive Ridleys every year around CayenneKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (O)Jaguars and stray dogsNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Dogs, mole crickets and racoonsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (F)ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (R/O)East coast rare, west coast occasionalHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)In Awala YalimapoArtificial LightingYes (FA)Frequent in Cayenne, Occasional in Awala YalimapoPollutionNoBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Due to natural eventsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (O)In CayenneBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (FA)In CayenneMechanized Beach CleaningYes (R/O)In CayenneBeach Vehicular UseYes (R) In Cayenne and Awala YalimapoSand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationNoCoral Reef DegradationNoFisheries BycatchYes (F)Trawl, gillnet and long lineHunting/PoachingNoPollutionNoPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (R)ExplorationEntanglementYes (O) LeatherbacksOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 148

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French Guiana Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 GF1Awala YalimapoGF3Kourou, Karouabo Beach GF2 Pointe Isere, Farez, Irakumpapi, Organabo GF4Cayenne, MontjolyBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 149

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Grenada Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineGD1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent GD4 GD3 GD2 GD5 GD8 GD6 GD7 Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, N, NF LeatherbackClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentUnknownNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Fishing permit required GD9 GD10 GD11 GD12 GD13 GD14 GD15 GD16 08162432 4 Kilometers Data ProvidersCarl Lloyd, Rebecca King Ocean Spirits Marina Fastigi, Gregg Moore Yachting Without Frontiers Kido Foundation WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 150

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Grenada Sea Turtle HabitatLeatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatGD1 GD2 GD3 GD4 GD5 GD9 GD10 GD6 GD7 GD8 GD1 GD2 GD3 GD11 GD12 GD13 GD12 GD13 GD14 GD15 GD16 07142128 3.5 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per yearLeatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 151

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Grenada Sea Turtle Habitat GrenadaGrenadaCarriacouCarriacou Killing of Nesting Females by HumansYes (O)Yes (F) Central and southern coasts; offshore isletsKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNo Harassment occurs very rarely NoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U) Crabs and dogs Yes (O) Crabs, opossums, pigsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U) Flood and erosion Yes (U) Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Yes (F) Central and southern coasts; offshore isletsHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoYes (U) Tourists, yachts and fishermenArtificial LightingNoYes (FA) Central and southern coasts PollutionYes (U) Runoff, development and beach litter/debris Yes (U) Sewage, beach litter/debris and oilBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U) Erosion caused by natural beach movement and storms Yes (F) Due to coastal development, sand mining, stormsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoYes (O) After hurricanes and stormsBeach NourishmentNoNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoYes (O) In developing areasMechanized Beach CleaningNoNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)Yes (F) For sand miningSand MiningYes (U) River Antoine to Conference Yes (F)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNo Except for golf course development on Levera Beach Yes (F) Due to developmentLivestock Presence on the BeachNoYes (F)GrenadaGrenadaCarriacouCarriacou Seagrass DegradationYes (U) Anchor damage, pollution and sedimentation Yes (U) Anchor damage, pollution, sedimentation, runoff extensive damageCoral Reef DegradationYes (U) Anchor damage and sedimentation Yes (U) Anchor damage, sedimentation, pollution, bleaching extensive damageFisheries BycatchYes (U) Gillnets and "nets" undefined Yes (F) Trawl, purse seine, hook and line, pot/trap, gill net, long lineHunting/PoachingYes (F)Yes (F)PollutionYes (U) Development, runoff, cruise ships/yachts and marine debris Yes (U) Agriculture, sewage, industrial runoff, marine debrisPredatorsYes (U) Sharks Yes (O) SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (U) Fibropapillomas Yes (U) BarnaclesHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoYes (F) BoatsDredgingYes (U) When building marinas Yes (F) For developmentMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U) Southern coast Yes (F)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoYes (O)Power Plant EntrapmentNoNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoNoEntanglementYes (U) Fishing gear Yes (O) NetsOffshore Artificial LightingNoYes (U) Boating trafficThreats to Sea Turtles NestingOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = UnknownThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 152

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Grenada Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 GD1Petite CarenageGD9Isle de Rhonde GD2Big FieldGD10Caille Island GD3Anse La RocheGD11Sandy Island GD4 Sparrow Bay, Craigston, Tom's bay, McIntosh bay GD12Levera Beach GD5Mabouya IslandGD13Bathway Beach GD6Sandy Island CarriacouGD14Savan Suaze GD7White IslandGD15River Antione GD8Saline IslandGD16ConferenceBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 153

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Guadeloupe Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineGP1 010203040 5 Kilometers GP2 GP3 GP4 GP7 GP6 GP5 GP8 GP9 GP10 GP11 GP12 GP13 GP14 GP15 GP16 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, IF Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent GP17 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period) … Prohibition(s) on take … Closed season … Minimum size limits … Maximum size limits … Annual quota … Permits/licenses required … Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersEric Delcroix Rseau Tortues Marine de Guadeloupe Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 154

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Guadeloupe Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatGP1 010203040 5 Kilometers GP1 GP2 GP2 GP4 GP3 GP5 GP6 GP7 GP5 GP6 GP7 GP6 GP8 GP8 GP12 GP9 GP10 GP11 GP13 GP14 GP15 GP16 GP17Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 155

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Guadeloupe Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (R)DogsNest Loss to PredatorsYes (R)Mongoose and dogsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (R)Egg Collection by HumansYes (R)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingYes (F)IncreasingPollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R) Frequent on a few beaches that are not nesting beaches Mechanized Beach CleaningYes (O)Frequent on tourist beachesBeach Vehicular UseYes (F)Sand MiningYes (F)DecreasingExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F)Loss of natural vegetationLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, others unknownCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, others unknownFisheries BycatchYes (F) Purse seine, hook and line, gillnet, pot/trap and trammel netHunting/PoachingYes (R)PollutionYes (U)Agriculture, cruise ships/yachts and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesYes (U)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (F)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationUnknownEntanglementYes (O)Discarded gear and lineOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 156

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Guadeloupe Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 GP1Beaches of Petite Terre Island 1GP10Galets Rouges GP2Beaches of Petite Terre Island 2GP11Anse Sable GP3Les Galets de Marie-GalanteGP12Malendure GP4 Trois-Ilets & Folle Anse de MarieGalante GP13Grande Anse GP5PompierreGP14Anse de la Perle GP6 Grande Anse Terre-de-Haut des Saintes GP15Plage de Cluny GP7Anse FiguierGP16Anse Nogent GP8Grande Anse Trois-RiviresGP17Plage du Four Chaud GP9MachetteBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 157

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Guatemala Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineGT1 GT3 GT2 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent 06121824 3 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period) … Prohibition(s) on take … Closed seasonNoMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredYes**Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except eggs; ** For receipt WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersAna Beatriz Rivas Chacon, Anabella BarriosFundacin Mario Dary Rivera Consejo Nacional de Areas Protegidas de Guatemala Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 158

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Guatemala Sea Turtle HabitatGT1 GT3 GT2 06121824 3 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineGT3 GT1Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 159

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Guatemala Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Very rare inside protected areaKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Racoons and crabsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)Flood and ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)By egg collectors carrying flashlightsArtificial LightingYes (R)PollutionYes (F)Beach littlerBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (R)Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R)Mechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationUnknownLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (U)HorsesThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damageCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Pollution and sedimentationFisheries BycatchUnknownHunting/PoachingNoPollutionYes (F)Marine debris and runoff from Motagua RiverPredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesUnknownHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)DredgingUnknownMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (F)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 160

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Guatemala Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 GT1San Francisco del MarGT3Estero Guinea Montagua GT2 J a l oaBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 161

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Guyana Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineGY1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period) … Prohibition(s) on take … Closed season … Minimum size limits … Maximum size limits … Annual quota … Permits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y UnknownReports of illegal trade internationall y UnknownGeneral public awareness of lawsNo (Insufficient)Recent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentUnknownNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable 0306090120 15 Kilometers Data ProvidersMichelle Kalamandeen, Peter Pritchard, Annette Arjoon Guyana Marine Turtle Conservation Society WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 162

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Guyana Sea Turtle HabitatGY1 GY1 GY1 GY1 060120180240 30 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Olive Ridley Nesting HabitatOlive Ridley Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat 500-1000 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 163

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Guyana Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (F)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (R)Dogs, jaguars, racoons and birdsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (F)ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Artificial LightingYes (R)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Erosion due to natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningYes (R) Small scale shell mining (shell beaches, not sand)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (R)Livestock Presence on the BeachYes (U)Almond beach Chicken and goatsThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationNoCoral Reef DegradationNoFisheries BycatchYes (F)Trawls, hook and line, seines and pot/trapsHunting/PoachingNoPollutionUnknownPredatorsYes (U)Sharks and fishDisease/ParasitesNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (F)Fishing gearOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 164

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Guyana Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 GY1Luri, Almond and Tiger BeachesBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 165

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Haiti Sea Turtle HabitatHT1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent 0306090120 15 Kilometers Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline HT2 HT3 HT4 HT6 HT7 HT5 HT8 HT9 HT10 HT11 HT12 HT13 HT14 HT15 HT16 Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, NF Closed seasonYesMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y NoGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProviderJean Wiener Fondation pour la Protection de la Biodiversit Marine Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 166

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Haiti Sea Turtle HabitatHT1 HT2 HT3 HT4 HT7 HT8 HT7 HT9 HT11 HT13 HT14 HT15 HT16Green Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting HabitatHT1 HT5 HT12 HT14 050100150200 25 Kilometers HT3 HT5Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 167

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Haiti Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (U)Thought to be frequentKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoHarassment by dogs is rareNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (R)Egg Collection by HumansYes (F)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingNoPollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Pollution near developed areasCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Pollution near developed areasFisheries BycatchYes (U)Hook and line, pot/trap and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingYes (U)Kept if caught as bycatch no sea turtle fisheryPollutionYes (U)"Declining water quality", marine debris and sewagePredatorsNoDisease/ParasitesUnknownHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (U)Marine debrisOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 168

