Economic profile of Florida's marine life industry

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Title:
Economic profile of Florida's marine life industry
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Book
Creator:
Larkin, Sherry L.
Adams, Charles M.
Degner, Robert L.
Lee, Donna J.
Milon, J. Walter
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Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2001

Notes

Funding:
This report was developed under the auspices of the Florida Sea Grant College Program with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Sea Grant, Department of Commerce, Grant No. NA76RG-0120.

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An Economic Profile of


Florida's Marine Life


Industry


Sherry L. Larkin, Ch' i,L /, M Adams, Robert L. Degner, Donna J Lee, and J. Walter Milon
Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute Of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
P.O. Box 110240
Gainesville, Fl 32611-0240
This report was developed under the auspices of the Florida Sea Grant College Program with support
from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Sea Grant, Department of
Commerce, Grant No. NA76RG-0120.






U UNIVERSITY OF
.FLORIDA
March 31, 2001









TABLE OF CONTENTS



I. Introduction 4
I. A. Background 4
I. B. 1. Regulations and Requirements for Participation 4
I. B. 2. Market Channels 4
I. B. 3. Need for Research 7
I. B. 4. Objectives and Outline of Analysis 8

II. Marine Life Landings in Florida from 1990 to 1998 9
II. A. Data Description 9
II. E. General Trends in Marine Life Landings and Values 17
Trends in the Volume and Value of Finfish Landings 19
Trends in the Volume and Value of Invertebrate Landings 24










An Economic Profile of Florida's Marine Life Industry


I. Introduction
I A. Background
The marine life industry in Florida as defined by the Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.) -
pertains to the non-lethal harvest of saltwater fish, invertebrates, and plants for commercial
purposes (F.A.C. Rule 46-42). Products are landed live and sold to wholesalers, retailers, or
direct to individual aquarium owners (foreign and domestic). Some products, such as sand
dollars, are dried and destined for the shell/curio market. The vast majority of products,
however, are destined for the hobby aquaria industry. According to the Pet Industry Joint
Advisory Council (PIJAC), tropical fish-keeping is the second most popular hobby (after
photography) in the United States. Aside from fish, the successful establishment of an "artificial
reef" requires colonization by invertebrates (Loiselle and Baensch).

Live "tropical" aquatic products include both marine and freshwater species. In Florida, the
marine component of the larger industry for live ornamental aquatic products is derived
almost exclusively from the capture of wild specimens (exceptions include the culture of clown
fish and live rock).1 Conversely, the freshwater species (primarily fish) are cultured or "farmed."
According to the PIJAC, Florida produces and supplies 95 percent of the tropical fish sold in
North America. In addition, tropical fish and plants are the number one air freight commodity
for the state of Florida; each week an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 boxes leave Tampa
International Airport alone (PIJAC). The PIJAC estimates the annual value of tropical species
collected and farmed in Florida at approximately $60 million. For comparison, the worldwide
wholesale market for marine (i.e., saltwater) ornamental products wild and farmed is
estimated at more than $100 million (Aquaculture Development Program; National Sea Grant
Office).

I.B. The Marine Life Industry in Florida

L B. 1. Regulations and Requirementsfor Participation
The collection of live tropical, ornamental, marine species including fish, invertebrates, and
plants is regulated by Chapter 46-42 of the Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). This
"Marine Life Rule" was implemented in 1991 and has since been amended three times (in 1992,
1993 and 1995). The major components of the current rule are summarized below.

Recreational harvesters for example, individuals wishing to stock their own aquarium are
subject to daily "bag" limits on the collection of marine life species. For fish and invertebrates,
the maximum daily catch equals 20 individuals (including no more than five angelfish) and no

SThe Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute has successfully reared six species of clownfish in captivity. The
"culturing" of live rock is allowed by individuals who lease submerged lands from the State of Florida (F.A.C. 46-
42.008).









more than one gallon of plants (F.A.C. 46-42.005).2 Commercial harvesters have higher daily
limits for butterflyfish, angelfish, and giant Caribbean anemones (F.A.C. 46-42.006). In order to
exceed the daily recreational bag limits, however, commercial collectors must have a current
Saltwater Products License (SPL).

According to Florida Statute 370.06(2), every person, firm, or corporation that sells, offers for
sale, barters, or exchanges for merchandise any saltwater products harvested and landed in
Florida must have a valid SPL. The annual fee for an SPL ranges from $50 to $600 depending
on residency and whether the license is issued to an individual or a vessel. In order to harvest
marine life specimens in particular (e.g., tropical fish and invertebrate species including
mollusks, plants, live rock and live sand), a $75 "marine life fishery" endorsement is also
required. In addition to the SPL and marine life endorsement, a restricted species endorsement is
needed to sell the majority of species (F.A.C. 46-42(2-4)).3 This endorsement is issued to
individuals or firms that can certify a minimum income threshold from the sale of saltwater
products in at least one of the last three years. The typical threshold is 25 percent or $5,000
(whichever is less) from employment, entrepreneurship, pensions, retirement benefits, and social
security benefits.

Aside from bag limits and permitting requirements, certain species are subject to a minimum
and/or maximum size restriction (F.A.C. 46-42.004). For example, the butterflyfishes and
several species of angelfish including the Grey, French, Blue, Queen, and Rock Beauty are
currently subject to both a minimum and maximum length (i.e., individuals outside the range
cannot be landed). Maximum lengths are also specified for the gobies, jawfish, and Spanish
hogfish, while Spotfin hogfish are subject to a minimum length requirement for landing. The
size restrictions pertain only to those species captured in Florida's state or adjacent federal
waters; they do not pertain to interstate or international commerce (e.g., individuals collected
elsewhere and imported into Florida).

Not all species may be collected. The list of prohibited species includes Longspine urchins,
Bahama starfish, hard and stony corals, sea fans, and fire corals (F.A.C. 46-42.009). In addition,
live rock may only be harvested from submerged lands leased by the state of Florida if the
individual has a FDEP or federal permit for live rock culture (F.A.C. 46-42.008). Hence, in
order to collect live rock in Florida, and individual needs (1) an SPL with marine life and
restricted species endorsements, (2) a submerged lands lease, and (3) a FDEP or federal permit.

Rule 46-42 of the F.A.C. also includes restrictions on allowable gears, including nets (hand held,
barrier, and drop), trawls, slurp guns, and quinaldine (F.A.C. 46-42.007). Barrier nets cannot
exceed 60 feet in length, have a depth greater than 8 feet, and a mesh larger than 34 inch. Drop
nets are also restricted to a mesh size of 3A inch and cannot exceed 12 feet. Trawls, which can
only be used to collect dwarf seahorses, must be a towed by a vessel no longer than 15 feet (and
at less than idle speed) with an opening no larger than 12 inches by 48 inches. Quinaldine a
chemical used to briefly anesthetize fish and facilitate their capture may be used only if the

2 In addition, Rule 46-44 of the F.A.C. contains an allowable species list for sharks and prohibits the take of more
than one per person, or two per vessel, per day.
3 The list of "restricted" fish, invertebrates, and plants which comprise the majority of all species landed is
reproduced in Appendix B.









individual has a special $25 activity license issued by FDEP (FDEP Rule 62R-4.004). The
chemical must be diluted with seawater at no more than 2% concentration.

Finally, all collected marine life must be harvested live and the vessel must contain a
continuously circulating live well, aeration, or oxygenation system (F.A.C. 46-42.0035). Species
may be collected from all state waters, excluding the Biscayne National Park (unless permission
is obtained from the park superintendent), and adjacent federal waters. Harvest limits apply to
species collected from all areas.

During the 1998 Session of the Florida Legislature, a moratorium on the issue of new marine life
endorsements was passed effective 1 July 1998 to 1 July 2002 (Senate Bill 1506). The bill also
mandated that the Marine Fisheries Commission (MFC) prepare a report of options for the
establishment of a limited-entry program for the marine life fishery by 1 July 2000. The MFC
consulted interested commercial fishing organizations and held three public hearings to solicit
input for policy development. The resulting report to the Florida Legislature included a number
of options (all with mixed support and opposition) for establishing a limited entry program for
Florida's marine life industry (Division of Marine Fisheries, 2000). There was general support
for continuation of the moratorium, however there were those that want it coupled with "a
specific goal in terms of licenses rather than an indefinite continuation." Those supporting
continuation of the moratorium also proposed a number of conditions, all of which had mixed
support and opposition. The conditions included (1) continuation of the moratorium until those
who are not reporting landings stop paying for the license, (2) using attrition to reduce numbers
of licenses, and (3) basing the ability to renew the endorsement on reported landings. There was
also discussion of qualifying landings by using marine life landings only, or by using total
reported landings. There was general support for raising the income threshold of fishing income
from $5,000 to $10,000 (in any one of three previous years) in order to renew the license. A
limited entry license based on reported landings had some support, but there was no clear
consensus as to when to initiate a cut-off date for implementation. Tiered licenses, based qpon
type of equipment used for harvest was also explored. For example, one license would be
required for SCUBA or chemical use, another for roller frame trawl use, and another for
trap/bycatch use. Other discussions focused transfer ability of licenses, and also on the idea that
a license could only be used by one or a limited number of people (Division of Marine Fisheries,
2000). a Detailed codes were not available for 1997-1998 data.The Marine Fisheries Commission
is also considering establishing (1) bag limits for tricolor hermit crabs and turbo snails, (2)
changing the bag limit for pink-tipped anemones, (3) changing the size and bag limits of Cuban
and Spanish hogfish, (4) allowing the harvest of small coastal sharks, and (5) adding some grunt
species to the marine life species list (Marine Fisheries Commission Staff Paper, September
1998).










L B. 2. Market Channels


Following landing, commercial products are typically sold to a local wholesaler for distribution
in Florida or export (interstate or international). Harvesters may also act as wholesalers and
brokers of imported products. This primary distribution chain is depicted in Figure 1:






Imports

Saltwater
E::* Wholesaler -

Collection in Florida
Purveyor of
Freshwater Aquatic Animals Export to Retailers


Farming in Florida

Figure 1. Typical Distribution System for Tropical Ornamental Marine Species

According to Januzzi (1991), 83 percent of collected specimens are destined for U.S. markets (48
percent remain in Florida, 35 percent are exported to other states). Of the specimens that remain
in Florida, 65 percent are sold to wholesalers in South Florida.

I. B. 3. Needfor Research
The tropical fish-keeping hobby is the second most popular in the United States (PIJAC). More
importantly, interest in home aquariums continues to grow. Industry growth has been especially
prevalent for the establishment of "artificial reefs" due to recent technological advances and
breakthroughs in the care of such species. Marine aquarias rely on live specimens fish and
invertebrates such as plants, rock, sand, and crustaceans collected from the wild. In the United
States, such collection is restricted to South Florida and Hawaii.

The recent awareness of the plight of coral reefs such as the designation of 1997 as the
"International Year of the Reef" has begun to highlight the marine life collection industry.
According to the World Resources Institute (WRI), almost all reefs of the Florida Keys are at a
moderate threat from human activities, including the over fishing of target species. In addition,

"At a minimum, over fishing results in shifts in fish size, abundance, and species
composition within reef communities. Evidence suggests that removal of key herbivore
and predator species may ultimately affect large-scale ecosystem changes. For example,









removal of triggerfish has been linked with explosions in burrowing urchin populations,
their prey, who subsequently accelerate reef erosion through feeding activities. In the
Caribbean, decades of over fishing has led, in many places, to very low levels of grazing
fish species. Because of this, herbivorous sea urchins (a non-burrowing species) have
played an increasingly important role in keeping down algae growth."

As discussed in section I.B.3 above, collection practices in Florida have been regulated since the
early 1990s with passage of Florida Statute 46-42. However, until 1998, participation and
hence fishing effort has been effectively unrestricted. Senate Bill 1506 placed a four-year
moratorium (beginning July 1, 1998) on the issue of new "marine life endorsements," without
which marine life collected in Florida cannot be sold (Florida Statute 370.06(2)(d)2). The current
moratorium (and potential future limited entry system) could produce a wide variety of
economically beneficial effects by eliminating myopically driven practices that lead to a
disregard for other fishers, recreational divers, reef health, fish mortality rates, and lower
revenues (as smaller fish are collected and sold for a lower price). Given the diversity of species
collected, such a generic program could neglect the protection of certain species.

The State of Florida instituted a comprehensive data collection program the Marine Fisheries
Information System in 1990. The data resulting from this system are commonly called "Trip
Ticket" data, because the program requires that all landings of saltwater fish, saltwater products,
and shellfish destined for sale, barter, or trade be reported to the FDEP on a trip-by-trip basis
(Rule 62R-5). The data pertaining to the tropical marine ornamental products has, however, yet
to be analyzed. Past and current trends regarding the exploitation of individual species are
necessary to accurately assess whether existing regulations are sufficient. Specifically, a
thorough analysis of the data Florida landings and trade statistics would aid the Florida
Marine Fisheries Commission in analyzing regulatory options. In addition, the descriptions and
opinions of industry members, primarily Florida collectors and dealers, are crucial to the
accurate understanding and ultimate success of future regulations.

Lastly, the culture of marine ornamental species is, at present, a nonviable supplement or
alternative to the capture industry since for many species (1) information on reproduction in
captivity is unknown, (2) reproduction in captivity is prohibitively expensive, and/or (3)
restricted by environmental regulations regarding release into the wild due to possible harm to
native species.

I. B. 4. Objectives and Outline ofAnalysis
Study objectives include:
1. To characterize the supply and demand of Florida's ornamental marine life products by
examining historical landings and trade statistics.
2. To identify trends in the volume and value of approximately 320 species landed in Florida,
and the number of harvesters, in order to assess the future economic potential of the industry.
3. To ascertain if proposed management strategies, such as the generic (i.e., species
independent) limited entry system, could improve efficiency by reducing overcrowding
and/or overharvesting in the industry.
4. To determine the views of U.S. wholesalers regarding the state of the industry and role that
Florida supply has, can, and could be expected to play in the future.










Using data from the Florida Marine Fisheries Information System (described in the next section),
the quantity and value of landed species are examined. In addition, the number of trips,
collection/capture locations, and numbers of industry participants (i.e., collectors and
dealers/wholesalers) from 1990 through 1998 are analyzed. Statistics on the local industry are
then be compared to trends in total U.S. import and exports by species and country of origin -
of Live Ornamental Fish (National Trade Data and Economic Bulletin Board, SIC0273). In
addition, these statistics are augmented with data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service data) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (e.g.,
declaration form #3177). Although some data series aggregate information on saltwater,
freshwater, and aquacultured product, historical trends and regional differences are important
given the (at least slight degree of) substitutability or complementarity between sources and
species.

Trip Ticket data were also utilized to develop a survey instrument for (1) Florida dealers (i.e., all
first buyers of harvested product in Florida), of which there were 66 in fiscal year 1998, and (2)
the 125 largest wholesalers in the United States (from the Pet Supplies Marketing Directory).
Since these dealers handle both Florida and foreign-sourced product, they are the primary source
of information regarding the relationship between species, identifying substitutes and
complements, and the future of the industry in Florida. Questions focused on Florida product but
also addressed larger marketing issues. The responses are compared to a 1996 member survey
conducted by the American Marinelife Dealers Association and to the most recent annual survey
of independent pet retailers conducted by Pet Dealer (a trade magazine).

II. Marine Life Landings in Florida from 1990 to 1998
II. A. Data Description
The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) formerly known as the
Department of Natural Resources has been collecting data on the harvest of live marine
products since 1990. The FDEP requires licensed wholesale dealers (i.e., buyers) to report dealer
and harvester (collector) license numbers, the location of harvest, the species and quantity
purchased, and the value of each transaction by species (Chapter 62R-5). Since each transaction
typically occurs immediately following the trip, these forms are referred to as "trip tickets"..
Landings that are not sold, bartered, or exchanged are excluded from the data set maintained by
the FDEP.

Since there are size limits for some species (46-42.004), the FDEP trip tickets also allow the
collector to report the size of individuals (e.g., small, medium, large). The size information is,
however, not applicable for all species and is frequently unreported. Due to the main objectives
of this analysis and limitations due to the magnitude of results (given the number of species,
years, quarters, and areas), this information is not incorporated into this analysis. It is important
to note, however, that the size of wild-caught fish will vary depending on variety, season (e.g.,
due to water temperature and availability of food), location, and sex of the fish. These factors
can also affect specific characteristics of the fish such as color. For many species, size and color
differences translate into price differences.









Prior to 1990, landings data were collected from individual holding quinaldine permits (Hess and
Stevely). Given that the corresponding data excludes invertebrate data, prices, and the harvest of
fish without chemical use, these data are not analyzed in this report.

II. B. Number of Marine Life Industry Participants

The number of participants in the marine life industry from 1990 to 1998 is summarized in Table
1. The number of licensed marine life dealers increased significantly in the mid-1990's, but by
1998 this number had declined to the level observed in the early 1990's. Currently, there are
approximately 65 licensed dealers in the State of Florida. These dealers are legally allowed to
purchase marine life species from licensed collectors and are required to submit information
regarding the transaction to FMRI. This required reporting information consists of the
collector's license number, species landed (quantity and unit price), area where collection
occurred, and the transaction date. Individuals can be licensed as both a collector and dealer.

To collect marine life in excess of the daily bag limit of 20 specimens and one gallon of marine
plants, an individual or business needs a saltwater products license (SPL) with both a restricted
species endorsement and marine life endorsement (F.A.C. 46-42.006). The marine life
endorsement (MLE) is the only authority that applies exclusively to the marine life industry. The
total number of MLE's increased from 1990 to 1997. In 1997, approximately 800 endorsements
had been issued whereas fewer than 200 were issued in 1990. The number of active marine life
endorsements (i.e., endorsements with reported landings), however, has remained fewer than
230. In 1998, only 128 MLE's were active. The total number of MLE's issued declined recently
due to a moratorium that will remain in effect at least until 2003. However, there continues to
remain a significant amount of latent effort in the fishery. It is believed that these are
commercial enterprises, individual fisherman and businesses, that are retaining permits to hedge
against further restrictions in other fisheries.











