Pop-up, Spin, Pull, Fold: Toy Books from the Baldwin Library

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Pop-up, Spin, PTul, Fold:


Toy Books from the Baldwin
September 2 October 31, 2008


Smathers Library (East)
Exhibit -Area, 2ndFCloor


Library


TU F UNIVERSITY of
George A. Smothers Libraries
George A. Smathers Libraries






















SAcknowledgements 4


Special thanks to:

* Barbara Hood for all her work on the giant pop-up, the invitations, the brochure,
the case labels, and for exhibit publicity;

* The Howe Society for support of the reception and the Bechtel Professorship
Fund for support of the program presenter, Kyle Olmon, paper engineer;

* Cari Keebaugh for writing the text for the brochure;

* John Freund for putting together the giant pop-up and for his video
presentations;

* Matthew Daley for filming, editing and producing the video;

* Bill Hanssen and Trish Ruwell for printing and mounting the giant pop-up;

* Michael Peyton, the Harn Museum, for exhibit lettering;

* Lourdes Santamaria-Wheeler for help with the invitations.






fParcy PO -Uy brainchild was quickly assimilated by other authors,
and by the early 1800s many stories had been adapted
anc uLM ov a6 es into harlequinades, including

) The Volvelle 4

Even before the birth of print culture, movable books -
were an integral part of society. The earliest movable
book mechanism was the volvelle, a predecessor to
slide charts. The invention of the volvelle is generally
attributed to Majorcan poet and mystic Ram6n -.l -
Llull (c.1235-1316), who embedded volvelles into
his philosophical treatises in order to illustrate his
complex ideas. The movable chart was popular among i
academics, and quickly spread to other fields of study,
including medicine, mysticism, fortune telling, and
astronomy.

Although it paved the way for future movable
children's books, the volvelle of the early 1300s firmly
belonged to the realm of scholars and was not meant
for children's hands. For the next 400 years children
would have virtually no books to call their own; the
invention of what we today consider "Children's
Literature" would not come about until the mid-1700
when the deprivation of children's reading material .. ---U.
would begin to be alleviated by, among others, author
Robert Sayer who invented the harlequinade.-

) Harlequinade/Metamorphoses 4

The harlequinade, or turn-up book, was invented
by Sayer circa 1765 and boasted a series of flaps that
changed the illustration accompanying a short text.
The mechanics of the pages were quite ingenious; as
Ann Montanaro describes them:
The books were composed of single, printed '
sheets folded perpendicularly into four. '
Hinged at the top and bottom of each fold, the
picture was cut through horizontally across
the center to make two flaps that could be
opened up or down. When raised, the pagesZ :
disclosed another hidden picture underneath. .
These "metamorphoses," as Sayer himself dubbed
them, were originally based on the antics of popular
theater pantomimes, commonly called 'Harlequins,' Metamorphosis, or, A transformation oj l', i,... With Poetical
and the derivative term harlequinadee stuck. Sayer's Explanations, for the Amusement of Young Persons by Benjamin
Sands






Metamorphosis, or, A transformation of Pictures: With
Poetical Explanations, for the Amusement of Young
Persons by Benjamin Sands (1807, on display). In
Sands' text, one can see a lion on the third page. If the
reader lifts the top and bottom flaps, a new picture
and new text will appear under each flap. The top
portion instructs readers to drop the top flap, which
then matches the upper and lower illustrations to
create a griffin where there was once a lion (on top) or
an eagle (underneath).

Sayer was not the only author whose intended
audience was children; the toy novelty firm S. &
J. Fuller in London was no stranger to odd and
revolutionary books. By the 1790s they had come up
with an extraordinary new colored book that children
could cut out and play with.


> Paper Dolls 4

S. & J. Fuller began printing books of paper dolls in
the 1790s, which were quite successful in the fashion-
conscious country of France. Between 1810 1816
S. & J. Fuller published books with morals told in
verse, which appealed to a wide variety of child
audiences. Little Fanny (1810), in particular, thrived
after publication; a total often books in the Little
Fanny series were published between 1810-1812. Each
book contained seven hand-colored figures, hats,
and a headpiece that readers could mix and match
as the story progressed. The History of Little Fanny
(1810, on display) tells the tale of a little girl (Fanny)
who runs away to the park with her maid after her


The History of Little Fanny, S. & J. Fuller, 1810.


mother refuses her the outing. Fanny is robbed of
her clothes and must work her way through various
outfits (beggar girl, errand girl, etc.) until she attains
clothes worthy of her station and can return home.
In order to help the reader choose which outfit fits
the storyline at any given point, each mini-chapter
(of two or three pages) offers a suggestion of which
outfit to choose: for example, chapter seven in History
of Little Fanny begins "Fanny restored to her former
station, modestly dressed in a coloured frock, with a
book in her hand." This description perfectly matches
one of the seven outfits that comes with the book.
After the appropriate outfit is described for the reader,
the story continues.

Although the books were popular in England and
France, they were expensive for the common child
because of their coloring and interactive quality,
thus limiting the audience to children of upper
class families.

As Sayer's "metamorphoses" and Fuller's paper dolls
became very popular very quickly, new developments
in movable book mechanics rapidly sprang up. The
next achievement in the history of pop-ups was the
inadvertent creation of 'Toilet Books' in the early
1800s.