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Haiti Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 HT1Anse Pitres to Belle-AnseHT10Tiburon HT2Cayes Jacmel to RaymondHT11Anse d'Azur HT3Mayette to Cotes de FerHT12Gonavele Caymite HT4Cotes de Fer to MouillageHT13Freycinau HT5 Laborieux to Pointe de Tois Lataniers HT14Anse a Chou Chou HT6Ile-a-Vache at Point de l'EstHT15Fond Larange HT7Ile-a-Vache at Point DaimantHT16Baie de Caracol HT8Les Cayes to St. JeanHT17Anse du Diable HT9Pointe a Gravois to Port SalutHT18Petit AnseBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 169

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Honduras Sea Turtle HabitatHN1 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineHN2 HN3 HN4 HN5 HN6 HN7 HN9 HN24 HN12 HN11 HN10 HN14 HN13 HN25HN26 HN15 HN21 HN22 HN23 070140210280 35 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take NoClosed seasonNoMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentUnknownNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except for Indigenous Take HN8 HN17 HN18 HN19 HN20 HN16 WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersCarlos Molinero MOPAWI Lidia Salinas Sandy Bay West End Marine Park Marcio Aronne ECOVITA Michelle Fernandez Unidad Municipal Ambiental De Utila Rafael Gutierrez, Teodora Casildo, Gerson Martinez Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 170

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HN1HN2 HN3 HN4 HN5 HN6 HN7HN9 HN24 HN12 HN11 HN14 HN13 HN25 HN26 HN21 HN23 Honduras Sea Turtle Habitat HN22 HN15 HN9 HN10 HN12 HN13 HN14 HN15 HN9 HN1 HN3 HN7 HN5 HN6 HN15 HN11HN12 HN13 HN14 HN10 HN9 070140210280 35 KilometersLeatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting HabitatLoggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineGreen Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per yearHN8 HN7 HN1 HN1 HN2 HN7 HN12 HN20 HN18 HN11 HN16 HN20 HN18 HN17 HN19 HN21 HN22 HN20 HN18 HN24 HN21 HN23 HN22 HN25 HN26 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 171

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Honduras Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (U)Nest Loss to PredatorsYes (F)Feral dogs, pigs, cats; Playa de Mokabila in Brus LagunaNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Egg Collection by HumansYes (U) La Barra del Rio Monague to la Barra de Rio Aguan; Leatherbacks are particularly decliningHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (F)Artificial LightingYes (FA)Ceiba to Sambo CreekPollutionYes (F)Agriculture, sewage and beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (F)Due to loss of vegetation and stormsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (R)Beach NourishmentYes (U)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R)Mechanized Beach CleaningYes (R)Beach Vehicular UseYes (F) Increases during rainy season due to the poor state of roads in coastal communitiesSand MiningYes (R)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F)Cocotero has been eliminated by diseaseLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Cattle graze on beachesThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (F)Development, beach nourishment and sedimentationCoral Reef DegradationYes (F)Sedimentation and fishingFisheries BycatchYes (F)Artisinal fisheriesHunting/PoachingYes (R)PollutionYes (F)Sewage, marine debris, deforestation (runoff)PredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesYes (U)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)DredgingYes (R)Marina and Dock DevelopmentYes (R)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Almost no reportsPower Plant EntrapmentYes (R)Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (O)One installation in Bahia de OmoaEntanglementYes (U)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 172

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Honduras Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 HN1Bahia de TelaHN16Barra de Tabakunta HN2Isla de UtilaHN17Yahurabila HN3La Ceiba Cayo ChachahuateHN18Barra Catarasca HN4Cayos CochinosHN19Prunnitara HN5RoatanHN20Cauquira HN6GuanajaHN21Cayo Bobel HN7Punta CastillaHN22Cayo Port Royal or Tortuga HN8Sangre LayaHN23Cayo Sabana HN9TocamachoHN24Cayo Sur HN10BatallaHN25Cayo Bogas HN11Cabo Camaron La BarraHN26Cayos Vivorillos HN12PlaplayaHN27Barra Patuka HN13IbansHN28Kury HN14CocobilaHN29Beln HN15Brus LagunaBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 173

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Jamaica Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineJM25 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, IF Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A? Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent JM26 JM27 JM24 JM29 JM30 JM28 JM22 JM21 JM23 JM20 JM19 JM32 JM31 JM34 JM46 JM44 JM45 JM43 JM42 JM41 JM40 JM39 JM38 JM37 JM36 JM35 JM33 JM47 JM55 JM49 JM51 JM52 JM53 JM54 JM48 JM50 JM57 JM56 JM59 JM60 JM58 JM65 JM61 JM62 JM63 JM64 JM70 JM71 JM69 JM68 JM67 JM72 JM73JM74 JM1 JM7 JM6 JM5 JM4 JM3 JM2 JM8 JM9 JM10 JM11 JM13 JM12 JM18 JM17 JM14 JM15 JM16 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y NoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable 020406080 10 Kilometers JM66 JM75 WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersAndrea Donaldson, Rhema Bjorkland National Environment and Planning Agency and Sea Turtle Recovery Network Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 174

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Jamaica Sea Turtle HabitatJM25 020406080 10 Kilometers JM26 JM27 JM24 JM29 JM30 JM28 JM22 JM21 JM23 JM20 JM32 JM31 JM46 JM44 JM45 JM43 JM42 JM41 JM39 JM38 JM37 JM36 JM35 JM33 JM47 JM55 JM49 JM51 JM52 JM53 JM54 JM48 JM50 JM57 JM56 JM59 JM60 JM58 JM65 JM61 JM63 JM71 JM69 JM68 JM67 JM74 JM1 JM7 JM10 JM13 JM12 JM18 JM17 JM15 JM16 JM4 JM51 JM54 Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat 04080120160 20 KilometersGreen Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year JM75 JM66 JM75 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 175

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Jamaica Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (F)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoHarassment by dogsNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U)Wild boats, mongoose, rats and dogsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingYes (FA)PollutionNoBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (U)Beach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningYes (U)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (U)Horse racing on the beachThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationNoCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Pollution and sedimentationFisheries BycatchYes (U) Dynamite/blast and "nets" undefined takes are increasingHunting/PoachingYes (U)PollutionYes (U)Runoff, sewage, agriculture, solid waste and siltationPredatorsUnknownDisease/ParasitesNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (U)NetsOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 176

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Jamaica Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 JM1Success BeachJM42Little Portland Cay JM2Lily's PointJM43Big Portland Cay JM3Sea Castle HotelJM44Gut's River JM4Bush CayJM45Old Woman's Point JM5Florida BeachJM46 Alligator Pond (east of Port Kaiser) JM6BurwoodJM47Tryall Beach JM7Silver SandsJM48Great Bay JM8Harmony BeachJM49Hope Wharf JM9East of Harmony BeachJM50Calabash Bay JM10Braco BeachJM51Billy's Bay JM11Hogsty BeachJM52Merriman's Point JM12Pear Tree BottomJM53Thatchfield JM13Runaway BayJM54Parottee JM14Priory, Ocean LineJM55Black River JM15Drax Hall BeachJM56Galleon Harbour JM16Mammee BayJM57Luana Beach JM17Shaw ParkJM58Auchindown JM18Prospect BeachJM59Crab Pond Point JM19Golden Seas/OracabessaJM60Bluefields JM20Orange BayJM61Robin's Point JM21Hope Bay BeachJM62 Between Broughton and Savanna la Mar JM22Frenchman's CoveJM63St. John's Point JM23Fairy HillJM64Salmon Point JM24Long BayJM65Little Bay JM25Rocky CayJM66Sandy Bay JM26Southeast Morant CayJM67Long Bay 2 JM27ProspectJM68Booby Cay (Negril) JM28 White Horses (west of Little Pedro Bay) JM69Bloody Bay (Negril) JM29YallahJM70Neggro Cove JM30Cow BayJM71Lance's Bay JM31Palsadoes/Port RoyalJM72 East Lucea Cove/Johnson's Beach JM32Lime CayJM73Anglin's Cove JM33Manatee BayJM74Paradise JM34Coquar BayJM75Southwest Cay (Pedro Bank) JM35Needles CayJM76Alligator Pond Cay JM36Little Pelican CayJM77Doctor Wood JM37Big Pelican CayJM78Golden Head Beach JM38Pigeon IslandJM79Ladder Bay JM39Bare Bush CayJM80Meagre Bay JM40Little Half Moon CayJM81Sand Bank Cay JM41Big Half Moon CayJM82Sand CayBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 177

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Martinique Sea Turtle HabitatMQ1 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineMQ2 MQ3 MQ7 MQ4 MQ5 MQ6 07142128 3.5 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium(fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y UnknownGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable MQ8 MQ9 MQ10 MQ11 MQ12 MQ13 MQ14 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )IN, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersClaire Cayol, Sverine Raign Rseau Tortues Marines de Maritnique Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 178

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Martinique Sea Turtle HabitatHawksbill Nesting HabitatMQ14Leatherback Nesting HabitatMQ2 MQ1 MQ9 MQ7 MQ8 MQ3 MQ4 MQ3 MQ2 MQ6 Green Nesting HabitatMQ10 MQ7 MQ8 MQ6 MQ10 MQ12 MQ13 MQ11 09182736 4.5 Kilometers MQ5Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 179

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Martinique Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (O)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (FA)Egg Collection by HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Artificial LightingYes (F)PollutionYes (O)Beach litter/debris and agricultureBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (FA)Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (F)Beach NourishmentUnknownRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningYes (O)Beach Vehicular UseYes (O)Sand MiningYes (O)Not a widespread problemExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F)Livestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (F)Coral Reef DegradationYes (F)Fisheries BycatchYes (F)Hunting/PoachingYes (O)PollutionYes (F)Agriculture, cruise ships/yachts and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesYes (R)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingUnknownMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (FA)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (O)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)EntanglementYes (F)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 180

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Martinique Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 MQ1LorrainMQ8Grande Anse des Salines MQ2Anse Charpentie r MQ9Diamant MQ3Petite Anse MacabouMQ10Anse d'arlet MQ4Grande Anse MacabouMQ11Madiana MQ5Anse Grosse RocheMQ12Anse Madame MQ6Anse TrabaudMQ13Anse Collat MQ7 Grande Terre/ Anse Prune/Grande Anse Salines MQ14Anse Lvrier/Anse VoileBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 181

