A vocabulary of the dialects of Mashonaland in the new orthography /

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Title:
A vocabulary of the dialects of Mashonaland in the new orthography /
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ix, 213 p. : ; 19 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Barnes, Bertram Herbert
Publisher:
Sheldon Press
Place of Publication:
London
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Shona language -- English -- Dictionaries   ( lcsh )
English language -- Shona -- Dictionaries   ( lcsh )
Wörterbuch   ( swd )
Englisch   ( swd )
Schona-Sprache   ( swd )
Genre:
dictionary   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Bertram H. Barnes.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 04808240
lccn - 78325236
Classification:
lcc - PL8681.4.B3
ddc - 496 B2598v
rvk - EP 18883
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AA00000228:00001

Full Text



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A VOCABULARY OF THE DIALECTS OF
MASHONALAND




GEORGE FORTUNE COLLECTIOfN

A VOCABULARY OF

THE DIALECTS OF

MASHONALAND
IN THE NEW ORTHOGRAPHY


BY THE REV.
BERTRAM H. BARNES, C.R.










LONDON
THE SHELDON PRESS
NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.C. 2


UNIV SITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES





































First published 1932





























PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

















GRAMMATICAL TABLES FOR
VOCABULARY OF SHONA DIALECTS







TABLE I.-


I. an
Class. S.

Class Prefixes. T., mu-; I.a, -

A. Substantives (for illustration). I. munhu, persc
I.a, BaBa, fath
B. Possessive Concords:
(a) Prefix (agr. with the thing possessed). wa-
(b) Suffix (agr. with the possessor). -ke

C. Adjectival Concords, ex. -kuru, big. See Table II. mukuru

D. Relative Concords, used in forming Adj. from Vb. and N.
1. The -akanaka type of adj., good. wakanaka
2. The -noyera type of adj., holy. unoyera
3. The -nesimba type of adj., strong, unesimba
4. The -okudada type of adj., proud; (Ma. -ekudada). wokudada

E. The Numeral -mzle, see Voc. for meanings. mumre

F. Only, -oga or (in many parts) -ega. oga, woga
All, -ose or (in many parts) -ese. wese

G. 1. This, these, (near by); stands alone o' before or after uyu
its n.
2. This, these, (near by); always follows its n. uno
3. That, those; generally follows its n. uyo
4. That, those, (out of sight, or referred to before); in Ze. uya (Ze. uye
-ye for -ya.

H. Absolute Pronoun-never used as adj. with n. Often used lye
in combination with ndi-, e.g. ndiye, it is he.

I. Interrogative Pronoun, which? -pi with prefix. upi?

J. Pronoun Subject Concord in Verbs; seen simply in Pres., u-, a-
Fut., and Neg. tenses; e.g. cinoumya, it will come.

K. Pronoun Object Concord in vbs., e.g. I see him, ndinomn- -mu
1Ot(I.









P.

and I.a, va-

vanhu
vababa


vua-
-vo

vakuru


uakanaka
vanoyera
uanesimba
vakudfafa

vamije

voga
vese

ava

uano
avo
waya


iuo


uapi?

vua-


S.

mu-, mg-, m

muti, mgoyo, moyo
tree, heart


wa-
-wo

mukuru


wakanaka
unoyera
unesimba
wokucdafa

mumije

woga.
wese

uyu

uno
uyo
uya


iwo


upi?

u-


mi-, mlj-, m-

miti, mpoyo, moyo



ya-
-yo

mikuru


yakanaka
inoyera
inesimba
yokudada

imimje

yoga
yese

iyi

ino
iyo
iya


iyo


ipi?

i-







II
S.

ci-

cinhu, thing



ca-
-co

cikuru


cakanaka
cinoyera
cinesimba
cokudacda

cimnie

coga
cese

ici

cino
ico
ciya


ico


cipi?

ci-


-ci-


P.

hi-

Zinhu


za-
o

Zikuru


Zakanaka
Zinoyera
Zinesimba
Zokudada

Zimije

Zoga
zese

izi

Zino
izo
Ziya


izo


zipi 7

Zi-


-_i-


S.

(i-)

iombe, cow



ya-
-yo

huru
and se

yakanaka
inoyera
inesimba
yokudada

imje

yoga
yese

iyi

ino
iyo
iya


iyo


ipi?

i-









PI.

(dzi-)

ijombe


huru
er adj. in Table I

dzakanaka
dzinoyera
dzinesimba
dzokudada

dzimje

dzoga
dzese

idzi

dzino
idzi
dziya


idzo


dzipi?

dzi-


-dzi-


S.

(ri-)

baiga, knife



ra-


rakanaka
rinoyera
rinesimba
rokudada

rimie

roga
rese

iri

rino
iro
riya


iro


r


ipi?

ri-


-ri-


P.

ma-

mapagga



a-
-WO

makuru


akanaka
anoyera
anesimba
okudada

mamqe

oga
ese

aya, Ka. awa

ano
ayo, Ka. awo
aya


iwo


api?

a-


-a-








S.

ka-, (S. Dial. gi-)

kambudzi, small goat



ka-
-ko

kakuru


kakanaka
kanoyera
kanesimba
kokudada

kamije

koga
kese

aka

kano
ako
kaya


iko


kapi?

ka-


P.

tu-

tumbudzi



twa-
-two

tukuru


twakanaka
tunoyera
tunesimba
twokudacfa

tumije

twoga
twese

utwu

twuno
utwo
twuya


itwo


t


upi?

tu-


-tu-


VII.
S.

ru-

rukoua, river
ruvoko, arm


rwa-
-rwo

rukuru


rwakanaka
runoyera
runesimba
rwokudada

rumge

rwoga
rwese

urwu

rwuno
urwo
rwuya


irwo


rupi?

ru-


-ru-


,







VII.
P.1.

(dzi-)

hova



dza-
-dzo

huru
and see Table II.

dzakanaka
dzinoyera
dzinesimba
dzokudada

dzimije

dzoga
dzese

idzi

dzino
idzo
dziya


idzo


dzipi?

dzi-


VIII.
S.I.

u-


mavoko


-wo

makuru


akanaka
anoyera
anesimba
okudada

mamie

oga
ese

aya, Ia. awa

ano
ayo, Ka. awo
aya


iwo


mapi?

a-


usiku, night.



hwa-
-hwo

hukuru


hwakanaka
hunoyera
hunesimba
hwokudada

humije

hwoga
hwese

uhwu

huno
uhwo
huya


ihwo


hupi?

hu-







VIII.


mu-


(Ka.)


I -ku-


S.2. I


-ousiku



bga-
-bgo

iukuru


bgakanaka
vunoyera
vunesimba
bgokudacda

-uumre
vumpe

bgoga
bgese

ubgu

bguno
ubgo
bguya


ibgo


Vupi?

"u-


IX.


ku- (a) Infinitive
I (b) Locative

(a) kuda, love
(b) kumba, to the
house

kwa-
-kwo

kukuru


kwakanaka
kunoyera
kunesimba
kwokudada

kumije

kwoga
kwese

uku

kuno
uko
kuya


iko


kupi?

ku-


muhari, in the po'



ma-, (mla-)
-mo

mukuru


makanaka
munoyera
munesimba
mokudada

mumje

moga
mese, mgese

umu

muno
umo
muya


imo


mupi?

mu-


-mu-










pa-


>asi, on the ground



pa-
-po

pakuru


pakanaka
panoyera
panesimba


pamje

poga
pese

apa

pano
apo
paya


ipo


papi?

pa-


TABLE II.-ADJECTIVES


-cena, white
-duku, small
-kobvu, thick
-kukutu, hard
-mbishi, unripe
-nyoro, soft, etc.
-pami, wide
-penyu, living
-pfupi, short
-refu, long
-sharu, old
-tema, black
-tete, thin
tga, new
-tguku, red
-v'iri, two
-tatu, three
-na, four
-shanu, five
-tanhatu, six
-nomge, seven
-sere, eight
-pfumbamije, nine
-zhinji, many
-shoma, few
-ggani, how many?