Table 1. Number of Commercial Participants in the Florida Marine Life Industry

Active Restricted Saltwater Marine Life
License Wholesale Species Products License Endorsements
Year Dealers Endorsements Total Active Total Active

1990-91 69 127 349 297 159 107

1991-92 91 265 436 289 311 164

1992-93 109 362 521 329 389 197
1992-93

1993-94 114 431 572 317 477 222

199495 112 523 655 318 566 229

1995-96 103 589 698 273 630 205
1995-96

1996-97 98 626 706 213 668 175

1997-98 105 726 844 241 801 198

1998-99 66 703 767 152 743 128

Note: "Active" refers to license numbers that reported landings during the year.









II. C. Products


According to data collected by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP),
approximately 320 marine ornamental species have been landed in Florida for commercial
purposes from 1990 to 1998. The total includes over 180 different species of fish (57 percent)
and 137 invertebrate species (43 percent), including live rock, live sand, and various plant
species.

Slightly over 70 percent of fish species and approximately half of the invertebrate species are
classified as "restricted" (Figure 2). The harvest of restricted species is subject to additional
regulations, which are discussed in sub-section 1.B.1 below.

150- 128
0 125
S100
S66 71
0 75 53
S50
25
0 --
Fish Invertebrates
O Restricted D Not Restricted

Figure 2. Number of Species Landed in Florida by Type and Restricted Status, 1990-98.

Aside from the type of organism and restricted status, each individual is identified by its
common name, genus, species, and/or family. For the fishes, species that share a common name
typically are from the same family. For example, there are nine species of parrotfish that are all
members of the scaridae family. Exceptions include the blennies, sharks, and rays. Of the over
180 fish species landed, there are a total of just 67 common names representing 51 families (e.g.,
bass, groupers, hamlets, and perch are all members of the serranidae family). The common fish
names are listed in Table 2 with the corresponding list of invertebrates.

For the invertebrate species, common names do not match specific families as closely as the fish
species. For example, the 26 "snails" represent 21 different families and the 15 "crabs" represent
10 families. When grouped by common name, however, the 145 species are reduced to just 34
distinct groups. In addition, it will be useful in the analysis to further distinguish the invertebrate
species as, for example, sessile or mobile. Sessile invertebrates are completely immobile and
include such species as plants, live rock, and live sand. Slow moving invertebrates such as
anemones, corals, sponges, and marine worms are frequently included in this category. The
mobile invertebrates can also be categorized by whether they are segmented. For example,
unsegmented mobile invertebrates would include the molluscs (i.e., marine snails, nudibranches,
bivalves, and octopi). Segmented mobile invertebrates (arthropada, class crustacea) include
shrimps, prawns, lobsters, and crabs. Lastly, the echinodermatas or "spiny skinned ones", are










characterized by radial symmetry and include sand dollars, sea urchins, starfish, brittlestars, and
sea cucumbers.

Table 2. List of Ornamental Marine Species Collected in Florida, 1990-98


Fishes


Invertebrates


Angelfish (6)
Balloonfish
Barracuda
Bass (8)
Batfish
Bigeye
Blenny (8)
Brotula
Burrfish
Butterflyfish (6)
Cardinalfish (3)
Catfish
Chub
Clingfish
Coronetfish (3)
Cowfish (3)
Cusk-eel
Damselfish (14)
Drum (4)
Filefish (6)
Flounder
Frogfish (2)
Goatfish (2)
Goby (3)
Grouper (5)
Grunt (5)
Hamlet (6)
Hawkfish
Hogfish (3)
Jack (2)
Jawfish (4)
Lizardfish
Minnow
Mojarra


Moray (5)
Parrotfish (9)
Perch
Pilotfish
Pipefish
Porgy
Puffer (3)
Ray (4)
Razorfish
Remora (2)
Scorpionfish (2)
Seahorse (3)
Searobin
Shark (3)
Sheephead
Skate
Snapper (3)
Soapfish
Soldierfish
Spadefish
Squirrelfish (3)
Stargazer (2)
Stingray (2)
Surgeonfish
Sweeper
Tang (3)
Tilefish
Toadfish
Triggerfish (3)
Tripletail
Trumpetfish
Trunkfish (2)
Wrasse (8)


Anemone (6)
Basket Star
Brittle Star (4)
Bryozoa
Chiton
Clam (4)
Conch (7)
Cowrie (2)
Crab (15)
Fileclam (2)
Gorgonian (3)
Jellyfish (2)
Isopod
Live Rock (6)
Live Sand
Lobster (3)
Nudibranch (3)
Octopus (4)
Oyster
Penshell
Plant (4)
Polychaete (5)
Sand Dollar (4)
Scallop (2)
Sea Biscuit (3)
Sea Cucumber (2)
Sea Hare
Sea Star (3)
Shrimp (8)
Snail (26)
Sponge (4)
Tunicates
Urchin (5)
Whelk (2)


Notes: Common names reflect biological family, number in parentheses corresponds to the number of different
genus and species combinations related to the family. Names are listed in alphabetical order.









II. D. Location of Capture
The Marine Fisheries Information System the data collection program maintained by the FDEP
- has divided the fishing areas in Florida into 17 distinct sections. Each of the 17 primary areas
is further subdivided into distinct subregions. In addition, separate fishing area codes have been
defined for Georgia, Barbados, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. These codes are presented
in Appendix A, Figure A-1.

Only eight of the 17 primary areas were reported as sources of marine life collected for
commercial purposes from 1990 through 1996. However, nine additional areas reported landings
in 1997 and 1998. Because most of the landings were relatively small, the nine areas are
included in the "all others" category. The identified collecting regions ranged from the Crystal
River Tarpon Springs area on Florida's West Coast down to the Miami area on Florida's
southern East Coast. Overall, the Marathon area (748.0, 748.1, and 748.9) accounted for the
highest value of landings (31.1 percent or $7.2 million) and most number of trips (39.4 percent
or nearly 181,000) (Table 3, Figure 3). The areas reported represented approximately 75 percent
of the total number of trips taken and 76.8 percent value of marine life landed. The source region
was not reported for 15.8 percent of trips that accounted for 15.2 percent of landed value (Table
3). Also, the total value which of landings over all areas does not agree with the total value of
landings reported in section II.E. because some observations were excluded because of
confidentiality considerations.












Table 3. Summary


Area
Name
Crystal River-Tarpon Springs
Offshore Waters
St. Joseph Sound
Other Inland Waters
Federal Waters
Total
Tampa
Offshore Waters
Tampa Bay
Sarasota Bay
Federal Waters
Total
Fort Myers
Offshore Waters
Charlotte Harbor
Pine Island Soud and
San Carlos Bay
Federal Waters
Total
Everglades
Offshore Waters
Whitewater Bay
All Other Inland Waters
Federal Waters
Total
Tortugas
All Waters
Federal Waters
Total
Key West
North of US 1
South of US 1(FL Bay)


of Total Trips and Value of Landings by Area, 1990-98.
90-96 90-96 97-98 97-98 90-98 90-98 90-98 90-98 90-98

No. of Landings No. of Landings Total Total Percent of Total Landings Percent of
Codea Trips (thous.$) Trips (thous.$) Trips Trips Total Trips (thous.$) Total Landings


18,851
6
9
9,511
28,377


503
98
51
6,783
7,435


44
9
16


76
145


10
1
4
50
65


52
1
53


21,029
8,483


2,301
2,623


3,115


213 31,492


124 7,740


2,836


1,758


6.86%


1.69%


212 554 0.05%


50 0.02%


51 1,278


60 0.28%


12.32%


7.64%


554 2.41%


50 0.22%


60 0.26%












Federal Waters 1.9 7,966 813
Total 1.0 37,478 2,315 8,647
Marathon
South of US 1 748.0 75,810 2,663
North of US 1(FL Bay) 748.1 8,756 241
Federal Waters 748.9 80,566 3,587
Total 748.0 165,132 6,491 15,807
Miami
Offshore Waters 744.0 45,915 1,054
Florida Bay 744.1 3,101 97
Biscayne Bay, Card Sound 744.2 1,414 84
and Barnes Sound
Federal Waters 744.9 21,940 915
Total 744.0 72,370 2,150 2,816
All Others
Total 43,504
Unknown
Total 71,851 3,464 817
Grand Total 382,906 19,231 76,330
a Detailed codes were not available for 1997-1998 data.


656 46,125


668 180,939 7,159


137 75,186


43,504


2,287


1,851


10.04%






39.40%









16.37%


9.47%


12.91%






31.10%









9.93%


8.04%


30 72,668 3,494 15.82% 3,494 15.18%
3,789 459,236 23,020 100.00% 23,020 100.00%











5,000,000


4,000,000



3,000,000



2,000,000 -



1,000,000




1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

O Invertebrates o Fish

Figure 4. Annual dockside value of commercial marine life landings in Florida, 1990-98


II. E. General Trends in Marine Life Landings and Values


At this point it bears repeating that the "marine life" fishery in Florida is defined in the
regulations and legislation to include only saltwater species that are collected live and intended
for the aquarium industry (i.e., commercial purposes). The total dockside value of marine life
landings in Florida increased from $1.4 million in 1990 to approximately $4.3 million in 1992
(Figure 4, Table 4). The total value of this fishery then decreased to about $3.5 million in 1995
and can be accounted for by decrease in the landings of live rock and sand, which fell from
approximately 1.2 million pounds (536,758 kg.) in 1995 to 166,000 pounds (75,709 kg.) in 1998.
The reason for the dramatic decrease was the prohibition of all commercial harvest of live rock
and sand, in both Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico waters adjacent to Florida. The only exception is
the harvest of live rock from permitted commercial culture sites approved by the appropriate









state and federal agencies. By 1998, there were seven commercial liverock culture leases off the
cost of Florida, but total production was relatively low. (Florida Marine Research Institute,
1999).


Table 4. Landings and Value of Fish and Invertebrates Collected in Florida, 1990-1998.


Fish Invertebrates All

Percent
Percent of of
Total Total Total
Year Landings Value Value Landings Value Value Value
1990 245401 $766,868 55% 1173861 $635,950 45% $1,401,818
1991 291311 $986,885 42% 1504535 $1,357,720 58% $2,344,605
1992 393497 $971,115 32% 2156511 $2,061,135 68% $3,032,250
1993 355017 $1,283,871 36% 2978591 $2,282,590 64% $3,566,461
1994 425781 $1,612,597 38% 3011263 $2,660,887 62% $4,273,484
1995 259387 $944,172 27% 3388298 $2,528,508 73% $3,472,680
1996 205832 $832,603 32% 3466233 $1,773,081 68% $2,605,684
1997 278105 $903,923 44% 3147607 $1,134,274 56% $2,038,197
1998 201212 $759,363 40% 3340825 $1,136,385 60% $1,895,748
Totals 2656643 $9,060,397 37% 24167724 $15,570,530 63% $24,630,927











Trends in the Volume and Value ofFinfish Landings


Landings and value of marine ornamental finfish increased to peak levels in 1994, then
decreased through 1998. Reported landings increased from 245,000 individual fish in 1990 to
426,000 in 1994, then declined to approximately 200,000 in 1998. Dockside value followed the
same general pattern, increasing from $766,000 in 1990 to $1.6 million in 1994, then declining
to $759,000 in 1998(Figure 4, Table 4). Note that in 1992, landings increased 35 percent while
the total value of landings declined slightly. The increased landings were due specifically, to a
five-fold increase in the collection of seahorses (from approximately 14,000 harvested in 1991 to
83,700 harvested in 1992), primarily Hippocampus zosterae (i.e., Dwarf seahorses). In addition,
the increased landings of seahorses lowered market prices; the average price paid by dealers for
seahorses fell from $1.10 in 1991 to only $0.17 in 1992, a decline of nearly 84%.


During the 1990-98 period, over 180 individual species of finfish were harvested. For
simplicity, these species were grouped into 66 categories using their common name as defined
by the Florida Marine Research Institute. The Institute uses a three digit code for each species
and associated with this code are: (1) a common name, (2) genus and species, and (3) family.
The common name is most closely associated with the family. For example, the data set contains
three genus and species of cowfishh" including Lactophyrs polygonia, Lactophyrs quadticornis,
and family ostraciidae, which are listed (in common name field), respectively, as honeycomb
cowfish, scrawled cowfish, and other cowfish. Although each species has its own unique code,
each is a member of the ostraciidae family, and data from all three are aggregated and included
under the common name cowfishh". Note that not all codes are associated with a unique genus
and species and, thus, fall into an "other" category. Consequently, the number of individual
species should be considered as conservative.


The 66 aggregate finfish groups are listed in Appendix Table D-1. If a group consists of
multiple species, parentheses are used to indicate the number of individual species that are
included in the common name groupings. Of these groups, ten accounted for nearly 84% of the
total dockside value (Table 5). Predominant species within each of the top groups are listed in
Appendix Table D-2. The most important species group was angelfish, which represented 54%
of the total value. Hogfish accounted for 7.5% of the total, while the other eight groups
accounted for approximately 22% of the total dockside value of live marine finfish collected
from 1990 to 1998 (Table 5).


With the exception of seahorses and surgeonfish, all species groups exhibited a decline in
landings volumes from 1990 to 1998 (Tables 6 and 7). The largest species group decline was
reported to be the butterflyfish (48%), while seahorses were the species group with the largest
increase (184%). Trends in landings for each of the top 10 species groups are shown in
Appendix E, Figure 1-10.









Average per unit prices varied considerably across species. For example, in 1998 the
average unit price for angelfish and hogfish both exceeded $8 per fish, while the unit price for
damselfish, jawfish, wrasse, butterflyfish, and drum were less than $3 (Table 8). The average
price for seahorses was less than $1. With the exception of angelfish, the species exhibiting the
highest landings volume (i.e., damselfish, wrasse, and seahorses) also showed the lowest average
unit price. The average unit price for angelfish varied considerably during the 1990-98 period
(Figure 4), increasing from $5.62 in 1990 to $9.13 in 1993, before declining to $6.92 in 1995.
The unit average price for angelfish then increased to $8.12 in 1998. Price trends for each of the
top 10 species groups are found in Appendix E, Figures 1 through 10.



Table 5. Economic Importance of Top Fish Species Collected in Florida


Total Value % Fish Cumulative
1990-98 Value Percent

1. Angelfish $4,891,917 54.0% 54.0%
2. Hogfish 676,696 7.5 61.5
3. Damselfish 316,368 3.5 65.0
4. Jawfish 293,857 3.2 68.2
5. Wrasse 289,019 3.2 71.4
6. Butterflyfish 273,876 3.0 74.4
7. Seahorses 238,631 2.6 77.0
8. Parrotfish 233,147 2.6 79.6
9. Surgeons 201,162 2.2 81.8
10. Drum 174,865 1.9 83.7











by most valuable fish species group, 1990 1998.


Species
Group


Angelfish
Hogfish
Damselfish
Jawfish
Wrasse
Butterflyfish
Seahorse
Parrotfish
Surgeonfish
Drum


Average
Annual
Landings
(Number)
71,793
9,911
26,408
12,901
19,735
11,029
48,426
5,308
7,317
9,230


Change in
Landings
1990-1998
(Percent)
-31.6
-13.1
-34.0
-6.8
-42.4
-48.3
+184.4
-39.5
+18.3
-43.0


Average
Annual Price
1990-1998
(Dollars)
7.60
7.55
1.33
2.42
1.64
2.86
0.77
4.87
3.09
2.11


Change in
Price
1990-1998
(Percent)
44.5
13.6
-10.5
17.4
13.5
26.4
-29.2
97.9
3.9
15.3


Average
Annual
Value
(Dollars)
543,546
75,189
35,152
32,651
32,113
30,431
26,515
25,905
22,351
19,429


Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. St.
Petersburg, Florida.


Table 6. Average annual landings and prices









Table 7. Annual Commercial Landings of the Ten Fish Species (grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest
Average Landed Value 1990-98 in Florida

1990-98 Average Number Landed

Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998


1. Angelfish $543,546 71,793 71,459 82,589 86,711 79,782 82,668 73,666 60,602 59,817 48,839
2. Hogfish $75,189 9,911 8,535 8,794 9,888 10,112 13,494 12,451 10,633 7,869 7,419

3. Damselfish $35,152 26,408 32,150 31,702 38,337 21,558 29,387 27,504 14,102 21,703 21,225
4. Jawfish $32,651 12,901 6,325 4,995 16,624 22,151 28,267 13,596 9,285 8,976 5,894
5. Wrasse $32,113 19,735 23,440 25,032 27,227 20,686 21,713 16,920 12,453 16,633 13,512
6. Butterflyfish $30,431 11,029 12,667 15,266 15,479 13,213 12,949 9,420 6,941 6,772 6,551
7. Seahorse $26,515 48,426 5,969 13,982 83,715 71,815 110,948 23,341 19,037 90,049 16,977
8. Parrotfish $25,905 5,308 4,953 5,760 8,374 6,212 8,728 3,876 2,866 4,004 2,998
9. Surgeonfish $22,351 7,317 6,511 6,881 8,930 9,342 8,378 6,791 5,359 5,961 7,702
10. Drum $19,429 9,230 11,891 9,816 9,505 10,569 11,526 9,086 7,233 6,661 6,781
Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida








Table 8. Annual Dockside Prices of the Ten Fish Species (grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest Average Landed
Value 1990-98 in Florida

1990-98 Average Dockside Unit Price


Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1. Angelfish $543,546 71,793 $5.62 $7.00 $6.61 $9.13 $8.85 $6.92 $7.61 $8.54 $8.12
2. Hogfish $75,189 9,911 7.43 6.56 4.01 8.84 9.23 7.28 7.89 8.23 8.44

3. Damselfish $35,152 26,408 1.33 1.20 1.08 1.53 2.01 1.30 1.22 1.12 1.19
4. Jawfish $32,651 12,901 2.01 2.19 2.17 2.38 3.07 2.44 2.60 2.58 2.36

5. Wrasse $32,113 19,735 1.48 1.65 1.20 1.44 2.40 1.60 1.70 1.65 1.68
6. Butterflyfish $30,431 11,029 2.65 2.74 2.10 2.78 4.14 2.20 2.59 3.17 2.35
7. Seahorse $26,515 48,426 1.13 1.10 0.17 0.12 0.88 1.07 1.34 0.35 0.80
8.Parrotfish $25,905 5,308 2.90 4.29 3.33 6.72 6.40 4.04 5.21 5.18 5.74
9. Surgeonfish $22,351 7,317 3.34 2.44 1.85 3.34 4.05 2.51 3.41 3.41 3.47
10. Drum $19,429 9,230 1.83 1.81 1.48 2.02 3.46 1.77 2.24 2.24 2.11

Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida









Trends in the Volume and Value of Invertebrate Landings


The approximately 150 individual species of invertebrates collected by the marine life industry
in Florida from 1990 to 1998 were grouped, into 32 major species groups (Appendix Table D-3)
using the same procedure as with the finfish. Due to the diversity of the invertebrate species,
these groups are further aggregated into the following three categories: (1) invertebrate animals
(including crustaceans, mollusks, starfish, anemones, sea cucumbers, sponges, nudibranches,
bryozoa, etc.), (2) marine plants, and (3) live rock and live sand.


