Effect of daily orchestral instruction of sixth-grade beginning orchestra students on music aptitude scores

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Title:
Effect of daily orchestral instruction of sixth-grade beginning orchestra students on music aptitude scores
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Creator:
Zeng, Katherine G. ( Dissertant )
Robinson, Russell L. ( Thesis advisor )
dos Santos, Silvio ( Reviewer )
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2010

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of daily orchestral instruction on music aptitude scores of sixth-grade beginning orchestra students. The study was guided by the following questions: Does extra, daily music instruction over the course of two months affect the music aptitude scores of sixth grade students? Will music aptitude change due to history in the control group students? The study compared Music Aptitude Profile scores of all beginning sixth-grade orchestra students in the researcher's class, as well as selected sixth-grade students not in the orchestra or any other music performance-based class and was conducted over the course of the first twelve weeks of the 2010-2011 school year. All students participated in a preliminary survey to collect individual music education experience and a pre- and post-test Music Aptitude Profile to attain score data. Data was then compared among individual student pre-and post-test scores and between orchestra and non-orchestra students to determine potential change due to orchestral instruction. Results indicated significant correlations between certain music aptitude subtest and composite scores of the Experimental group and an increase in mean scores of both the Experimental and Control groups. How much of an effect orchestral instruction has on music aptitude scores is inconclusive from this study. The researcher plans to continue this study over a longer period of time, track results of the same groups of students, and compare them to this study's pre- and post-MAP scores.
General Note:
Music Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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Author retains all rights.
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AA00000314:00001


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THE EFFECT OF DAILY ORCHESTRAL INSTRUCTION
OF SIXTH-GRADE BEGINNING ORCHESTRA STUDENTS
ON MUSIC APTITUDE SCORES
















By

KATHERINE G. ZENG


SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE

RUSSELL L. ROBINSON, CHAIR

SILVIO DOS SANTOS, MEMBER







A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF MUSIC

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010

































2010 Katherine G. Zeng









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thank you to the 2009-2010 summer masters of music education faculty and staff for

your dedication to this program and to my colleagues for your support and many memories from

the past two summers. Thank you to my family who instilled and nurtured in me a love of

music, for the countless trips to music lessons, and for creating opportunities for success in all

avenues in which I dared to venture. Finally, thank you to Hanif for your encouragement in

beginning this program in the first place and your continual support of all my endeavors.










TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ............................................................................................................ 3

LIST O F TA B LE S ......................................................................................................... 6

LIST OF DEFINITIONS ....................................... .. .... ..............7

A B STR A C T ......... .. ............................... ... ......................................................................... 8

CHAPTER

1. IN T R O D U C T IO N ..................................................................... ................. .. ............ 10

Problem of the Study.................. .................. .................. ............. .......... 10
Significance of the Study ......... ........................... ............ ........ ........... 11
Purpose of the Study ................. .... ........................ .. 12
D elim itatio n s .................................................................. 12

2. R EV IEW O F LITER A TU RE ............................................................... ......................... 13

Intro du action .................................................................. 13
Philosophical R ationale............................................................... .. .......... .. .............. 13
T theoretical R rationale .... ................................... ...................................... .. . ............ 14
R research Stu dies ........................................................... ........ ...... 15

3. METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES ...................................................... ................. 17

In tro d u ctio n .................................................................. 17
P a rtic ip a n ts ........................ ........................................................................................................ 1 7
D ata C ollection.............................. .............. ...... 17
D ata A n aly sis ........................................................ ........ ...... 19
Reliability and V validity Procedures ........................................ 19

4. RESULTS ........................................................................... 21

Pre- and Post-MAP Results of the Experimental Group ....... ............ ........... 21
Pre- and Post-MAP Results of the Control Group.......................... ................ 22
Comparing Experimental and Control Group Pre- and Post-MAP Scores .......................... 23
S u rv ey R e su lts ................................ ........................................................ 2 4







4









5. D ISC U SSIO N .......... .......... ........................................... 25

Intro du action ............. ........ ............................. ....................... 2 5
R e su lts ......... .......... ............................. ....................... 2 5
C o n clu sio n ................................. ................................. 2 6