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Tamaulipas Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 050100150200 25 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )N, F Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007MX1 MX6 MX5 MX4 MX3 MX2 Data ProvidersNational Data Coordinator: F. Alberto Abreu Grobois Banco de Informacin sobre Tortugas Marinas Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia UNAM Patrick Burchfield, Luis Jaime PeaGladys Porter ZooComision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas Secretara De Medio Ambiente Y Recursos Naturales US National Marine Fisheries Service US Fish & Wildlife Service Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Instituto Nacional de la Pesca Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 182

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Tamaulipas Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat 070140210280 35 KilometersLeatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineMX3 MX4 MX6 MX3 MX4 MX6 MX5 MX2 MX1 MX3 MX4 MX6 MX5 MX2 MX1 MX3 MX4 MX6 MX2 MX1 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 183

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Veracruz Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 050100150200 25 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )N, F Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersNational Data Coordinator: F. Alberto Abreu Grobois Banco de Informacin sobre Tortugas Marinas Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia UNAM Laura Sarti Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas MX12 MX8 MX7 MX13 MX11 MX10 MX9 MX14 MX15 MX16 MX17 MX19 MX18 MX20 MX21 MX22 MX23 MX28 MX27 MX26 MX25 MX24 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 184

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Veracruz 0100200300400 50 KilometersLoggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatHawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineMX9 MX12 MX11 MX10 MX13 MX15 MX16 MX20 MX21 MX22 MX23 MX28 MX27 MX26 MX25 MX24 MX15 MX16 MX8 MX17 MX16 MX8 MX26 MX24 MX8 MX9 MX12 MX11 MX10 MX13 MX14 MX16 MX15 MX19 MX18 MX17 MX8 MX9 MX12 MX11 MX10 MX13 MX14 MX16 MX15 MX19 MX18 MX17 MX28 MX27 MX26 MX25 MX24 WIDECAST 2007MX7 MX7 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 185

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Campeche Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline MX31 MX29 MX30 MX33 MX38 MX34 MX37 MX35 MX36 MX32 MX39 04080120160 20 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )N, F Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium(fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersNational Data Coordinator: F. Alberto Abreu Grobois Banco de Informacin sobre Tortugas Marinas Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia UNAM Vicente Guzmn Hernndez Laguna de Terminos Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 186

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat CampecheMX31 MX29 MX30 MX33 MX38 MX34 MX37 MX35 MX36 MX32 MX39 MX30 MX33 MX32 MX36 MX39 MX30 MX33 MX32 MX35 MX36 050100150200 25 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineLoggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 187

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Yucatan Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )N, F Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable 04080120160 20 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 MX40 MX41 MX42 MX43 MX44 MX45 MX46 MX47 Data ProvidersNational Data Coordinator: F. Alberto Abreu Grobois Banco de Informacin sobre Tortugas Marinas Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia UNAM Eduardo Cuevas Pronatura-Peninsula de Yucatan Augusto Segoviam Yucatan Secretara de Ecologa Ren Kantn Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 188

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Yucatan 050100150200 25 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineMX46 MX47 MX46 MX47 MX42 MX46 MX47 MX40 MX41 MX43 MX44 MX45Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 189

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Quintana Roo Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )N, F Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersNational Data Coordinator: F. Alberto Abreu Grobois Banco de Informacin sobre Tortugas Marinas Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia UNAM Alejandro Arenas, Iaky Iturbe, Roberto Herrera Flora Fauna Y Cultura De Mexico, A. C. Eduardo Cuevas Pronatura-Peninsula de Yucatan MX48 MX49 MX65 MX50 MX51 MX52 MX53 MX55 MX58 MX61 MX57 MX63 MX60 MX62 MX64 MX59 MX56 MX54 MX66 MX67 MX68 MX69 MX81 MX82 MX83 MX70 MX71 MX72 MX73 MX74 MX75 MX76 MX77 MX78 MX79 MX80 MX84 MX91 MX90 MX89 MX88 MX87 MX86 MX85 MX92 MX93 MX94 MX95 MX96 MX97 MX98 MX99 MX100 MX101 MX102 MX103 050100150200 25 Kilometers Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 190

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Quintana Roo WIDECAST 2007 MX98 MX99 MX100 MX101 MX102 MX103 MX48 MX66 MX92 MX48 MX51 MX52 MX53 MX55 MX58 MX61 MX57 MX60 MX59 MX56 MX54 MX66 MX67 MX80Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 050100150200 25 Kilometers Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 191

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat Quintana Roo WIDECAST 2007 MX97 MX98 MX99 MX100 MX101 MX102 MX103 MX48 MX49 MX65 MX50 MX51 MX52 MX53 MX55 MX58 MX61 MX57 MX63 MX60 MX62 MX64 MX59 MX56 MX54 MX66 MX67 MX68 MX69 MX81 MX82 MX83 MX70 MX71 MX72 MX73 MX74 MX75 MX76 MX77 MX78 MX79 MX80 MX84 MX91 MX90 MX89 MX88 MX87 MX86 MX85 MX92 MX93 MX94 MX95 MX96 MX97 MX98 MX99 MX100 MX101 MX102 MX103 MX48 MX65 MX50 MX51 MX52 MX53 MX55 MX58 MX61 MX57 MX63 MX60 MX62 MX64 MX59 MX56 MX54 MX66 MX67 MX68 MX69 MX81 MX82 MX83 MX70 MX71 MX72 MX73 MX74 MX75 MX76 MX77 MX78 MX79 MX80 MX84 MX91 MX90 MX89 MX88 MX87 MX86 MX85 MX92 MX93 MX94 MX95 MX96 Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 050100150200 25 Kilometers Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 192

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (O)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (F)Racoons, foxes, badgers, dogs (especially near towns)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)Erosion and floodingEgg Collection by HumansYes (O)Near beach towns and by fishermen in isolated areasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)In areas with tourismArtificial LightingYes (F)Hotels, houses in town and street lightsPollutionYes (F) Runoff (agricultural pesticides and herbicides), beach litter/debris and sewageBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (O)Erosion caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (F)Docks and stabilization/protection structuresBeach NourishmentYes (O)In tourist areas and to protect roadsRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R)In areas with tourism Mechanized Beach CleaningYes (R)In areas with tourismBeach Vehicular UseYes (FA) Private ATVs, trucks, 4x4 and navy/soldier patrolling vehiclesSand MiningYes (R)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (O)Due to developmentLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (R)Due to development and accretion in estuarine zonesCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Sewage, pollution and anchor damage (low)Fisheries BycatchYes (F)Longlines, trawls, gillnets and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingYes (O)Especially in well known fishing groundsPollutionYes (R)Petroleum/tar, sewage, agricultural runoff, marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (R)Fibropapillomas seen in green turtles in LechuguillasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentYes (R) In Laguna Verde and Tuxpan; turtles trapped in intake areasOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)Exploration and extraction occurs off the coastEntanglementYes (O)Abandoned gearOffshore Artificial LightingYes (U)Oil platformsOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 193

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Mexico Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 MX1La PescaMX53Pajarera Norte MX2Tepehuajes OstionalMX54Pajaros MX3Rancho NuevoMX55Puerto Viejo MX4Playa Dos Barra del TordoMX56De la Cruz MX5MiramarMX57Ixmapoit MX6AltamiraMX58Campismo MX7Paraiso EscondidoMX59Pajarera Sur MX8Cabo RojoMX60Aguadas del Sur MX9Barra de GalindoMX61Isla Contoy MX10Bahia de Cochinos VillamarMX62Lagunade Garzas MX11Farallon CazonesMX63Tortugas MX12Boca de Lima-Barra TecolutlaMX64L. Muerta MX13Vida MilenariaMX65Isla Mujeres MX14El Callejon del Pajaro y CangrejoMX66Isla Cancun MX15Marcelino YepezMX67Nizuc Pt. Morelos MX16Lechuguillas El LlanoMX68Chenyuyu MX17SantanderMX69Fatima MX18 Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde MX70Mezcalitos MX19ChachalacasMX71Punta Moreno MX20Isla VerdeMX72Fidecaribe MX21Isla SacrificiosMX73Chen-Rio MX22Isla EnmedioMX74San Martin MX23Isla SalmedinaMX75Chiqueros MX24CapulteotlMX76Bosh MX25El SaladoMX77Cinco Puertas MX26ArrecifesMX78Mirador MX27ZapotitlanMX79Celarain MX28Pea HermosaMX80Punta Sur MX29Xicalango VictoriaMX81Punta Venado MX30Isla del Carmen MX82Paamul MX31ChacahitoMX83Xpu-ha MX32Isla AguadaMX84Kantenah MX33Sabancuy MX85Akumal MX34Cayo Arcas MX86Aventuras-DIF MX35ChenkanMX87Chemuyil MX36Punta XenMX88Xcacel MX37Ensenada Xpicob MX89Xel-ha MX38San Lorenzo MX90Punta Cadena MX39Isla Arena MX91Tankah MX40CelestnMX92Kanzul MX41El PalmarMX93Cahpechen MX42Arrecife AlacranesMX94Yu-Yum MX43Las ColoradasMX95San Juan MX44ProgresoMX96Punta Allen MX45Telchac PuertoMX97Punta Pajaros MX46Dzilam BravoMX98Punta Herrero MX47El CuyoMX99Reserva Sur MX48HolboxMX100Majahual MX49Cabo CatocheMX101Puerto Angel MX50Del FaroMX102Herradura MX51CocosMX103Xcalak MX52 Dunas del NorteBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 194

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Montserrat Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineMS1 MS6 MS5 MS4 MS3 MS2 MS8 MS7 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )IN, F? Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )IN, F? Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent 02468 1 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take NoClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProviderJohn Jeffers Ministry of Agriculture, Trade and Environment WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 195

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Montserrat Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatMS1 02.557.510 1.25 Kilometers MS1 MS2 MS3 MS2 MS4 MS5 MS6 MS6 MS7 MS7 MS8 MS8Loggerhead Nesting HabitatLoggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 196