Concords of
(ya,dza). (ra).
cena jena
nduku duku
hobvu gobvu
hukutu igukutu
mbishi mbishi
nyoro nyoro
mhami Bami
mhenyu Benyu
pfupi pfupi
ndefu refu
sharu sharu
nhema deema
nhete fete.
itqa idea
tguku duku
mbiri
nhatu
ina
shanu
nhanhatu
nomije
tsere
pfumbamge
zhinji
shoma
tgani?


For other classes than (ya, dza) and (ra),
these Adjectives follow Table I. Some less
common Adjectives are to be found in the
Vocabulary.







TABLE III.-PERSONAL PRONOI
AND CONCORDS

S I 1Posses- \I


Pers. Pron.

1 Sing.

ini




1P1.


Ze. ini mene

Ka. ndimene

Ma. ini mbune


Ze. isu mene

Ka. timene

Ma. isu mbune


Ze. iwe mene

Ka. umene

Ma. iwe mbune


Ze. imi mene

Ka. mumene

Ma. imqi mbune


Ze. iye mene
oga, woga
Ka. amene
iega, wega
SMa. iye mbune I


Ze. ivo mene
I voga
Ka. vamene I
vega
Ma. i'uo mbune


It s -



ndini


Alone.


ndoga

ndega




toga

tega




woga

wega




moga

mega


-ko





-inyu






-ke






-Vo


ndiwe


1.
ndimi
2.


mu- -mu

ma- -ku..


ndiye l( a
2. wa-




1. Ia-
ndivo
2. va-


When the Tense Formative begins with -a, the forms marked
are used, e.g. nd-aka-tora, I took.
+ E.g. I saw you, either ndakamuuona, or in Zezuru ndakakuuonaii
Reflexive Pron. for all persons and classes, -Zi-, e.g. I hurt myselli
ndakaeikuadza.
N.B.-In the Possessive suffixes -idu, -inyu, the -i- always coalesce
with the a- of the prefix to make -e-, e.g. cigaro cedu (ca-icfn), our chair


-idu ndisu


2 Sing.

iwe




2 Pl.

imi
(imri)



3 Sing.

iye




3 P1.

ivo


JNS


Inset in Vb.
*Subj. Obj.


1. ndi-
-ndi
2. nda-




1. ti-
-tli
2. ta-




1. u-
-ku
12. wa-






CONCORDS


TABLE IV.-THE SIMPLEST TENSES

Affirmative. Negative.

ndinotora, I (habitually) take. handitori, I don't take.

ndicatora, I shall take. handiri kutora, I am not taking.

ndicazotora, handicatori (Ze. -a) I shall

ndatora, I took (today). handicazotori (Ze. a-) not take.

ndakatora, I took (before today). handina kutora I did
handizakatora (Ma. -sa-) not take.

handisati ndatora (Ka. -za-), I have not yet
taken.

For Subj. Concords for all classes and for Personal Pronouns see Tables I.J and
III. For negatives see not in Vocab.



TABLE V.-VERBAL DERIVATIVES

The Verb stem may be modified by suffixes, forming derivatives of the original
Verb. There is considerable variety m the formation of these derivatives, but the
following suffixes have generally the meanings attached to them below. In the
Vocabulary the common derivatives from any stem will generally be found under the
simple verb.

-wa, passive; e.g. -tora, take; -torwa, be taken; -da, love; -diwa, be loved.
-ira, -era, applied form; e.g. -Bata, hold; -batira, hold for.
Lika, -eka, neuter; e.g. -rasa, to lose; -rasika, be lost, get lost.
-isa, -esa, causative; e.g. -famba, walk; -fambisa, cause to walk.
-isa, -esa, intensive; e.g. -famba, walk; -fambisa, walk fast or far.
-ana, reciprocal; e.g. -da, love; -dana, love one another.
-ura, reversive; e.g. -funira, cover; -funura, uncover; -suJga, to tie; -sunuljgura,
untie.













PREFACE

THIs little Vocabulary is an aid to the Unification of Shona Dialects under-
taken at the desire of the Language Committee by one of their number. It
aims at collating more or less the commoner words from the four or five chief
dialects so as to help the speakers and students of one dialect to understand
the words of the other dialects where they differ. Obviously it deals with
only a small part of the full vocabulary of any one dialect and needs for its
supplement the full dictionary on the same lines which it is hoped someone
may eventually compile. It is, of course, written throughout in the new
Orthography without which unification is impossible. It is promised by the
publishers that they will keep the type standing for two years from the date
of publication in England, and it is proposed to bind up a good number of
copies with blank pages interleaved. The many corrections of what stands
here and such extensions and additions as may be possible should be sent to
the compiler as soon as may be, in order that before the type is dispersed a
second edition may be printed with fewer mistakes.
An attempt has been made to indicate in the Shona-English part of the
Vocabulary the dialect from which come words that are suspected of being
purely local. Where a word in that part has no indication of origin it may be
assumed that it has been found to be known in at least two of the three
principal dialects. Where the origin is indicated it is not to be assumed that
the word is confined to that dialect, or that it is the only word for that
meaning in that dialect, but that, so far as the available evidence goes, it has
not been found in the other dialects. Many words may prove to be more
widely known than the evidence suggests at this stage, and it is in this
direction that a great deal of verification and correction should proceed before
the second edition is printed. Every student of the dialects is invited to
co-operate in this work of correction.
Only general names have as a rule been given for such things as birds,
beasts, trees, etc. Valuable lists of such words may be found in the existing
Vocabularies-Mrs. Louw's Manual of Karanga," and in Fr. Biehler's
" ChiSwma Vocabulary "-and students are recommended to compile their
own lists locally. No names vary so much from district to district as such
names as these, even in a so completely unified language as English of today.
A number of Ndau words are included at the express desire of the Missions
working in that area, but it is right to say that there is much more difference
of vocabulary and usage between Ndau and the other dialects than there is
between Karanga, Zezuru, and Manyika. Very few indications of Korekore
words have been given, as there is no literature in that dialect, but it is






PREFACE
believed that a great deal may dome in from that area to enrich the unified
language when students have given special attention to the large area in
which Korekore or a kindred dialect is spoken.
An Appendix on Relationship terms has been added because it is impossible
to deal with such terms in a mere vocabulary. No one native term is exactly
translatable by a corresponding English term because the scheme of relation-
ships is entirely different. This appendix, written originally for this Vocabu-
lary, appeared first of all in the journal Man, published by the Royal Anthro-
pological Institute, and it is by their courtesy that it is now reproduced here
unchanged except for the orthography.
With regard to Grammar, it seemed premature to include in this little book
anything that could pretend to be a Grammar of unified Shona, because
the necessary work has not yet been done on which such a Grammar could be
based. Accordingly, we have been content to include only such mere Tables
of Grammatical Forms as are necessary for reference. It is hoped that the
Tables given will be found convenient for the student. Dr. Doke, who had
begun to "unify" the Grammar on the basis of Zezuru, very kindly pro-
vided the conspectus of facts on which the Tables are based.
The compiler wishes to thank him for this help, and also Mrs. Louw,
Fr. Buck, C.R., of St. Augustine's, Penhalonga, and the Jesuit Fathers, all
of whom gave full permission to make use of the books connected with their
names.
It is obvious that this book is no more in the main than a collation of the
work of these pioneers, and that at this stage no such Vocabulary could have
been attempted without the original work done by them.
The compiler and the Language Committee wish to thank especially the
Government of S. Rhodesia, who by a generous-subsidy have made it possible
to publish this Vocabulary at a low price, in order to help the introduction of
the new orthography.
There is no need to explain here the new orthography, for which the
Student may be referred to Dr. Doke's valuable Report on the Unification of
Shona Dialects and his Comparative Study in Shona Phonetics; but below,
there will be found a list of the new symbols and combinations with keywords
and the forms which they supplant arranged as simply as possible.