APPENDIX

A PRE- SURVEY SHEET ................ ......... ..... .............. 27

B POST- SURVEY SHEET ................ ......... ... .............. 28

C UF IRB PROTOCOL LETTER OF APPROVAL ........................................................29

L IS T O F R E F E R E N C E S ......................................................................................................... 30

B IO GRA PH ICA L SK ETCH .......................................................................................... ....... 32









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

Table 1 Raw Score Means Increases Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the
ExperimentalGroup................ ........... ............ ........ .... .... 19

Table 2 T-Test Comparison Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the
E xp erim ental G roup ........... ........................... ............................. 19

Table 3 Paired Samples Correlations Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the
Experimental Group ............ ................ ............................. ...20

Table 4 Raw Score Means Increases Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the
Control Group ... ... ... ... .. ......... .. ... ... .... .. .. .. ......... ....... ........... ..... .... 20

Table 5 T-Test Comparison Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the
Control Group.................................................... ....... ......... 20

Table 6 Paired Samples Correlations Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the
Control Group ... ............ .. ...... .............................................. .. ... ... ... ... 21

Table 7 Cumulative Raw Score Means ofPre- and Post-MAP.....................................21

Table 8 Analysis of Variance of MAP Scores as a Function of Orchestral Instruction...........22









LIST OF DEFINITIONS

Audiation "the foundation of music aptitude is the ability to hear and to comprehend
music for which the sound is not physically present (as in recall), is no
longer physically present (as in listening,), or may never have been
physically present (as in creativity and improvisation)" (Gordon, 1995).

History internal invalidity from students taking the same test as a pre-/post-test as
they would have learned from the pre-test

Music aptitude "a measure of a student's potential to learn music" (Gordon, 1986).

Music achievement "a measure of what a student has already learned in music" (Gordon,
1986).

Independent Variable "a variable whose value determines the value of other variables"
(American Heritage Science Dictionary, 2002)

Dependent Variable "a variable whose value is determined by the value of an independent
variable" (American Heritage Science Dictionary, 2002)









Summary of Project Option in Lieu of Thesis
Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Master of Music

THE EFFECT OF DAILY ORCHESTRAL INSTRUCTION
OF SIXTH-GRADE BEGINNING ORCHESTRA STUDENTS
ON MUSIC APTITUDE

By

Katherine G. Zeng

December 2010

Chair: Russell L. Robinson
Member: Silvio dos Santos
Major: Master of Music

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of daily orchestral instruction on music

aptitude scores of sixth-grade beginning orchestra students. The study was guided by the

following questions: Does extra, daily music instruction over the course of two months affect the

music aptitude scores of sixth grade students? Will music aptitude change due to history in the

control group students? The study compared Music Aptitude Profile scores of all beginning

sixth-grade orchestra students in the researcher's class, as well as selected sixth-grade students

not in the orchestra or any other music performance-based class and was conducted over the

course of the first twelve weeks of the 2010-2011 school year. All students participated in a

preliminary survey to collect individual music education experience and a pre- and post-test

Music Aptitude Profile to attain score data. Data was then compared among individual student

pre- and post-test scores and between orchestra and non-orchestra students to determine potential

change due to orchestral instruction. Results indicated significant correlations between certain

music aptitude subtest and composite scores of the Experimental group and an increase in mean

scores of both the Experimental and Control groups. How much of an effect orchestral









instruction has on music aptitude scores is inconclusive from this study. The researcher plans to

continue this study over a longer period of time, track results of the same groups of students, and

compare them to this study's pre- and post-MAP scores.









CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

The link, if there is one, between musical involvement and both music and academic

achievement has been a heated debate for years and "will continue to attract the attention of

researchers in the future (Abeles, Hoffer & Klotman, 1995). Studies are constantly done to try to

"prove" that playing a musical instrument or singing in a choir (of a certain level) will make

people smarter in their academic life. Though results are still inconclusive at this point in time,

many educators resolve that there are commonalities between music achievement and academic

achievement (Froseth, 1974; Radocy & Boyle, 1988). With the rise of emphasis placed on

standardized test scores and with continually waning school budgets; however, many music

programs are seeing cutbacks, or are cut altogether from the public schools. In the spring of

2009, a central Florida middle school decided to cut the orchestra program from its curriculum;

fortunately, after enough parental outcries the program was reinstated later that summer.