> Toilet Books 4

Toilet books, developed by William Grimaldi, were
popular during the 1820s. The inspiration for these
books came from Grimaldi's daughter's dressing
table: Grimaldi sketched several items on the table
on pieces of paper, wrote a caption usually a virtue
- beneath each, folded the paper in half, and added
a picture underneath the original. Meant merely as
impromptu entertainment at a house party, Grimaldi's
books were an instant success with his guests and
he quickly decided to publish his work. Grimaldi's
first book, aptly named The Toilet (1823, on display),
was first published in 1821 and contains nine plates
with movable flaps. Under each plate is a caption
("Modesty," "An Admirable Plume,") and beside each
plate is a short verse. Although Grimaldi followed
his debut book with another text, A Suit ofArmor for
Youth (1824, on display), he never achieved the same
level of success as he had with The






Toilet. Various replications of Grimaldi's movable
books were published in Ireland and America, but the
popularity of the unfortunately named "Toilet Books"
was short-lived in all three countries.



ThJie .Mid-Nineteenth

Century

) Dean and Son 4

The company Dean & Son emerged in 1847 in
London and has the distinction of being the "oldest
firm in London to have been continuously engaged in
producing books for children" (Haining 21). Founder
Thomas Dean was of the first generation of printers to
utilize the new German method of printing known as
"lithography" (invented in Germany in 1798). Their
exclusive attention to the child market paid off, as
their toy books are some of the most popular in the
pop-up trade due to their unique mechanisms and
print quality.

In the 1840s, Dean began experimenting with
another style of interactive book known as
the "transformational"' In Dame Wonder's
Transformations series, an image of a girl is printed on
the last page in the book. Every successive page has a
different costume for the girl, and an oval is cut out
just above the costume's shoulders. This way, when a
reader turns the page, he will always see the girl's head


on whatever costume is pictured on any given page.
Several of the Dame Wonder's Transformations books
were illustrated by "Uncle Buncle," a pseudonym for
one of Dean's best illustrators, Robert Edgar.

Dean was also the architect of the first true "pop-
up" books. Titled the New Scenic Books, Dean's 1856
series consisted of four books, beginning with Little
Red Riding Hood (c1856, on display), and continuing
with Robinson Crusoe, Cinderella, and Aladdin. These
books relied on three cut-out sections connected by
a string or ribbon which folded flat together when
the book was closed. When a reader pulls the string,
the panels stand up as a three-dimensional scene.
The mechanics of the Scenic Books were most likely
inspired by earlier "peep-show" books (Haining),
which folded out accordion style and were meant to
be viewed through an eye-hole cut into the cover of
the book. Dean's adaptation of this particular pop-up
style was an instant and enduring success in the
world of pop-up books.


Panoramas, or Accordion Books 4

Equally popular as Dean's three-dimensional pop-up
books were the panorama books. Panoramas fold
out accordion-style in order to connect a series of
events or texts chronologically or linearly. As Haining
notes, such a format was ideal for illustrating both
everyday events and for retelling famous historical
and dramatic tales. Because of their compatible
format and popular content, panoramas are now one
of the rarest types of pop-up books. One panorama
on display, ABC (c1856, on display), is an alphabet
primer. Each panel shows one example of a word that
begins with a certain letter, along with an occupation
that begins with the same letter. Each occupation


Little Red Riding Hood, Dean and Son, (c1865)


ABC, (c1856)






is then described by a short verse. For example, the
letter P shows a picture of a peach, and under that is a
picture of a man. The verse begins "P was a Parson, /
And wore a black gown" and continues onto the next
page, for O, which reads "O was an Oyster-wench,
/ And went abut town." The picture on this page is,
appropriately, a woman. Above her is a picture of an
ox.


ihe Turn of the Century

Lothar Meggendorfer 4

Although Dean & Son would dominate the
production of movable books for most of the
nineteenth century, by the late 1800s many individual
authors began to make an impact on the new market
of toy books, as well. As the Germans were the first to
experiment with lithography and chromolithography,
it makes sense that they would begin to emerge as
the leaders in toy book production. As Montanaro
notes, "The Germans developed a mastery of color
printing in the second half of the 19th century and
their equipment and techniques superbly reproduced
the finest art work" This mastery was not lost
on the creative talents of pop-up legend Lothar
Meggendorfer.

Lothar Meggendorfer's name is well known to pop-up
aficionados all around the world. In fact, according
to Haining, Meggendofer's books are some of the
most sought-after in the field of collecting children's
books. Meggendorfer's intricate pop-ups were always
graceful and usually humorous, adding meaning


Always Jolly, H. Grevel & Co., (1891)


to the rhymes and verses that accompanied his
illustrations. Although the genre of pop-up books
was fairly well established by Meggendorfer's time
(1847-1925), Meggendorfer can certainly be said to
be the father of pop-ups because of the fastidiousness
with which he drew and assembled his creations. In
many of his pictures, one single tab would control a
character's arms, eyes, mouth, and sometimes feet,
along with any other object in the illustration that
Meggendorfer thought should move. Because of the
complexity of his designs, Meggendorfer's books were
often fragile; overeager pudgy fingers could quickly
ruin his delicate work. Thus, in the introduction to his
book Always Jolly! (c1891, on display), Meggendorfer
included this friendly (and now quite famous)
admonition:
With this book, my own dear child,
Are Various pictures gay,
Their limbs they move with gestures wild,
As with them you do play.
But still they are of paper made,
And therefore, I advise,
That care and caution should be paid,
Lest woe and grief arise;
Both you and pictures then would cry
To see what harm is done,
And sigh would follow after sigh
Because you've spoilt your fun.