NEW SYMBOLS AND COMBINATIONS
B as in Baba, father. Hitherto confused with b.
d as in ndinoda. Hitherto confused with d.
13 as in gombe, cattle. Formerly represented by ng, n, ii, or italic n.
g as in kuqika. Hitherto shown as sw, s, or s italic.
v as in vanhu. Hitherto shown as v, V, v italic, b, or (in Ma.) w.
Z as in Zino, now. Hitherto shown as zw, z, or z italic.
c stands for ch.
x, not used before, represents velarisation after p. Formerly k or h, e.g.,
pxere, child, for pkere, phere.







PREFACE,
my stands for mg, mw, or mW. Ex.: mgana, child, for mgana, mwana,
mwana.
bg stands for bg, bw, e.g., imbga, dog.
rw stands for rgw, rw, e.g., rwendo, journey, for rgwendo.
The value of the sounds for these and the other symbols will be found in
the Vocabulary when each is introduced. See also under -dy- and -ty- for the
value and meaning of these digraphs.













PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS

adj. = adjective.
adv.= adverb.
aff. = affirmative.
agr.=agreeing with, agreement.
appl. = applied form, i.e., the form of the verb which ends
in -era or -ira, and generally takes an object show-
ing to or for whom or what an action is done.
caus. = causative.
cone. = concord.
con. = conjunction.
cont.= containing.
cp.= compare.
C.S.L.=Manual of ChiKaranga, by C. S. Louw.
dem. = demonstrative.
der.= derivative, derived from.
dial.=dialect, used sometimes for a word not certainly
belonging to either of the main dialects.
dist.= distinguish, distinct.
e.g.=for example.
eq. = equal.
esp. = especially.
foll.= follows, following.
for. = foreign.
gen.= general, generally.
int.= interjection, intransitive.
interrog. = interrogative.
intense. = intensive.
Ka.= Karanga.
K.K. =Kitchen Kaffir.
Ko. = Korekore.
lit. = literally.
Ma. =Manyika.
M.G.C.K.=Marconnhs, Grammar of Central Karanga.
n. = noun.
Nd. =Ndau.
neg.= negative.
num. = numeral.
obj.= object.
part. =participle, particle, participial.
viii







PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS
pass. = passive.
perh. = perhaps.
pers. = person, personal.
pl. = plural.
poss.= possessive.
prec. =precedes, preceding.
prep. = preposition.
prob. = probably.
pron.= pronoun.
prop.=proper.
q.v.=quod vide, which see.
rad.= radical.
rel. = relative.
sing. = singular.
Swa. = Swahili.
syn. = synonym.
tr. = transitive.
var. = variant.
vb., vbl.=verb, verbal.
Ze.= Zezuru.














SHONA-ENGLISH


A
a (as in father).
I. 1. Of nouns of (mu, va; -, va)
class. Subj. cone. of 3rd pers. sing.
of Cl. 1, la; ndinoda kuti ayende, I
wish him to go; anoyenda, he goes.
2. In the forms often called par-
ticipial'; ndamuvona acirwa, I saw
him fighting.
3. In all but the first in a series
of verbs connected by and '; pres.,
unovuya (anovuya), anovona, ano-
kunda, he comes and he sees and
conquers; past, wakaviuya, akavona,
akakunda, he came and saw and
conquered.
4. In rel. sent. whenever there is
a connecting relative particle, nda-
vona bayga ra (or iro) akarasa.
5. In negative sentences, muko-
nana wakayenda, haacazodzoki-ge.
6. In some dialects of Zezuru and
Lanyika a- is used as subj. cone.
pf 3rd pers. sing. pres. of C1. 1 & la.
See ex. under 3 above, unovuya or
enovuya, he comes.
II. Poss. cone. after pl. n. in mu-,
nauoko avakomana, the young men's
firms. This a- changes to e- before
syll. contg. -i-, and to o- before
ne contg. -u-; e.g., manheyya
shiri, the bird's feathers; magodo
ruooko, the bones of the arm.
III. Tense formative in Ze.=let;
tiende, let us go. Elsewhere, yga-
iende.
IV. Tense formative in all dialects
indicating a past of today. Cp. -aka-
or past of yesterday and longer ago.
n some vbs. the -a- forms indicate
n instantaneous pres.; e.g., nda-
ota, I beseech, not, I besought. A
oy being punished may cry, Nda-
1


pfidza,' I am sorry, I repent. Nda-
teta, I beseech-at this instant.
V. Formerly used in some dial. as
the common neg. part. at the begin-
ning of a vb., it is now found to be
in all parts ha, where the h is rather
a roughening of the vowel than an
aspirate preceding it.
-aka-, (1) tense formative indicat-
ing a past of yesterday or earlier;
ndakamuvona, I saw him (any time
before today). Note that the ndi-, u-,
ti-, mu- of the subj. cone. become
nd-, w-, t-, or my- respectively, and
the a of a- and va- coalesces with
the following -a; wakavona, you (or
he) saw; myakavona, you (pl.) saw;
vakavona, they saw.
(2) Dem. pr. agr. with s. noun of
(ka, twa-) class, before or after its
noun; this (near); aka kambudzi,
this small goat.
(3) -aka, vb. tr., Nd.; to build;
see -vaka.
ako, dem. pr. agr. with s. noun of
(ka, twa-) class, gen. after its noun;
that (there); kambudzi ako, that
small goat (there).
amal, n. See mai.
-ambana, vb. int.; to fight, to
quarrel; -a. naN., to fight with N.
See -rwca.
-ambuka, vb. tr.; to cross over (a
river); caus., -ambusa, -ambukisa.
See also -Bira; -namata, Ma.
-ambura, vb. tr., Ka.; to dig
(ground nuts, etc.). See also -cera;
-panda, Ze., Ma.
ambuya, n. See mbuya.
ambuyamuderere (wa, va), n., Ze.;
the mantis. See also mbuyambuya
(ra, a).
-amga, vb. tr., to suck; der.,
amrisa, to suckle; also -qilina;
B