Problem of the Study

In many cases, students entering middle school in the sixth grade have had little-to-no

music education in their elementary school years, since many music programs have been cut

from the curriculum. This fact poses a threat to the middle and high school ensemble programs,

undergraduate music majors, new music educators, and performers, deeply impacting the field of

music in America today.

A large body of research studies pioneered by the prolific Edwin Gordon is rooted in

assessing music aptitude and relating it to child development at various ages. According to

Gordon's research children are born with a level of music aptitude that is in a developmental

stage until approximately age nine. The level of exposure to and involvement in musical

activities can significantly affect that music aptitude of children prior to age nine. After age









nine, Gordon says, children's music aptitude stabilizes and can no longer be significantly

affected (Gordon, 1967, 1970, 1986, 1995).

Music aptitude is similar to Intelligence Quotient: just as a person's IQ reveals potential

to succeed academically, so, too, does one's music aptitude reveal potential to succeed

musically; however, in both cases, potential may not translate to achievement. A student with an

above-average IQ must still be taught basic mathematic functions in order to gain competence

and succeed in mathematics. Without training, the potential may lay dormant and the child could

end up unfulfilled in an area where s/he could have excelled. Likewise, a student with an above-

average music aptitude must be taught basic music skills in order to gain competence and

succeed in music as well as academics if you are one who subscribes to the theory of the

positive correlation between music achievement and academic achievement. Without training in

music skills, students with above-average music aptitude could have untapped potential and, in

turn, music (or academic) achievement may be unrealized.

Significance of the Study

Children, prior to the age of nine, must be exposed to music as much as possible, giving

the child the utmost advantage to increase music aptitude while still in the developmental stage.

Schools that cut elementary music programs from their education curriculum hinder their

students' music aptitude and rely on parental guidance and other outside sources to develop the

child's potential for success in their district's middle and high school ensemble programs and

music in general. One who believes music achievement and academic achievement are related

would also argue that the school's failure to provide musical experiences to students could hinder

their chances of success in the academia. Though students are typically three years past the

developmental music aptitude stage by grade six (middle school), in many cases Beginning









Orchestra is their introduction to music education as a daily curriculum. If daily music

instruction in Beginning Orchestra can increase music aptitude in grade six, perhaps public

middle schools would be more inclined to keep their music ensemble programs. If a positive

connection does exist between music achievement and academic achievement, music aptitude

can play an important role in students' academic achievement and the school's overall success.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of daily orchestral instruction on

music aptitude scores of sixth-grade beginning orchestra students. This study was guided by the

following questions:

Does extra, daily music instruction over the course of two months affect the music

aptitude scores of sixth grade students?

What effect did history have on the results of this study?

Delimitations

The following was not accounted for in this study: Gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic

background of the students participating in the study.









CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Introduction

The review of literature begins with philosophical and theoretical views of music

education as they pertain to the two-month daily orchestral instruction aspect of this study. The

philosophical rationale relays the three main philosophical approaches to education and includes

the ideals of Lowell Mason and John Dewey. The theoretical rationale reviews three learning

domains. Research studies include both relative and supportive cases to this study.

Philosophical Rationale

Philosophical rationales have a special importance to educators. Teachers' philosophies

drive their approaches to education in the first place: without knowing why a subject is

important, a teacher will not implement effective teaching practices, nor develop an advocacy for

the subject both of which become quickly apparent to students in the classroom. The three

philosophical schools of thought include Rationalism, Empiricism, and Pragmaticism. The

author favors a combination of the Empiric and Pragmatic philosophies of education, as together

they focus on practical and realistic (Empiric) goals, as well as a "guide on the side," student-

based education in which students are taught how to learn (Pragmatic) (Abeles, Hoffer &

Klotman, 1995). Once a student knows how to learn, the halls of academia is his/hers to

decorate. In 1861, the "father of music education," Lowell Mason, championed Pragmatic

approaches to education, saying, "the pupil knows not because his teacher or anyone else has

told him, and not because he had learned from a book, but because he has heard tones produced

by others.... and had himself also produced them" (p. 104, Keene, 1982). Likewise, John Dewey

demonstrated "child-centered" education, whereby the "interests of the children determined the

curriculum" (Shehan, 1986).