The patterns in invertebrate landings volumes and value during the 1990-98 period varied
somewhat across the three major groups (Figures 5 and 6). Landings of invertebrate animals
exhibited a steady increase from approximately 850,000 individual animals in 1990 to 3.3
million animals in 1998, an increase of 290% (Table 9). However, the total dockside value of
the animals increased from approximately $376,000 in 1990 to a peak of $1.2 million in 1994,
then declined steadily to $896,000 in 1998 as species less valuable on a per unit basis (such as
snails, starfish, and sand dollars) garnered an increasing share of the lotal volume. Landings of
plants increased from approximately 31,000 individuals in 1990 to a peak of 37,000 in 1995.
Plant landings then declined dramatically (approximately 62%) to 14,000 in 1998 (Table 9).



Figure 5. Annual landings of invertebrates collected in Florida by type, 1990-98.











Type

Invertebrate Marine Live Rock
Animals Plants and Live Sand


Year Landings Value Landings Value Landings Value
(Number a) (Dollars a) (Number a) (Dollars a) (Pounds a) (Dollars a)

1990 849 377 31 8 245 252
1991 893 467 30 38 578 853
1992 1,352 581 28 48 777 1,433
1993 1,989 1,036 35 33 954 1,213
1994 1,888 1,209 31 29 1,079 1,422
1995 2,171 1,053 37 43 1,175 1,432
1996 2,637 899 20, 31 809 843
1997 3,148 911 21 41 185 183
1998 3,340 897 14 22 167 218


a All numbers,


dollars and pounds are in thousands.


Source: Florida Marine Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St.
Petersburg, Florida.









Table 9. Annual Landings and Values of Invertebrates Collected in Florida by Type,
1990-1998.


$1,600,000 -

$1,400,000
$1,200,000

$1,000,000

$800,000 -
$600,000

$400,000
$200,000

$0


-z
0
C,
C
C



C


1990


KL


1992


1994


O Other Invertebrates E Plants O Live Rock and Live Sand


SH nH


U L L a .L.....y.


O Invert. Animals E Marine Plants O Live Rock and Live Sat

Figure 6. Annual dockside value of invertebrates collected in Florida by type, 1990-98.


The dockside value of marine plants reached peaks in 1992 and 1995, then declined with
landings volumes to $22,000 in 1998. As discussed previously, the landings of live rock and live
sand mirror the enactment of legislation intended to eliminate the harvest of naturally occurring
live rock. Live rock landings increased from approximately 245,000 pounds (110,250 kg) in
1990 to 1.2 million pounds (530,000 kg) in 1995, a 390% increase. Following the moratorium
on landings in federal waters, landings decreased to 166,600 pounds (75,709 kg) in 1998. The


n L


1998


4,000,000
3,500,000 -
3,000,000
2,500,000 -
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
0


r-I












dockside value of live rock and sand reached equivalent peaks of about $1.4 million in 1992 and
1995, then decreased dramatically to $218,000 in 1998 as reported landings were comprised
predominantly of live rock cultured on permitted lease sites (Table 9).

Ten species groups accounted for 89% of the total dockside value attributable to
invertebrate animals, plants, and live rock and sand during the 1990-98 period (Table 10). The
most important single species group was live rock, which accounted for almost 50% of the
dockside value accumulated during the 1990-98 period, despite the drastic declines following the
1995 moratorium. Snails, anemones, and crabs combined accounted for 20% of the value, with
the other six species contributing the remaining 30% of the total dockside value (Table 10). The
primary species within each of the top 10 invertebrates species groups are listed in Appendix
Table D-4.





Table 10. Economic Importance of Top Invertebrate Species Collected in Florida, 1990-1098.

Total Value Percent of Cumulative
1990-98 Invertebrate Value Percent

1. Live Rock $7,357,422 48.8% 48.8%
2. Snails 1,262,345 8.1 56.8
3. Anemones 1,128,348 7.2 64.1
4. Crabs 913,848 5.9 70.0
5. Starfish 729,706 4.7 74.7
6. Gorgonians 685,047 4.4 79.1
7. Sand Dollars 542,991 3.5 82.6
8. Urchins 385,953 2.5 85.1
9. Sponges 349,564 2.2 87.3
10. Live Sand 307,662 2.0 89.3









Table 11. Average annual landings and prices by most valuable invertebrate species group,
1990- 1998.


Species
Group


Live Rock
Snail
Anemone
Crab
Starfish
Gorgonian
Sand Dollar
Urchin
Sponge
Live Sand


Average
Annual
Landings
(Number)a
623,279a
373,587
275,812
236,674
205,012
28,736
438,850
36,823
17,534
42,876


Change in
Landings
1990-1998
(Percent)
-63.5
791.0
-26.0
754.8
1,824.0
128.8
202.9
28.8
0.9
N.A.


Average
Annual Price
1990-1998


(Dollars)
1.38
0.40
0.57
0.57
0.39
2.29
0.14
1.14
2.40
N.A.


Change in
Price
1990-1998
(Percent)
91.1
-44.7
29.7
-62.5
-88.8
21.7
-33.3
234.0
80.5
N.A.


a Number landed for all species except live rock and live sand, which are measured in
pounds.


Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. St.
Petersburg, Florida.


Average
Annual
Value
(Dollars)
837,491
140,261
125,372
101,539
81,078
76,116
60,332
42,884
41,063
34,185








Table 12. Annual Commercial Landings of the Ten Invertebrate Species (grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest
Average Landed Value 1990-98 in Florida

1990-98 Average Landingsa

Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

1. Live Rock $837,491 623,279 lbs 249,093 581,376 776,810 954,197 1,087,065 1,094,723 671,226 104,044 90,975
2. Snail $140,261 373,587 90,369 182,180 257,752 293,688 288,406 480,706 470,357 493,614 805,210
3. Anemone $125,372 275,812 272,476 302,701 334,043 293,590 307,891 335,795 233,649 200,533 201,629
4. Crab $101,539 236,674 92,250 90,845 119,591 152,375 117,889 181,074 252,882 334,559 788,598
5. Starfish $81,078 205,012 26,575 28,220 129,574 333,911 314,071 222,102 543,782 975,368 511,297
6. Gorgonian $76,116 28,736 17,803 24,350 23,898 29,960 32,106 35,976 37,057 44,867 40,743
7. Sand Dollar $ 60,332 438,850 254,832 88,191 193,574 560,480 578,574 619,716 776,582 781,567 771,817
8. Urchin $42,884 36,823 31,745 35,495 33,008 41,156 39,052 41,268 36,039 33,232 40,900

9. Sponge $41,063 17,534 17,017 18,858 17,886 18,626 18,236 17,659 14,459 15,464 17,166
10. Live Sand $ 34,185 42,876 lb N/A N/A N/A N/A 4,802 86,175 138,194 81,129 75,584


a Number landed for all species except live rock and live sand, which are measured in pounds.
Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida.









Table 13. Annual Dockside Price of the Ten Invertebrate Species (grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest Average
Landed Value 1990-98 in Florida

1990-98 Average Dockside Unit Pricea

Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998


1. Live Rock $837,491 623,279 lbs $1.01 $1.47 $1.84 $1.27 $1.30 $1.20 $1.12 $1.30 $1.93
2. Snail $140,261 373,587 0.38 0.22 0.37 0.61 0.55 0.68 0.28 0.26 0.21

3. Anemone $125,372 275,812 0.37 1.47 0.42 0.48 0.53 0.43 0.44 0.47 0.48
4. Crab $101,539 236,674 0.48 0.43 0.40 1.46 0.86 0.55 0.42 0.34 0.18

5. Starfish $81,078 205,012 0.80 0.78 0.12 0.30 0.95 0.23 0.17 0.08 0.09

6. Gorgonian $76,116 28,736 1.98 1.58 0.94 2.23 3.80 2.42 2.80 2.47 2.41
7. Sand Dollar $ 60,332 438,850 0.12 0.27 0.15 0.17 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.08

8. Urchin $42,884 36,823 0.50 0.56 0.34 0.55 1.12 1.77 1.86 1.94 1.67
9. Sponge $41,063 17,534 1.59 1.76 1.49 1.93 3.22 2.77 3.05 2.96 2.87

10. Live Sand $ 34,185 42,876 lb N/A N/A N/A 1.00 0.78 1.39 0.68 0.59 0.56

a Number landed for all species except live rock and live sand, which are measured in pounds.
Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida.










With the exception of live rock and anemones, all of the top ten invertebrate species groups
experienced increases in landings volumes during the 1990-98 period, with some being dramatic.
For example, starfish, snails, and crabs, exhibited increases in landings of 1,824%, 791%, and
755%, respectively, from 1990 to 1998 (Table 11). Year-to-year changes in landings of the top
10 species groups are shown in Table 12 and Appendix D, Figures 11-20. As with finfish
species, dockside prices also varied across invertebrate species groups. As shown in Table 11,
the highest average unit prices during the 1990-1998 period were associated with sponges
($2.40), gorgonians ($2.29), live rock ($1.14 per pound), and urchins ($1.14). Annual dockside
prices of the top ten species groups are shown in Table 13 and in Appendix E, Figures 11-20.

DISCUSSION

The marine life collection industry in Florida has grown during the past decade as the number of
licensed collectors (i.e., fishers with MLEs) increased from 159 to 743 and either the volume or
value of the primary species increased. The growth is particularly evident in the collection of
invertebrate animals. The harvest of live rock and sand also increased dramatically during the
1990-95 period, but declined due to a moratorium on the collection of naturally occurring rock
and sand in state and federal waters. Although the number of harvesting participants increased
dramatically during the 1990-98 period, the implementation of a temporary moratorium on
marine life endorsements has limited further entry into the industry. The moratorium extends to
2002. Regulations have also been imposed on certain species (e.g., size limits, bag limits, and
trip limits), but most regulations apply to the industry as a whole (e.g., acceptable harvesting
methods). The implementation of these regulations reflects concern regarding the sustainability
of the marine life resources. The information presented in this section represents the only
analysis of harvest data collected by Florida Marine Research Institute since the initiation of data
collection efforts in 1990. The reported trends in landings provide some insight into the harvest
pressure being exerted on wild stocks of ornamental finfish and invertebrate animals. Although
no stock assessments exist for any of the individual species targeted by the marine life collection
industry, such information (particularly for the predominant species) could be useful to resource
managers as they develop effective management measures for this growing industry. Landings
data should next be examined in terms of expended effort (i.e., trips) to better determine if the
State's management goals are being achieved. Without such insight, the assurance of the
sustainable use of these marine life resources in the face of growing demand by domestic and
international markets cannot be ensured.











References


ADP (Aquaculture Development Program). "Announcement for an International Conference on
Marine Ornamental Aquaculture." Marine Ornamentals '99: Collection, Culture, and
Conservation. Honolulu, HI. [www.aloha.com/-aquacult/mareorna.html]

Division of Marine Fisheries. "Option for a Limited Entry Program For Florida's Marine Life
Fishery." ( A Report to the Legislature) Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission, July 1, 2000.

Hess, D. and J. Stevely. "The Aquarium Reef Fish Collecting Industry of Monroe County,
Florida." Monroe County Marine Advisory Program, Florida Cooperative Extension
Service. 1978, pp. 27.

Januzzi, C.L. "A Guide to Developing A Limited Entry Program for the Marine Life Fishing
Industry." Research Paper, Marine Affairs Department, Rosenstiel School of Marine and
Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 1991.

Loiselle, P.V. and H.A. Baensch. Marine Aquarist's Manual: Comprehensive Edition, 4th ed.
Tetra Second nature (Division of Wamer-Lambert): Blacksburg, VA. 1995.

MFC (Marine Fisheries Commission). "Marine Life." Staff Paper, September 1998.

NSGO (National Sea Grant Office). "Conservation and Culture of Marine Ornamental Fishes
and Invertebrates: A Case Statement." Chris D'Elia, Chair. Maryland.
[www.mdsg.umd.edu/NGSO/research/ornamental/index.htm]

PIJAC (Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council). "U.S. Ornamental Aquarium Industry." Pet
Information Bureau. Washington, DC. [www2.pijac.org/pijac/PJF001.htm]

WRI (World Resources Institute). "Status of the World's Coral Reefs: Tropical Americas."
[www.wri.org/wri/indictrs/reefname.htm]
















Appendix A




Marine Fisheries Trip Ticket
Fishing Area Codes









Appendix A. Figure 1. Marine Fisheries Trip Ticket Fishing Area


Pensacola Destin 4*
offshoree waters 10.0 Offshore waters *
'ensacola Bay 10.1 Choctawhatchee bay
iast Bay 10.1 9.1
iscambia Bay 10.2 Fdr1ral NA/atr Q Q
)erdido Bay 10.3 8
dlporal MNatpn 100 q


ranama City
Offshore Waters
St. Andrew Bay 8
St. Joseph Bay 8
West Bay 8
North Bay 8.
Federal Waters 8


C-' -


717
7Geor


u t-4 722
'1 Jacksonville
7 Offshore waters 722.0
St. Johns River 722.5
A palachee B Nassau River 722.4
Offshore waters St. Mary's River 722.2
St. Vincent Sound Vn FA_' noatnr 799
7.1 728
8.0 Apalachicola Bay
.1 7.1 St. Augustine
.2 East Bay 7.1 Offshore waters 728.0
.3 St. George Sound Inland waters 728.1
3 7 '\ Federal waters 728.9
.9 6 732
Crystal River Cape Canaveral
Tarpon Springs Offshore waters 732.0
Inland waters 732.1
Offshore waters 6.0 i 0 dral .. ator 7W I
St. Josephs Sound 6.1
Other inland waters 62 736
Federal Waters 6.9 Fot
5 ) .Fort Pierce
*p .L, Offshore waters 736.0
Tampa inland waters 736.1
Offshore waters 5.0 I. 1. I I waters 736.9
Tampa Bay 5.1 \ 741
St. Josephs Sound 5.2 st Pl Beach
Sarasota Bay 5.3t Palm Beach
Anna Maria Sound 5.4 Offshore waters 741.0
Focoral waters 5Q k Inland waters 741.1
Federal waters 741.9
4 r
Fort Meyers i 744
Offshore waters 4.0 j
Charlotte Harbor 4.1 Miami
Lemon Bay 4.2 offshore Waters 744.0
Pine Island Sound 4.3 Fl ..1. ,, ,/ 744.1
San Carlos Bay 4.3 1. ,,, I ay 744.2
Estero Bay 4.4 . ...I -......d 744.2
Rookery Bay 4.5 '. ..' ..md 744.2
Other inland waters 4.6 Fodorl WAtors 744 q
Lake Okeechobee 4.8 (
Federal Waters 4.9 Jt


2
Tortugas
All water 2.0
Federal waters 2.9


Source: Department of Environmental Protection, Marine Research


Whitewater Bay 3.1 ,,
All other
1,$ ,, 748
4 Marathon
Key West South of US1 748.0
NorthofUS1 1.1 North of US1
South of US1 1.0 (Florida Bay) 748.1
Federal Waters 1.9



















Appendix B



Restricted Species Identified in Chapter 46-42 of the F.A.C.









Appendix B. Restricted Species Identified in Chapter 46-42 of the F.A.C.

Chapter 46-42(2) Fish Species:
(a) Moray eels Family Muraenidae
(b) Snake eels Genera Myichthys and Myrophis of the Family Ophichthidae
(c) Toadfish Family Batrachoididae
(d) Frogfish Family Antennariidae
(e) Batfish Family Ogcocephalidae
(f) Clingfish Family Gobiesocidae
(g) Trumpetfish Family Aulostomidae
(h) Cornetfish Family Fistulariidae
(i) Pipefish/seahorses Family Syngnathidae
(j) Hamlet/seabass Family Serranidae, except genera Epinephaus, Mycteroperca, and
Centropristis
(k) Basslets Family Grammistidae
(1) Cardinalfish Family Apogonidae
(m) High-hat, Jackknife-fish, Spotted drum, Cubbyu genus Equetus of the Family
Sciaenidae
(n) Reef Croakers Odontocion dentex
(o) Sweepers Family Pempherididae
(p) Butterflyfish Family Chaetondontidae
(q) Angelfish Family Pomacanthidae
(r) Damselfish Family Ponacentridae
(s) Hawkfish Family Cirrhitidae
(t) Wrasse/hogfish/razorfish Family Labridae, except Lachnolaimus maximus
(u) Parrotfish Family Scaridae
(v) Jawfish Family Opistognathidae
(w) Blennies Families Clinidae and Blenniidae
(x) Sleepers Family Eleotrididae
(y) Gobies Family Gobiidae
(z) Tangs and surgeonfish Family Acanthuridae
(aa)Filefish.triggerfish Family Balistes, except Balistidae capriscus
(bb) Trunkfish/cowfish Family Ostraciidae
(cc)Pufferfish/burrfish/ballonfish Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster rostrata,
Chilomycterus schoepfi.