-AMDISA
-mia, Ka.; (s. a sweet) -geta,
-mugunyira.
-amiisa, -yamiisa, vb. tr.; to suckle
(babe); also -mgisa, Ka.
-amura, vb. int., Nd.; to yawn.
See -shamura
-andira, vb., to sit on (eggs); to
incubate.
ani? pl. vanaani, vanani? who?
whom; unovonani? whom do you
see? ndiani unovuya? who comes?
unovuya nani? with whom does he
come? vyo ndiani? who is that? iwe
ndiwani? or iwe ndiweani? who are
you? zita rakeo diani? what is your
name? imba iyi ndeyani? whose
house is this? aninani, Ka.; ariani,
Ma., whoever (rel. and interrog.);
aninani (ariani) unovuya, whoever
comes (interrog. and rel.).
-anika, vb. tr.; to put out to dry
(in sun); var., -nika, -nanika, -ya-
nika, -wanika.
ano, dem. pr. agr. with pl. n. of
(ma) class, these (near by) foll. its
n.; mazuva ano, these days.
apa, adv.; here (esp. accompanied
by pointing).
apo, adv.; there; conj., when.
-ashira, vb. tr., Nd.; to receive,
accept. See -gacira.
asi, conj.; but; sometimes little
stronger than 'and'; prep., except;
all came except Tom, vose vakavuya
asi Tom; Ka., asi? is that not so?
-ata, vb. int., Nd.; to sleep; to lie
down to sleep; to lie down. See
-vata.
ava, dem. pr. agr. with pl. n. of
(va-) class; these; either fell. or
prec. its noun; vanlh ava, these
people; ava vakomana, these boys.
avo, dem. pr. agr. with pl. n. of
(ua-) class; those; gen. foll. its noun.
aya (Ka. awa), dem. pr. agr. withl
pl. n. of (ma) class; these; foil. or
prec. its noun; e.g., aya (aica) ma-
zuva, these days. See also Table
I.G.4.
ayo (Ka. awo), dem?. pr. agr. with
pl. n. of (ma) class; those; gen. foll.
its n.; nmakomo ayo, those hills.


BGANYANZA

B
b, explosive labial, same sound as
in Eng. but.' Hitherto it has been
used also for the implosive labial
now written 6, and also in some
books (Wesleyan Mission) for the
bilabial fricative, now written u;
hence words formerly found under b
may be found here under 6 or even
v. In combination with other con-
sonants (mb, bg, by) b is used and
not 6; 6a6a, father, but 6ambo,
father.
baci (ra, pl. mab. a), n., for.; a
coat.
badara, vb. tr., for.; to pay. See
-ripa; der. badaro (ra, a), a fine, a
payment; -badarisa, to fine, cause to
pay.
bahari (ra, a), n., Swa.; the sea.
See also nyanza (ya, dza) and
guggwa (ra, a).
bande (ra, p. mab. a), n., for.; a
belt, band.
banhire (ra, p. mab. a), n., Ze.;
a skin belt with pouches for arrows.
See also goBa.
-bapatidza, -babatidza, vb. tr., for.;
to baptize; der. rubabatidzo, ruba-
patiso; pass. -babatidzwa, -bapa-
tiswa, -bapatidzirwa; mubabatidzi,
the Baptist.
-bara, vb. tr., for.; to write; der.
-bara cibaro, to pay tax; vacibaro
(va-), indentured labourers; -barira,
to enrol, write to or for; cibaro (ca,
ea), tax; mubarisi (wa, va), Nd.,
tax-collector.
bg- in Ka.=hw- in Ma., Ze.
bga-, poss. formative after nouns
in uu-, Ka.; nuci bga 6a6a, father's
honey; changes to bge or bgo ace.
to rule. See under a I.
bgabga (bga,no pl.),n.,Ka.; beer
(strong). See doro (ra, pl. mad. a).
-bgadzira, vb. int.; to be on edge
(of teeth); also -hwadzira, Ma.; -va
neuziza, Ma.
-bgaira, vb. int.; to wink, blink,
twinkle; see also Boyira, Ma.;
-cenya, Nd.
bganyanza (bga), n.; a bier. Sce
ucanja (;hwa), Ma.







BGADGA
bgagga (bga, no pl.), n., Ka.;
active medicine used as charms for
any purpose; anesthetic. See hwa-
Iga (hwa), Ma.
Sbgasha (bga, no pl.), n., Ka.;
I... -.. See upami (hwa).
-bgata, vb. int., K. (-hwata, Ma.);
to squat (for concealment). See
-sunzumara, squat on heels.
bgato (bga, pl. bgato bga or ma-
bgato a), it., Ka.; a canoe, dug-out.
See also mgadia (wa, ya), Ma.;
cikepe (ca, ea), for.; gwa, igwa (ra,
a); ggarawa (ya, dza), Swa.
bgato (bga), n., Ka.; bait (fishing).
See hwambo, Ma., Nd.
bge-, bgo-; forms taken by bga-
before syll. contg. -i- and -u- respec-
tively. See bga-.
bge (ra, P. mab. a), n., Ka.;
stone; see ibge; var. cibge (ca, ta).
bgema (bga, no pl.), n., Ka.;
scent, odour; also hwema (hwa).
bgendedzo (bga), n., Ka.; a pre-
tence; a bait.
bgenje (bga), n., Ka.; a deep
pond; also hwenje (hwa), Ze.
bgenze, bgeze (bga), n., Ka.; the
back between the shoulders. Cp.
Ma., pahwaenze paygu, of carrying a
child astride of neck.
-bgereketa, vb. int., Ka.; to speak;
der. bgereketisa, caus.; -bgereketera,
app.; -bgereketiwa, pass. See
reva, -taura.
i -bgereggedza, Ka.; -wereggedza,
Ma., vb. tr.; to add together; to mix.
bgeue (bga), n., Ka.; side (of an
animal). Sec rutivi (rwa).
-bgibginya, vb. int.; to shine,
glitter; glisten (esp. of ox in good
c.,..il ;i..'i der. from rad. bgibgi.
C', hwihwi and hwihwinya.
-b:inya, ob. int.=-bgibginya; and
s. -penvvl.
bgingtira, vb. tr.; to shave clean;
from. rad. -ti bgiggu. See -veura.
r igira, vb. tr.; to eat by throwing
d lo.od (meal, crumbs, etc.) into
i'.. IIi; also -hwira.
Sbgirazuva (bga), it., Ka.; a ray
di .. i; a sunbeam; also maranzi (a,
l ..ly), Ma.; museve (we zaon),
m uzhwari (twa, ya), Nd.


-BVA
-bgiridza, vb. tr., Ka.; to return,
give back. See -hwirira.
-bgirira, vb. int., Ka.; to return,
come or go back. See hwirira.
bgiro (bga), n.,Ka.; agrave. See
guva (ra, pl. mak. a).
bgizana (ra, pl. mabg. a), Ka.; a
lamb; also hwaiana (ya, dza), Ze.;
nyenye (ya, dza), Ma.; kahwai (ka,
twa), Nd.
bgoni, nobgoni, adv.; on purpose,
purposely; also namambune, nama-
vune; or -ciziva with pers. cone.
prefixed agr. with pers. referred to,
wittingly; ndakayita ygoni, ndaka-
yita namambune, I did it on pur-
pose; ndakayita ndicizioa (lit., I
did it, I knowing).
bgowa, bgoa (bga-), n., Ka.;
mushroom (gen.). See howa (hwa).
bguno, dem. pr. agr. with sing. n.
of (vu-) prefix; always foll. its n.;
this (near); vuci bguno, this honey.
-bgurudzura, vb., Ka.; to repeat,
do over again (of an action); also
-hwiridzira, Ma.; -pama, -pamidza,
Ze.
bguya, dem. pr. agr. with sing. n.
of (vu) prefix; always foll. its n.;
that (referred to, out of sight); vuci
bguya, that honey (we spoke of).
-bisa, vb. tr., Ze.; to take away,
remove. See -bvisa.
biza (ra, pl. mab. a), n.; a horse;
biza mutari, occ. heard for a bicycle.
bodyera (ra, pl. mab. a), n., for.;
a bottle. See -dy for pronunciation.
bokisi (ra, pl. mab. a), n., for.; a
box. See cikwembe, Ze.
bora (ra, pl. mab. a), n., for.; a
ball, esp. a football; -tamba bora,to
play football; also nabvu (ya, dza),
Ze.; mbungo (ya, dza), Ma.; mupira
(wa, ya), lit., rubber; homa (ya,
dza); cimburumbga (ca, ta), Nd.
butawu (ya, dza), n., for.; a
button. See ndoro (ya, dza) and cp.
konopo, a stud.
-bva (1), vb. int.; to come from;
to move away, come out; to start
from, begin at; der. -bvisa, caus. to
take away, remove; -bvira, appl.;
wabvepi? where have you come
from? kubva pakutayga, from the