Theoretical Rationale

In this study, where the resulting music aptitude scores could be affected by curriculum

implementation of the teacher, it is beneficial to the educator to know the theoretical approaches

to listening to and learning about music. The three viewpoints of listening to music are

Referentialism, Expressionism, and Formalism. Referentialists educate students on musical

stimulus and non-musical referent, Expressionists teach students how to be sensitive to the flow

of music, and Formalists isolate and emphasize the basic elements of the music (Abeles, Hoffer

& Klotman, 1995). The author will use a blend of Expressionist and Formalist views in the

curriculum design.

Educational objects and implementation of the curriculum must coincide with how

students learn. Three domains exist according to the varying types of learning. The first domain

is the cognitive domain, which centers on "information and understanding" (Hoffer, 2000). In

this domain lies Benjamin Bloom's famous Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, in which

multiple steps of learning occur, each step becoming increasingly more complex and

comprehensive of knowledge. The second domain is the affective domain, which centers on

feelings towards the subject in this case, music. Bloom also aided in creating a taxonomy for

this domain where, instead of each step becoming more intellectually demanding, each step

required an increasing commitment. The final domain is the psychomotor domain, having more

to do with the physical aspect of music improvising, performing, etc. than the previous two

domains (Marzano, 2007). Shinichi Suzuki's style of teaching initiates with his students

operating primarily in this psychomotor domain. One of Suzuki's major theories is that it is best

to teach from a "rote-before-note" approach, meaning the students would learn to play correct

pitches with accurate intonation by listening to the piece repeatedly and imitating the sound,









rather than learning the printed music notes on the page and reading them one by one. Educators

need to be aware that the learning styles of their students are always different from each other

and should, therefore, be provided information in a way conducive to each child's individual

learning style. This means that teachers will need to rephrase and present information multiple

times, in varying manners, to appeal to most students in the class. In this study, all three types of

learning will need to be addressed in each lesson to best ensure students are receiving the correct

information.

Research Studies

Gordon's Music Aptitude Profile was first published in 1965 as an assessment of tonal

audiation, rhythm audiation, and expressive/aesthetic audiation, the main elements of music

aptitude. According to Gordon (1995), "the MAP has one major purpose: to act as an objective

aid in the evaluation of students' music aptitudes so that the teacher can better provide for all

students' individual musical needs.... When employed with judgment and wisdom, test scores on

the MAP can be used with confidence for the following purposes:

1. to encourage students with high music aptitude to participate in music activities

2. to adapt music instruction to meet the individual needs of students

3. to formulate educational plans in music

4. to evaluate the music aptitudes of groups of students

5. to provide parents with objective information"

Gordon began a three-year longitudinal predictive validity study on the MAP in 1963 and

concluded from this study that musical training had no significant effect on music aptitude score.

One main use of the MAP is predicting student music achievement. In 1966, Gordon

conducted another study to determine music achievement of students "when their teachers









possess and use knowledge regarding their individual musical strengths and weaknesses" that

is, when the teacher already knows their individual MAP scores. Results indicated that "when

one of two groups of students similar in levels of musical aptitude is taught by a teacher

possessing foreknowledge of each student's musical aptitudes, it is possible for this teacher to

take advantage of this knowledge to increase mean instrumental music achievement" (Gordon,

1970). A similar study by James Froseth concluding in 1967 also resulted in an increase of

student achievement when the teacher knew of the MAP scores; however, Froseth warned that

though the increase was statistically significant, "it was comparatively small" (Froseth, 1971).

This study was constructed similar to Gordon's original validity study, with the following

differences: five lessons per week over two months vs. the original minimum of one lesson per

week over three school years; participants group by grade-level, not music aptitude; group

lessons using orchestra instruments instead of band instruments. This study was designed to

determine if the implementation of these changes impacts student music aptitude scores.









CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES

Introduction

This quasi-experimental action-research study was based on pre-/post-test, non-

equivalent group design with a close-ended questionnaire. Student participation was voluntary.