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Montserrat Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansYes (R)Killin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U)Dogs and pigsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)ErosionE gg Collection b y HumansYes (U)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceUnknownArtificial Li g htin g UnknownPollutionUnknownBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Beach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresUnknownBeach NourishmentUnknownRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesUnknownMechanized Beach Cleanin g UnknownBeach Vehicular UseUnknownSand Minin g Yes (U)Exotic ( or Loss of Native ) VegetationYes (U)Livestock Presence on the BeachUnknownThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSea g rass De g radationYes (U)Anchor damage, others unknownCoral Reef De g radationYes (U)Anchor damage, sedimentation, others unknownFisheries B y catchYes (R)Artisanal fishing; gillnet, seine, fish trap and garnetHuntin g /Poachin g Yes (U)PollutionUnknownPredatorsYes (U)Disease/ParasitesUnknownHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceUnknownDred g in g UnknownMarina and Dock DevelopmentUnknownBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsUnknownPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationUnknownEntan g lementUnknownOffshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 197

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Montserrat Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 MS1Trant's Bay/Farm BayMS5Lime Kiln Bay MS2Hot Water Pond/Sugar MS6Woodlands Beach MS3Fox's Bay/Bransby PointMS7Bunkum Bay MS4Old Road Bay/Iles BayMS8Rendez-vous BayBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 198

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Nicaragua Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineNI1 NI2 Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take NoClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationallyYesReports of illegal trade internationallyYesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; All species protected except for the green sea turtle Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, IF* Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; A = Absent; In-water presence, foraging status unknown 050100150200 25 Kilometers WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersCathi Campbell, Cynthia Lagueux Wildlife Conservation Society Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 199

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Nicaragua Sea Turtle HabitatNI1 NI2 060120180240 30 KilometersLeatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting HabitatNI2 NI2Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Hawksbill Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per yearLeatherback Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 200

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Nicaragua Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansYes (O)Killin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsNoHarassment by dogsNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Dogs, rats and crabsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)Erosion and water inundationE gg Collection b y HumansYes (F)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Artificial Li g htin g Yes (FA)Pearl CaysPollutionYes (F)Beach litter/debris, sewage, petroleum/tar and pesticides Beach Erosion/AccretionYes (FA)Pearl CaysBeach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresYes (O)Pearl CaysBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach Cleanin g NoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand Minin g Yes (FA)Pearl CaysExotic ( or Loss of Native ) VegetationYes (FA)Pearl CaysLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (FA)Pearl Cays pigsThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSea g rass De g radationYes (F)Anchor damage, sedimentation and fisheries impactsCoral Reef DegradationYes (F) Anchor damage, sedimentation, fisheries impacts and hurricanesFisheries B y catchYes (F)Pot/trap, gillnet, trawl and long lineHuntin g /Poachin g Yes (F)PollutionYes (U) Sewage, petroleum/tar, marine debris, runoff and "decreased water quality"PredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (O)Fibropapillomas in greensHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (F)Dred g in g NoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (FA)Pearl CaysBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)Entan g lementYes (F)Fishing gearOffshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 201

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Nicaragua Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 NI1Pearl CaysNI2El CocalBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 202

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Panama Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelinePA1 PA5 PA3 PA2 PA6 PA8 PA9 PA10 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )IN, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )IN, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent PA12 PA11 PA16 PA15 PA14 PA13 PA4 PA7 050100150200 25 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses requiredYesGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProvidersAnne Meylan, Argelis Ruiz Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Caribbean Conservation Corporation Wildlife Conservation Society WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 203

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Panama Sea Turtle HabitatPA3Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat 050100150200 25 Kilometers PA6 PA5 PA4 PA7 PA10 PA8 PA10 PA5 Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls pyer yearGreen Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineLeatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per yearPA5 PA9 PA1 PA3 PA2 PA16 PA12 PA11 PA15 PA14 PA13 PA3 PA6 PA8 PA9 PA5 PA4 PA6 WIDECAST 2007PA10

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Panama Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (O)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoHarassment by dogs may occurNest Loss to PredatorsYes (F)Dogs, crabsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (F)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Especially on beaches that are not monitoredHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (F)Artificial LightingYes (O)IncreasingPollutionYes (F)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (F)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (R)Beach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (R)Mechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (R)Sand MiningYes (F)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, sewage, runoff and siltationCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, bleaching and sedimentationFisheries BycatchYes (U)No monitoring of small Caribbean fisheriesHunting/PoachingYes (F)PollutionYes (F) Runoff, oil spills, marine debris and cruise ship/yacht pollutionPredatorsYes (F)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (O)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (R)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (U)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (O)Transportation and pipeline terminalEntanglementYes (U)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 205

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Panama Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 PA1SixaolaPA14Punta Sasardi PA2San SanPA15Carreto PA3SoroptaPA16Playa Pito PA4 Playa Bluff/ Flores Beach Isla Colon PA17 Isla de Cana Blanca Waikin Cay) PA5Playa Large BastimentosPA18Masucum or Portogandi PA6Small Zapatilla Ca y PA19Beach east of Napakanti Tiwar PA7Big Zapatilla CayPA20Bahia Aglatomate PA8Red BeachPA21Punta Blancheta PA9Escudo de VeragasPA22Playa Colorada PA10Playa ChiriquiPA23Rio Carti Grande PA11CuangoPA24Playa de Rio Playan Grande PA12Playa ChiquitaPA25Rio Pitgandi PA13Napakanti or NavagandiBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 206

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Puerto Rico Sea Turtle HabitatPR1 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 0255075100 12.5 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent PR2 PR3 PR4 PR5 PR9 PR8 PR7 PR6 PR10 PR15 PR14 PR13 PR11 PR12 PR16 PR17 PR18 PR19 PR20 PR21 PR22 PR23 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses requiredYes*Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y Yes**General public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; For incidental take in fisheries; ** From tourists returning from other countries Data ProvidersCarlos Diez, Hector Horta Departamento De Recursos Naturales Y Ambientales Lesbia Montero Sea Grant Universidad de Puerto Rico WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 207

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Puerto Rico Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting HabitatPR12 0255075100 12.5 Kilometers PR2 PR4 PR8 PR3 PR13 PR18 PR14 PR15 PR17 PR16 PR9 PR3 PR4 PR5 PR1 PR15 PR19 PR17 PR16 PR20 PR21 PR7 PR14 PR7 PR11 PR10 PR7 PR8 PR10 PR22 PR23 PR6Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per yearPR18 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 208

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Puerto Rico Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (O)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (F)Mongoose and catsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)On Culebra frequent only during holidaysArtificial LightingYes (F)PollutionYes (U)SewageBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (R)Beach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (FA)In resort areasMechanized Beach CleaningYes (FA)In resort areasBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningYes (R)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F)Livestock Presence on the BeachYes (O)CattleThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage and sedimentationCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage and sedimentationFisheries BycatchYes (R)Hook and lineHunting/PoachingYes (O)PollutionYes (U)Sewage and agriculturePredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (U)Fibropapillomas frequent around CulebraHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (F)DredgingYes (R)Marina and Dock DevelopmentYes (F)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (F)Monofilament linesOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 209

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Puerto Rico Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 PR1Paulinas, San Miguel, ConventoPR13Cabo Rojo PR2Culebra Archipealgo InclusivePR14Mona Island PR3Ressaca CulebraPR15Mayaguez PR4Brava CulebraPR16Anasco PR5Zoni CulebraPR17Rincon PR6Shooting RangePR18Aguada PR7ViequesPR19Aguadilla PR8HumacaoPR20Isabella PR9YabucoaPR21Quebradillas PR10MaunaboPR22Islote Arecibo PR11PatillasPR23Pinones PR12Caja de MuertoBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 210

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Saba Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )IN, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )I Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )IN, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent 00.71.42.12.8 0.35 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium(fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y NoReports of illegal trade internationall y NoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProvidersJan den Dulk, Susan Hurrell Saba Conservation Foundation, Saba Marine Park WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 211

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Saba Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKillin g of Nestin g Females b y HumansNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaKillin g of Nestin g Females b y PredatorsNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaNest Loss to PredatorsNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaE gg Collection b y HumansNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaArtificial Li g htin g NANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaPollutionNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaBeach Erosion/AccretionNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaBeach Armourin g /Stabilization StructuresNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaBeach NourishmentNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaMechanized Beach Cleanin g NANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaBeach Vehicular UseNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaSand Minin g NANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaExotic ( or Loss of Native ) VegetationNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaLivestock Presence on the BeachNANo known sea turtle nesting in SabaThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSea g rass De g radationYes (U)Improving damage caused by hurricaneCoral Reef De g radationYes (U)Bleaching, hurricanes, sedimentationFisheries B y catchNoHuntin g /Poachin g Yes (R)PollutionYes (U)Marine debris and petroleumPredatorsUnknownDisease/ParasitesUnknownHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Dred g in g NoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntan g lementYes (U)Nets and plastic bagsOffshore Artificial Li g htin g NoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U= Unknown; NA = Not Applicable Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 212

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Saint Kitts & Nevis Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineKN14 KN16 KN15 KN19 KN18 KN17 KN20 KN24 KN23 KN22 KN21 KN7 KN8 KN9 KN10 KN11 KN12 KN6 KN5 KN4 KN3 KN2 KN1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent KN13 0481216 2 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionNo Moratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, N, NFClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)NoReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersEmile Pemberton Department of Fisheries and Nevis Turtle Group Kimberly Stewart, Ralph Wilkins St. Kitts Sea Turtle Monitoring Network Ross University and Department of Fisheries Kate Orchard St. Christopher Heritage Society Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 213

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Saint Kitts & Nevis Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatKN6 KN5 05101520 2.5 Kilometers KN7 KN8 KN10 KN9 KN24 KN21 KN22 KN23 KN17 KN18 KN19 KN5 KN1 KN4 KN10 KN13 KN24 KN18 KN24 KN22 KN2 KN4 KN3 KN5 KN11 KN2 KN12 KN14 KN15 KN20 KN16Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per yearKN13 KN13 KN11 KN9 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 214