BVA
beginning. See -bvira; notice idiom
in foll.: Mhou inoneta, icibva ya6a-
twa, the ostrich tires and then it
goes and gets caught; anoiSaya,
icibva yafa, he stabs it, it goes and
dies-i.e., dies at once; also ibva
wayenda, ibva wayita, get you gone,
get about it, an angry command;
nyora, ubve wayenda, write and then
go.
bva (2), conj., Ka.; but.
-bvarura, vb. tr., Ka.; to tear;
der. -bvaruka, to be torn. See
-parura.
bvene (ra, pl. mapf. a), n., Ma., Ko.;
a baboon. See gudo (ra, pl. mak. a).
bvi (ra, pl. mabvi a), n., Ka.;
knee. See ibvi (ra, pl. mabv. a).
-bvidza, vb. int., K.; to be able.
See -bvira and -gona.
-bvika, -bvikidza, vb. int.; to be
possible. See -bvira; also -goneka,
-kwanisa kuitika.
-bvinza, vb. int., Ze.; to leak;
syn. -vinza, Ka.; -donha, -dzudza,
Ma.; -bvidza, Nd.; (slightly) -tsi-
nina, Ma.; -sininika, Nd.; -sirina,
Ka.; and cp. -cururika, Ma., Nd.,
and (of furrows) -fashuka, -tifasha.
-bvira, vb. int.; to be possible; (as
aux. to another vb.) to be or do ex-
ceedingly; i1;;., r, it can't be
done, it's not enough; ndabvira ku-
neta, I am extremely tired.
-bvisa, vb. tr.; to take away, re-
move; -bv. pazamu, to wean.
-bvovora, vb. tr.; to bore. See
-bovora.
-bvua, vb. tr., Nd.; to paddle
(canoe).
-bvubvumara, vb. int., Ze.; to
sit huddled up (as a stranger sup-
pliant awaiting notice); syn. -bvu-
bvuwara, Ka.; -ti nzunzunzu, Ma.
bvudzi (dza), n.; hair (of human
head). See vudzi (ra, pl. rare, mav. a).
-bvuka, vb. int., Ma.; to divine,
guess. See -vuka; der. -bvukisira,
to guess.
-bvuma, vb. int.; to agree, assent,
acknowledge; der. -bvumira, to
trust; -bvumirana, to agree together;
-bvumidza, to allow (one to do some-
thing); -bvumisa, cause. to make one


BVUTE
admit or confess; rubvumo (rwa),
confession.
bvumbi (ya, dza), n.; puff-adder.
See mvumbi (ya, dza).
-bvumbuka, vb. int.; Ka., to be
worn thin, be easily torn; Ma., to
start up, jump up quickly; der.
-bvumbukira, appl.; -bvumbutsa,
caus. to startle.
bvumirano (ya, dza), n.; an agree-
ment. See -bvuma and citenderano
(ca, ga).
-bvunda, vb. int., Ma.; (1) to be-
come mouldy, begin to go bad; see
-uundunda; (2) to shake (int.) from
fear or cold.
-bvundura, vb. tr., Ma.; to stir
up (as muddy water); der. -bvu-
nduka, to be stirred up; -bvundutsa,
to' put up buck; to startle; wake up.
-bvunura, vb. int., Ma.; to castor
shed the skin (as snakes do); der.
bvunurwa (ra, pl. mabv. a), the cast-
off skin. See -guvura, Ka.
-bvunza, vb. tr.; to ask (a ques-
tion); cp. -kumbira, to ask for, to
beg; der. -bvunzira, to ask on behalf
of; -bvunzisa, -bvunzisisa intense.) ,
to ask persistently; mubvunzo (wa,
ya), Ma., Nd.; Ka., vunzo (ya,
dza); Ze., cibvunzo (ca, ea), a ques-
tion; -bvunzana, to consult together;
syn. -vunza, Ka.
-bvugganisa, vb. tr.; to meddle
with, disorder, mix up.
bvupa (ra, pl. mapf. a), n., Ze.;
a bone. See pfupa (ra, a).
-bvura, vb. tr.; to singe; remove
hair (of pigs, etc.) by singeing; to
roast mealies.
-bvurudza, vb. tr.; to shake, shake
out; imbga iri kudzibvurudza, the
dog is shaking itself; syn. -bvuvu-
dza, Ka.
-bvuta, vb. tr.; to snatch; take by
force; der. -bvutira, to rob (by vio-
lence); -bvuta maziso, to dazzle the
eyes; -bvutirana, to snatch from one
another (caus. -bvutidzana); mu-
bvuti (wa, va), n., robber; syn.
-pamba, Nd.
bvute (bvuri), (ra, pl. mabv. a);
shade (regarded as shelter from sun,
etc), perh. dist. from mubvuri,







-BVUWA
inumvuri, a shadow. See mumvuri
i(wa, ya).
-bvuwa, -bvua, vb. tr., Ma.; to
fish (with net); der. -bvuira, to get
fish into net; mubvui (wa, va), fish-
erman.
bvuwo (ra, pl. mabv. a), n.,-Ma.;
the after-birth; syn. musari (wa,
ea), Ka.
-bzova, vb. int., Ma.; to roar, sing
bass. See -dzova.
bZ-; for words beginning so, try
dZ-.
-bZinya, vb. tr., Ma.; =dginya, to
press, be tight.






B, implosive labial, which is the
common form of the labial in Ma-
shonaland and is fairly easily dis-
tinguished by ear from the familiar
English b, which is explosive. Ex.,
-Bara, to bear, but bara, to write.
The 6 does not occur in any com-
binations with other consonants of
this unified language, though it does
so in Ndau.
Ba, neg. Used for emphasis after a
negative verb, with which it is en-
clitic and brings the accent forward :
handidi, I do not wish; handidi-6a, I
don't at all wish. Is also added for
emphasis to other negs. such as tai
and kwete, but does not bring accent
forward with them: kwdte 6a, tdi
6a, no, not at all.
-Ba, vb. tr.; to steal; der. -Bira,
to steal from; -Biwa, to be stolen (of
the thing stolen); -Birwa, to be
robbed (of the person stolen from);
-Bisa, intense and caus.), to steal a
great deal, to cause to steal.
BaBa (wa, va), n.; father; father's
brother or even father's sister; syn.
bambo. Sec App. on Relationships.
Pl. forms are vaBa6a, oadzi6a6a.
-Babama, vb. int.: to flap the
wings.
Badza (ra, pl. map. a), n.; (1) a