The study began in September 2010 and concluded in November of the same year.

Participants

Twenty seven male and female sixth grade students from the researcher's school

participated in this study provided they completed a short survey determining his/her current

level of involvement in musical activities. The experimental group, chosen by nonrandom

purposive sampling of all sixth-grade students enrolled in the beginning orchestra consisted of

eight students who never played a string instrument and only received music instruction in their

elementary-level general music classrooms. The control group was chosen through purposive

random selection (described in more detail below). The sampling frame for this control group

included any sixth-grade student at the school who was in a class with a teacher who gave prior

approval who was not involved in one of the three music areas of orchestra, band, and chorus,

nor extracurricular music activities, such as private/group lessons. Seventeen students were

selected for inclusion in the control group.

Data Collection

The independent variable was the presence or absence of music instruction, specifically,

string orchestra instruction. The dependent variable was the Music Aptitude Profile score. The

mediating variable was the amount of time each student spends on musical activities outside of

school.









Data was collected in September and November of 2010 and consisted of pre- and post-

test Music Aptitude Profile scores and pre- and post-questionnaires. Collection took place at the

author's school in central Florida.

Permission was obtained from cooperating teachers to pull sixth-grade students from

their class two times over the course of this study. From those participating classes, sixth-grade

students completed a questionnaire on their level of involvement in music activities. Those

students who fit the sample frame described above served as the population from which to

randomly sample control-group participants. Sixth-grade students in the beginning orchestra

class were given the same music involvement questionnaire and those students who qualified

participated as the experimental group.

Students in the experimental group were given Edwin Gordon's entire Music Aptitude

Profile test during the week of September 13, prior to much music instruction, then given the

same test again in November, following music instruction five days a week over the course of

two months. Students in the control group were given the Melody and Meter subtests of the

MAP pretest/posttest on the same days as the experimental group, in the same classroom.

(According to Gordon, "if there is not enough time to administer all of the tests, or if an

extensive diagnosis is not necessary, then the Melody and Meter subtests may be used to

measure students' overall music aptitude" (1986).) The MAP was used to measure students'

music aptitude as it is part of a highly regarded series of music aptitude tests and, according to

Gordon, is the appropriate level for stabilized music aptitude (above ages nine or ten). This test

can be obtained from nearly all university music libraries or through GIA Publications, Inc.

Between September and November, the beginning orchestra class (which consists of the

experimental group) received daily orchestral instruction for 47 minutes a day, five days a week









from one instructor. The control group returned to their original non-music class and received no

music instruction.

In November, the MAP test was again administered, this time as the post-test. After the

post-test in November, students completed a questionnaire describing their level of musical

involvement over the course of the study. Answers from this questionnaire determined students'

final eligibility for participation.

Data Analysis

Student test answer-sheets were scored against the given MAP template to produce the

raw score. Scores from both groups' pre-tests and post-tests were statistically analyzed through

the SPSS program using mean raw scores, analysis of variance, and planned comparisons

between the groups.

Reliability and Validity Procedures

Extraneous variables were controlled in this study. First, the author was the sole

instructor giving the daily music instruction to the beginning orchestra, controlling for variance

in instructor style/bias/popularity according to students. Second, only one method book was

followed as a supplement to daily lessons to control for potential variance of aptitude scores due

to different method books. Third, only one music aptitude instrument was used the Music

Aptitude Profile to control for variance among scores of different music aptitude tests. Fourth,

the instrumentation and scoring used for this music aptitude test is completely objective, leaving

no room for scoring bias. Fifth, the author monitored all students as they took the pre-test/post-

test to discourage any student from stealing an answer from a peer's paper. If such an event

occurred, that student's scores became invalid to the study, as they no longer were accurate

representations of that student's music aptitude, as measured by the MAP. The pre-test/post-test









control group design, as well as the simultaneous testing of both the experimental and control

groups and statistical analysis of gathered data provided reliability to this study.









CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS

Pre- and Post-MAP Results of the Experimental Group

Raw score means of the Experimental group scores increased in various subtests between

the pre- and post-MAP (Table 1). A paired-samples t-test comparison of these scores revealed

that only the RI: Tempo subtest was significant at thep<.05 level, p=.023 (Table 2). A paired-

samples correlation of the pre- and post-MAP scores of the Experimental group reveals

significant correlations at both thep<.05 andp<.01 levels (Table 3). T: Tonal Imagery

correlation between pre- and post- scores was .894 (p=.003), RI: Tempo correlation was .790

(p=.02), R: Rhythmic Imagery correlation was .838 (p=.009), and C: Composite correlation was

.802 (p=.017).

Table 1. Raw Score Means Increases Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the Experimental
Group
Pre- Post-
T2: Harmony 43.500 46.000
T: Tonal Imagery 30.875 31.750
R1: Tempo 48.875 54.250
R: Rhythmic Imagery 31.625 32.375
S2: Balance 43.750 44.125


Table 2. T-Test Comparison Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the Experimental Group
t df Sig. (2-tailed) (p)
T1: Melody 1 vs. 2 .325 7 .754
T2: Harmony 1 vs. 2 -0.793 7 .454
T: Tonal Imagery 1 vs. 2 -1.369 7 .213
R1: Tempo 1 vs. 2 -2.889 7 .023*
R2: Meter 1 vs. 2 1.125 7 .298
R: Rhythmic Imagery 1 vs. 2 -0.655 7 .534
S1: Phrasing 1 vs. 2 .927 7 .385
S2: Balance 1 vs. 2 -0.181 7 .861
S3: Style 1 vs. 2 1.135 7 .294
S: Musical Sensitivity 1 vs. 2 1.482 7 .182
C: Composite 1 vs. 2 .741 7 .483
*P<.05









Table 3. Paired Samples Correlations Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the
Experimental Group (N=8)
Correlation Sig. (p)
T1: Melody 1 vs. 2 .563 .146
T2: Harmony 1 vs. 2 .516 .190
T: Tonal Imagery 1 vs. 2 .894 .003**
R1: Tempo 1 vs. 2 .790 .020*
R2: Meter 1 vs. 2 .421 .299
R: Rhythmic Imagery 1 vs. 2 .838 .009**
S1: Phrasing 1 vs. 2 .354 .390
S2: Balance 1 vs. 2 .641 .087
S3: Style 1 vs. 2 -.505 .202
S: Musical Sensitivity 1 vs. 2 .512 .195
C: Composite 1 vs. 2 .802 .017*
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level.
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level.


Pre- and Post-MAP Results of the Control Group

Raw score means of the Control group scores increased in both the Tonal and Rhythmic

subtests and the Composite between the pre- and post-MAP (Table 4). A paired-samples t-test

comparison of these scores revealed no significance between scores (Table 5). A paired-samples

correlation of the pre- and post-MAP scores of the Control group reveals significant correlations

at thep<.01 levels (Table 6). R2: Meter correlation between pre- and post- scores was .787

(p=.000) and C: Composite correlation was .684 (p=.002).

Table 4. Raw Score Means Increases Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the Control
Group
Pre- Post-
Tl: Melody 47.941 50.941
R2: Meter 41.000 44.701
C: Composite 44.701 48.118

Table 5. T-Test Comparison Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the Control Group
t df Sig. (2-tailed) (p)
TI: Melody 1 vs. 2 -1.131 16 .275
R2: Meter 1 vs. 2 -1.955 16 .068
C: Composite 1 vs. 2 -1.698 16 .109









Table 6. Paired Samples Correlations Between Pre- and Post-MAP Scores of the Control
Group (N=1 7)
Correlation Sig. (p)
TI: Melody 1 vs. 2 .463 .061
R2: Meter 1 vs. 2 .787 .000*
C: Composite 1 vs. 2 .684 .002*
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level.


Comparing Experimental and Control Group Pre- and Post-MAP Scores

All cumulative raw score means of both groups increased in all subtests and composite

scores except for the S1: Phrasing, S3: Style, and S: Musical Sensitivity (taken solely by the

Experimental group) which saw decreases in mean scores (Table 7). An Analysis of Variance of

pre- and post-MAP scores as a function of orchestral instruction was conducted using the Melody

and Meter subtests, as these were the only two subtests administered to the Control group, as

well as the composite score. Neither subtest revealed significance between scores; however,

both the pre- and post- Composite scores showed significance at thep<.01 level (Table 8). The

pre- Composite score was significant atp=.000 and the post- Composite score was significant at

thep=.001 level.