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Saint Kitts and Nevis Sea Turtle Habitat St. KittsSt. KittsNevisNevis Killing of Nesting Females by HumansNoYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)MongooseYes (U) Fire ants, mongoose and dogsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)ErosionYes (U) Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (R)On unmonitored beachesYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)On North FriarsYes (U)Artificial LightingYes (U)Yes (U)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisYes (U) Sewage, beach litter/debris and tarBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Erosion due to high tidesYes (U) Due to stormsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (U)Mariott BeachYes (U)Beach NourishmentNoYes (R)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoYes (U) Not on index beachesMechanized Beach CleaningNoYes (U)Beach Vehicular UseYes (O)Yes (F)Sand MiningYes (FA)Two areasYes (U) On southeast coastExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (U)Due to developmentYes (F) Due to developmentLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (O)Yes (F)St. KittsSt. KittsNevisNevis Seagrass DegradationUnknownYes (U) Anchor damage and pollutionCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)SedimentationYes (U) Anchor damage, effluent and pollutionFisheries BycatchYes (U)Yes (U)Hunting/PoachingYes (U)Yes (F)PollutionYes (U)Yes (U) Agriculture, sewage, industrial runoff PredatorsYes (U)Sharks and birdsYes (U) SharksDisease/ParasitesNoYes (U) FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoYes (U) Riding and boat strikesDredgingUnknownYes (R)Marina and Dock DevelopmentNoYes (U)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoYes (R/O)Power Plant EntrapmentNoNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoNoEntanglementNoYes (O)Offshore Artificial LightingNoNoThreats to Sea Turtles NestingOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = UnknownThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 215

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Saint Kitts and Nevis Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 KN1Cayon to KeyKN13Belle Tete KN2ConareeKN14Beach Land KN3Halfmoon BayKN15Long Haul Bay KN4North FrigateKN16White Bay KN5North FriarsKN17Black Bay KN6Turtle BayKN18Dog Bay KN7MosquitoKN19Garling Bay KN8CockleshellKN20Gallows Bay KN9BananaKN21Pinney's Beach KN10MajorsKN22Cades Bay KN11South FriarsKN23Jones Bay KN12CampsKN24Sea Haven (Lovers) BeachBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 216

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Saint Lucia Sea Turtle HabitatLC15 LC14 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent LC1 LC4 LC3 LC2 LC5 LC6 LC10 LC9 LC8 LC7 LC11 LC12 LC13 LC19 LC18 LC17 LC16 LC21 LC20 LC23 LC22 LC24 LC25 LC28 LC27 LC26 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 06121824 3 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)No*Prohibition(s) on take E, N, NFClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y Yes**General public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; A Moratorium did exist from 1996 2004; ** Rare Data ProviderDawn Pierre-Nathoniel Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 217

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Saint Lucia Sea Turtle HabitatLC1 LC3 LC2 LC4 LC7 LC6 LC5 LC9 LC10 LC14 LC13 LC12 LC11 LC16 LC15 LC17 LC19 LC18 LC20 LC24 LC23 LC22 LC21 LC25 LC28 LC27 LC26 LC1 LC5 LC5 LC1 LC8 LC9 LC14 LC16 LC23 LC25 07.51522.530 3.75 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 218

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Saint Lucia Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (F)Increasing especially on Grande Anse BeachKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (R)Nest Loss to PredatorsYes (O)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Artificial LightingYes (O)Frequent on the Northwest CoastPollutionYes (U) Siltation/runoffBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U) Caused by storms and natural beach movement also due to sand miningBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (O)Beach NourishmentYes (R)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (O)Mechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)Sand MiningYes (O)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Coral Reef DegradationYes (U)Bleaching and siltationFisheries BycatchYes (R)Hunting/PoachingYes (F)During the open season; occasional out of seasonPollutionYes (U)Marine debris, siltation, sewage and runoffPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (R)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U)IncreasingBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (R)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 219

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Saint Lucia Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 LC1Cas-en-BasLC15Vieux Fort LC2Anse CommeretteLC16Anse L'Ivrogne LC3Anse LapinsLC17Anse Chastanet LC4Marquis BayLC18Anse Mamin LC5Playa Grande Anse LC19Anse Jambon LC6Anse LouvetteLC20Anse Cochon LC7Fond d'OrLC21Anse Galet LC8DenneryLC22La Toc LC9Praslin BayLC23Vigie Beach LC10Anse MicoudLC24Reduit Beach LC11Anse GerLC25Pigeon Island LC12Point Sable LC26Anse Becune LC13Maria IslandLC27Cariblue LC14Anse de SablesLC28Saline PointBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 220

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Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineVC1 VC2 VC7 VC6 VC5 VC4 VC3 VC10 VC9 VC8 VC11 VC12 VC17 VC16 VC15 VC14 VC13 VC19 VC18 VC21 VC20 VC23 VC22 VC24 0481216 2 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, NClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProviderLucine Edwards Fisheries Division Ministry of Agriculture and Labour WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 221

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Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Sea Turtle HabitatVC1 VC2 VC7 VC6 VC5 VC4 VC3 VC10 VC9 VC8 VC11 VC17 VC16 VC15 VC14 VC13 VC19 VC18 VC20 VC23 VC22 VC24 VC3 VC4 VC6 VC7 VC9 VC8 VC12 VC15 VC21 VC24Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat 05101520 2.5 KilometersLoggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 222

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Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineVC25 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent VC26 VC27 VC28 VC29 VC30 VC31 VC32 VC33 VC34 VC37 VC38 VC39 VC35 VC36 VC40 VC41 VC42 VC43 VC44 VC46 VC47 VC49 VC48 VC51 VC50 VC45 07142128 3.5 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, NClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesUnknownEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable WIDECAST 2007 Data ProviderLucine Edwards Fisheries Division Ministry of Agriculture and Labour Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 223

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Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Sea Turtle HabitatVC25 VC26 VC27 VC28 VC29 VC30 VC31 VC32 VC33 VC34 VC37 VC38 VC39 VC35 VC36 VC48 VC51 VC32 VC40 VC41 VC51 VC50 VC46 VC45 VC42 VC43 VC44 VC47 VC48 VC49 VC32 VC37 VC35 VC51 VC50 VC46 VC45 VC43 VC48 VC49 08162432 4 KilometersLoggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007Loggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 224

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Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (O)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsUnknownNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (FA)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceUnknownArtificial LightingYes (O)PollutionYes (U) Agriculture, petroleum/tar, sewage, runoff and beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Nationwide erosion problemsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (O)Beach NourishmentYes (R)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (O)Mechanized Beach CleaningYes (R)Beach Vehicular UseYes (R)Sand MiningYes (F)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (R)Livestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Threats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (R) Anchor damage, pollution and sedimentation limited degradation associated with hotel developmentCoral Reef DegradationYes (R)Anchor damage, pollution and sedimentationFisheries BycatchYes (R)Long line, hook and line and pot/trapHunting/PoachingYes (O)PollutionYes (U) Agriculture, sewage, industrial runoff, petroleum, pollution and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesUnknownHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)DredgingYes (O)Marina and Dock DevelopmentYes (O)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (O)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (R)Offshore Artificial LightingYes (R)Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 225

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Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 VC1Sandy BayVC27L'Ansecoy Mustique VC2Orange Hill BayVC28Macaroni Mustique VC3Georgetown BayVC29Pasture Bay Mustique VC4Colonarie BayVC30Obsidian Bay Mustique VC5North Union BayVC31Plantain Mustique VC6Biabou BayVC32Mahault Bay Canouan VC7Mount Pleasant BeachVC33Carenage Bay Canouan VC8Stubbs BayVC34Windward Bay Canouan VC9Brighton BayVC35Friendship Bay Canouan VC10Cablehut BayVC36Dallis Bay Canouan VC11Lowman's BayVC37South Glossy Bay Canouan VC12Clare ValleyVC38Grand Bay Beach Canouan VC13Mount Wynne BayVC39L'Anse Guyac Beach Canouan VC14Peter's Hope BayVC40Saltwhistle Mayreau VC15BarrouallieVC41Petite Tobac Tobago Cays VC16Kerton's BayVC42Bloody Bay Union Island VC17Wallilabou BayVC43Raffal Union Island VC18Cumberland BayVC44Chatham Bay Union Island VC19Troumaca BayVC45Campbell Union Island VC20Rose BankVC46Miss Irene Union Island VC21Dark ViewVC47Big Sand Beach Union Island VC22Petite Bordel BayVC48Richmond Beach Union Island VC23Chateaubelair BayVC49Spring Beach Union Island VC24Richmond BeachVC50Unnamed Frigate Island VC25 Princess Margaret Beach Bequia VC51Unnamed Palm or Prune Island VC26North Bay BaliceauxBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 226

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Sint Eustatius Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineANE1 ANE2 ANE3 ANE4 ANE5 00.91.82.73.6 0.45 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )IN Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y NoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProvidersNicole Esteban, Arturo Herrera, Emma Harrison Sint Eustatius National Parks Foundation Sint Eustatius Turtle Programme WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 227

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Sint Eustatius Sea Turtle HabitatANE4 01234 0.5 KilometersLeatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting HabitatANE4 ANE5 ANE1 ANE1 ANE2 ANE3 ANE1Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 228

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Sint Eustatius Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansNoKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingYes (R)One establishment on Zeelandia BeachPollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (O)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)On Zeelandia BeachSand MiningYes (R/O) Occurs small scale; recently large scale due to loss of imported sandExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (O)Cows and donkeysThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationUnknownCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Coral bleaching, others unknownFisheries BycatchNoHunting/PoachingNoPollutionYes (U)Marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoDredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoFuture plans for marina developmentBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (R)One green sea turtle strike in December (2006)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)TransportationEntanglementNoOffshore Artificial LightingYes (U)From ships using oil terminal facilitiesOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 229

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Sint Eustatius Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 ANE1Zeelandia BeachANE4Kay Bay ANE2Turtle BeachANE5Oranje Bay ANE3Lynch BayBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 230

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Sint Maarten Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineANM1 00.91.82.73.6 0.45 Kilometers ANM2 ANM3 ANM4 ANM5 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Data ProvidersDominique Vissenberg, Beverly May Nisbeth Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)No*Reports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Marine Park Management Plan waiting for government approval WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 231