Chapter 46-42(3) Invertebrate Species:
(a) Sponges Class Demospongia, except Order Dictyoceratida
(b) Upside-down jellyfish Genus Cassiopeia
(c) Siphonophores/hydroids Class Hydrozoa, except Order Milleporina
(d) Soft corals Subclass Octocorallia, except Gorgonia flabellum and ventalina
(e) Sea anemones Orders Actinaria Zoanthidea, Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia
(f) Featherduster worms/calcareous tubeworms Families Sabellidae and Serpulidae
(g) Star-shells Astraea americana or Astraea phoebia
(h) Nudibranchs/sea slugs Subclass Opisthobranchia
(i) Fileclams Genus Lima









(j) Octopods Order Octopoda, except Octopodus vulgaris
(k) Shrimp Genera Periclimenes, Lysmata, Stenopus, and Alpheus
(1) Crabs Stenorhynchus seticomis, stenocionops furcata, Clibanarius vittatus, Phimochirus
opercalatus, Porcellana sayana, Percnon gibbesi, Metoporhaphis calcarata
(m) Starfish Class Asteroidea, except Oreaster reticulatus
(n) Brittlestars Class Ophiuroidea
(o) Sea urchins Class Echinoidea, except Diadema antillarum and Order Clypeasteroida
(p) Sea cucumbers Class Holothuroidea
(q) Sea lillies Class Crinoidea

Chapter 46-42(4) Plant Species:
(a) Caulerpa Family Caulerpaceae
(b) Halimeda/mermaid's fan/mermaid' shaving brush Family Halimedaceae
(c) Coralline red algae Family Corallinaceae
















Appendix C




Summary of Florida's Collection Regulations









Appendix C. Summary of Florida's Collection Regulations (Rule 46-24 titled "Marine
Life")

46-42.01 Purpose and Intent; Designation of Restricted Species; Definition of "Marine Life
Species".-

(1)
(a) The purpose and intent of this chapter are to protect and conserve Florida's tropical
marine life resources, assure the continuing health and abundance of these species, and
assure that harvesters in this fishery use nonlethal methods of harvest.
(b) Landing of live rock propagated through aquaculture is allowed pursuant to provisions of
this chapter.

(2) The following fish species, as they occur in waters of the state and in federal Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) waters adjacent to state waters, are hereby designated as restricted species
pursuant to Section 370.01(20), Florida Statues:
(a) Moray eels Family Muraenidae
(b) Snake eels Genera Myichthys and Myrophis of the Family Ophichthidae
(c) Toadfish Family Batrachoididae
(d) Frogfish Family Antennariidae
(e) Batfish Family Ogcocephalidae
(f) Clingfish Family Gobiesocidae
(g) Trumpetfish Family Aulostomidae
(h) Cornetfish Family Fistulariidae
(i) Pipefish/seahorses Family Syngnathidae
(j) Hamlet/seabass Family Serranidae, except genera Epinephaus, Mycteroperca, and
Centropristis
(k) Basslets Family Grammistidae
(1) Cardinalfish Family Apogonidae
(m) High-hat, Jackknife-fish, Spotted drum, Cubbyu genus Equetus of the Family
Sciaenidae
(n) Reef Croakers Odontocion dentex
(o) Sweepers Family Pempherididae
(p) Butterflyfish Family Chaetondontidae
(q) Angelfish Family Pomacanthidae
(r) Damselfish Family Ponacentridae
(s) Hawkfish Family Cirrhitidae
(t) Wrasse/hogfish/razorfish Family Labridae, except Lachnolaimus maximus
(u) Parrotfish Family Scaridae
(v) Jawfish Family Opistognathidae
(w) Blennies Families Clinidae and Blenniidae
(x) Sleepers Family Eleotrididae
(y) Gobies -Family Gobiidae
(z) Tangs and surgeonfish Family Acanthuridae
(aa)Filefish.triggerfish Family Balistes, except Balistidae capriscus
(bb) Trunkfish/cowfish Family Ostraciidae









(cc)Pufferfish/burrfish/ballonfish Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster rostrata,
Chilomycterus schoepfi.

(3) The following invertebrate species, as they occur in waters of the state and in federal
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters adjacent to state waters, are hereby designated as
restricted species pursuant to Section 370.01(20), Florida Statues:
(a) Sponges Class Demospongia, except Order Dictyoceratida
(b) Upside-down jellyfish Genus Cassiopeia
(c) Siphonophores/hydroids Class Hydrozoa, except Order Milleporina
(d) Soft corals Subclass Octocorallia, except Gorgonia flabellum and ventalina
(e) Sea anemones Orders Actinaria Zoanthidea, Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia
(f) Featherduster worms/calcareous tubeworms Families Sabellidae and Serpulidae
(g) Star-shells Astraea americana or Astraea phoebia
(h) Nudibranchs/sea slugs Subclass Opisthobranchia
(i) Fileclams Genus Lima
(j) Octopods Order Octopoda, except Octopodus vulgaris
(k) Shrimp Genera Periclimenes, Lysmata, Stenopus, and Alpheus
(1) Crabs Stenorhynchus seticornis, stenocionops furcata, Clibanarius vittatus,
Phimochirus opercalatus, Porcellana sayana, Percnon gibbesi, Metoporhaphis calcarata
(m) Starfish Class Asteroidea, except Oreaster reticulatus
(n) Brittlestars Class Ophiuroidea
(o) Sea urchins Class Echinoidea, except Diadema antillarum and Order Clypeasteroida
(p) Sea cucumbers Class Holothuroidea
(q) Sea lillies Class Crinoidea

(4) The following species of plants, as they occur in waters of the state and in federal Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) waters adjacent to state waters, are hereby designated as restricted species
pursuant to Section 370.01(20), Florida Statues:
(a)Caulerpa Family Caulerpaceae
(b) Halimeda/mermaid's fan/mermaid' shaving brush Family Halimedaceae
(c)Coralline red algae Family Corallinaceae

(5) For the purposes of Section 370.06(2)(d), Florida Statues, the term "marine life species: is
defined to mean those species designated as restricted species in subsections (2), (3), and (4) of
this chapter.

46-24.002 Definitions.

46-24.003. Prohibition of Harvest: Longspine Urchin, Bahama Starfish.

46-24.0035 Live Landing and Live Well Requirements.

46-24.0036 Harvest in Biscayne National Park Prohibited

46-24.004 Size Limits.--









(1) Angelfish
(2) Butterflyfishes
(3) Gobies
(4) Jawfishes
(5) Spotfin and Spanish hogfish

46-24.005 Bag Limit.--

(1) Except as provided in Rule 46-24.006 or subsections (3) or (4) of this rule, no person shall
harvest, possess while in or on the waters of the state, or land more than 20 individuals per day
of tropical ornamental marine life species, in any combination.

(2) Except as provided in Rule 46-24.006, no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the
waters of the state, or land more than 1 gallon per day of tropical ornamental plants, in any
combination of species.

(3) Except as provided in Rule 46-24.006, no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the
waters of the state, or land more than 5 angelfishes (Family Pomacanthidae) per day. Each
angelfish shall be included in the 20 individual bag limit specified in subsection (1).

(4) Unless the season is closed, no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the waters of the
state, or land more than 6 colonies per day of octocorals. Each octocoral shall be included in the
20 individual bag limit specified in subsection (1).

46-24.006 Commercial Season, Harvest Limits.--

(1) Except as provided in Rule 46-24.008(7), no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the
waters of the state, or land quantities of tropical ornamental marine life species or tropical
ornamental marine plants in excess of the bag limits established in Rule 46-24.005 unless such
person possesses a valid saltwater products license with both a marine life fishery endorsement
and a restricted species endorsement issued by the Department of Environmental Protection.

(2)
(a) Angelfish 75 per person or 150 per vessel, per day, whichever is less
(b) Butterflyfishes 75 per vessel per day
(c) Octocoral season is same as season in federal waters. Harvesters may also harvest
attached substrate within 1 inch of the perimeter
(d) Giant Caribbean or "pink-tipped" anemones 400 per vessel per day

46-24.007 Gear Specifications and Prohibited Gear.-

(1) The following types of gear shall be the only types allowed for the harvest of any tropical
fish, whether from state waters or from federal EEZ waters adjacent to state waters:
(a) Hand held net
(b) Barrier net, with a total length not exceeding 60 feet, a depth not exceeding 8 feet, and a
mesh size not exceeding 3% inch









(c) Drop net, with a maximum dimension not exceeding 12 feet and a mesh size not
exceeding 3% inch
(d) Slurp gun
(e) Quinaldine, if:
1. the person possesses a special activity license,
2. the chemical is diluted to no more than 2% with seawater (prior to dilution in
seawater, quinaldine shall only be mixed with isopropyl alcohol or ethanol.
(f) A roller frame trawl operated by a person possessing a valid live bait shrimping license
(i.e., marine life are incidental bycatch)
(g) A trawl (<=12"x58" and 51bs) no longer than 15 feet in length and no greater than idle
speed to collect live dwarf seahorses (Hippocampus zosterae)

(2) Bags or containers may be used to store collected specimens. A single blunt rod, used in
connection with an allowable gear type, may also be used.

(3) Species may be harvested as bycatch provided bag limits are not exceeded.

46-42.008 Live Rock: Harvest in State Waters Prohibited; Aquacultured Live Rock Harvest
and Landing Allowed.-

46-42.009 Prohibition on the Taking, Destruction, or Sale of Marine Corals and Sea Fans;
Exception; Repeal of Section 370.114, Florida Statutes


















Appendix D


Tables











Table D-1. Fish species groups collected by the commercial marine life industry in Florida, 1990-98a


Angelfish (6)

Balloonfish

Barracuda

Bass (8)

Batfish

Bigeye

Blenny (8)

Brotula

Burrfish

Butterflyfish (6)

Cardinalfish (3)


Catfish

Chub

Clingfish

Coronetfish (3)

Cowfish (3)

Cusk-Eel

Damselfish (14)

Drum (4)

Filefish (6)

Flounder

Frogfish (2)


Goatfish (2)

Goby (3)

Grouper (5)

Grunt (5)

Hamlet (6)

Hawkfish

Hogfish (3)

Jack (2)

Jawfish (4)

Lizardfish

Minnow


Moj arra

Moray (5)

Parrotfish (9)

Perch

Pilotfish

Pipefish

Porgy

Puffer (3)

Ray (4)

Razorfish

Remora (2)


Scorpionfish (2)

Seahorse (3)

Searobin

Soapfish

Soldierfish

Spadefish

Squirrelfish (3)

Shark (3)

Sheephead

Skate

Snapper (3)


Stargazer (2)

Stingray (2)

Surgeonfish (4)

Sweeper

Tilefish

Toadfish

Triggerfish (3)

Tripletail

Trumpetfish

Trunkfish (2)

Wrasse (8)


a Species groups listed in alphabetical order. Parentheses contain the number of individual species that comprise each group.











Table D-2. Primary Fish Species within the Top Fish Species Groups in terms of Average
Value,1990-1998.
Species Group Species Scientific Name % Value


1. Angelfish

2. Hogfish
3. Damselfish

4. Jawfish
5. Wrasse
6. Butterflyfish
7. Seahorse
8. Parrotfish

9. Surgeonfish
10. Drum


Blue

Spotfin (=cuban)
Blue Chromis (=reef)
Yellowhead
Bluehead

Spotfin
Dwarf
Striped (=painted)

Blue (young are yellow)
High-hat


Holancanthus Bermudensis

Bodianus Pulchellus
Chromis Cyaneus

Opistognathus Aurifrons
Thalassoma Bifasciatum
Chaetodon Ocellatus

Hippocampus Zosterae
Scarus Croicensis
Acanthurus Coeruleus
Equetus Acuminatus


Notes: Ranking based on average value of landings 1990-98.
1990-96 landings data.


Top individual species (by economic value) based on


by Group
26%

70
37

91
54
99
76
57

82
57











Table D-3. Invertebrate species groups collected by the commercial marine life industry in Florida, 1990-98a


Anemone (6)

Bryozoa

Chiton

Clam (4)

Conch (7)

Cowrie (2)

Crab (15)

Fileclam (2)


Gorgonian (3)

Jellyfish (2)

Isopod

Live Rock (6)

Live Sand

Lobster (3)

Nudibranch (3)

Octopus (4)


Oyster

Penshell

Plant (4)

Polychaete (5)

Sand Dollar (4)

Scallop (2)

Sea Biscuit (3)

Sea Cucumber (2)


a Species groups listed in alphabetical order. Parentheses contain the number of individual species that comprise each group.


Sea Hare

Shrimp (8)

Snail (26)

Sponge (4)

Starfish (8)

Tunicates

Urchin (5)

Whelk (2)










Table D-4. Primary Invertebrate Species within the Top Invertebrate Species Groups in
terms of Average Value, 1990-1998.

Species Group Species Scientific Name % Value
by Group
1. Live Rock Algae NA 36%
2. Snail Turbonella Family Turbinellidae 45%
3. Anemone Giant Caribbean Condylactus Gigantea 63
4. Crab Horseshoe Limulus Polyphemus 33
5. Starfish Red Spiny Sea Star Echinaster Sentus 65
(=common)
6. Gorgonian Red Swiftia Exserta, Others 38
7. Sand Dollar Other (not 5-, 6-, notched) Encope, Leofia, Mellita spp. 90
8. Urchin Variable or Green Lythechinus Variegatus 56
(=pincushion)
9. Sponge Red Tree ? (Class Demospongia) 51
10. Live Sand NA NA NA
Notes: Ranking based on average value of landings 1990-98. Top individual species (by economic value) based on
1990-96 landings data.


















Appendix E


Figures











100000- $10.00
90000 -.
80000 -- -- $9.00
70000 A '
I 60000-- / -- -$8.00 .
o .
50000-- A \
E 40000 / $7.00 *

30000 ..
20000- / $6.00
10000--
0 I I I I I I I I $5.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

---A--- Landings -au-Average Price

Figure 1. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Angelfish, Florida, 1990-1998.


16000- $10.00

14000--

12000- -$8.00

S10000-- .
0 A- / $2 0
S8000-- $6.00
E
= 6000--

4000-- --$4.00

2000--

0 I I I I I I I I $2.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- Landings -- Average Price

Figure 2. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Hogfish, Florida, 1990-1998.












45000 $2.50

40000-

35000 $2.00
35000 -- .

30000 -
S. $1.50 .
0 25000- *

20000- C.
E - $1.00
z 15000- C- .

10000
10000- $0.50

5000

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

--- -- Landings -A--Average Price

Figure 3. Landings and Average Dockside Price ofDamselfish, Florida, 1990-1998.


30000-- $3.50
A

25000- $3.00

,$2.50
S20000 -- 0

A -$2.00 .L
0
15000 --
E --$1.50

10000-- A $1.00
--- .--$1.00

5000 .''
5000 -$0.50


0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- - -Landings --Average Price

Figure 4. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Jawfish, Florida, 1990-1998












30000 $3.00


25000- -$2.50

A,
..--/'
c 20000- --$2.00 "
0

S15000 $1.50
0 8

z10000- -$1.00 o


5000- -$0.50


0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

---- Landings -- Average Price

Figure 5. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Wrasse, Florida, 1990-1998


18000- $4.50

16000-- $4.00

14000- $3.50

.e 12000-- -$3.00 g
4-)
4 10000- --$2.50 -

S8000- '--$2.00 *
E
z 6000- -$1.50 a.

4000-- --$1.00

2000- --$0.50

0 II I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -Landings --Average Price

Figure 6. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Butterfly, Florida, 1990-1998











120000 -$1.60

*o.- $1.40
100000 -
S- $1.20
80000- ; \ ^
. $1.00
4-'
S60000- $0.80


z 40000 -.
S\ \ $0.40
20000-- ---
--$0.20

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -A- - Landings ---Average Price

Figure 7. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Seahorse, Florida, 1990-1998


10000-- $8.00

9000 A --$7.00

8000--
S-$6.00
7000--
S6000 $5.00
1 6000--

5000-- A $4.00 L

4000- A, -$3.00 .
z --$3.00 '2
3000-- A
$2.00
2000-

1000 --$1.00

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -k -Landings --Average Price

Figure 8. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Parrotfish, Florida, 1990-1998












10000- T $4.50

9000-- .--" .. --$4.00

8000
8000-- $3.50
7000 A'$3.00
c r-- \ --$3.00g
S6000- '
0--" --$2.50 4
5000--
S- -$2.00 .
E 4000 -
2 30 -$1.50 .
3000

2000-- -$1.00

1000-- --$0.50

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

---A--- Landings ----Average Price

Figure 9. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Surgeonfish, Florida, 1990-1998


14000-- $4.00


12000 A -- $3.50

.A V $3.00
10000 --. $3

S1--$2.50
8000--

B B _= y-- $2.00
E 6000--
S-- $1.50 "
4000--
-- $1.00

2000-- --$0.50


0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -k -Landings --Average Price

Figure 10. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Drum, Florida, 1990-1998











1200000- $2.50
A------A
1000000 $2.
5 - $2.00

S800000 --
0o --$1.50 -
C' a
S600000-- 0 /
I-L
S- $1.00 a
= 400000 -
z

200000- $0.50
< A
l--, ...
0 I I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -A- - Landings --4wAverage Price

Figure 11. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Live Rock, Florida, 1990-1998


900000 $0.80

800000- $0.70

700000- -$0.60
700000 -
$0.60
S600000 $0.50

500000-- A
S- -$0.40
w 400000-
E $0.30 *
z 300000-- ..---..
-"-"$0.20 a.
200000- $0.20

100000 A-" $0.10

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -A - Landings -- Average Price

Figure 12. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Snail, Florida, 1990-1998











400000 $0.60

350000-
-$0.50
300000--
- $0.40
S250000--
0_ I
L 200000- 'A- A --$0.30

E 150000-- C
S-$0.20 8
100000 --
$0.10
50000-

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -- Landings ---Average Price

Figure 13. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Anemone, Florida, 1990-1998


900000- T$1.60

800000 -- A --$1.40

700000 \ 1.20

S600000 --
--$1.00
500000- .
--$0.80
400000
3000 $0.60
z 300000-- .