Table 7. Cumulative Raw Score Means of Pre- and Post-MAP
Pre- Post-
Tl: Melody 48.400 50.200
T2: Harmony 43.500 46.000
T: Tonal Imagery 42.480 44.800
R1: Tempo 48.875 54.250
R2: Meter 42.680 44.120
R: Rhythmic Imagery 38.000 40.760
Sl: Phrasing 41.125 38.250
S2: Balance 43.750 44.125
S3: Style 47.750 43.250
S: Musical Sensitivity 66.500 62.625
C: Composite 51.080 53.000









Table 8. Analysis of Variance of MAP Scores as a Function of Orchestral Instruction
df F Si. (p)
Tl: Melody 1 24 .122 .730
Tl: Melody 2 24 .314 .581
R2: Meter 1 24 1.442 .242
R2: Meter 2 24 .149 .703
C: Composite 1 24 26.785 .000*
C: Composite 2 24 13.767 .001*
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level.


Survey Results

Pre- survey results revealed eight students eligible for inclusion in the Experimental

group and eighteen students eligible for inclusion in the Control group. Post- survey results

revealed one student from the Control group began private instrumental lessons since the start of

the study, so that student's scores became ineligible for inclusion in the study. All eight

Experimental group students' scores remained eligible for inclusion in the study.









CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION

Introduction

The study began with a survey of the researcher's beginning orchestra class for eligible

sixth-grade students to participate in the study as the Experimental group. Principal and

colleague permission was obtained to survey sixth-grade students eligible to participate as the

Control group. Once both groups were established, the Music Aptitude Profile was given to both

groups as a pre-test. Over the next two months, the Experimental group students continued in

their regular beginning orchestra class while the Control group students returned to their regular

non-music class. The post- survey was then given to both groups as a means of controlling

extraneous variables in this case, outside music instruction and revealed one student

ineligible to continue in the study. The rest of the students took the MAP once again as a post-

test and data results were established as to whether or not orchestral music instruction changed

student MAP scores.

Results

Though significant correlations occurred within specific subtests mean scores and the

mean Composite scores of the Experimental group, not all individual scores saw consistent

increases after two months of orchestral instruction. Both the Experimental and Control group

mean scores increased from the pre-MAP to post-MAP. This suggests that perhaps orchestral

instruction was not solely responsible for the increase, as the Control group received no music

instruction, but that history may also have affected scores. Prior to taking the pre-MAP, students

were unaware of the format and length of the test. Students' post-MAP experience was,

therefore, approached with a prior understanding of format, what was being asked of them, how

to listen to the recordings, and the length and amount of attention required to complete the test.









Conclusion

Studies and debates will continue regarding correlations between music aptitude and

achievement and academic achievement. Gordon has found that music aptitude develops in

children and can increase from outside musical stimulus until approximately age nine. Howard

Gardner presents Musical Intelligence as one of his seven intelligence in his theory of multiple

intelligence. Similar to Gordon's studies in developing music aptitude prior to age nine,

Gardner believes that musical intelligence may develop in early years (1983). He also "suggests

that different musical roles such as composing, listening, or performing may require different

types of different levels of musical intelligence (Abeles, Hoffer & Klotman, 1995). Without

training, students with above-average music aptitude may never reach their full musical

potential.

Daily orchestral instruction over the course of two months does affect certain aspects of

music aptitude mean scores of sixth grade students; however, prior knowledge of the music

aptitude test may also increase scores. Not all scores of the orchestral students increased in all

subtests, showing an inconsistency over two months of instruction. How much of an effect

orchestral instruction has on music aptitude scores is inconclusive from this study. Results of

this study are not generalizable due to the small participant population. The researcher plans to

continue this study over a longer period of time, track results of the same groups of students, and

compare them to this study's pre- and post-MAP scores.