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Sint Maarten Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatANM1 ANM5 ANM4 ANM3 ANM2 ANM3 ANM3 02468 1 KilometersGreen Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 232

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Sint Maarten Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoHarassment by dogs is rareNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (FA)On the southwestern coastArtificial LightingYes (F)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (O)Mechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (F)Sand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, runoff and pollutionCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, runoff and pollutionFisheries BycatchYes (U)GillnetHunting/PoachingYes (U)PollutionYes (U) Petroleum, sewage, cruise ships/yachts and marine debrisPredatorsNoDisease/ParasitesYes (R)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (F)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (U)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (U)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 233

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Sint Maarten Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 ANM1Cupecoy BeachANM4Gibbs Bay ANM2Simpson Ba y ANM5Dawn Beach ANM3Guana Bay BeachBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 234

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Suriname Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineSR1 0255075100 12.5 Kilometers SR2 SR5 SR3 SR4 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )IF Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )N, FN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYes*Moratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y NoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYes**Enforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; Except for traditional harvest;** Limited WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersMaartje Hilterman, Edo Goverse IUCN National Committee of the Netherlands STINASU Foundation for Nature Conservation in Suriname Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 235

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Suriname Sea Turtle HabitatSR1 0306090120 15 KilometersGreen Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting HabitatSR1 SR1 SR2 SR3 SR3 SR4 SR4 SR5 SR5 Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat SR2 SR1 SR3 SR4 SR2 Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 236

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Suriname Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansNoKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsUnknownNest Loss to PredatorsYes (U)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Egg Collection by HumansYes (U)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Artificial LightingYes (U)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseNoSand MiningNoOccurs outside nesting areasExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationNoCoral Reef DegradationNoFisheries BycatchYes (O) Trawl, hook and line, gillnet, long line and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingNoPollutionYes (U)Marine debrisPredatorsNoDisease/ParasitesNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoPower Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoOil drilling is planned offshoreEntanglementYes (O)Offshore Artificial LightingYes (O)Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 237

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Suriname Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 SR1MatapicaSR4Babunsanti SR2Samsambo/KolukumboSR5Alusiaka SR3Thomas/EilantiBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 238

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Trinidad & Tobago Sea Turtle HabitatTT15 Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineTT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 TT5 TT22 TT23 TT24 TT21 TT20 TT19 TT18 TT17 TT16 TT12 TT13 TT14 TT6 TT11 TT10 TT9 TT8 TT7 010203040 5 Kilometers Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take EClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNo (Insufficient)Penalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProvidersStephen Poon Wildlife Section Forestry Division Dennis Sammy Grande Riviere Nature Tour Guide Association Nariva Environmental Trust Fishing Pond Turtle Conservation Group Pawi Sports Culture & Eco Club WIDECAST 2007 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN, IFN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 239

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Trinidad & Tobago Sea Turtle HabitatOlive Ridley Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat TT10 TT12 TT10 TT13TT14 TT15 TT4 TT6 TT7 TT5Leatherback Nesting Habitat Olive Ridley Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year 010203040 5 KilometersGreen Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per yearTT22TT22 TT22 TT24 TT21 TT19 TT21 TT19 TT20 TT21 TT19 TT20 TT21 TT19 TT20 TT18 TT17 TT17 TT4 TT3 TT2 TT1 TT9 TT16 TT11 TT12 TT13 TT14 TT7 TT9 TT12 TT10 TT13 TT14 TT15 TT8 TT7 TT9 TT16 TT11 TT12 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 240

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Trinidad & Tobago Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineTT25 TT26 TT53 TT52 TT51 TT27 TT28 TT29 TT30 TT31 TT32 TT33 TT34 TT35 TT37 TT38 TT39 TT40 TT41 TT42 TT44 TT50 TT49 TT48 TT47 TT46 0481216 2 Kilometers TT36 TT43 TT45 TT54 Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take EClosed seasonYesMinimum size limitsNoMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNo (Insufficient)Penalties are an adequate deterrentNoNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProvidersTanya Clovis, Heather Yeates, Pat Turpin, Wilson Save Our Sea Turtles WIDECAST 2007 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN, IFN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 241

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Trinidad & Tobago Sea Turtle HabitatGreen Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting HabitatHawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per yearTT25 TT26 TT27 TT28 TT29 TT31 TT33 TT34 TT37 TT38 TT40 TT42 TT44 TT49 TT52 TT53 TT27 TT28 TT29 TT30 TT33 TT32 TT35 TT37 TT40 TT39 TT46 TT48 TT47 TT27 TT28 TT29 TT40Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 06121824 3 Kilometers TT36 TT43 TT45 TT54 TT44 TT46 TT49 TT52 TT50 TT51 TT41 TT35 TT39 TT43 TT44 TT42 TT38 TT39 TT35 TT26 TT42 TT43 TT41 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 242

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Trinidad & Tobago Sea Turtle Habitat TrinidadTrinidadTobagoTobago Killing of Nesting Females by HumansYes (F)DecreasingYes (O/F) Occasional on index beaches, frequent in other areasKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (R)Dogs on Grand RiviereYes (U)Harassment by dogs rareNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (F)Flood and erosionYes (U)Flood and erosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (O)Yes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoYes (O)Artificial LightingYes (R)Only on Grand RiviereYes (F)PollutionYes (F)Beach litter/debrisYes (U) Beach litter/debris, runoff, sewage and agricultureBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (F)Yes (U) Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoYes (U)Beach NourishmentNoNo R ecrea ti ona lB eac hE qu i pmen t and/or Other ObstaclesNoYes (U) On hotel beaches and some fishing village beaches during stormsMechanized Beach CleaningNoNoBeach Vehicular UseNoYes (O)Sand MiningNoYes (F)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoYes (R)Livestock Presence on the BeachNoNoTrinidadTrinidadTobagoTobago Seagrass DegradationNoYes (U)Sedimentation, polltion, anchor damageCoral Reef DegradationNoYes (U) Sedimentation, polltion, anchor damage and physical damageFisheries BycatchYes (F)Gillnet and trawlsYes (O)Pot/trap, long line and "nets" undefinedHunting/PoachingYes (F)Yes (O)During the open seasonPollutionNoYes (U)Agriculture, sewage, runoff, marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)Sharks and fishYes (R)SharksDisease/ParasitesNoNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoNoDredgingNoNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoNoPlans for developmentBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsNoYes (R)Power Plant EntrapmentNoNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoYes (U)Exploration just beginningEntanglementYes (F)Fishing gearYes (R)Lines and abandoned gearOffshore Artificial LightingNoNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = UnknownThreats to Sea Turtles NestingOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = UnknownThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/Migration WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 243

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Trinidad & Tobago Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 TT1ChacachacareTT28 Grafton Beach (Stone Haven Bay) TT2Huevos IslandTT29 Turtle Beach (Great Courland Bay) TT3Monos IslandsTT30Back Bay (Plymouth) TT4Maracas BayTT31Arnos Vale TT5Las Cuevas BayTT32Culloden Bay TT6Blanchisseuse BayTT33 King Peters Back Bay (Cotton Bay) TT7Paria BayTT34Gordon Bay TT8Murphy BayTT35Celery Bay TT9Grand TacaribeTT36Emerald Bay Castara Bay TT10Madamas BeachTT37Englishmen's Bay TT11CachipaTT38 Parlatuvier Beach (Erasmus Cove) TT12Grand RiviereTT39Bloody Bay TT13Sans SouciTT40L'Anse Fourmi Beach TT14 Big Bay TT41Man O War TT15Mission BayTT42Hermitage TT16Toco BayTT43Cambleton TT17No Head BeachTT44Pirate's Bay (Charlotteville) TT18Balandra BayTT45Anse Bateau TT19Matura Beach TT46Speyside TT20Fishing PondTT47Roxborough Beach TT21Manzanilla Beach Cocos BayTT48Goldsborough Beach TT22Mayaro BayTT49Barbados Bay TT23MorugaTT50John Dial Beach (Hope) TT24Cedros Granville BeachTT51Minister Bay -Bacolet TT25Pigeon PointTT52Little Rockley Bay TT26Buccoo BayTT53Kilygwyn Bay TT27Rocky Point (Mt. Irvine Back Bay)TT54Swallows Bay Milford BayBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 244

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Turks & Caicos Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 010203040 5 Kilometers Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, IF Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )I Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A? Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )A?N = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent TC1 TC8 TC7 TC6TC5 TC4 TC3 TC2 TC9 Complete (indefinite) protectionNoMoratorium (fixed period)NoProhibition(s) on take E, N, NFClosed seasonNoMinimum size limitsYesMaximum size limitsNoAnnual quotaNoPermits/licenses requiredNoGear restrictionsNoArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentUnknownNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable Data ProvidersJudith Garland-Campbell, Lorna Slade, Michelle Fulford-Gardiner Department of Environment and Coastal Resources WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 245

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Turks & Caicos Sea Turtle Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Loggerhead Nesting HabitatTC9 020406080 10 Kilometers TC2 TC5 TC1 TC4 TC8 TC7 TC6 TC3Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 246

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Turks & Caicos Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsNoNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)Due to large tidesEgg Collection by HumansYes (R)Fish CayHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceNoArtificial LightingNoPollutionNoBeach Erosion/AccretionNoBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoOccurs, but not on nesting beachesBeach NourishmentNoOccurs, but not on nesting beachesRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesNoOccurs, but not on nesting beachesMechanized Beach CleaningNoOccurs, but not on nesting beachesBeach Vehicular UseNoOccurs, but not on nesting beachesSand MiningNoOccurs, but not on nesting beachesExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoOccurs, but not on nesting beachesLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U) Pollution, anchor damage, dredging, sandmining, and marina constructionCoral Reef DegradationYes (U) Pollution (high nutrient loads), anchor damage, and ship groundingsFisheries BycatchYes (F)Hook and line and gillnetHunting/PoachingYes (F)PollutionYes (U) Declining water quality and marina, sewage and conch farm runoffPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)ProvidencialesDredgingYes (U)Becoming more common with developmentMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (F)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (O)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (R)Offshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 247