200000 -$0.40

100000- A- -- ---.. -- $0.20

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- k - Landings -- Average Price

Figure 14. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Crab, Florida, 1990-1998











1200000- -T$1.00

- $0.90
1000000- __$0.80


800000- $0.70
S\ $0.60

S600000-- -$0.50
S/
E -$0.40 .
S400000 $0
4 $0.30-
... $0.20

200000- 0 -$.20
-$0.10

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -A--- Landings -- Average Price

Figure 15. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Starfish, Florida, 1990-1998


50000 T T$4.00

45000 -$3.50

40000--
...A' $3.00 s
35000- -
S000 $2.50

o -, / -o
25000- --$2.00

E 20000- -- $1.50
$1.50
z C
15000- -
S-$1.00
10000--
5000- --$0.50

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

S- -k -Landings --Average Price

Figure 16. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Gorgonian, Florida, 1990-1998












900000 $0.30

800000 A $0.25

700000--

w 600000- -$0.20

500000 -
o -- $0.15 a
W 400000 -
E
z 300000- ,' $0.10 8

200000-- A
--$0.05
100000- A

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -- Landings ---Average Price

Figure 17. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Sand Dollar, Florida, 1990-1998


45000- $2.50

40000-- -- - A

35000- ... $2.00

S30000- i
--$1.50 E
S25000-

S20000--.
|E $1.00 .
z 15000-
I-
10000 $0.50

5000-

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- A -Landings Average Price

Figure 18. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Urchin, Florida, 1990-1998











20000- $3.50
18000-- ."" ""-a-- .--- ...-
A18000 -A --$3.00
16000--

14000 $2.50 -

8 12000-- -
S12000 $2.00 |
o'-
S10000 .
$1.50
S8000 $150
E C
Z 6000- $1.00 '

4000-
$0.50
2000-

0 I I I I I I I I $0.00
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- -A- - Landings ---Average Price

Figure 19. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Sponge, Florida, 1990-1998


160000- $1.60

140000-- A -$1.40

120000 --$1.20

100000-- ,' --$1.00
0

80000 "---$0.80 0

E 60000 --$0.60 2

40000 -$0.40

20000- --$0.20

0 I I I I $0.00
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

- A -Landings -Average Price

Figure 20. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Live Sand, Florida, 1990-1998.




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A n E conomic P rofile of F loridas M arine L ife I ndustry By Sherry L. Larkin, Charles M. Adams, Robert L. Degner, Donna J. Lee, and J. Walter Milon Food and Resource Economics Department Institute Of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Flori da P.O. Box 110240 Gainesville, Fl 32611 0240 This report was developed under the auspices of the Florida Sea Grant College Program with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Sea Grant, Department of Commerce, Grant No. NA76RG 0120.

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2 March 31, 2001

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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction 4 I. A. Background 4 I. B. 1. Regulations and Requirements for Participation 4 I. B. 2. Market Channels 4 I. B. 3. Need for Research 7 I. B. 4. Objectives and Outline of Analysis 8 II. Marine Life Landings in Florida from 1990 to 1998 9 II. A. Data Description 9 II. E. General Trends in Marine Life Landings and Values 17 Trends in the Volume and Value of Finfish Landings 19 Trends in the Volume and Value of Invertebrate Landings 24

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4 An Economic Profile of Flo ridas Marine Life Industry I. Introduction I. A. Background The marine life industry in Florida as defined by the Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.) pertains to the non lethal harvest of saltwater fish, invertebrates, and plants for commercial pu rposes (F.A.C. Rule 46 42). Products are landed live and sold to wholesalers, retailers, or direct to individual aquarium owners (foreign and domestic). Some products, such as sand dollars, are dried and destined for the shell/curio market. The vast maj ority of products, however, are destined for the hobby aquaria industry. According to the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC), tropical fish keeping is the second most popular hobby (after photography) in the United States. Aside from fish, the s uccessful establishment of an artificial reef requires colonization by invertebrates (Loiselle and Baensch). Live tropical aquatic products include both marine and freshwater species. In Florida, the marine component of the larger industry for live ornamental aquatic products is derived almost exclusively from the capture of wild specimens (exceptions include the culture of clown fish and live rock). 1 Conversely, the freshwater species (primarily fish) are cultured or farmed. According to the PIJAC, Florida produces and supplies 95 percent of the tropical fish sold in North America. In addition, tropical fish and plants are the number one air freight commodity for the state of Florida; each week an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 boxes leave Tampa International Airport alone (PIJAC). The PIJAC estimates the annual value of tropical species collected and farmed in Florida at approximately $60 million. For comparison, the worldwide wholesale market for marine (i.e., saltwater) ornamental products wild and farmed is estimated at more than $100 million (Aquaculture Development Program; National Sea Grant Office). I .B. The Marine Life Industry in Florida I. B. 1. Regulations and Requirements for Participation The collection of live tropical, o rnamental, marine species including fish, invertebrates, and plants is regulated by Chapter 46 42 of the Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). This Marine Life Rule was implemented in 1991 and has since been amended three times (in 1992, 1993 and 19 95). The major components of the current rule are summarized below. Recreational harvesters for example, individuals wishing to stock their own aquarium are subject to daily bag limits on the collection of marine life species. For fish and invert ebrates, the maximum daily catch equals 20 individuals (including no more than five angelfish) and no 1 The Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute has successfully reared six species of clownfish in captivity. The culturing of live rock is allowed by individuals who lease submerged lands from the State of Florida (F.A.C. 46 42.008).

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5 more than one gallon of plants (F.A.C. 46 42.005). 2 Commercial harvesters have higher daily limits for butterflyfish, angelfish, and giant Caribbean anem ones (F.A.C. 46 42.006). In order to exceed the daily recreational bag limits, however, commercial collectors must have a current Saltwater Products License (SPL). According to Florida Statute 370.06(2), every person, firm, or corporation that sells, off ers for sale, barters, or exchanges for merchandise any saltwater products harvested and landed in Florida must have a valid SPL. The annual fee for an SPL ranges from $50 to $600 depending on residency and whether the license is issued to an individual o r a vessel. In order to harvest marine life specimens in particular (e.g., tropical fish and invertebrate species including mollusks, plants, live rock and live sand), a $75 marine life fishery endorsement is also required. In addition to the SPL and m arine life endorsement, a restricted species endorsement is needed to sell the majority of species (F.A.C. 46 42(2 4)). 3 This endorsement is issued to individuals or firms that can certify a minimum income threshold from the sale of saltwater products in at least one of the last three years. The typical threshold is 25 percent or $5,000 (whichever is less) from employment, entrepreneurship, pensions, retirement benefits, and social security benefits. Aside from bag limits and permitting requirements, cer tain species are subject to a minimum and/or maximum size restriction (F.A.C. 46 42.004). For example, the butterflyfishes and several species of angelfish including the Grey, French, Blue, Queen, and Rock Beauty are currently subject to both a minimu m and maximum length (i.e., individuals outside the range cannot be landed). Maximum lengths are also specified for the gobies, jawfish, and Spanish hogfish, while Spotfin hogfish are subject to a minimum length requirement for landing. The size restrict ions pertain only to those species captured in Floridas state or adjacent federal waters; they do not pertain to interstate or international commerce (e.g., individuals collected elsewhere and imported into Florida). Not all species may be collected. T he list of prohibited species includes Longspine urchins, Bahama starfish, hard and stony corals, sea fans, and fire corals (F.A.C. 46 42.009). In addition, live rock may only be harvested from submerged lands leased by the state of Florida if the individ ual has a FDEP or federal permit for live rock culture (F.A.C. 46 42.008). Hence, in order to collect live rock in Florida, and individual needs (1) an SPL with marine life and restricted species endorsements, (2) a submerged lands lease, and (3) a FDEP o r federal permit. Rule 46 42 of the F.A.C. also includes restrictions on allowable gears, including nets (hand held, barrier, and drop), trawls, slurp guns, and quinaldine (F.A.C. 46 42.007). Barrier nets cannot exceed 60 feet in length, have a depth gre ater than 8 feet, and a mesh larger than inch. Drop nets are also restricted to a mesh size of inch and cannot exceed 12 feet. Trawls, which can only be used to collect dwarf seahorses, must be a towed by a vessel no longer than 15 feet (and at less than idle speed) with an opening no larger than 12 inches by 48 inches. Quinaldine a chemical used to briefly anesthetize fish and facilitate their capture may be used only if the 2 In addition, Rule 46 44 of the F.A.C. contains an allowable species list for sharks and prohibits the take of more than one per person, or two per vessel, per day. 3 The list of res tricted fish, invertebrates, and plants which comprise the majority of all species landed is reproduced in Appendix B

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6 individual has a special $25 activity license issued by FDEP (FDEP Rule 62R 4.004). The chemical must be diluted with seawater at no more than 2% concentration. Finally, all collected marine life must be harvested live and the vessel must contain a continuously circulating live well, aeration, or oxygenation system (F.A.C. 46 42.0035). Species may be collected from all state waters, excluding the Biscayne National Park (unless permission is obtained from the park superintendent), and adjacent federal waters. Harvest limits apply to species collected from all areas. Dur ing the 1998 Session of the Florida Legislature, a moratorium on the issue of new marine life endorsements was passed effective 1 July 1998 to 1 July 2002 (Senate Bill 1506). The bill also mandated that the Marine Fisheries Commission (MFC) prepare a repo rt of options for the establishment of a limited entry program for the marine life fishery by 1 July 2000. The MFC consulted interested commercial fishing organizations and held three public hearings to solicit input for policy development. The resulting report to the Florida Legislature included a number of options (all with mixed support and opposition) for establishing a limited entry program for Floridas marine life industry (Division of Marine Fisheries, 2000). There was general support for continu ation of the moratorium, however there were those that want it coupled with a specific goal in terms of licenses rather than an indefinite continuation. Those supporting continuation of the moratorium also proposed a number of conditions, all of which h ad mixed support and opposition. The conditions included (1) continuation of the moratorium until those who are not reporting landings stop paying for the license, (2) using attrition to reduce numbers of licenses, and (3) basing the ability to renew the endorsement on reported landings. There was also discussion of qualifying landings by using marine life landings only, or by using total reported landings. There was general support for raising the income threshold of fishing income from $5,000 to $10,00 0 (in any one of three previous years) in order to renew the license. A limited entry license based on reported landings had some support, but there was no clear consensus as to when to initiate a cut off date for implementation. Tiered licenses, based u pon type of equipment used for harvest was also explored. For example, one license would be required for SCUBA or chemical use, another for roller frame trawl use, and another for trap/bycatch use. Other discussions focused transfer ability of licenses, and also on the idea that a license could only be used by one or a limited number of people (Division of Marine Fisheries, 2000). a Detailed codes were not available for 1997 1998 data.The Marine Fisheries Commission is also considering establishing (1) ba g limits for tricolor hermit crabs and turbo snails, (2) changing the bag limit for pink tipped anemones, (3) changing the size and bag limits of Cuban and Spanish hogfish, (4) allowing the harvest of small coastal sharks, and (5) adding some grunt species to the marine life species list (Marine Fisheries Commission Staff Paper, September 1998).

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7 I. B. 2. Market Channels Following landing, commercial products are typically sold to a local wholesaler for distribution in Florida or export (interstate or int ernational). Harvesters may also act as wholesalers and brokers of imported products. This primary distribution chain is depicted in Figure 1: Figure 1. Typical Distribution System for Tropical Ornamental Marine Species According to Januzzi (1991), 83 percent of collected specimens are destined for U.S. markets (48 percent remain in Florida, 35 percent are exported to other states). Of the specimens that remain in Florida, 65 percent are sold to wholesalers in South Florida. I. B. 3. Need for Research The tropical fish keeping hobby is the second most popular in the United States (PIJAC). More importantly, interest in home aquariums continues to grow. Industry growth has been especially prevalent for the establishment of artific ial reefs due to recent technological advances and breakthroughs in the care of such species. Marine aquarias rely on live specimens fish and invertebrates such as plants, rock, sand, and crustaceans collected from the wild. In the United States, su ch collection is restricted to South Florida and Hawaii. The recent awareness of the plight of coral reefs such as the designation of 1997 as the International Year of the Reef has begun to highlight the marine life collection industry. According to the World Resources Institute (WRI), almost all reefs of the Florida Keys are at a moderate threat from human activities, including the over fishing of target species. In addition, At a minimum, over fishing results in shifts in fish size, abundanc e, and species composition within reef communities. Evidence suggests that removal of key herbivore and predator species may ultimately affect large scale ecosystem changes. For example, Collection in Florida Wholesaler Purveyor of Aquatic Animals Export to Retailers Imports Freshwater Saltwater Farming in Florida

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8 removal of triggerfish has been linked with explosions in burrowing urchin populations, their prey, who subsequently accelerate reef erosion through feeding activities. In the Caribbean, decades of over fishing has led, in many places, to very low levels of grazing fish species. Because of this, herbivorous sea urchins ( a non burrowing species) have played an increasingly important role in keeping down algae growth. As discussed in section I.B.3 above, collection practices in Florida have been regulated since the early 1990s with passage of Florida Statute 46 42. Ho wever, until 1998, participation and hence fishing effort has been effectively unrestricted. Senate Bill 1506 placed a four year moratorium (beginning July 1, 1998) on the issue of new marine life endorsements, without which marine life collected in Florida cannot be sold (Florida Statute 370.06(2)(d)2). The current moratorium (and potential future limited entry system) could produce a wide variety of economically beneficial effects by eliminating myopically driven practices that lead to a disregard for other fishers, recreational divers, reef health, fish mortality rates, and lower revenues (as smaller fish are collected and sold for a lower price). Given the diversity of species collected, such a generic program could neglect the protection of cert ain species. The State of Florida instituted a comprehensive data collection program the Marine Fisheries Information System in 1990. The data resulting from this system are commonly called Trip Ticket data, because the program requires that all la ndings of saltwater fish, saltwater products, and shellfish destined for sale, barter, or trade be reported to the FDEP on a trip by trip basis (Rule 62R 5). The data pertaining to the tropical marine ornamental products has, however, yet to be analyzed. Past and current trends regarding the exploitation of individual species are necessary to accurately assess whether existing regulations are sufficient. Specifically, a thorough analysis of the data Florida landings and trade statistics would aid the Florida Marine Fisheries Commission in analyzing regulatory options. In addition, the descriptions and opinions of industry members, primarily Florida collectors and dealers, are crucial to the accurate understanding and ultimate success of future regula tions. Lastly, the culture of marine ornamental species is, at present, a nonviable supplement or alternative to the capture industry since for many species (1) information on reproduction in captivity is unknown, (2) reproduction in captivity is pr ohibitively expensive, and/or (3) restricted by environmental regulations regarding release into the wild due to possible harm to native species. I. B. 4. Objectives and Outline of Analysis Study objectives include: 1. To characterize the supply and demand of Floridas ornamental marine life products by examining historical landings and trade statistics. 2. To identify trends in the volume and value of approximately 320 species landed in Florida, and the number of harvesters, in order to assess the future econo mic potential of the industry. 3. To ascertain if proposed management strategies, such as the generic (i.e., species independent) limited entry system, could improve efficiency by reducing overcrowding and/or overharvesting in the industry. 4. To determine the views of U.S. wholesalers regarding the state of the industry and role that Florida supply has, can, and could be expected to play in the future.

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9 Using data from the Florida Marine Fisheries Information System (described in the next section), the quantity and value of landed species are examined. In addition, the number of trips, collection/capture locations, and numbers of industry participants (i.e., collectors and dealers/wholesalers) from 1990 through 1998 are analyzed. Statistics on the local indu stry are then be compared to trends in total U.S. import and exports by species and country of origin of Live Ornamental Fish (National Trade Data and Economic Bulletin Board, SIC0273). In addition, these statistics are augmented with data from the U. S. Department of Agriculture (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service data) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (e.g., declaration form #3177). Although some data series aggregate information on saltwater, freshwater, and aquacultured product, histo rical trends and regional differences are important given the (at least slight degree of) substitutability or complementarity between sources and species. Trip Ticket data were also utilized to develop a survey instrument for (1) Florida dealers (i.e., a ll first buyers of harvested product in Florida), of which there were 66 in fiscal year 1998, and (2) the 125 largest wholesalers in the United States (from the Pet Supplies Marketing Directory). Since these dealers handle both Florida and foreign sourced product, they are the primary source of information regarding the relationship between species, identifying substitutes and complements, and the future of the industry in Florida. Questions focused on Florida product but also addressed larger marketing i ssues. The responses are compared to a 1996 member survey conducted by the American Marinelife Dealers Association and to the most recent annual survey of independent pet retailers conducted by Pet Dealer (a trade magazine). II. Marine Life Landings in Florida from 1990 to 1998 II. A. Data Description The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) formerly known as the Department of Natural Resources has been collecting data on the harvest of live marine products since 1990. The FDEP req uires licensed wholesale dealers (i.e., buyers) to report dealer and harvester (collector) license numbers, the location of harvest, the species and quantity purchased, and the value of each transaction by species (Chapter 62R 5). Since each transaction t ypically occurs immediately following the trip, these forms are referred to as trip tickets.. Landings that are not sold, bartered, or exchanged are excluded from the data set maintained by the FDEP. Since there are size limits for some species (46 42.0 04), the FDEP trip tickets also allow the collector to report the size of individuals (e.g., small, medium, large). The size information is, however, not applicable for all species and is frequently unreported. Due to the main objectives of this analysis and limitations due to the magnitude of results (given the number of species, years, quarters, and areas), this information is not incorporated into this analysis. It is important to note, however, that the size of wild caught fish will vary depending on variety, season (e.g., due to water temperature and availability of food), location, and sex of the fish. These factors can also affect specific characteristics of the fish such as color. For many species, size and color differences translate into price differences.