Specific details on the mechanics of Meggendorfer's
complex pop-ups can be found in The Genius of
Lothar Meggendorfer published by Random House
(1985).


The Speaking Picture Book 4

Meggendorfer's multifaceted designs were amazing,
but every bit as fascinating is the 19th century
invention of the "Speaking Picture Book" (c1893,
on display) The book roughly resembles a large
dictionary with nine tassels hanging from the side,
and each tassel produces a unique sound. Pulling any
one tassel activates the bellows inside the book, which
work much like the old Kratzenstein pipes (Spilhaus,
qtd in Wallace). The sounds correspond to the
pictures; pulling the first string will produce a "moo,"
which corresponds to the first picture in the book.
This ingenious book was originally published






in Nuremberg, Germany, by a company "unknown to
most experts" (Haining 136); unfortunately, the rarity
and delicacy of this book makes it difficult to find
copies. Few specimens have survived, and of those
that have fewer still are able to sound.

Raphael Tuck 4

Another German with a knack for printing unusual
books with refined techniques was Raphael Tuck.
In 1870, Tuck and his sons opened a publishing
company in London, producing puzzles, paper dolls,
and other novelty paper products for both German
and English consumers. Tuck's major contribution
to pop-up books came with the publication of Father
Tuck's 'Mechanical' Series. These books included a
wide range of movable parts, including panoramas,
pull tabs, peep-shows, and raised overlays. Tucks
Fun at the Circus (c1892, on display) is an example of
Tuck's raised overlay technique.

> Ernest Nister\E. P. Dutton 4

Like Tuck, Ernest Nister was a German marketing
to both German and English audiences. Nister's
publishing company was known for their sturdy
quality and unique movable books. One of the
mechanisms Nister's company is credited with having
invented is the dissolving picture, as seen in Fred E.
Weatherly's Touch and Go: A Book of Transformation
Pictures with Verses (c1890, on display). Working
much like a Venetian blind, the original picture on


I A JJJi


a page would be split into roughly five parts. When
the reader pulled the appropriate tab, a new image
(also in five sections) would slide out from under
the original picture and cover the original, creating
a new picture once all five sections were in place.
Nister used both horizontal and vertical dissolves, but
also eventually devised a fascinating technique that
allowed the pictures to dissolve circularly.

Through the company of E.P. Dutton, many of Nister's
books including The Children's Tableaux: A Novel
Colour Book with Pictures Arranged as Tableaux
(c1895, on display) were published and distributed
in America. Edward Payson Dutton was essentially
the American face of children's pop-up and movable
books in the late nineteenth century. Companies
such as Dean & Son and Ernest Nister were based
in London and with printing presses located in
Germany, America had very few
pop-up publishers of their own. Instead, E.P. Dutton
represented companies such as Ernest Nister,
promoting pop-ups in America. Touch and Go
was written by one of Ernest Nister's most popular
authors, F(rederick) E(dward) Weatherly. Originally
a barrister, Weatherly turned to writing poems for
children, "a skill he possibly developed reading to his
own three children" (Haining 45).


Thie Tweentieth Century

Unfortunately, the First World War abruptly ended
the importing and publication of toy books produced
in Germany, and so the genre of pop-up books in
America declined. However, by the 1930's there
were a few American companies that picked up
and continued the tradition of toy books, including
the Blue Ribbon Publishing Company and the
McLoughlin Brothers.

Blue Ribbon Books 4

Blue Ribbon, located in New York, worked in the
1930s to produce colorful pop-ups. Their mixture of
well-designed pop-ups and a partnership with Disney
proved serendipitous for their company (see The Pop-
Up Minnie Mouse [1933, on display]).


The Childrens Tableaux, E. Nister/E.P. Dutton. (1895)






Blue Ribbon was the first company to term their
toy books "pop-ups," and they, along with pop-up
illustrator and designer S. Louis Giraud, are partially
to credit for the renaissance of pop-ups in America
during the 1930s.

McLoughlin Brothers 4

Blue Ribbon was not the only company with pop-ups
on the brain; the McLoughlin Brothers introduced
The Jolly Jump-Ups in 1939. Illustrated by Geraldine
Clyne, the Jolly Jump-Ups were a family of eight who
explored themes of family life from the late 1930s
through the end of WWII. For example, some Jolly
Jump-Up titles are: The Jolly Jump-Ups on the Farm,
The Jolly Jump-Ups Vacation Trip (on display), and
The Jolly Jump-Ups and Their New House (the first
in the series, 1939). Many of the Jolly Jump-Up pop-
up books were constructed in "accordion" style (see
above).


Jolly Jump-Ups Vacation Trip, McLoughlin Bros., (1942)


Julian Wehr 4

Sculptor and illustrator Julian Wehr (1898-1970) was
the Meggendorfer of the 1940s. Although he preferred
to sculpt, Wehr's books grew out of his love for his
family, and his books sustained his family financially
during the years of the great Depression. Whereas
most previous pop-up books included movable tabs at


the bottom of the page, Wehr's were popular because
they included tabs on the sides of pages, allowing
his illustrated characters to have a broader range of
motion. Wehr also included multiple pull tabs on a
single page, producing a greater number of moving
pieces. Like Meggendorfer, Wehr's works are valued
highly among collectors and aficionados for their
complex animations and humorous tone. His pull-
tab book Animated Story Rhymes (1944, on display),
like many of his pop-up books, was based on the
nursery rhymes and fables that he told his children.
Paul Wehr, Julian's son, recently began republishing
his father's works; more information can be found at
http://www.wehranimations.com.