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Turks & Caicos Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 TC1Bambarra BeachTC6Bush Cay TC2Long Bay East CaicosTC7Big Ambergris Cay TC3Gibbs CayTC8Fish Cay TC4Cotton CayTC9Long Bay Providenciales TC5Big Sand Ca y Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 248

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US Virgin Islands Sea Turtle HabitatVI1 VI3 VI2 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent VI4 VI5 VI6 VI7 VI8 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses requiredYes*Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y Yes**General public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYes***National Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; For incidental take in fisheries; ** Between USVI and BVI; *** Penalties generally not given or enforced 05101520 2.5 Kilometers Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Data ProvidersSteve Garner West Indies Marine Animal Research and Conservation Service US Virgin Islands Department of Fish and Wildlife Rafe Boulon, Zandy Hillis-Starr US National Parks Service WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 249

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US Virgin Islands Sea Turtle Habitat VI9 VI13 VI12 VI11 VI10 VI14 VI16 VI15 VI18 VI17 VI19 VI20 VI21 VI22 VI23 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )I Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses requiredYes*Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y Yes**General public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYes***National Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; For incidental take in fisheries; ** Between USVI and BVI; *** Penalties generally not given or enforced 05101520 2.5 Kilometers Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline WIDECAST 2007 Data ProvidersSteve Garner West Indies Marine Animal Research and Conservation Service US Virgin Islands Department of Fish and Wildlife Rafe Boulon, Zandy Hillis-Starr US National Parks Service Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 250

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US Virgin Islands Sea Turtle HabitatVI1 VI3 VI2 VI9 VI13 VI11 VI10 VI14 VI16 VI15 VI18 VI17 VI19 VI20 VI21 VI22 VI23 VI17 VI18 VI9 VI13 VI17 VI18 VI9 VI13 VI11 VI10 VI14 VI16 VI15 VI11 VI10 VI12 Leatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat 07.51522.530 3.75 Kilometers 07142128 3.5 KilometersHawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineVI4 VI5 VI8 VI6 VI7 VI19 VI20 VI21 VI22 VI23 VI12 VI19 VI20 VI21 VI22 VI23 WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 251

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US Virgin Islands Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (O)Nest Loss to PredatorsYes (O) Mongoose, dogs, cats, night herons, frigate birds, ghost crabsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (O)Flood and erosion (Manchenil and Sandy Point)Egg Collection by HumansYes (O)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Artificial LightingYes (F)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debris and sunscreen?Beach Erosion/AccretionYes (O)Caused by storms and natural beach movementBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresNoBeach NourishmentNoFuture nourishment plans existRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (U)Not in protected areasMechanized Beach CleaningNoBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)Sand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (O)Livestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, pollution and sedimentationCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Anchor damage, pollution and sedimentationFisheries BycatchYes (R)Hunting/PoachingYes (R)PollutionYes (R)RunoffPredatorsYes (U)Sharks and fishDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingNoMarina and Dock DevelopmentNoFuture development plans existBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (O)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationNoEntanglementYes (U)Abandoned gearOffshore Artificial LightingNoOccurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 252

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US Virgin Islands Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 VI1Inner BrassVI13 Buck Island Reef National Monument VI2Hans Lollik EastVI14East End Bay VI3Hans Lollik Tamarind BeachVI15Isaac's Bay VI4WindsweptVI16Jack's Bay VI5Francis BayVI17Halfpenny VI6GentiVI18Manchenil VI7CocoloboVI19Good Hope VI8Western ReefVI20 Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge VI9Pelican CoveVI21Stony Ground VI10Southgate PondVI22Second Target VI11Prune BayVI23Sprat Hall VI12Coakley Ba y Beach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 253

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United States Sea Turtle Habitat Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi & Alabama Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )IN, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )N, F Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent USTX1 USTX4 USTX3 USTX2 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyNoReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesPolicy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable USTX5 USTX6 WIDECAST 2007USLA1 USMS1 USAL1 USAL2 0125250375500 62.5 Kilometers Data ProvidersDonna Shaver National Parks ServiceUS Fish and Wildlife ServiceNational Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration University of Texas Texas A&M Galveston Sea Turtle, Inc. Sandra MacPherson Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 254

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USTX1 USTX6 USTX3 USTX2Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat USTX3 USTX4 USTX3 USTX2 USTX1 USTX5 USTX6 WIDECAST 2007United States Sea Turtle Habitat Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi & Alabama USLA1 USMS1 USAL1 USAL2 0140280420560 70 KilometersGreen Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls peryear GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 255

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WIDECAST 2007 Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R) One case accidental, two cases visitors attempted to take nesting female but left when deterred by other visitorsKilling of Nesting Females by PredatorsNoNest Loss to PredatorsYes (O) Ghost crabs, coyotes, racoons, badgers and fire ants (invasive)Nest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)High tidesEgg Collection by HumansYes (R)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Artificial LightingYes (R)PollutionYes (U)Beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U) Erosion on Galveston Island; in front of seawalls (North and South Padre Island) and jettiesBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (R)Nesting is occurring in front of sea wallsBeach NourishmentYes (R) Galveston Island and elsewhere in front of seawalls, homes, development and on the north side of jettiesRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (U) Rare in some areas, frequent in others; turtles seem to get around these obstaclesMechanized Beach CleaningYes (FA)In developed areasBeach Vehicular UseYes (F)Sand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationNoLivestock Presence on the BeachNoThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (R)Coral Reef DegradationNANo coral reefs presentFisheries BycatchYes (O)Trawls (O), hook and line (O), gillnets (R illegal in TX)Hunting/PoachingUnknownPollutionYes (U) Marine debrisPredatorsYes (U) SharksDisease/ParasitesNoHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)Due to boat trafficDredgingYes (O)In jetty areas and baysMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (O)Boat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (O)Power Plant EntrapmentYes (R)Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (O)EntanglementYes (R)Entangled in rope, fishing line and marine debrisOffshore Artificial LightingYes (O)R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown frequency R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown frequency United States Sea Turtle Habitat Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi & Alabama Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 256

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WIDECAST 2007United States Sea Turtle Habitat Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi & Alabama USTX1Boca Chica BeachUSTX6Upper Texas Coast USTX2South Padre IslandUSLA1Breton National Wildlife Refuge USTX3North Padre IslandUSMS1Gulf Islands National Seashore USTX4Mustang IslandUSAL1Dauphin Island USTX5Matagorda IslandUSAL2 Bon Secour National Wildlife RefugeBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 257

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United States Sea Turtle Habitat Florida Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline 090180270360 45 Kilometers USFL3 USFL2 USFL4 USFL1 USFL5 USFL6 USFL7 USFL8 USFL9 USFL10 USFL11 USFL12 USFL13 USFL14 USFL15 USFL16 USFL17 USFL19 USFL20 USFL21 USFL22 USFL23 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )IN, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )IN, F Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )IN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses requiredYes*Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationallyNoReports of illegal trade internationallyNoGeneral public awareness of lawsYesRecent prosecutions or penaltiesNoEnforcement considered adequateYesPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesPolicy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable; For research, management and construction activities on nesting beaches 0100200300400 50 Kilometers USFL18 USFL27 USFL26 USFL25 USFL24 Data ProviderAnne Meylan Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute WIDECAST 2007 NoteFor the purposes of visual representation, individual beach data are aggregated and represented by county. For individual beach data please access the full database through http://seamap.env.duke.edu. Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 258

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United States Sea Turtle Habitat FloridaUSFL3 USFL2 USFL4 USFL1 USFL5 USFL6 USFL7 USFL8 USFL10 USFL11 USFL12 USFL13 USFL14 USFL15 USFL16 USFL17 USFL19 USFL20 USFL21 USFL22 USFL23 USFL18 USFL27 USFL26 USFL25 USFL24 0140280420560 70 Kilometers USFL15 USFL15 USFL16 USFL17 USFL18 USFL16 USFL17 USFL18 USFL19 USFL20 USFL21 USFL22 USFL23 USFL27 USFL26 USFL25 USFL24 USFL11 USFL6 USFL7 USFL3 USFL5 USFL23 USFL10Hawksbill Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year Leatherback Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year Green Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineHawksbill Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat Leatherback Nesting Habitat WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 259

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United States Sea Turtle Habitat FloridaUSFL3 USFL2 USFL4 USFL1 USFL5 USFL6 USFL7 USFL8 USFL10 USFL11 USFL12 USFL13 USFL14 USFL15 USFL16 USFL17 USFL19 USFL20 USFL21 USFL22 USFL23 USFL18 USFL27 USFL26 USFL25 USFL24 0140280420560 70 Kilometers USFL23 USFL9Loggerhead Nesting Habitat Kemp's Ridley Nesting HabitatUSFL1 USFL2 USFL8 USFL11 USFL13 USFL19 USFL18Kemp's Ridley Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Loggerhead Nesting Habitat <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year 500-1000 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 260

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United States Sea Turtle Habitat Florida Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (R)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (R)Nest Loss to PredatorsYes (F)Racoon, bobcat, coyote, armadillo, fox, crabs and antsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (F)Erosion, tidal inundation and accretionEgg Collection by HumansYes (R)Confined to limited areasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (O)Mostly due to unguided turtle walksArtificial LightingYes (F)WidespreadPollutionYes (F)Tar in some areas, beach litter/debris widespreadBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U) Erosion in many regions most cases are in highly developed areas Beach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (F)Present in most coastal countiesBeach NourishmentYes (F)WidespreadRecreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (F) Some counties have ordinances requiring the removal of obstacles at night during nesting seasonMechanized Beach CleaningYes (F) Daily in many areas and regulated to occur after nesting surveys completed.Beach Vehicular UseYes (O/F) Limited areas open to public use; widespread access for official useSand MiningNoExotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F)More common in southern Florida than elsewhere in stateLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (R)Horseback riding in limited areasThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (F) Anchor damage, vessel groundings, propeller damage, sedimentation and pollutionCoral Reef DegradationYes (F) Anchor damage, vessel groundings, propeller damage, bleaching, sedimentation, human recreation impacts and pollutionFisheries BycatchYes (U) Trawl, hook and line, pot/trap, nets, longlines in adjacent watersHunting/PoachingYes (R)PollutionYes (F) Agriculture, petroleum, sewage, industrial runoff, pollution and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U) Sharks, other fishes (on hatchlings)Disease/ParasitesYes (F) Fibropapillomas, epizootics due to unknown causes, trematodesHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (F)Boat/personal water craft trafficDredgingYes (F)Associated with channel maintenance and nourishmentMarina and Dock DevelopmentYes (F)Increased boat traffic, loss of habitatBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (F)Most common identifiable anomaly in stranded animalsPower Plant EntrapmentYes (F)Most turtles released alive due to monitoring requirementsOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U) Oil tanker traffic, ballast water flushing and pipeline installation; no nearshore drillingEntanglementYes (F)Monofilament line, trap line. rope and nettingOffshore Artificial LightingYes (O)Especially associated with dredging operationsR = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown frequency R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown frequency WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 261