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10 Prior to 1990, landings data were collected from individual holding quinaldine permits (Hess and Stevely). Given that the corresponding data excludes invertebrate data, prices, and the harvest of fish without chemical use, these data are n ot analyzed in this report. II. B. Number of Marine Life Industry Participants The number of participants in the marine life industry from 1990 to 1998 is summarized in Table 1. The number of licensed marine life dealers increased significantly in th e mid 1990s, but by 1998 this number had declined to the level observed in the early 1990s. Currently, there are approximately 65 licensed dealers in the State of Florida. These dealers are legally allowed to purchase marine life species from licensed collectors and are required to submit information regarding the transaction to FMRI. This required reporting information consists of the collectors license number, species landed (quantity and unit price), area where collection occurred, and the transact ion date. Individuals can be licensed as both a collector and dealer. To collect marine life in excess of the daily bag limit of 20 specimens and one gallon of marine plants, an individual or business needs a saltwater products license (SPL) with both a restricted species endorsement and marine life endorsement (F.A.C. 46 42.006). The marine life endorsement (MLE) is the only authority that applies exclusively to the marine life industry. The total number of MLEs increased from 1990 to 1997. In 19 97, approximately 800 endorsements had been issued whereas fewer than 200 were issued in 1990. The number of active marine life endorsements (i.e., endorsements with reported landings), however, has remained fewer than 230. In 1998, only 128 MLEs were a ctive. The total number of MLEs issued declined recently due to a moratorium that will remain in effect at least until 2003. However, there continues to remain a significant amount of latent effort in the fishery. It is believed that these are commerci al enterprises, individual fisherman and businesses, that are retaining permits to hedge against further restrictions in other fisheries.

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11 Table 1. Number of Commercial Participants in the Florida Marine Life Industry Active Restricted Saltwater Ma rine Life License Wholesale Species Products License Endorsements Year Dealers Endorsements Total Active Total Active 1990 91 69 127 349 297 159 107 1991 92 91 265 436 289 311 164 1992 93 109 362 521 329 389 197 1993 94 114 431 572 317 477 222 1994 95 112 523 655 318 566 229 1995 96 103 589 698 273 630 205 1996 97 98 626 706 213 668 175 1997 98 105 726 844 241 801 198 1998 99 66 703 767 152 743 128 Note: Active refers to license numbers that reported landings during the year.

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12 II. C. Products According to data collected by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), approximately 320 marine ornamental species have been landed in Florida for commercial purposes from 1990 to 1998. The total includes over 180 differen t species of fish (57 percent) and 137 invertebrate species (43 percent), including live rock, live sand, and various plant species. Slightly over 70 percent of fish species and approximately half of the invertebrate species are classified as restricte d (Figure 2). The harvest of restricted species is subject to additional regulations, which are discussed in sub section 1.B.1 below. Figure 2. Number of Species Landed in Florida by Type and Restricted Status, 1990 98. Aside from the type of organism and restricted status, each individual is identified by its common name, genus, species, and/or family. For the fishes, species that share a common name typically are from the same family. For example, there are nine species of parrotfish that are all me mbers of the scaridae family. Exceptions include the blennies, sharks, and rays. Of the over 180 fish species landed, there are a total of just 67 common names representing 51 families (e.g., bass, groupers, hamlets, and perch are all members of the serr anidae family). The common fish names are listed in Table 2 with the corresponding list of invertebrates. For the invertebrate species, common names do not match specific families as closely as the fish species. For example, the 26 snails represent 21 different families and the 15 crabs represent 10 families. When grouped by common name, however, the 145 species are reduced to just 34 distinct groups. In addition, it will be useful in the analysis to further distinguish the invertebrate species as, for example, sessile or mobile. Sessile invertebrates are completely immobile and include such species as plants, live rock, and live sand. Slow moving invertebrates such as anemones, corals, sponges, and marine worms are frequently included in this category. The mobile invertebrates can also be categorized by whether they are segmented. For example, unsegmented mobile invertebrates would include the molluscs (i.e., marine snails, nudibranches, bivalves, and octopi). Segmented mobile invertebrates (arthropada, class crustacea) include shrimps, prawns, lobsters, and crabs. Lastly, the echinodermatas or spiny skinned ones, are 128 66 53 71 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Fish Invertebrates Number of Species Restricted Not Restricted

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13 characterized by radial symmetry and include sand dollars, sea urchins, starfish, brittlestars, and sea cucumbers. Table 2. List of Ornamental Marine Species Collected in Florida, 1990 98 Fishes Invertebrates Angelfish (6) Moray (5) Anemone (6) Balloonfish Parrotfish (9) Basket Star Barracuda Perch Brittle Star (4) Bass (8) Pilotfish Bryozoa Batfish Pipefish Chito n Bigeye Porgy Clam (4) Blenny (8) Puffer (3) Conch (7) Brotula Ray (4) Cowrie (2) Burrfish Razorfish Crab (15) Butterflyfish (6) Remora (2) Fileclam (2) Cardinalfish (3) Scorpionfish (2) Gorgonian (3) Catfish Seahorse (3) Jellyfish (2) Chub Searobin Isopod Clingfish Shark (3) Live Rock (6) Coronetfish (3) Sheephead Live Sand Cowfish (3) Skate Lobster (3) Cusk eel Snapper (3) Nudibranch (3) Damselfish (14) Soapfish Octopus (4) Drum (4) Soldierfish Oyster Filefish (6) Spadefish Penshell Flounder Squirrelfish (3) Plant (4) Frogfish (2) Stargazer (2) Polychaete (5) Goatfish (2) Stingray (2) Sand Dollar (4) Goby (3) Surgeonfish Scallop (2) Grouper (5) Sweeper Sea Biscuit (3) Grunt (5) Tang (3) Sea Cucumber (2) Hamlet (6 ) Tilefish Sea Hare Hawkfish Toadfish Sea Star (3) Hogfish (3) Triggerfish (3) Shrimp (8) Jack (2) Tripletail Snail (26) Jawfish (4) Trumpetfish Sponge (4) Lizardfish Trunkfish (2) Tunicates Minnow Wrasse (8) Urchin (5) Mojarra Whelk (2) N otes: Common names reflect biological family, number in parentheses corresponds to the number of different genus and species combinations related to the family. Names are listed in alphabetical order.

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14 II. D. Location of Capture The Marine Fisheries Inf ormation System the data collection program maintained by the FDEP has divided the fishing areas in Florida into 17 distinct sections. Each of the 17 primary areas is further subdivided into distinct subregions. In addition, separate fishing area cod es have been defined for Georgia, Barbados, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. These codes are presented in Appendix A, Figure A 1. Only eight of the 17 primary areas were reported as sources of marine life collected for commercial purposes from 1990 t hrough 1996. However, nine additional areas reported landings in 1997 and 1998. Because most of the landings were relatively small, the nine areas are included in the all others category. The identified collecting regions ranged from the Crystal River Tarpon Springs area on Floridas West Coast down to the Miami area on Floridas southern East Coast. Overall, the Marathon area (748.0, 748.1, and 748.9) accounted for the highest value of landings (31.1 percent or $7.2 million) and most number of trips (39.4 percent or nearly 181,000) (Table 3, Figure 3). The areas reported represented approximately 75 percent of the total number of trips taken and 76.8 percent value of marine life landed. The source region was not reported for 15.8 percent of trips th at accounted for 15.2 percent of landed value (Table 3). Also, the total value which of landings over all areas does not agree with the total value of landings reported in section II.E. because some observations were excluded because of confidentiality co nsiderations.

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Table 3. Summary of Total Trips and Value of Landings by Area, 1990 98. 90 96 90 96 97 98 97 98 90 98 90 98 90 98 90 98 90 98 Area No. of Landings No. of Landings Total Total Percent of Total Landings Percent of Name Code a Trips (t hous.$) Trips (thous.$) Trips Trips Total Trips (thous.$) Total Landings Crystal River Tarpon Springs Offshore Waters 6.0 18,851 302 St. Joseph Sound 6.1 6 7 Other Inland Waters 6.2 9 13 Federal Waters 6.9 9,511 2,301 Total 6.0 28,377 2,623 3,115 213 31,492 2,836 6.86% 2,836 12.32% Tampa Offshore Waters 5.0 503 155 Tampa Bay 5.1 98 98 Sarasota Bay 5.3 51 10 Federal Waters 5.9 6,783 1,371 Total 5.0 7,435 1,634 305 124 7,740 1,758 1.69% 1,758 7.64% Fort Myers Offshore Waters 4.0 44 192 Charlotte Harbor 4.1 9 61 Pine Island Soud and 4.3 16 183 San Carlos Bay Federal Wat ers 4.9 76 64 Total 4.0 145 500 67 54 212 554 0.05% 554 2.41% Everglades Offshore Waters 3.0 10 1 Whitewater Bay 3.1 1 5 All Other Inland Waters 3.2 4 6 Federal Waters 3.9 50 33 To tal 3.0 65 45 27 5 92 50 0.02% 50 0.22% Tortugas All Waters 2.0 52 5 Federal Waters 2.9 1 4 Total 2.0 53 9 1,225 51 1,278 60 0.28% 60 0.26% Key West North of US 1 1.0 21,029 667 South of U S 1(FL Bay) 1.1 8,483 835

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16 Federal Waters 1.9 7,966 813 Total 1.0 37,478 2,315 8,647 656 46,125 2,971 10.04% 2,971 12.91% Marathon South of US 1 748.0 75,810 2,663 North of US 1(FL Bay) 748.1 8,756 241 Federal Waters 748.9 80,566 3,587 Total 748.0 165,132 6,491 15,807 668 180,939 7,159 39.40% 7,159 31.10% Miami Offshore Waters 744.0 45,915 1,054 Florida Bay 744.1 3,101 97 Biscayne Bay, Card Sou nd 744.2 1,414 84 and Barnes Sound Federal Waters 744.9 21,940 915 Total 744.0 72,370 2,150 2,816 137 75,186 2,287 16.37% 2,287 9.93% All Others Total 43,504 1,851 43,504 1,851 9.47% 1,851 8.0 4% Unknown Total 71,851 3,464 817 30 72,668 3,494 15.82% 3,494 15.18% Grand Total 382,906 19,231 76,330 3,789 459,236 23,020 100.00% 23,020 100.00% a Detailed codes were not available for 1997 1998 data.

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Figure 4. Annual dockside val ue of commercial marine life landings in Florida 1990 98 II. E. General Trends in Marine Life Landings and Values At this point it bears repeating that the marine life fishery in Florida is defined in the regulations and legislation to include only s altwater species that are collected live and intended for the aquarium industry ( i.e. commercial purposes). The total dockside value of marine life landings in Florida increased from $1.4 million in 1990 to approximately $4.3 million in 1992 (Figure 4, T able 4). The total value of this fishery then decreased to about $3.5 million in 1995 and can be accounted for by decrease in the landings of live rock and sand, which fell from approximately 1.2 million pounds (536,758 kg.) in 1995 to 166,000 pounds (75 ,709 kg.) in 1998. The reason for the dramatic decrease was the prohibition of all commercial harvest of live rock and sand, in both Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico waters adjacent to Florida. The only exception is the harvest of live rock from permitted com mercial culture sites approved by the appropriate 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Invertebrates Fish

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18 state and federal agencies. By 1998, there were seven commercial liverock culture leases off the cost of Florida, but total production was relatively low. (Florida Marine Research Institute, 1999). Table 4. Landings and Value of Fish and Invertebrates Collected in Florida, 1990 1998. Fish Invertebrates All Year Landings Value Percent of Total Value Landings Value Percent of Total Value Total Value 1990 245401 $766,868 55% 1 173861 $635,950 45% $1,401,818 1991 291311 $986,885 42% 1504535 $1,357,720 58% $2,344,605 1992 393497 $971,115 32% 2156511 $2,061,135 68% $3,032,250 1993 355017 $1,283,871 36% 2978591 $2,282,590 64% $3,566,461 1994 425781 $1,612,597 38% 3011263 $2,660 ,887 62% $4,273,484 1995 259387 $944,172 27% 3388298 $2,528,508 73% $3,472,680 1996 205832 $832,603 32% 3466233 $1,773,081 68% $2,605,684 1997 278105 $903,923 44% 3147607 $1,134,274 56% $2,038,197 1998 201212 $759,363 40% 3340825 $1,136,385 60% $1,895, 748 Totals 2656643 $9,060,397 37% 24167724 $15,570,530 63% $24,630,927

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19 Trends in the Volume and Value of Finfish Landings Landings and value of marine ornamental finfish increased to peak levels in 1994, then decreased through 1998. Reported landin gs increased from 245,000 individual fish in 1990 to 426,000 in 1994, then declined to approximately 200,000 in 1998. Dockside value followed the same general pattern, increasing from $766,000 in 1990 to $1.6 million in 1994, then declining to $759,000 in 1998(Figure 4, Table 4). Note that in 1992, landings increased 35 percent while the total value of landings declined slightly. The increased landings were due specifically, to a five fold increase in the collection of seahorses (from approximately 14,00 0 harvested in 1991 to 83,700 harvested in 1992), primarily Hippocampus zosterae (i.e., Dwarf seahorses). In addition, the increased landings of seahorses lowered market prices; the average price paid by dealers for seahorses fell from $1.10 in 1991 to on ly $0.17 in 1992, a decline of nearly 84%. During the 1990 98 period, over 180 individual species of finfish were harvested. For simplicity, these species were grouped into 66 categories using their common name as defined by the Florida Marine Research Institute. The Institute uses a three digit code for each species and associated with this code are: (1) a common name, (2) genus and species, and (3) family. The common name is most closely associated with the family. For example, the data set contain s three genus and species of cowfish including Lactophyrs polygonia, Lactophyrs quadticornis, and family ostraciidae, which are listed (in common name field), respectively, as honeycomb cowfish, scrawled cowfish, and other cowfish. Although each speci es has its own unique code, each is a member of the ostraciidae family, and data from all three are aggregated and included under the common name cowfish. Note that not all codes are associated with a unique genus and species and, thus, fall into an ot her category. Consequently, the number of individual species should be considered as conservative. The 66 aggregate finfish groups are listed in Appendix Table D 1. If a group consists of multiple species, parentheses are used to indicate the number of individual species that are included in the common name groupings. Of these groups, ten accounted for nearly 84% of the total dockside value (Table 5). Predominant species within each of the top groups are listed in Appendix Table D 2. The most impo rtant species group was angelfish, which represented 54% of the total value. Hogfish accounted for 7.5% of the total, while the other eight groups accounted for approximately 22% of the total dockside value of live marine finfish collected from 1990 to 1 998 (Table 5). With the exception of seahorses and surgeonfish, all species groups exhibited a decline in landings volumes from 1990 to 1998 (Tables 6 and 7). The largest species group decline was reported to be the butterflyfish (48%), while seahorses were the species group with the largest increase (184%). Trends in landings for each of the top 10 species groups are shown in Appendix E, Figure 1 10.

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20 Average per unit prices varied considerably across species. For example, in 1998 the average unit pr ice for angelfish and hogfish both exceeded $8 per fish, while the unit price for damselfish, jawfish, wrasse, butterflyfish, and drum were less than $3 (Table 8). The average price for seahorses was less than $1. With the exception of angelfish, the spe cies exhibiting the highest landings volume ( i.e. damselfish, wrasse, and seahorses) also showed the lowest average unit price. The average unit price for angelfish varied considerably during the 1990 98 period (Figure 4), increasing from $5.62 in 1990 t o $9.13 in 1993, before declining to $6.92 in 1995. The unit average price for angelfish then increased to $8.12 in 1998. Price trends for each of the top 10 species groups are found in Appendix E, Figures 1 through 10. Table 5. Economic Importance of Top Fish Species Collected in Florida Total Value % Fish Cumulative 1990 98 Value Percent 1. Angelfish $4,891,917 54.0% 54.0% 2. Hogfish 676,696 7.5 61.5 3. Damselfish 316,368 3.5 65.0 4. Jawfish 293,857 3.2 68.2 5. Wrasse 289,019 3.2 71.4 6. But terflyfish 273,876 3.0 74.4 7. Seahorses 238,631 2.6 77.0 8. Parrotfish 233,147 2.6 79.6 9. Surgeons 201,162 2.2 81.8 10. Drum 174,865 1.9 83.7

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21 Table 6. Average annual landings and prices by most valuable fish species group, 1990 1998. Specie s Group Average Annual Landings Change in Landings 1990 1998 Average Annual Price 1990 1998 Change in Price 1990 1998 Average Annual Value (Number) (Percent) (Dollars) (Percent) (Dollars) Angelfish 71,793 31.6 7.60 44.5 543,546 Hogfish 9,911 13.1 7.55 13.6 75,189 Damselfish 26,408 34.0 1.33 10.5 35,152 Jawfish 12,901 6.8 2.42 17.4 32,651 Wrasse 19,735 42.4 1.64 13.5 32,113 Butterflyfish 11,029 48.3 2.86 26.4 30,431 Seahorse 48,426 +184.4 0.77 29.2 26,515 Parrotfish 5,308 39.5 4. 87 97.9 25,905 Surgeonfish 7,317 +18.3 3.09 3.9 22,351 Drum 9,230 43.0 2.11 15.3 19,429 Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. St. Petersburg, Florida.