Kubasta 4

Voitech Kubasta was a popular pop-up artist in the
1960s. He began his career as an artist for "Artia,"
a company based in Czeckoslavakia and Italy
(publishing in London). Relying mostly on children's
literature and fairy tales as his inspiration, Kubasta
created large and complex pop-ups that, in many
cases, literally leap from the page. Several of his works
contain a single pop-up per page, revealing huge
ships (How Christopher Columbus Discovered America
[1961, on display]), dense jungles (Moko and Koko in
the Jungle [c1962]), and huge automobiles (Tip And
Top Build a Motor Car [1962], on display). Kubasta
also employed the volvelle on occasions (such as in
Christopher Columbus) and the "peep-show" (Der
Fliegande Kiffer).


How Christopher Columbus Discovered America by Voitech
Kubasta, 1961






> After Kubasta 4


Because of the immense popularity of Kubasta's books
during the 1960s, American publisher Waldo Hunt
sought to have Kubasta's works reprinted in the U.S.
Unfortunately, due to legal complications, Hunt was
unable to obtain the necessary permission to reprint.
Instead, in 1965 Hunt began "Graphics International,"
a company that produced pop-up books for Random
House Publishers. Hunt later began a company
known as ICI ("Intervisual Communications"), which
publish many of the most popular pop-ups of the past
few decades, including those by Jan Pienkowski
(Robot [1981], Haunted House [1979], on display).

Other artists, too, were inspired by Kubasta and
A wm


Haunted House, by Jan Pienkowski, 1979


sought to continue the pop-up tradition. Warja
Honegger-Lavater sought to continue the tradition
of the accordion book with her pop-up The Little
Red Riding Hood (1961, on display). Jan Pienkowski
and Jonathan Miller (The Human Body [1983], on
display) have also contributed to the genre of pop-
up books during the past thirty years, using pop-up
mechanisms to explore topics from robots and space
ships to the human body. It is interesting to note
that although pop-ups began their history with the
volvelle, which was used primarily for the sciences,
pop-ups since have rarely traveled outside the realm
of fairy tales, morality tales, and adventure stories.
A few rare exceptions include Kubasta's Columbus,
Jonathan Miller's The Human Body, and Sabuda's
America the Beautiful (2004,
on display).
The most recognized name in recent pop-up artistry


The Human Body, Jan Pienkowski and Jonathan Miller, 1983


is Robert Sabuda (b. 1965) who has authored over
45 books and is still going strong. Sabuda currently
works in New York with partner Matthew Reinhart,
and he has also worked with such names in children's
illustrating as Maurice Sendak (Mommy? [2006], on
display). More than just entertaining to children,
Sabuda's studio has produced works that appeal to
all ages of readers and all literary tastes and genres,
from the historical (Castle: Medieval Days and
Knights [2006] on display, with Kyle Olmon and Tracy
Sabin), to the archeological (Dinosaurs [2005] and
the Encyclopedia Prehistorica: Sharks and Other Sea
Monsters [2006]), and the fantastic (Alice's Adventures
in Wonderland: A Pop-Up Adaptation [2003]). Sabuda
has won numerous awards and


America the Beautiful, by Robert Sabuda, 2004






Resources


America the Beautiful, by Robert Sabuda, 2004


received many honors, including the honor award of
the Boston Globe/Horn Books Award in 1994 for
A Tree Place. He has also won the Meggendorfer Prize
from the Movable Book Society of America three
times.

Sabuda's 2004 publication America the Beautiful
utilizes white and silver paper to illustrate the lyrics
of the song "America the Beautiful" by Katherine Lee
Bates. His pop-up illustrations depict scenes from
all over the country, including Mount Rushmore,
the Golden Gate Bridge, and Mesa Verde. On the
final page a huge pop-up version of the Statue of
Liberty Sabuda added a surprise: a smaller book-
within-a-book that contains pop-up pictures of such
landmarks as the Twin Towers and the Liberty Bell
alongside other verses from "America the Beautiful."
The complex designs reminiscent of Meggendorfer
and simple yet powerful color scheme of this pop-up
book serve to highlight the beauty and long history of
the pop-up.

From 13th-century doctors' offices to 21st-century
children's nurseries, from Germany to America, from
simple revolving disks to complex moving figures
and scenes, movable books have "popped up" in
every era since the 1200s and continue to capture the
imagination of children and adults alike.


Haining, Peter. Movable Books: An Illustrated History
by Peter Haining. London: New English Library, 1979.

"Pop Goes the Page: Movable and Mechanical Books
from the Brenda Forman Collection." Brenda Forman
Collection. 2000. University of Virginia. 9 July 2008
< http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/popup/
theme.html>.

"Pop-Up and Movable Books." Gustine Courson
Weaver Collection. 2008. University of North Texas
Libraries. 4 July 2008 rarebooks/exhibits/popup2/introduction.htm>.

Wallace, Bill. The Speaking Picture Book; squeeze
toys that 'speak'." Weblog Entry. The Dead Media
Project. 16 July 2008 < http://www.deadmedia.org/
notes/5/050.html>.


Further Reading

Hiner, Mark. "A Short History of Pop-Ups." 2002. 16
July 2008 htm>.