BADGA
hoe; 6. reVombe, a plough. (2) 4
long strings of beads, so called be-
cause equiv. in barter to a hoe.
Bako (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a cave
or cleft among rocks; a refuge or
stronghold.
Bakwa (ra, pl. map. a), n.; place
for firewood, either (Ka.) a shelf in
the hut or (Ma.) a woodpile outside.
Bambo (wa, va), n., Ka., Ma.;
father, etc. See BaBa.
Banda (1), vb. int.; to pain, throb,
smart, ache; (2) vb. tr.; to crush
mealiess or anything hard on stone,
etc.); (3) n. (ra, pl. map. a), Ka.,
one of the three stout poles that up-
hold roof of hut.
Bandadzi (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.,
Ma.; a slave, servant.
Bandakadzi (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.,
Ma.; a female slave; a maidservant.
Bandauko (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; (of
beast) shoulder or fore-leg. See fudzi
(ra, a).
Bande (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ma.,
Nd.; bark, peel, scale (of fish); syn.
gwande (ra, a), Ka.; gwati (ra, pl.
makw. a), Ze.
Bandu (ra, pl. map. a), n., Nd.;
an enemy. See muveggi (wa, va)
and cp. mhandu (ya, dza).
Bani (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; wide,
level land between hills; open, level
veld; in Ma. = a narrow valley, but
open veld= Bomho (ra, pl. map. a);
syn. Bomho; and see saggo.
Banza (ra, no pl.), n., Ma.; hope.
See tariro (ya, dza).
Banze (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Ma.;
the meeting-place of men in a village.
See dare (ra, a); hence mubanze
(wa, va), neighbour; ci6anze cedfu,
our near neighbours, syn. womu-
dare.
Banzura, vb. tr.; to split, cut
lengthways; syn. -Bandura, Ma.;
-Sadzura, Nd.; der. Banzu (ra, a),
a splinter; kabanzi (ka, twa), a small
splinter.
Bagga (ra, pl. map. a), ; knife;
syn. mhei (ya, dza), Ze.; mesa
(ya, dza), Ma.; munondo (wa, ya),
Ka. N.B.: Mhegi and mesa are der.
from Du. mes.







BADGANO
Baggano (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ma.,
Nd.; a plan, plot, scheme; syn.
zano (ra, pl. mazano or mano a).
Baggo (ra, pl. map. a), n.; Ma.,
horizontal crossbeam in house-roof;
Ka., Ze., uprights of walls.
-Baggura, vb. int., Ze.; to rise (of
sun). See buda.
Bape (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ka.; a
sheet; flat piece; also band of cloth
or beads worn on forehead by
women.
Bapiro (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a wing;
var. papiro (ra, a).
Bapu (ra, pl. map. a), n.; lung.
-Bara, vb. tr.; to bear (offspring,
fruit), to bud. See -Bereka and
-pona, -gara (of children); der.
-Barira, appl., to bear to; -Barisa,
cause to breed (livestock); -barana,
to bear together.
Bara (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; a cart-
ridge, bullet. See nyere (ya, dza).
-barikabarika, vb. int.; to fly (of
sparks); to send off sparks; syn.
-pupuruka, -Barika.
Barikira (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Ze.;
a spark. See sase (ra, a).
-barura, vb. tr.; to tear. See
-parura; der. Baruka, be torn.
Basa (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; work;
Ma., poles for a hut; i6asa raygu
rekudzidza, it is my work, my duty,
to learn; ane6asa, he is busy, is en-
gaged.
Basi, adv. (Ma. from Siva.);
enough, only; munhu umye basi,
one person only; ndavuya 6asi, I
came empty-handed; ma6asi, naked;
ndiri ma6asi, awo wari ma6asi, I
am, they are, naked.
bata (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; a duck;
syn. sekwe (ra, a); shambira, Ze.;
sambira, Ma. (ra, a).
-Bata, vb. tr.; to seize, catch,
hold; be firm, strong; -6. basa,
-6ata, to work; -batira N., to work
for N.; -6atira citenda, to catch a
sickness; citenda ici cino6atira, this
sickness is catching, is infectious;
-Satisa, to cause to hold, to hold
tight; -Satisisa, to make firm, to
hold very tight; -Satana, to hold to-
gether, int.; to be close together; to


BEDGO

hold one another; -6atana (ne), to
be next to; -6atanidza, to join to-
gether, cause to hold together; -6a-
tidza, to light (a lamp, a fire); -6a-
ta6ata, to feel with the hands, to
work lazily; -6atsa, to help, catch;
-6atsira, to help; -6ata kumeso, to
flatter, deceive by lies; -6atwa, to be
sized, arrested; cp. -bvuta, to seize
by snatching, to snatch.
-batanidza, vb. tr.; to join to-
gether.
-Batsira, -Batsa, vb. tr.; to help;
der. muBatsiri- (wa, va), a helper;
syn. -betsera; -detsa, -detsera, Nd.;
-batisa, -Batira.
-batwa, vb., pass. of -bata; to be
taken, arrested; -6atwa ne dzugjgu,
to be dizzy; -6. nedoro, nehwalwa
(etc.), to be drunk; -6. nobuka, to
faint; -6. nchope, be sleepy, fall
asleep; -6. netqio, -6. nenhutu,
nepfawi, to have a fit.
-Baura, vb. tr., Nd.; to tear; der.
-bauka, be torn. See -parura.
-baya, vb. tr.; to stab, gore,
pierce; to shoot (and hit); to
slaughter (a beast); to sacrifice; der.
-bayira, to fasten (with pin, etc.),
stick into; to kill for; to sacrifice
to.
Bazi (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ze.; a
branch. See nhawani (ya, dza).
bece (ra, pl. ma6., a),n.; pudenda
muliebria; syn. makoygo (a), matinje
(a), mhece (ya, dza).
Bedzi, adv.; only, by itself; syn.
cete, Ma. basi.
-beka, vb. int., Ma.; to belch; also
-beya. See -dgova.
Bembvu (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; a
lunatic, madman; syn. mupeggo (wa,
va); Beijgo (ra, pl. map. a).
Bemhe (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; a
donkey; also mubemhe (wa, ya), Ze.
Bende (ra, pl. ma6., a), n., Ma.
Nd.; a broken pot; nick (as in rim
of pot); space between two teeth.
Benyu, adj. agr. with sing. n. of
(ra-, a-) class; alive. Sec -penyu.
Benzi (ra, pl. mna6. a), n.; a fool,
idiot; (almost) lunatic. Sec Bembvu
(ra, a).
bergo (ra, pl. map. a), in.; a luna-