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22 Table 7. Annual Commercial Landings of th e Ten Fish Species (grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest Average Landed Value 1990 98 in Florida 1990 98 Average Number Landed Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1. Angelfish $543,546 71,793 71,459 82,589 86,711 79,782 82,668 73,666 60,602 59,817 48,839 2. Hogfish $75,189 9,911 8,535 8,794 9,888 10,112 13,494 12,451 10,633 7,869 7,419 3. Damselfish $35,152 26,408 32,150 31,702 38,337 21,558 29,387 27,504 14,102 21,703 21,225 4. Jawfish $32,651 12,901 6,325 4,995 16,624 22,151 28,267 13,596 9,285 8,976 5,894 5. Wrasse $32,113 19,735 23,440 25,032 27,227 20,686 21,713 16,920 12,453 16,633 13,512 6. Butterflyfish $30,431 11,029 12,667 15,266 15,479 13,213 12,949 9,420 6,941 6,772 6,551 7. Sea horse $26,515 48,426 5,969 13,982 83,715 71,815 110,948 23,341 19,037 90,049 16,977 8. Parrotfish $25,905 5,308 4,953 5,760 8,374 6,212 8,728 3,876 2,866 4,004 2,998 9. Surgeonfish $22,351 7,317 6,511 6,881 8,930 9,342 8,378 6,791 5,359 5,961 7,702 10. Drum $19,429 9,230 11,891 9,816 9,505 10,569 11,526 9,086 7,233 6,661 6,781 Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida

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23 Table 8. Annual Dockside Prices of the Ten Fish Species ( grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest Average Landed Value 1990 98 in Florida 1990 98 Average Dockside Unit Price Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1. Angelfish $543,546 71,793 $5.62 $7.00 $6.61 $9 .13 $8.85 $6.92 $7.61 $8.54 $8.12 2. Hogfish $75,189 9,911 7.43 6.56 4.01 8.84 9.23 7.28 7.89 8.23 8.44 3. Damselfish $35,152 26,408 1.33 1.20 1.08 1.53 2.01 1.30 1.22 1.12 1.19 4. Jawfish $32,651 12,901 2.01 2.19 2.17 2.38 3.07 2.44 2.60 2.58 2.36 5. Wrasse $32,113 19,735 1.48 1.65 1.20 1.44 2.40 1.60 1.70 1.65 1.68 6. Butterflyfish $30,431 11,029 2.65 2.74 2.10 2.78 4.14 2.20 2.59 3.17 2.35 7. Seahorse $26,515 48,426 1.13 1.10 0.17 0.12 0.88 1.07 1.34 0.35 0.80 8. Parrotfish $25,905 5,308 2 .90 4.29 3.33 6.72 6.40 4.04 5.21 5.18 5.74 9. Surgeonfish $22,351 7,317 3.34 2.44 1.85 3.34 4.05 2.51 3.41 3.41 3.47 10. Drum $19,429 9,230 1.83 1.81 1.48 2.02 3.46 1.77 2.24 2.24 2.11 Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida

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24 Trends in the Volume and Value of Invertebrate Landings The approximately 150 individual species of invertebrates collected by the marine life industry in Florida from 1990 to 1998 were grouped, into 32 ma jor species groups (Appendix Table D 3) using the same procedure as with the finfish. Due to the diversity of the invertebrate species, these groups are further aggregated into the following three categories: (1) invertebrate animals (including crustaceans mollusks, starfish, anemones, sea cucumbers, sponges, nudibranches, bryozoa, etc.), (2) marine plants, and (3) live rock and live sand. The patterns in invertebrate landings volumes and value during the 1990 98 period varied somewhat across the three major groups (Figures 5 and 6). Landings of invertebrate animals exhibited a steady increase from approximately 850,000 individual animals in 1990 to 3.3 million animals in 1998, an increase of 290% (Table 9). However, the total dockside value of the ani mals increased from approximately $376,000 in 1990 to a peak of $1.2 million in 1994, then declined steadily to $896,000 in 1998 as species less valuable on a per unit basis (such as snails, starfish, and sand dollars) garnered an increasing share of the t otal volume. Landings of plants increased from approximately 31,000 individuals in 1990 to a peak of 37,000 in 1995. Plant landings then declined dramatically (approximately 62%) to 14,000 in 1998 (Table 9). Figure 5. Annual landings of invertebrates c ollected in Florida by type, 1990 98

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25 Type Invertebrate Animals Marine Plants Live Rock and Live Sand Year Landings Value Landings Value Landings Value 1990 (Number a ) 849 (Dollars a ) 377 (Number a ) 31 (Dollars a ) 8 (Pounds a ) 245 (Dollars a ) 252 1991 893 467 30 38 578 853 1992 1,352 581 28 48 777 1,433 1993 1,989 1,036 35 33 954 1,213 1994 1,888 1,209 31 29 1,079 1,422 1995 2,171 1,053 37 43 1,175 1,432 1996 2,637 899 20, 31 809 843 1997 3,148 911 21 41 185 183 1998 3,340 897 14 22 167 218 a All numbers, dollars and pounds are in thousands. Source: Florida Marine Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida.

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26 Table 9. Annual Landings and Values of Invertebra tes Collected in Florida by Type, 1990 1998. Figure 6. Annual dockside value of invertebrates collected in Florida by type, 1990 98. The dock side value of marine plants reached peaks in 1992 and 1995, then declined with landings vol umes to $22,000 in 1998. As discussed previously, the landings of live rock and live sand mirror the enactment of legislation intended to eliminate the harvest of naturally occurring live rock. Live rock landings increased from approximately 245,000 poun ds (110,250 kg) in 1990 to 1.2 million pounds (530,000 kg) in 1995, a 390% increase. Following the moratorium on landings in federal waters, landings decreased to 166,600 pounds (75,709 kg) in 1998. The $0 $200,000 $400,000 $600,000 $800,000 $1,000,000 $1,200,000 $1,400,000 $1,600,000 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Other Invertebrates Plants Live Rock and Live Sand 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Invert. Animals Marine Plants Live Rock and Live Sand Number of animals and plants, pounds of liverock.

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27 dockside value of live rock and sand reached equiva lent peaks of about $1.4 million in 1992 and 1995, then decreased dramatically to $218,000 in 1998 as reported landings were comprised predominantly of live rock cultured on permitted lease sites (Table 9). Ten species groups accounted for 89% of the tota l dockside value attributable to invertebrate animals, plants, and live rock and sand during the 1990 98 period (Table 10). The most important single species group was live rock, which accounted for almost 50% of the dockside value accumulated during the 1990 98 period, despite the drastic declines following the 1995 moratorium. Snails, anemones, and crabs combined accounted for 20% of the value, with the other six species contributing the remaining 30% of the total dockside value (Table 10). The primary species within each of the top 10 invertebrates species groups are listed in Appendix Table D 4. Table 10. Economic Importance of Top Invertebrate Species Collected in Florida, 1990 1098. Total Value Percent of Cumulative 1990 98 Invertebrate Value Percent 1. Live Rock $7,357,422 48.8% 48.8% 2. Snails 1,262,345 8.1 56.8 3. Anemones 1,128,348 7.2 64.1 4. Crabs 913,848 5.9 70.0 5. Starfish 729,706 4.7 74.7 6. Gorgonians 685,047 4.4 79.1 7. Sand Dollars 542,991 3.5 82.6 8. Urchins 385,953 2.5 85.1 9. Sponges 349,564 2.2 87.3 10. Live Sand 307,662 2.0 89.3

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28 Table 11. Average annual landings and prices by most valuable invertebrate species group, 1990 1998. Species Group Average Annual Landings Change in Landin gs 1990 1998 Average Annual Price 1990 1998 Change in Price 1990 1998 Average Annual Value (Number) a (Percent) (Dollars) (Percent) (Dollars) Live Rock 623,279 a 63.5 1.38 91.1 837,491 Snail 373,587 791.0 0.40 44.7 140,261 Anemone 275,812 26. 0 0.57 29.7 125,372 Crab 236,674 754.8 0.57 62.5 101,539 Starfish 205,012 1,824.0 0.39 88.8 81,078 Gorgonian 28,736 128.8 2.29 21.7 76,116 Sand Dollar 438,850 202.9 0.14 33.3 60,332 Urchin 36,823 28.8 1.14 234.0 42,884 Sponge 17,534 0.9 2.40 80.5 41,063 Live Sand 42,876 N.A. N.A. N.A. 34,185 a Number landed for all species except live rock and live sand, which are measured in pounds. Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. St. Pete rsburg, Florida.

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29 Table 12. Annual Commercial Landings of the Ten Invertebrate Species (grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest Average Landed Value 1990 98 in Florida 1990 98 Average Landings a Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1. Live Rock $837,491 623,279 lbs 249,093 581,376 776,810 954,197 1,087,065 1,094,723 671,226 104,044 90,975 2. Snail $140,261 373,587 90,369 182,180 257,752 293,688 288,406 480,706 470,357 493,614 805,210 3. Anemone $125,372 275,812 272,476 302,701 334,043 293,590 307,891 335,795 233,649 200,533 201,629 4. Crab $101,539 236,674 92,250 90,845 119,591 152,375 117,889 181,074 252,882 334,559 788,598 5. Starfish $ 81,078 205,012 26,575 28,220 129,574 333,9 11 314,071 222,102 543,782 975,368 511,297 6. Gorgonian $ 76,116 28,736 17,803 24,350 23,898 29,960 32,106 35,976 37,057 44,867 40,743 7. Sand Dollar $ 60,332 438,850 254,832 88,191 193,574 560,480 578,574 619,716 776,582 781,567 771,817 8. Urchin $ 4 2,884 36,823 31,745 35,495 33,008 41,156 39,052 41,268 36,039 33,232 40,900 9. Sponge $ 41,063 17,534 17,017 18,858 17,886 18,626 18,236 17,659 14,459 15,464 17,166 10. Live Sand $ 34,185 42,876 lb N/A N/A N/A N/A 4,802 86,175 138,194 81,129 75,584 a Number landed for all species except live rock and live sand, which are measured in pounds Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida.

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30 Table 13. Annual Dockside Price of th e Ten Invertebrate Species (grouped by common name) that comprise the Highest Average Landed Value 1990 98 in Florida 1990 98 Average Dockside Unit Price a Species Group Value Landings 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1 Live Rock $837,491 623,279 lbs $1.01 $1.47 $1.84 $1.27 $1.30 $1.20 $1.12 $1.30 $1.93 2. Snail $140,261 373,587 0.38 0.22 0.37 0.61 0.55 0.68 0.28 0.26 0.21 3. Anemone $125,372 275,812 0.37 1.47 0.42 0.48 0.53 0.43 0.44 0.47 0.48 4. Crab $101,539 23 6,674 0.48 0.43 0.40 1.46 0.86 0.55 0.42 0.34 0.18 5. Starfish $ 81,078 205,012 0.80 0.78 0.12 0.30 0.95 0.23 0.17 0.08 0.09 6. Gorgonian $ 76,116 28,736 1.98 1.58 0.94 2.23 3.80 2.42 2.80 2.47 2.41 7. Sand Dollar $ 60,332 438,850 0.12 0.27 0.15 0.1 7 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.08 8. Urchin $ 42,884 36,823 0.50 0.56 0.34 0.55 1.12 1.77 1.86 1.94 1.67 9. Sponge $ 41,063 17,534 1.59 1.76 1.49 1.93 3.22 2.77 3.05 2.96 2.87 10. Live Sand $ 34,185 42,876 lb N/A N/A N/A 1.00 0.78 1.39 0.68 0.59 0.56 a Num ber landed for all species except live rock and live sand, which are measured in pounds. Source: Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida.

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With the exception of live rock and anemones, all of the top ten invertebrate species groups experienced increases in landings volumes during the 1990 98 period, with some being dramatic. For example, starfish, snails, and crabs, exhibited increases in landings of 1,824%, 791%, and 755%, respectively, fr om 1990 to 1998 (Table 11). Year to year changes in landings of the top 10 species groups are shown in Table 12 and Appendix D, Figures 11 20. As with finfish species, dockside prices also varied across invertebrate species groups. As shown in Table 1 1, the highest average unit prices during the 1990 1998 period were associated with sponges ($2.40), gorgonians ($2.29), live rock ($1.14 per pound), and urchins ($1.14). Annual dockside prices of the top ten species groups are shown in Table 13 and in Ap pendix E, Figures 11 20. DISCUSSION The marine life collection industry in Florida has grown during the past decade as the number of licensed collectors ( i.e. fishers with MLEs) increased from 159 to 743 and either the volume or value of the primary spe cies increased. The growth is particularly evident in the collection of invertebrate animals. The harvest of live rock and sand also increased dramatically during the 1990 95 period, but declined due to a moratorium on the collection of naturally occurri ng rock and sand in state and federal waters. Although the number of harvesting participants increased dramatically during the 1990 98 period, the implementation of a temporary moratorium on marine life endorsements has limited further entry into the indu stry. The moratorium extends to 2002. Regulations have also been imposed on certain species (e.g., size limits, bag limits, and trip limits), but most regulations apply to the industry as a whole (e.g., acceptable harvesting methods). The implementation of these regulations reflects concern regarding the sustainability of the marine life resources. The information presented in this section represents the only analysis of harvest data collected by Florida Marine Research Institute since the initiation of data collection efforts in 1990. The reported trends in landings provide some insight into the harvest pressure being exerted on wild stocks of ornamental finfish and invertebrate animals. Although no stock assessments exist for any of the individual sp ecies targeted by the marine life collection industry, such information (particularly for the predominant species) could be useful to resource managers as they develop effective management measures for this growing industry. Landings data should next be e xamined in terms of expended effort ( i.e. trips) to better determine if the States management goals are being achieved. Without such insight, the assurance of the sustainable use of these marine life resources in the face of growing demand by domestic a nd international markets cannot be ensured.

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32 References ADP (Aquaculture Development Program). Announcement for an International Conference on Marine Ornamental Aquaculture. Marine Ornamentals : Collection, Culture, and Conservation. Honolulu, H I. [www.aloha.com/~aquacult/mareorna.html] Division of Marine Fisheries. Option for a Limited Entry Program For Floridas Marine Life Fishery. ( A Report to the Legislature) Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, July 1, 2000. Hess, D. and J. Stevely. The Aquarium Reef Fish Collecting Industry of Monroe County, Florida. Monroe County Marine Advisory Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 1978, pp. 27. Januzzi, C.L. A Guide to Developing A Limited Entry P rogram for the Marine Life Fishing Industry. Research Paper, Marine Affairs Department, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 1991. Loiselle, P.V. and H.A. Baensch. Marine Aquarists Manual: Comprehensive Edition 4 t h ed. Tetra Second nature (Division of Warner Lambert): Blacksburg, VA. 1995. MFC (Marine Fisheries Commission). Marine Life. Staff Paper, September 1998. NSGO (National Sea Grant Office). Conservation and Culture of Marine Ornamental Fishes and Invertebrates: A Case Statement. Chris DElia, Chair. Maryland. [www.mdsg.umd.edu/NGSO/research/ornamental/index.htm] PIJAC (Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council). U.S. Ornamental Aquarium Industry. Pet Information Bureau. Washington, DC. [www2. pijac.org/pijac/PJF001.htm] WRI (World Resources Institute). Status of the Worlds Coral Reefs: Tropical Americas. [www.wri.org/wri/indictrs/reefname.htm]

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33 Appendix A Marine Fisheries Trip Ticket Fishing Area Codes

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34 10 Pensacola Offshore waters 10.0 Pensacola Bay 10.1 East Bay 10.1 Escambia Bay 10.2 Perdido Bay 10.3 Federal Waters 10.9 9 Destin Offshore waters 9.0 Choc tawhatchee Bay 9.1 Federal Waters 9.9 8 Panama City Offshore Wate rs 8.0 St. Andrew Bay 8.1 St. Joseph Bay 8.2 West Bay 8.3 North Bay 8.3 Federal Waters 8.9 7 Apalachee Bay Offshore waters 7.0 St. Vincent Sound 7.1 Apalachicola Bay 7.1 East Bay 7.1 St. George Sound 7.2 6 Crystal River Tarpon Springs Offshore waters 6.0 St. Josephs Sound 6.1 Other inland waters 6.2 Federal Waters 6.9 5 Tampa Offshore waters 5.0 Tampa Bay 5.1 St. Josephs Sound 5.2 Sarasota Bay 5.3 Anna Maria Sound 5.4 Federal Waters 5.9 4 Fort Meyers Offshore waters 4.0 Charlotte Harbor 4.1 Lemon Bay 4.2 Pine Island Sound 4.3 San Carlos Bay 4.3 Estero Bay 4.4 Rookery Bay 4.5 O ther inland waters 4.6 Lake Okeechobee 4.8 Federal Waters 4.9 3 Everglades Offshore waters 3.0 Whitewater Bay 3.1 All other inland waters 3.2 2 Tortugas All water 2.0 Federal waters 2.9 1 Key West North of US1 1.1 South of US1 1.0 Federal Wat ers 1.9 748 Marathon South of US1 748.0 North of US1 (Florida Bay) 748.1 Federal Waters 748.9 744 Miami Offshore Waters 744.0 Florida Bay 744.1 Biscayne Bay 744.2 Card Sound 744.2 Barnes Soun d 744.2 Federal Waters 744.9 741 West Palm Beach Offshore waters 741.0 Inlan d waters 741.1 Federal waters 741.9 736 Fort Pierce Offshore waters 736.0 Inland waters 736.1 Federal waters 736.9 732 Cape Canaveral Offshore waters 732.0 Inland waters 732.1 Federal waters 732.9 722 Jacksonville Offshore waters 722.0 St. Johns River 722.5 Nassau River 722.4 St. Mary's River 722.2 Federal waters 722.9 728 St. Augustine Offshore waters 728.0 Inland waters 728.1 Federal waters 728.9 717 Georgia Appendix A. Figure 1. Marine Fisheries Trip Ticket Fishing Area Source: Department of Environmental Protection, Marine Research

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35 Appendix B Restricted Species Identified in Chapter 46 42 of the F.A.C.