Montanaro, Ann. "A Concise History of Pop-up
and Movable Books." Pop-Up, Peek, Push, Pull...:
An Exhibition of Movable Books and Ephemera from
the Collection of Geraldine Roberts Lebowitz. 2001.
Broward County Library's Bienes Center for the
Literary Arts. 16 July 2008 < http://www.broward.org/
library/bienes/lii13903.htm>.

Van Dyk, Stephen H. Rare Books. New York: Scala
Publishers, 2001.

Winningham, Laura. Pop-Up! Pop-Up!: Pop-Up Books:
Their history, how to collect them and how much
they're worth. Olga, WA: Whalestooth, 1998.


Text: Cari Keebaugh
Photos: Barbara Hood
















































Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature
Department of Special and Area Studies
http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/baldwin/baldwin.html
UF George A. Smathers
U A Libraries
UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA




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PAGE 1

Pop-up, Spin, Pull, Fold:Toy Books from the Baldwin Library September 2 October 31, 2008 Smathers Library (East) Exhibit Area, 2nd Floor George A. Smathers Libraries

PAGE 2

Acknowledgements Special thanks to: € Barbara Hood for all her work on the giant pop-up, the invitations, the brochure, the case labels, and for exhibit publicity; € e Howe Society for support of the reception and the Bechtel Professorship Fund for support of the program presenter, Kyle Olmon, paper engineer; € Cari Keebaugh for writing the text for the brochure; € John Freund for putting together the giant pop-up and for his video presentations; € Matthew Daley for lming, editing and producing the video; € Bill Hanssen and Trish Ruwell for printing and mounting the giant pop-up; € Michael Peyton, the Harn Museum, for exhibit lettering; € Lourdes Santamaria-Wheeler for help with the invitations.

PAGE 3

1 Early Pop-Ups and Movables e Volvelle Even before the birth of print culture, movable books were an integral part of society. e earliest movable book mechanism was the volvelle, a predecessor to slide charts. e invention of the volvelle is generally attributed to Majorcan poet and mystic Ramn Llull (c.1235-1316), who embedded volvelles into his philosophical treatises in order to illustrate his complex ideas. e movable chart was popular among academics, and quickly spread to other elds of study, including medicine, mysticism, fortune telling, and astronomy. Although it paved the way for future movable childrens books, the volvelle of the early 1300s rmly belonged to the realm of scholars and was not meant for childrens hands. For the next 400 years children would have virtually no books to call their own; the invention of what we today consider Childrens LiteratureŽ would not come about until the mid-1700 when the deprivation of childrens reading material would begin to be alleviated by, among others, author Robert Sayer who invented the harlequinade. Harlequinade/Metamorphoses e harlequinade, or turn-up book, was invented by Sayer circa 1765 and boasted a series of aps that changed the illustration accompanying a short text. e mechanics of the pages were quite ingenious; as Ann Montanaro describes them: e books were composed of single, printed sheets folded perpendicularly into four. Hinged at the top and bottom of each fold, the picture was cut through horizontally across the center to make two aps that could be opened up or down. When raised, the pages disclosed another hidden picture underneath. ese metamorphoses,Ž as Sayer himself dubbed them, were originally based on the antics of popular theater pantomimes, commonly called Harlequins, and the derivative term harlequinade stuck. Sayers brainchild was quickly assimilated by other authors, and by the early 1800s many stories had been adapted into harlequinades, including Metamorphosis, or, A transformation of Pictures: With Poetical Explanations, for the Amusement of Young Persons by Benjamin Sands

PAGE 4

2Metamorphosis, or, A transformation of Pictures: With Poetical Explanations, for the Amusement of Young Persons by Benjamin Sands (1807, on display). In Sands text, one can see a lion on the third page. If the reader li s the top and bottom aps, a new picture and new text will appear under each ap. e top portion instructs readers to drop the top ap, which then matches the upper and lower illustrations to create a gri n where there was once a lion (on top) or an eagle (underneath). Sayer was not the only author whose intended audience was children; the toy novelty rm S. & J. Fuller in London was no stranger to odd and revolutionary books. By the 1790s they had come up with an extraordinary new colored book that children could cut out and play with. Paper Dolls S. & J. Fuller began printing books of paper dolls in the 1790s, which were quite successful in the fashionconscious country of France. Between 1810 … 1816 S. & J. Fuller published books with morals told in verse, which appealed to a wide variety of child audiences. Little Fanny (1810), in particular, thrived a er publication; a total of ten books in the Little Fanny series were published between 1810-1812. Each book contained seven hand-colored gures, hats, and a headpiece that readers could mix and match as the story progressed. e History of Little Fanny (1810, on display) tells the tale of a little girl (Fanny) who runs away to the park with her maid a er her mother refuses her the outing. Fanny is robbed of her clothes and must work her way through various out ts (beggar girl, errand girl, etc.) until she attains clothes worthy of her station and can return home. In order to help the reader choose which out t ts the storyline at any given point, each mini-chapter (of two or three pages) o ers a suggestion of which out t to choose: for example, chapter seven in History of Little Fanny begins Fanny restored to her former station, modestly dressed in a coloured frock, with a book in her hand.Ž is description perfectly matches one of the seven out ts that comes with the book. A er the appropriate out t is described for the reader, the story continues. Although the books were popular in England and France, they were expensive for the common child because of their coloring and interactive quality, thus limiting the audience to children of upper class families. As Sayers metamorphosesŽ and Fullers paper dolls became very popular very quickly, new developments in movable book mechanics rapidly sprang up. e next achievement in the history of pop-ups was the inadvertent creation of Toilet Books in the early 1800s. Toilet Books Toilet books, developed by William Grimaldi, were popular during the 1820s. e inspiration for these books came from Grimaldis daughters dressing table: Grimaldi sketched several items on the table on pieces of paper, wrote a caption … usually a virtue … beneath each, folded the paper in half, and added a picture underneath the original. Meant merely as impromptu entertainment at a house party, Grimaldis books were an instant success with his guests and he quickly decided to publish his work. Grimaldis rst book, aptly named e Toilet (1823, on display), was rst published in 1821 and contains nine plates with movable aps. Under each plate is a caption (Modesty,Ž An Admirable Plume,Ž) and beside each plate is a short verse. Although Grimaldi followed his debut book with another text, A Suit of Armor for Youth (1824, on display), he never achieved the same level of success as he had with e e History of Little Fanny S. & J. Fuller, 1810.