BERE
tic; der. from -pegga. See bembvu
(ra, a).
Bere (ra, pl. map. a), n.; hyaena;
also cipere (ca, Za), Ze.; syn. thika
(ra, a), Nd.; magondo (wa, wa), Ka.,
Ma.; Boggo (ra, a), Nd.
Bereka, vb. tr.; to bear (offspring,
fruit); to carry on back (as women
carry babies); der. mbereko (ya,
dza), cotton or skin for carrying
baby on back; cp. -zara, -pona, of
bearing children.
Berere (Ma., Nd.), berevere (ra,
pl. ma6. a), n.; verandah.
Besa (ra, pl. ma6. a), n. ; Ma., a
cold in the head; Ka., sickness; syn.
Besha (ra, a), Nd.; and see dzibga,
dzihwa (ra, a).
-Besa (moto), vb.; to make and
light a fire; syn. -vesa (moto) (to
light f.) -Batidza (ioto).
Besha (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Nd.;
cold in the head. See Besa (ra, a).
Besu (ra, pl. map. a), n.; tail (of
bird or fish); syn. mupesu (wa, ya),
Nd.; mupefu (wa, ya), Nd.; musuka
(uwa, ya) and cisuka (ca, ta), both
Nd.; and cp. muswe (wa, ya), tail
of animals.
Bete (ra, pl. map. a), n.; cock-
roach.
beto (ra, no pl.), n., Ma.; dew;
syn. veta (ra), cdova (ra).
-betsa, -betsera, vb. tr., Ka.; to
help; der. mubetseri (wa, va). See
-batsira.
Bidi (ra, pl. ima. a), ?n., Ka.;
magic; any unusual thing. See pipi
(ra, a).
-bidza, vb. tr.; to take over a
river. See -bira.
-bika, vb. tr.; to cook (in water),
to boil; 6. doro, to brew beer; der.
muBiki, a cook.
Bikiro (ra, pl. ma6. a), 1n.; the
cooking-place; a big snuff-box.
Bimha (ra, pl. map. a), n.; reed-
buck.
-Bimidza, vb. tr.; to beat (with
fist); der. from rad. bi; cp. -bititsa,
Ma. ; -Bititisa, Ze.
bindepinde (ra, pl. ima6. a), ir.,
Ka.; a stout rope; Zc., a row of
people holding hands; -ita 6i)idc-


BONDE
pinde, to skip (with skipping rope).
See tambo (ra, a).
Bigga (ra, pl. ma6. a), ra., Ko.;
a forest; also Ma., the king's en-
closure in his own village. See
dondo.
bira (ra, pl. ma6. a), rn.; a big
beer dance; a feast in connection
with spirit worship; syn. cidyo (ca,
)a); (with dance), mutambo (wa, ya) ;
(after dance) guneri (ra, a), Nd.;
(funeral) cenura (ca), Ma.; mutombo
(wa, ya), Nd.
-bira, vb. tr.; (1) to cross over (a
river); der. -Bidza, to take across a
river; syn. -ambuka, -namata, Ma.;
(2) to steal from, app. form of -Ba,
to steal; (3) vb. int., to set (of sun),
Nd.; cp. -uira, and see -doka.
-Biratu, vb., Nd.; to fast for at
least one day. See -nyima.
Biripiri (ra, no pl.), n.; measles;
syn. gwirikwiti (ya, dza), Ze.;
cikuku (ca), Ma.
Birira (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., M.; a
waterfall. See Bopomo (ra, a).
Biriri (ra, pl. map. a), n., Nd.;
bank (of stream). See hombekombe
(ra, a).
Biswa (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Ze.;
=mhaiga, a stage in beer-making.
Biti (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Ka.;
(sweet) beer. See (foro.
-bitirirwa (mumvura), vb. pass.,
Ka.; to be choked in water, to
drown (int.) ; der. from-bitirisa (tr.),
to choke. See -nyura.
-Bititisa (Ze.), Bititsa (Ma.) vb.
tr.; to beat (with fist); from rad.
-ti bi, and cp. -bimidza.
Biya (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ma.; a
frying-pan. See haggiro (ya, dza),
Ka.
Biza (ra, pl. 1ma6. a), n., Ko.;
cloth. See jira (ra, a).
Bodo, interj.; no, not at all. See
kwete, hai, tai, ga, haiwa (Nd.),- Ba.
Bofu (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a blind
person or animal; der. -pofumara, to
be blind; -pofumadza, to make blind.
Bomho (ra, pl. map. a), n.; grassy
plain; treeless veld; syl. Bani (ra,
a), and see saggo (ra, a).
Bonde (ra, pl. map. a), in.; a mat






-BONDOKOTA
of split reeds; syn. (1) rukukwe (rwa),
(2) rutsekete (rwa, pl. ts. dza), (3)
rupasa (rwa, pl. masa a), (4) tsa-
pata (ya, dza).
-Bondokota, vb. int., Nd.; to sit
cross-legged; to sit with legs under
one (as women sit on floor); syn.
-ita cisero, Ka.
Bonje (ra, pl. maonje a), n., Nd.;
abscess, boil, wound; syn. mota;
and see cironda (ca, ea).
Bogga (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; cat
(wild). See maggowe (ya, dza).
Boggo (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Nd.;
hyena. See Bere (ra, a).
-Boora, vb. tr.; to bore. See
Bovora.
Bope (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a
quarrel, disturbance; Nd., a noise.
-bopera, vb. tr., for.; to tie up; to
inspan (oxen).
bopomo (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a
waterfall; syn., Bopopo (ra, a), Ka.;
birira (ra, a), Ma.; ciirira (ca, ga),
Nd.
Bopopo (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ka.;
waterfall. See Bopomo.
-Bopota, vb. int.; to make a noise;
syn. -iwauta, -iwaudza.
Bopoto (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a
noise, clamour; a disturbance; syn.
ruzha (rwa); Bope (ra,. a); and see
-bopota.
Borosa (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Ma.;
a pocket.
Bosho (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; bad
marksmanship; a great danger
(? narrow escape, from -posha, to
miss).
bota (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; gruel;
thin porridge (for children). See
sadza (ra, a).
Bote (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; stout
rope (Ka.) of unplaited bark (Ma.);
said (Ze.) to be 'used in a super-
stitious dance.'
-Bovora, vb. tr.; to bore, pierce;
syn. -bvovora; -Boora, -uurura,
-dura, Ma., Nd.; der. -Bovoka, be
pierced, bored.
-Boyira, vb. int., Ma.; to wink,
blink, twinkle. See -bgaira.
-Boza, vb. tr.; to pick up (by
chance); to find. See -Bozha, Ka.


BUNHA
-bozha, vb. tr., Ka.; to pick up
(by chance), find. See -Boza.
-Buda, vb. int.; to come out; be
well; come up (of seeds); to rise (of
sun, etc.); der. -budisa, to cause to
come out; -Budiswa (or Ka. -Budisa),
to have diarrhoea.
Budzi (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a kind
of marrow or pumpkin. See nhagga
(ya, dza).
Buka (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; a fit
(Ze., fainting; Ka., convulsive).
Buma (ra, pl. map. a),n.; a swarm
(of bees); a bunch, cluster; syn.
Bumbira (ra, pl. ma6. a), Nd.
bumarutga (ra, no pl.), n.; early
rains. See gukurahundi (ra), huku-
rahundi (ya).
-bumata, vb. int., Ka.; to close
the mouth. See -bumira.
Bumbira (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Nd.;
a swarm or cluster (of bees, etc).
See Buma (ra, a).
Bumhe (ra, no pl.), Ze., Ma.; (1)
beer (sweet). See doro (ra). (2)
Ma., dew. See Beto (ra).
-Bumira, vb., Ka.; to close the
mouth; close lips; syn. -Bumata,
Ka.; vumira, Ze.; -fumbira, Ma.;
-fuggira, Nd.
Bumu (ra, pl. map. a), n.; fore-
lock; tuft left on top of head. See
vudzi (ra).
-bumudza, vb. int.; to rest; make
a halt for rest on a journey; der.
Bumudzo (ra, a), a resting-place;
syn. -pumuza.
Bundo (ra, pi. map. a), n.; (1) a
weed; syn. tsora (ra, pl. mats. a),
Ze.; citse (ca, ta), Ma.; shakura
(ra), Nd.; (2) grassy land, veld.
Bundu (ra, pi. map. a), n.; (1)
Ka., a hump (on men); see nyu-
rgwa (ya, dza) (of animals); nundu
(ya, dza), Ma.; nutwa (ya, dza), Ze.
(2) A lump (e.g., in porridge or on
body); pimple; knot (in wood); Ka.,
clump of trees; der. cipundu (ca, ga),
a small pimple.
-bundukuta, vb. int.; to roll on
ground (as mules do). See -vuru-
kuta.
bunha (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a
young girl (up to about 12 years);