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United States Sea Turtle Habitat Florida WIDECAST 2007 USFL1EscambiaUSFL15Monroe USFL2Santa RosaUSFL16Miami-Dade USFL3OkaloosaUSFL17Broward USFL4WaltonUSFL18Palm Beach USFL5BayUSFL19Martin USFL6Gulf USFL20St. Lucie USFL7FranklinUSFL21Indian River USFL8PinellasUSFL22Brevard USFL9HillsboroughUSFL23Volusia USFL10Manatee USFL24Flagler USFL11SarasotaUSFL25St. Johns USFL12CharlotteUSFL26Duval USFL13LeeUSFL27Nassau USFL14CollierBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 262

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Venezuela Sea Turtle Habitat Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat GSHHS Caribbean ShorelineVE1 Sea Turtle PresenceLoggerhead Turtle ( Caretta caretta )N, F Green Turtle ( Chelonia mydas )N, F Leatherback Turtle ( Dermochelys coriacea )N, F Hawksbill Turtle ( Eretmochelys imbricata )N, F Kemp's Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii )A Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea )AN = Nesting; F = Foraging; IN = Infrequent Nesting; IF = Infrequent Foraging; I = Infrequent (further detail unavailable); A = Absent VE2 VE3 VE6 VE5 VE4 VE7 VE8 VE10 VE9 VE11 VE13 VE12 VE14 VE15 VE17 VE28 VE29 VE26 VE27 VE25 VE24 VE23 VE16 VE18 VE19 VE20 VE22 VE21 Complete (indefinite) protectionYesMoratorium (fixed period)…Prohibition(s) on take …Closed season…Minimum size limits…Maximum size limits…Annual quota…Permits/licenses required…Gear restrictionsYesArea closures (MPA, park, reserve)YesReports of exploitation/sale nationall y YesReports of illegal trade internationall y YesGeneral public awareness of lawsNoRecent prosecutions or penaltiesYesEnforcement considered adequateNoPenalties are an adequate deterrentYesNational Policy for the Protection of Sea TurtlesE = Eggs; N = Nests; NF = Nesting Females; … = Not Applicable 0110220330440 55 Kilometers Data ProvidersHedelvy Guada Centro de Investigacin y conservacin de Tortugas Marinas Vincent Vera Oficina Nacional de Diversidad Biolgica WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 263

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Venezuela Sea Turtle HabitatLeatherback Nesting Habitat Hawksbill Nesting Habitat VE1 VE2 VE5 VE10 VE9 VE8 VE7 VE6 VE13 VE14 VE12 VE15 VE17 VE18 VE20 VE21 080160240320 40 Kilometers VE26 VE25 VE24 VE29 VE28 VE27 VE23 VE22 VE16 VE19 VE15 VE17 VE18 VE20 VE21 VE26 VE25 VE24 VE27 VE23 VE22 VE16 VE19 VE1 VE2 VE5 VE10 VE9 VE8 VE7 VE6 VE3 VE4 VE11 VE12Leatherback Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Hawksbill Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year 100-500 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 264

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Venezuela Sea Turtle HabitatLoggerhead Nesting Habitat Green Nesting Habitat VE2 VE5 VE10 VE9 VE8 VE6 VE12 VE15 VE17 VE18 VE20 VE21 080160240320 40 Kilometers VE26 VE25 VE24 VE27 VE23 VE22 VE19 VE15 VE17 VE18 VE20 VE21 VE26 VE25 VE27 VE22 VE16 VE19 VE2 VE5 VE10 VE9 VE8 VE7 VE6 VE4 VE11 VE12 VE11Loggerhead Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year 25-100 Crawls per year GSHHS Caribbean Shoreline Green Nesting Habitat X Crawls per year <25 Crawls per year >1000 Crawls per year WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 265

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Venezuela Sea Turtle Habitat Threats to Sea Turtles NestingKilling of Nesting Females by HumansYes (F)Killing of Nesting Females by PredatorsYes (O/F)JaguarsNest Loss to PredatorsYes (F)Racoons, dogs and pigsNest Loss to Abiotic FactorsYes (U)ErosionEgg Collection by HumansYes (F)Harassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (R)During holidaysArtificial LightingYes (U)PollutionYes (U)Petroleum/tar and beach litter/debrisBeach Erosion/AccretionYes (U)Caused by stormsBeach Armouring/Stabilization StructuresYes (O)Beach NourishmentYes (R)Recreational Beach Equipment and/or Other ObstaclesYes (F)On tourist beaches (Isla de Margarita)Mechanized Beach CleaningYes (R)Only on Isla de MargaritaBeach Vehicular UseYes (O)Intense in some areas (Miranda and Sucre States)Sand MiningYes (O)Exotic (or Loss of Native) VegetationYes (F)On tourist beachesLivestock Presence on the BeachYes (O)Pigs on Peninsula de PariaThreats to Sea Turtles Foraging/MigrationSeagrass DegradationYes (U)Sedimentation and anchor damage little researchCoral Reef DegradationYes (U)Sedimentation and anchor damage little researchFisheries BycatchYes (F)Gillnet, trawl, long line and pot/trapHunting/PoachingYes (F)PollutionYes (U) Agriculture, petroleum, sewage, industrial runoff and marine debrisPredatorsYes (U)SharksDisease/ParasitesYes (U)FibropapillomasHarassment Due to Increased Human PresenceYes (U)DredgingYes (U)Marina and Dock DevelopmentYes (U)Plans for developmentBoat/Personal Water Craft CollisionsYes (U)Power Plant EntrapmentNoOil and Gas Exploration, Development, TransportationYes (U)Plans in coming yearsEntanglementYes (O/F)Offshore Artificial LightingYes (U)Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown Occurrence Frequency: R = Rare; O = Occasional; F = Frequent; FA = Frequent in one area; U = Unknown WIDECAST 2007 Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 266

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Venezuela Sea Turtle Habitat WIDECAST 2007 VE1Isla ZaparaVE16Mapurite VE2 Peninsula de Paraguana, Estado Falcon VE17Puy Puy VE3Golfo TristeVE18Cangua VE4 Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Isla de Aves VE19 Querepare, North Peninsula de Paria, Estado Sucre VE5 La Sabana y Varias playas del Estado Vargas VE20San Juan de las Galdonas VE6 Parque Nacional Archipielago Los Roques VE21El Guamo VE7La OrchilaVE22 Cipara, North Peninsula de Paria, Estado Sucre VE8 Varias playas del Estado Miranda: El Banquito, entre otras VE23 Pargo, Parque Nacional Peninsula de Paria VE9 Parque Nacional Laguna de Tacarigua VE24 Uquire, Parque Nacional Peninsula de Paria VE10La TortugaVE25 Extremo sureste del Parque Nacional Peninsula de Paria, Estado Sucre VE11Parque Nacional MochimaVE26Macurito VE12La BlanquillaVE27 Otras playas extremo sureste Peninsula de Paria VE13El Agua, Isla de MargaritaVE28 Parque Nacional Delta del Orinoco VE14Parguito, Isla de MargaritaVE29 Isla Tobejuba, Reserve de Biosfera Delta del Orinoco VE15Los Testigos ArchipelagoBeach Identification Codes with Beach Names Dow et al. (2007) ~ Sea Turtle Nesting in the Wider Caribbean Region ~ WIDECAST Technical Report No. 6 267

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Working together to build a future where all inhabitants of the Wider Caribbean Region, human and sea turtle alike, can live together in balance.Ž The Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST) is a regional coalition of experts and a Partner Organization to the U.N. Environment Programmes Caribbean Environment Programme. WIDECAST was founded in 1981 in response to a recommendation by the IUCN/CCA Meeting of Non-Governmental Caribbean Organizations on Living Resources Conservation for Sustainable Development in the Wider Caribbean (Santo Domingo, 26-29 August 1981) that a Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan should be prepared ... consistent with the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme.Ž WIDECASTs vision for achieving a regional recovery action plan has focused on bringing the best available science to bear on sea turtle management and conservation, empowering people to make effective use of that science in the policy-making process, and providing a mechanism and a framework for cooperation within and among nations. By involving stakeholders at all levels and encouraging policy-oriented research, WIDECAST puts science to practical use in conserving biodiversity and advocates for grassroots involvement in decision-making and project leadership. Emphasizing initiatives that strengthen capacity within participating countries and institutions, the network develops and replicates pilot projects, provides technical assistance, enables coordination in the collection, sharing and use of information and data, and promotes strong linkages between science, policy, and public participation in the design and implementation of conservation actions. Working closely with local communities and resource managers, the network has also developed standard management guidelines and criteria that emphasize best practices and sustainability, ensuring that current utilization practices, whether consumptive or nonconsumptive, do not undermine sea turtle survival over the long term. With Country Coordinators in more than 40 Caribbean nations and territories, WIDECAST is uniquely able to facilitate complementary conservation action across range States, strengthening and harmonizing legislation, encouraging community involvement, and raising public awareness of the endangered status of the regions six species of migratory sea turtles. As a result, most Caribbean nations have adopted a national sea turtle management plan, poaching and illegal product sales have been reduced or eliminated at key sites, many of the regions largest breeding colonies are monitored on an annual basis, alternative livelihood models are increasingly available for rural areas, and citizens are mobilized in support of conservation action. You can join us! Visit www.widecast.org for more information.WWW.WIDECAST.ORG


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