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3Toilet Various replications of Grimaldis movable books were published in Ireland and America, but the popularity of the unfortunately named Toilet BooksŽ was short-lived in all three countries. The Mid-Nineteenth Century Dean and Son e company Dean & Son emerged in 1847 in London and has the distinction of being the oldest rm in London to have been continuously engaged in producing books for childrenŽ (Haining 21). Founder omas Dean was of the rst generation of printers to utilize the new German method of printing known as lithographyŽ (invented in Germany in 1798). eir exclusive attention to the child market paid o as their toy books are some of the most popular in the pop-up trade due to their unique mechanisms and print quality. In the 1840s, Dean began experimenting with another style of interactive book known as the transformational.Ž In Dame Wonders Transformations series, an image of a girl is printed on the last page in the book. Ev ery successive page has a di erent costume for the girl, and an oval is cut out just above the costumes shoulders. is way, when a reader turns the page, he will always see the girls head on whatever costume is pictured on any given page. Several of the Dame Wonders Transformations books were illustrated by Uncle Buncle,Ž a pseudonym for one of Deans best illustrators, Robert Edgar. Dean was also the architect of the rst true popupŽ books. Titled the New Scenic Books Deans 1856 series consisted of four books, beginning with Little Red Riding Hood (c1856, on display), and continuing with Robinson Crusoe Cinderella and Aladdin. ese books relied on three cut-out sections connected by a string or ribbon which folded at together when the book was closed. When a reader pulls the string, the panels stand up as a three-dimensional scene. e mechanics of the Scenic Books were most likely inspired by earlier peep-showŽ books (Haining), which folded out accordion style and were meant to be viewed through an eye-hole cut into the cover of the book. Deans adaptation of this particular pop-up style was an instant … and enduring … success in the world of pop-up books. Panoramas, or Accordion Books Equally popular as Deans three-dimensional pop-up books were the panorama books. Panoramas fold out accordion-style in order to connect a series of events or texts chronologically or linearly. As Haining notes, such a format was ideal for illustrating both everyday events and for retelling famous historical and dramatic tales. Because of their compatible format and popular content, panoramas are now one of the rarest types of pop-up books. One panorama on display, ABC (c1856, on display), is an alphabet primer. Each panel shows one example of a word that begins with a certain letter, along with an occupation that begins with the same letter. Each occupation Little Red Riding Hood, Dean and Son, (c1865) ABC, ( c1856)

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4is then described by a short verse. For example, the letter P shows a picture of a peach, and under that is a picture of a man. e verse begins P was a Parson, / And wore a black gownŽ and continues onto the next page, for O, which reads O was an Oyster-wench, / And went abut town.Ž e picture on this page is, appropriately, a woman. Above her is a picture of an ox. The Turn of the Century Lothar Meggendorfer Although Dean & Son would dominate the production of movable books for most of the nineteenth century, by the late 1800s many individual authors began to make an impact on the new market of toy books, as well. As the Germans were the rst to experiment with lithography and chromolithography, it makes sense that they would begin to emerge as the leaders in toy book production. As Montanaro notes,  e Germans developed a mastery of color printing in the second half of the 19th century and their equipment and techniques superbly reproduced the nest art work.Ž is mastery was not lost on the creative talents of pop-up legend Lothar Meggendorfer. Lothar Meggendorfers name is well known to pop-up a cionados all around the world. In fact, according to Haining, Meggendofers books are some of the most sought-a er in the eld of collecting childrens books. Meggendorfers intricate pop-ups were always graceful and usually humorous, adding meaning to the rhymes and verses that accompanied his illustrations. Although the genre of pop-up books was fairly well established by Meggendorfers time (1847-1925), Meggendorfer can certainly be said to be the father of pop-ups because of the fastidiousness with which he drew and assembled his creations. In many of his pictures, one single tab would control a characters arms, eyes, mouth, and sometimes feet, along with any other object in the illustration that Meggendorfer thought should move. Because of the complexity of his designs, Meggendorfers books were o en fragile; overeager pudgy ngers could quickly ruin his delicate work. us, in the introduction to his book Always Jolly! (c1891, on display), Meggendorfer included this friendly (and now quite famous) admonition: With this book, my own dear child, Are Various pictures gay, eir limbs they move with gestures wild, As with them you do play. But still they are of paper made, And therefore, I advise, at care and caution should be paid, Lest woe and grief arise; Both you and pictures then would cry To see what harm is done, And sigh would follow a er sigh Because youve spoilt your fun. Speci c details on the mechanics of Meggendorfers complex pop-ups can be found in e Genius of Lothar Meggendorfer published by Random House (1985). e Speaking Picture Book Meggendorfers multifaceted designs were amazing, but every bit as fascinating is the 19th century invention of the Speaking Picture BookŽ (c1893, on display) e book roughly resembles a large dictionary with nine tassels hanging from the side, and each tassel produces a unique sound. Pulling any one tassel activates the bellows inside the book, which work much like the old Kratzenstein pipes (Spilhaus, qtd in Wallace). e sounds correspond to the pictures; pulling the rst string will produce a moo,Ž which corresponds to the rst picture in the book. is ingenious book was originally published Always Jolly, H. Grevel & Co., (1891)