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36 Appendix B. Restricted Species Identified in Chapter 46 42 of the F.A.C. Chapter 46 42(2) Fish Species: (a) Moray eels Family Muraenidae (b) Snake eels Genera Myichthys and Myrophis of the Family Ophichthidae (c) Toadfish Family Batrachoididae (d) Frogfish Family Antennariidae (e) Batfish Family Ogcocephalidae (f) Clingfish Family Gobiesocidae (g) Trumpetfish Family Aulostomidae (h) Cornetfish Family Fistulariidae (i) Pipefish/seahorses Family Syngnathidae (j) Hamlet/seabass Family Serranidae, except genera Epinephaus, Mycteroperca, and Centropristis (k) Basslets Family Grammistidae (l) Cardinalfish Family Apogonidae (m) High hat, Jackknife fish, Spotted drum, Cubbyu genus Equetus of the Famil y Sciaenidae (n) Reef Croakers Odontocion dentex (o) Sweepers Family Pempherididae (p) Butterflyfish Family Chaetondontidae (q) Angelfish Family Pomacanthidae (r) Damselfish Family Ponacentridae (s) Hawkfish Family Cirrhitidae (t) Wrasse/hogfish/razorfish Family Labrida e, except Lachnolaimus maximus (u) Parrotfish Family Scaridae (v) Jawfish Family Opistognathidae (w) Blennies Families Clinidae and Blenniidae (x) Sleepers Family Eleotrididae (y) Gobies Family Gobiidae (z) Tangs and surgeonfish Family Acanthuridae (aa) Filefish.triggerfis h Family Balistes, except Balistidae capriscus (bb) Trunkfish/cowfish Family Ostraciidae (cc) Pufferfish/burrfish/ballonfish Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster rostrata, Chilomycterus schoepfi. Chapter 46 42(3) Invertebrate Species: (a) Sponges Class Demospongia except Order Dictyoceratida (b) Upside down jellyfish Genus Cassiopeia (c) Siphonophores/hydroids Class Hydrozoa, except Order Milleporina (d) Soft corals Subclass Octocorallia, except Gorgonia flabellum and ventalina (e) Sea anemones Orders Actinaria Zoanthidea Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia (f) Featherduster worms/calcareous tubeworms Families Sabellidae and Serpulidae (g) Star shells Astraea americana or Astraea phoebia (h) Nudibranchs/sea slugs Subclass Opisthobranchia (i) Fileclams Genus Lima

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37 (j) Octopods Order O ctopoda, except Octopodus vulgaris (k) Shrimp Genera Periclimenes, Lysmata, Stenopus, and Alpheus (l) Crabs Stenorhynchus seticornis, stenocionops furcata, Clibanarius vittatus, Phimochirus opercalatus, Porcellana sayana, Percnon gibbesi, Metoporhaphis calcara ta (m) Starfish Class Asteroidea, except Oreaster reticulatus (n) Brittlestars Class Ophiuroidea (o) Sea urchins Class Echinoidea, except Diadema antillarum and Order Clypeasteroida (p) Sea cucumbers Class Holothuroidea (q) Sea lillies Class Crinoidea Chapter 46 42 (4) Plant Species: (a) Caulerpa Family Caulerpaceae (b) Halimeda/mermaids fan/mermaid shaving brush Family Halimedaceae (c) Coralline red algae Family Corallinaceae

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38 Appendix C Summary of Floridas Collection Regulations

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39 Appendix C. Summary o f Floridas Collection Regulations (Rule 46 24 titled Marine Life) 46 42.01 Purpose and Intent; Designation of Restricted Species; Definition of Marine Life Species. (1) (a) The purpose and intent of this chapter are to protect and co nserve Floridas tropical marine life resources, assure the continuing health and abundance of these species, and assure that harvesters in this fishery use nonlethal methods of harvest. (b) Landing of live rock propagated through aquaculture is allowed p ursuant to provisions of this chapter. (2) The following fish species, as they occur in waters of the state and in federal Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters adjacent to state waters, are hereby designated as restricted species pursuant to Section 370. 01(20), Florida Statues: (a) Moray eels Family Muraenidae (b) Snake eels Genera Myichthys and Myrophis of the Family Ophichthidae (c) Toadfish Family Batrachoididae (d) Frogfish Family Antennariidae (e) Batfish Family Ogcocephalidae (f) Clingfish Family Gobiesocidae (g) T rumpetfish Family Aulostomidae (h) Cornetfish Family Fistulariidae (i) Pipefish/seahorses Family Syngnathidae (j) Hamlet/seabass Family Serranidae, except genera Epinephaus, Mycteroperca, and Centropristis (k) Basslets Family Grammistidae (l) Cardinalfish Family A pogonidae (m) High hat, Jackknife fish, Spotted drum, Cubbyu genus Equetus of the Family Sciaenidae (n) Reef Croakers Odontocion dentex (o) Sweepers Family Pempherididae (p) Butterflyfish Family Chaetondontidae (q) Angelfish Family Pomacanthidae (r) Damselfish Family Ponacentridae (s) Hawkfish Family Cirrhitidae (t) Wrasse/hogfish/razorfish Family Labridae, except Lachnolaimus maximus (u) Parrotfish Family Scaridae (v) Jawfish Family Opistognathidae (w) Blennies Families Clinidae and Blenniidae (x) Sleepers Family Eleotrididae (y) Gob ies Family Gobiidae (z) Tangs and surgeonfish Family Acanthuridae (aa) Filefish.triggerfish Family Balistes, except Balistidae capriscus (bb) Trunkfish/cowfish Family Ostraciidae

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40 (cc) Pufferfish/burrfish/ballonfish Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster rostrata, Chilomy cterus schoepfi. (3) The following invertebrate species, as they occur in waters of the state and in federal Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters adjacent to state waters, are hereby designated as restricted species pursuant to Section 370.01(20), Florid a Statues: (a) Sponges Class Demospongia, except Order Dictyoceratida (b) Upside down jellyfish Genus Cassiopeia (c) Siphonophores/hydroids Class Hydrozoa, except Order Milleporina (d) Soft corals Subclass Octocorallia, except Gorgonia flabellum and ventalina (e) Sea anemones Orders Actinaria Zoanthidea, Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia (f) Featherduster worms/calcareous tubeworms Families Sabellidae and Serpulidae (g) Star shells Astraea americana or Astraea phoebia (h) Nudibranchs/sea slugs Subclass Opisthobranchia (i) Fil eclams Genus Lima (j) Octopods Order Octopoda, except Octopodus vulgaris (k) Shrimp Genera Periclimenes, Lysmata, Stenopus, and Alpheus (l) Crabs Stenorhynchus seticornis, stenocionops furcata, Clibanarius vittatus, Phimochirus opercalatus, Porcellana sayana, Percnon gibbesi, Metoporhaphis calcarata (m) Starfish Class Asteroidea, except Oreaster reticulatus (n) Brittlestars Class Ophiuroidea (o) Sea urchins Class Echinoidea, except Diadema antillarum and Order Clypeasteroida (p) Sea cucumbers Class Holothuroidea (q) Sea li llies Class Crinoidea (4) The following species of plants, as they occur in waters of the state and in federal Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters adjacent to state waters, are hereby designated as restricted species pursuant to Section 370.01(20), Fl orida Statues: (a) Caulerpa Family Caulerpaceae (b) Halimeda/mermaids fan/mermaid shaving brush Family Halimedaceae (c) Coralline red algae Family Corallinaceae (5) For the purposes of Section 370.06(2)(d), Florida Statues, the term marine life species: is defined to mean those species designated as restricted species in subsections (2), (3), and (4) of this chapter. 46 24.002 Definitions. 46 24.003. Prohibition of Harvest: Longspine Urchin, Bahama Starfish. 46 24.0035 Live Landing and Live Well R equirements. 46 24.0036 Harvest in Biscayne National Park Prohibited 46 24.004 Size Limits. -

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41 (1) Angelfish (2) Butterflyfishes (3) Gobies (4) Jawfishes (5) Spotfin and Spanish hogfish 46 24.005 Bag Limit. -(1) Except as provided in Rule 46 24.006 or subsection s (3) or (4) of this rule, no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the waters of the state, or land more than 20 individuals per day of tropical ornamental marine life species, in any combination. (2) Except as provided in Rule 46 24.006, no perso n shall harvest, possess while in or on the waters of the state, or land more than 1 gallon per day of tropical ornamental plants, in any combination of species. (3) Except as provided in Rule 46 24.006, no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the waters of the state, or land more than 5 angelfishes (Family Pomacanthidae) per day. Each angelfish shall be included in the 20 individual bag limit specified in subsection (1). (4) Unless the season is closed, no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the waters of the state, or land more than 6 colonies per day of octocorals. Each octocoral shall be included in the 20 individual bag limit specified in subsection (1). 46 24.006 Commercial Season, Harvest Limits. -(1) Except as provided in Rule 46 24.008(7), no person shall harvest, possess while in or on the waters of the state, or land quantities of tropical ornamental marine life species or tropical ornamental marine plants in excess of the bag limits established in Rule 46 24.005 unless such person possesses a valid saltwater products license with both a marine life fishery endorsement and a restricted species endorsement issued by the Department of Environmental Protection. (2) (a) Angelfish 75 per person or 150 per vessel, per day, whi chever is less (b) Butterflyfishes 75 per vessel per day (c) Octocoral season is same as season in federal waters. Harvesters may also harvest attached substrate within 1 inch of the perimeter (d) Giant Caribbean or pink tipped anemones 400 per vessel per day 46 24.007 Gear Specifications and Prohibited Gear. (1) The following types of gear shall be the only types allowed for the harvest of any tropical fish, whether from state waters or from federal EEZ waters adjacent to state waters: (a) Hand held net (b) Barr ier net, with a total length not exceeding 60 feet, a depth not exceeding 8 feet, and a mesh size not exceeding inch

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42 (c) Drop net, with a maximum dimension not exceeding 12 feet and a mesh size not exceeding inch (d) Slurp gun (e) Quinaldine, if: 1. the person posses ses a special activity license, 2. the chemical is diluted to no more than 2% with seawater (prior to dilution in seawater, quinaldine shall only be mixed with isopropyl alcohol or ethanol. (f) A roller frame trawl operated by a person possessing a valid live bai t shrimping license (i.e., marine life are incidental bycatch) (g) A trawl (<=12x58 and 5lbs) no longer than 15 feet in length and no greater than idle speed to collect live dwarf seahorses (Hippocampus zosterae) (2) Bags or containers may be used to store collected specimens. A single blunt rod, used in connection with an allowable gear type, may also be used. (3) Species may be harvested as bycatch provided bag limits are not exceeded. 46 42.008 Live Rock: Harvest in State Waters Prohibited; Aquac ultured Live Rock Harvest and Landing Allowed. 46 42.009 Prohibition on the Taking, Destruction, or Sale of Marine Corals and Sea Fans; Exception; Repeal of Section 370.114, Florida Statutes

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43 Appendix D Tables

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44 Table D 1. Fish sp ecies groups collected by the commercial marine life industry in Florida, 1990 98 a Angelfish (6) Catfish Goatfish (2) Mojarra Scorpionfish (2) Stargazer (2) Balloonfish Chub Goby (3) Moray (5) Seahorse (3) Stingray (2) Barracuda Clingfish Grouper (5) Par rotfish (9) Searobin Surgeonfish (4) Bass (8) Coronetfish (3) Grunt (5) Perch Soapfish Sweeper Batfish Cowfish (3) Hamlet (6) Pilotfish Soldierfish Tilefish Bigeye Cusk Eel Hawkfish Pipefish Spadefish Toadfish Blenny (8) Damselfish (14) Hogfish (3) Por gy Squirrelfish (3) Triggerfish (3) Brotula Drum (4) Jack (2) Puffer (3) Shark (3) Tripletail Burrfish Filefish (6) Jawfish (4) Ray (4) Sheephead Trumpetfish Butterflyfish (6) Flounder Lizardfish Razorfish Skate Trunkfish (2) Cardinalfish (3) Frogfish (2) Minnow Remora (2) Snapper (3) Wrasse (8) a Species groups listed in alphabetical order. Parentheses contain the number of individual species that comprise each group.

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45 Table D 2. Primary Fish Species within the Top Fish Species Groups in terms of Ave rage Value,1990 1998. Species Group Species Scientific Name % Value by Group 1. Angelfish Blue Holancanthus Bermudensis 26% 2. Hogfish Spotfin (=cuban) Bodianus Pulchellus 70 3. Damselfish Blue Chromis (=reef) Chromis Cyaneus 37 4. J awfish Yellowhead Opistognathus Aurifrons 91 5. Wrasse Bluehead Thalassoma Bifasciatum 54 6. Butterflyfish Spotfin Chaetodon Ocellatus 99 7. Seahorse Dwarf Hippocampus Zosterae 76 8. Parrotfish Striped (=painted) Scarus Croicensis 57 9. Surgeonfish Bl ue (young are yellow) Acanthurus Coeruleus 82 10. Drum High hat Equetus Acuminatus 57 Notes: Ranking based on average value of landings 1990 98. Top individual species (by economic value) based on 1990 96 landings data.

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46 Table D 3 Inver tebrate species groups collected by the commercial marine life industry in Florida, 1990 98 a Anemone (6) Gorgonian (3) Oyster Sea Hare Bryozoa Jellyfish (2) Penshell Shrimp (8) Chiton Isopod Plant (4) Snail (26) Clam (4) Live Rock (6) Polychaete (5) Spo nge (4) Conch (7) Live Sand Sand Dollar (4) Starfish (8) Cowrie (2) Lobster (3) Scallop (2) Tunicates Crab (15) Nudibranch (3) Sea Biscuit (3) Urchin (5) Fileclam (2) Octopus (4) Sea Cucumber (2) Whelk (2) a Species groups listed in alphabetical order Parentheses contain the number of individual species that comprise each group.

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47 Table D 4. Primary Invertebrate Species within the Top Invertebrate Species Groups in terms of Average Value, 1990 1998. Species Group Species Scient ific Name % Value by Group 1. Live Rock Algae NA 36% 2. Snail Turbonella Family Turbinellidae 45% 3. Anemone Giant Caribbean Condylactus Gigantea 63 4. Crab Horseshoe Limulus Polyphemus 33 5. Starfish Red Spiny Sea Star (=common) Echinaster Sentus 65 6. Gorgonian Red Swiftia Exserta, Others 38 7. Sand Dollar Other (not 5 6 notched) Encope, Leofia, Mellita spp. 90 8. Urchin Variable or Green (=pincushion) Lythechinus Variegatus 56 9. Sponge Red Tree ? (Class Demospongia) 51 10. Live Sand NA N A NA Notes: Ranking based on average value of landings 1990 98. Top individual species (by economic value) based on 1990 96 landings data.

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48 Appendix E Figures

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49 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 1. Landings and Average Docks ide Price of Angelfish, Florida, 1990 1998. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $2.00 $4.00 $6.00 $8.00 $10.00 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 2. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Hogfish, Florida, 1990 1998.

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50 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 3. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Damselfish, Florida, 19 90 1998. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 4. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Jawfish, Florida, 1990 1998

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51 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 5. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Wrasse, Florida, 1990 1998 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $4.00 $4.50 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 6. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Butterfly, Florida, 1990 1998

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52 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $0.20 $0.40 $0.60 $0.80 $1.00 $1.20 $1.40 $1.60 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 7. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Seahorse, Florida, 1990 1998 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $1.00 $2.00 $3.00 $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 8. Landings and Avera ge Dockside Price of Parrotfish, Florida, 1990 1998

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53 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $4.00 $4.50 Price per fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 9. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Surgeonfish, Florida, 1990 1998 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of fish $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $4.00 Price of fish ($) Landings Average Price Figure 10. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Drum, Flor ida, 1990 1998

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54 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1990 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of pounds $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 Price per pound ($/lb.) Landings Average Price Figure 11. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Live Rock, Florida, 1990 1998 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.10 $0.20 $0.30 $0.40 $0.50 $0.60 $0.70 $0.80 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 12. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Snail, Florida, 1990 1998

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55 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.10 $0.20 $0.30 $0.40 $0.50 $0.60 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 13. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Anemone, Florida, 1990 1998 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.20 $0.40 $0.60 $0.80 $1.00 $1.20 $1.40 $1.60 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 14. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Crab, Florida, 1990 1998

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56 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.10 $0.20 $0.30 $0.40 $0.50 $0.60 $0.70 $0.80 $0.90 $1.00 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 15. Landings and Averag e Dockside Price of Starfish, Florida, 1990 1998 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 $4.00 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 16. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Gorgonian, Florida, 1990 1998

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57 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.05 $0.10 $0.15 $0.20 $0.25 $0.30 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 17. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Sand Dollar, Florida, 1990 1998 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 18. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Urchin, Florida, 1990 1998

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58 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number collected $0.00 $0.50 $1.00 $1.50 $2.00 $2.50 $3.00 $3.50 Price per individual ($) Landings Average Price Figure 19. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Sponge, Florida, 1990 1998 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Number of pounds $0.00 $0.20 $0.40 $0.60 $0.80 $1.00 $1.20 $1.40 $1.60 Price per pound ($/lb.) Landings Average Price Figure 20. Landings and Average Dockside Price of Live Sand, Florida, 1990 1998.