APPENDIX A
PRE- SURVEY SHEET



Pre-Questionnaire


Name (please print neatly):


1. Are you currently enrolled in the beginning orchestra?


Circle one:


Yes


No


2. Have you ever played an instrument before in a band, orchestra, or private
lessons?


Circle one:


Yes








APPENDIX B
POST- SURVEY SHEET



Post-Questionnaire


Name (please print neatly):


1. Are you currently enrolled in the beginning orchestra?


Circle one:


Yes


No


2. In the past 3 months, have you played an instrument in a band, orchestra (other
than our beginning orchestra), or private lessons?


Circle one:


Yes









APPENDIX C
UF IRB PROTOCOL LETTER OF APPROVAL




Gainesville, FI32611-225
UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA 352-392-0433 (Phone)
352-392-9234 (Fax)
irb2@ufl.edu




July 27, 2010


TO: Katherine G. Zeng
2001 Virginia Drive
Orlando, FL 32803

FROM: Ira S. Fischler, PhD; Chai
University of Florida
Institutional Review Board 02

SUBJECT: Exemption of Protocol #2010-U-685
The Effect of Daily Orchestral Instruction on Music Aptitude Scores in Sixt
Grade Beginning Orchestra Students

SPONSOR: None

The Board has classified your protocol as exempt based on category:

45 CFR 46.101(b) (1) Research conducted in established or commonly
accepted educational settings, involving normal educational practices,
such as (i) research on regular and special education instructional
strategies, or (ii) research on the effectiveness of or the comparison
among instructional techniques, curricula, or classroom management
methods.

Should the nature of your study change or if you need to revise this protocol in ar
manner, please contact this office before implementing the changes.


IF:dl









LIST OF REFERENCES

Abeles, H. F., Hoffer, C. R, & Klotman, R. H. (1995). Foundations of Music Education (2nd Ed.).

New York: Schirmer Books.

Dependent variable. (n.d.). The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Retrieved December

01, 2010, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/dependent

variable

Froseth, James O. (1971, Spring). Using MAP Scores in the Instruction of Beginning Students in

Instrumental Music. Journal ofResearch in Music Education, 19(1), 98-105. Retrieved from

http://www.j stor. org/stable/3344119

Froseth, James O. (1974). NABIM Recruiting Manual. Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books.

Gordon, E.E. (1967). A Three-Year Study of the Musical Aptitude Profile. Iowa City: University

of Iowa Press.

Gordon, E.E. (1970, January). Taking into Account Musical Aptitude Differences among

Beginning Instrumental Students. American Educational Research Journal, 7(1), 41-53.

Retrieved from http://www.j stor.org/stable/ 162083

Gordon, E.E. (1986). Music Aptitude & Related Tests: An Introduction. Chicago: GIA Pub. Inc.

Gordon, E.E. (1995). Music Aptitude Profile [Test and manual]. Chicago: GIA Pub. Inc.

Hoffer, Charles. (2000). Teaching Music in the Secondary Schools (5th ed.). New York:

Schirmer Books.

Independent variable. (n.d.). The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Retrieved December

01, 2010, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/independent

variable









Keene, James A. (1982). A History of Music Education in the United States. Hanover, University

of New England Press.

Marzano, Robert J. and Kendall, John S. (2007). The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

(2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Radocy, R.E., & Boyle, J.D. (1988). Psychological Foundations of Musical Behavior (2d ed.).

Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Shehan, Patricia K. (1986, February). Major Approaches to Music Education: An Account of

Method. Music Educators Journal, 72(6), 26-31. Retrieved from

http://www.j stor.org/stable/3401273











BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

A native of New Jersey, Miss Katherine G. Zeng is a graduate of the Robert E. Cook

Honors College of Indiana University of Pennsylvania and received her undergraduate degree in

Music Education from the university in 2005. She then obtained a position in Orlando, Florida,

as General Music and Strings Instructor at Lake Highland Preparatory School, where she began

the string program, taught, and coached softball for over three years. Miss Zeng has presented at

the Florida Music Educators' Association Annual Clinic-Conference and serves as the Florida

Orchestra Association District 8 Chair-Elect. Miss Zeng currently teaches orchestra, music

appreciation, and coaches soccer and track and field at Southwest Middle School in Orlando,

Florida, for the Orange County Public School system, and resides in Orlando.




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