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5in Nuremberg, Germany, by a company unknown to most expertsŽ (Haining 136); unfortunately, the rarity and delicacy of this book makes it di cult to nd copies. Few specimens have survived, and of those that have fewer still are able to sound. Raphael Tuck Another German with a knack for printing unusual books with re ned techniques was Raphael Tuck. In 1870, Tuck and his sons opened a publishing company in London, producing puzzles, paper dolls, and other novelty paper products for both German and English consumers. Tucks major contribution to pop-up books came with the publication of Father Tucks Mechanical Series ese books included a wide range of movable parts, including panoramas, pull tabs, peep-shows, and raised overlays. Tucks Fun at the Circus (c1892, on display) is an example of Tucks raised overlay technique. Ernest Nister\E. P. Dutton Like Tuck, Ernest Nister was a German marketing to both German and English audiences. Nisters publishing company was known for their sturdy quality and unique movable books. One of the mechanisms Nisters company is credited with having invented is the dissolving picture, as seen in Fred E. Weatherlys Touch and Go: A Book of Transformation Pictures with Verses (c1890, on display). Working much like a Venetian blind, the original picture on a page would be split into roughly ve parts. When the reader pulled the appropriate tab, a new image (also in ve sections) would slide out from under the original picture and cover the original, creating a new picture once all ve sections were in place. Nister used both horizontal and vertical dissolves, but also eventually devised a fascinating technique that allowed the pictures to dissolve circularly. rough the company of E.P. Dutton, many of Nisters books … including e Childrens Tableaux: A Novel Colour Book with Pictures Arranged as Tableaux (c1895, on display) … were published and distributed in America. Edward Payson Dutton was essentially the American face of childrens pop-up and movable books in the late nineteenth century. Companies such as Dean & Son and Ernest Nister were based in London and with printing presses located in Germany, America had very few pop-up publishers of their own. Instead, E.P. Dutton represented companies such as Ernest Nister, promoting pop-ups in America. Touch and Go was written by one of Ernest Nisters most popular authors, F(rederick) E(dward) Weatherly. Originally a barrister, Weatherly turned to writing poems for children, a skill he possibly developed reading to his own three childrenŽ (Haining 45). The Twentieth Century Unfortunately, the First World War abruptly ended the importing and publication of toy books produced in Germany, and so the genre of pop-up books in America declined. However, by the 1930s there were a few American companies that picked up and continued the tradition of toy books, including the Blue Ribbon Publishing Company and the McLoughlin Brothers. Blue Ribbon Books Blue Ribbon, located in New York, worked in the 1930s to produce colorful pop-ups. eir mixture of well-designed pop-ups and a partnership with Disney proved serendipitous for th eir company (see e PopUp Minnie Mouse [1933, on display]). e Childrens Tableaux, E. Nister/E.P. Dutton, (1895)

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6Blue Ribbon was the rst company to term their toy books pop-ups,Ž and they, along with pop-up illustrator and designer S. Louis Giraud, are partially to credit for the renaissance of pop-ups in America during the 1930s. McLoughlin Brothers Blue Ribbon was not the only company with pop-ups on the brain; the McLoughlin Brothers introduced e Jolly Jump-Ups in 1939. Illustrated by Geraldine Clyne, the Jolly Jump-Ups were a family of eight who explored themes of family life from the late 1930s through the end of WWII. For example, some Jolly Jump-Up titles are: e Jolly Jump-Ups on the Farm, e Jolly Jump-Ups Vacation Trip (on display) and e Jolly Jump-Ups and eir New House (the rst in the series, 1939). Many of the Jolly Jump-Up popup books were constructed in accordionŽ style (see above). Julian Wehr Sculptor and illustrator Julian Wehr (1898-1970) was the Meggendorfer of the 1940s. Although he preferred to sculpt, Wehrs books grew out of his love for his family, and his books sustained his family nancially during the years of the great Depression. Whereas most previous pop-up books included movable tabs at the bottom of the page, Wehrs were popular because they included tabs on the sides of pages, allowing his illustrated characters to have a broader range of motion. Wehr also included multiple pull tabs on a single page, producing a greater number of moving pieces. Like Meggendorfer, Wehrs works are valued highly among collectors and a cionados for their complex animations and humorous tone. His pulltab book Animated Story Rhymes (1944, on display), like many of his pop-up books, was based on the nursery rhymes and fables that he told his children. Paul Wehr, Julians son, recently began republishing his fathers works; more information can be found at http://www.wehranimations.com. Kubasta Voitech Kubasta was a popular pop-up artist in the 1960s. He began his career as an artist for Artia,Ž a company based in Czeckoslavakia and Italy (publishing in London). Relying mostly on childrens literature and fairy tales as his inspiration, Kubasta created large and complex pop-ups that, in many cases, literally leap from the page. Several of his works contain a single pop-up per page, revealing huge ships ( How Christopher Columbus Discovered America [1961, on display]), dense jungles ( Moko and Koko in the Jungle [c1962]), and huge automobiles ( Tip And Top Build a Motor Car [1962], on display). Kubasta also employed the volvelle on occasions (such as in Christopher Columbus ) and the peep-showŽ ( Der Fliegande Ki er ). Jolly Jump-Ups Vacation Trip, McLoughlin Bros., (1942) How Christopher Columbus Discovered America by Voitech Kubasta, 1961

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7 A er Kubasta Because of the immense popularity of Kubastas books during the 1960s, American publisher Waldo Hunt sought to have Kubastas works reprinted in the U.S. Unfortunately, due to legal complications, Hunt was unable to obtain the necessary permission to reprint. Instead, in 1965 Hunt began Graphics International,Ž a company that produced pop-up books for Random House Publishers. Hunt later began a company known as ICI (Intervisual CommunicationsŽ), which publish many of the most popular pop-ups of the past few decades, including those by Jan Pienkowski ( Robot [1981], Haunted House [1979], on display). Other artists, too, were inspired by Kubasta and sought to continue the pop-up tradition. Warja Honegger-Lavater sought to continue the tradition of the accordion book with her pop-up e Little Red Riding Hood (1961, on display). Jan Pienkowski and Jonathan Miller ( e Human Body [1983], on display) have also contributed to the genre of popup books during the past thirty years, using pop-up mechanisms to explore topics from robots and space ships to the human body. It is interesting to note that although pop-ups began their history with the volvelle, which was used primarily for the sciences, pop-ups since have rarely traveled outside the realm of fairy tales, morality tales, and adventure stories. A few rare exceptions include Kubastas Columbus Jonathan Millers e Human Body and Sabudas America the Beautiful (2004, on display). e most recognized name in recent pop-up artistry is Robert Sabuda (b. 1965) who has authored over 45 books and is still going strong. Sabuda currently works in New York with partner Matthew Reinhart, and he has also worked with such names in childrens illustrating as Maurice Sendak ( Mommy? [2006], on display). More than just entertaining to children, Sabudas studio has produced works that appeal to all ages of readers and all literary tastes and genres, from the historical ( Castle: Medieval Days and Knights [2006] on display, with Kyle Olmon and Tracy Sabin), to the archeological ( Dinosaurs [2005] and the Encyclopedia Prehistorica: Sharks and Other Sea Monsters [2006]), and the fantastic ( Alices Adventures in Wonderland: A Pop-Up Adaptation [2003]). Sabuda has won numerous awards and ,, p y Haunted House by Jan Pienkowski, 1979 e Human Body, Jan Pienkowski and Jonathan Miller, 1983 America the Beautiful, by Robert Sabuda, 2004

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8received many honors, including the honor award of the Boston Globe/Horn Books Award in 1994 for A Tree Place He has also won the Meggendorfer Prize from the Movable Book Society of America three times. Sabudas 2004 publication America the Beautiful utilizes white and silver paper to illustrate the lyrics of the song America the BeautifulŽ by Katherine Lee Bates. His pop-up illustrations depict scenes from all over the country, including Mount Rushmore, the Golden Gate Bridge, and Mesa Verde. On the nal page … a huge pop-up version of the Statue of Liberty … Sabuda added a surprise: a smaller bookwithin-a-book that contains pop-up pictures of such landmarks as the Twin Towers and the Liberty Bell alongside other verses from America the Beautiful.Ž e complex designs reminiscent of Meggendorfer and simple yet powerful color scheme of this pop-up book serve to highlight the beauty and long history of the pop-up. From 13th-century doctors o ces to 21st-century childrens nurseries, from Germany to America, from simple revolving disks to complex moving gures and scenes, movable books have popped upŽ in every era since the 1200s and continue to capture the imagination of children and adults alike. Resources Haining, Peter. Movable Books: An Illustrated History by Peter Haining London: New English Library, 1979. Pop Goes the Page: Movable and Mechanical Books from the Brenda Forman Collection.Ž Brenda Forman Collection 2000. University of Virginia. 9 July 2008 < http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/popup/ theme.html>. Pop-Up and Movable Books.Ž Gustine Courson Weaver Collection. 2008. University of North Texas Libraries. 4 July 2008 . Wallace, Bill.  e Speaking Picture Book; squeeze toys that speak.Ž Weblog Entry. e Dead Media Project. 16 July 2008 < http://www.deadmedia.org/ notes/5/050.html>. Further Reading Hiner, Mark. A Short History of Pop-Ups.Ž 2002. 16 July 2008 . Montanaro, Ann. A Concise History of Pop-up and Movable Books.Ž Pop-Up, Peek, Push, Pullƒ: An Exhibition of Movable Books and Ephemera from the Collection of Geraldine Roberts Lebowitz 2001. Broward County Librarys Bienes Center for the Literary Arts. 16 July 2008 < http://www.broward.org/ library/bienes/lii13903.htm>. Van Dyk, Stephen H. Rare Books New York: Scala Publishers, 2001. Winningham, Laura. Pop-Up! Pop-Up!: Pop-Up Books: eir history, how to collect them and how much theyre worth Olga, WA: Whalestooth, 1998. America the Beautiful, by Robert Sabuda, 2004 Text: Cari Keebaugh Photos: Barbara Hood

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Baldwin Library of Historical Childrens Literature Department of Special and Area Studies http://web.u ib.u .edu/spec/baldwin/baldwin.html