BUNO
der. kapunha (ha, twa), dimin. See
musikana (wa, ya).
Buno (ra, pl. map. a), n.; tomato;
syn. guzuggu (ra, pl. mak. a), Ka.;
gukuzumbu (ra, pl. mak. a), Nd.
Bunumunu, bunyumunyu (ra, pl.
ma6. a), n.; a naked person. See
mupunu (wa, va).
Buggu (ra, pl. map. a), n.; (1) Nd.,
a forest. See dfondo (ra, a). (2) Ka.,
an eagle. (3) A mealie cob stripped
of grain. See guri (ra, a).
bungwa (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ma.;
a salt-bearing reed from whose ashes
a native salt is made. See mutomba
(wa, ya); syn. mubuggwe (wa, ya),
Nd.; mutgaggidze (wa, ya), Ka.
Bupira (ra, pl. ma6. a), n.; (1)
Ka., a swarm of insects; abundance
of flying insects; cp. buma (ra, a);
(2) a talkative person, Ka., Ze.
-bura, vb. tr.; to take from the
fire, to dish up (food); to take honey
or eggs (from hive or nest); Ma.,
Nd., to remove bark from tree.
Bura (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Ka.;
sweet potato. See mbambaira (ya,
dza).
Buri (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ka.; a
family. See mhuri (ya, dza), Ma.,
Ze.; also Ma., buri (ya, dza). (The
6u- is on a low tone.)
Buri (ra, pl. ma6. a), n. (6u- on
higher tone); a hole through some-
thing (e.g., clothes or wood or iron);
buri retsono, eye of a needle; and so
a window (in hut).
-Burika, vb. int.; to come out
(from, mu); der. -Burikira, to sprout
out, shoot (as trees); Ze., be well;
to stand aside, get out of the way;
-Burikidza, tr., to make way through;
pierce through; -Burikirwa neshave,
Ma., to be possessed by a spirit;
-Buritsa, tr., to discharge, expel;
-Buritsira, tr., to take out of the
way; -Buritsisa, to purge violently;
-Buritswa, to have diarrhea.
-burikidza, -urikira. See-Burika.
-burira, vb. tr., appl. form of
-Bura, to take out (sadza) from pot;
hence, to feed another, to bring up
someone else's child.
-Buritsa, vb. tr.; to take out,


drive out; der. -Buritsira, -Buritswa,
-buritsisa. See -Burika.
-Buruka, vb. int.; to come down,
descend; der. -Burusa, -Burutsa,
caus.; -Burukira, app., to come
down to. See -dzika.
-Burukuta, vb. int.; to roll on
ground (as mules). See -vurukuta.
-Burutsa, vb. tr.; to cause to come
down, to take down; var. -Burusa;
syn. -turura.
Bute (ra, pl. map. a), n.; mist;
Ze.. 6. rewiza, a swarm of locusts.
See mhute, mphute (ya, dza).
buti (ra, gen. in pl. map. a), n.;
a grain of pop-corn; syn. Nd.,
mabutiputi (a).
Butiro (ra, pl. map. a), n.; cover-
ing, wrapper; hence, thin skin inside
eggshell, banana bud,a book-jacket,
and in Ze. and Nd. the after-birth
or placenta. (See also for this
bvuwo, musari.)
Butu (ra, gen. in pl. ma6. a), n.;
bran (of grain stamped or milled).
See guva (ra, a).
Buve (ra, pl. map. a), n.; a poison-
ous hairy spider; Ma. has buve (wa,
pl. va6uve va).
Buwa (ra, pl. ma6. a), n., Nd.;
sleeping hut for unmarried boys (or
for unmarried girls). See imba (ya,
dzo).
Buwe (ra, pl. map. a), n., Ma.,
Nd.; stone. See ibge (ra, a).






C
c-Sound as ch in cheap. Former-
ly represented by ch, which does not
now occur; words that formerly be-
gan with ch will be looked for here
under c, e.g., cigaro cake, his chair.
ca. 1. Possess. cone. after sing. n.
of (ca, Za) class: cigaro camambo,
the king's seat; cigaro caygu, my
chair.
2. Tense formative of future tense:
ndicaoona, I shall see.







OCACAA
cacaca, rad. onomatopoeicc); -ti
cacaca, to rain heavily; macacaca
(a), n., heavy rain. See mvura (ya)
and rain.
-cacadza, vb. tr.; to melt down
(fat), to render (fat).
-cada-, vb. tr., Nd.; to marry (of
the man). See -cata.
cadzera (ca, ga), n.; glare, glow,
as of veld fire at night.
cai (ca. no pl.), n., for. ; salt. See
munyu (wa, ya).
-caira, vb. tr., for. (from Zulu
-caya, to beat); to drive (used pri-
marily of ox-waggon, may be ap-
plied even to motors); to swim; der.
mucairi, driver.
cakata (ya, dza, or, in Nd., ra, pl.
mac. a); a wild fruit; fruit of muca-
kata tree.
camembe (ca, ga), n., Ka.; the
south; mhepo yecamembe, the South
Wind.
-camira, vb. int., Ma.; to be earn-
est over; to do (something) keenly;
udinocamira kuda, I want very
much; unocamira ikuamiba, you are
very keen on dancing.
camo (ca, ea), n., Ka.; a refuge,
resource. See cipotero (ca, Za).
cana (ca, ea), n.; little child; Ze.,
a fat child; anecana, he is childish;
-ita cana, to whimper, etc., like a
small child.
cando (ca, no pl.), n.; (1) cold; (2)
cold season, dry season; ndinecando,
I am cold; -necando, adj., cold; (3)
hoar-frost; syn. mazaya (a), cero
(ca). Cp. -tonhora; mphepho (ya,
dza), Nd.
canduru (ca, ea), n., Ma., Nd.;
the gall-bladder; the gall; var.
cinduru (ca, Za), Ze.; syn. nyogigo
(ya, dza), Nd.
cani (ca, ea), n. (prob. for.); sign
left behind to mark the right road,
gen. leaves or grass put down to
close the wrong path.
canja (ca, Za), n., dial.; hand.
See canza (ca, Za); var. pl. mania
(a), Ko.
canza (ca, ea), n. ; hand (as dist.
from ruoko, arm); syn. canja (ca,
ga), dial.; nyara (ya, dza), Nd.


-CEKA
caggaira (ca), n., Ka.; awe, absent-
mindedness; the pancreas; -batwa
nec.; to be perplexed. Cp. -karga-
idza, to perplex, confuse.
caggamire, n.; an honorific greet-
ing to a chief. Cp. cirombowe, Ma.,
Nd.
cao (ca, ea), n., Ze.; palm (of
hand).
caoo (ca, ta), n.; temple (of head).
See cavovo (ca, ea); syn. shaya (ya,
dza), Ma.
-capa, vb. tr.; to paddle (canoe).
capuggu (ca, ta), n.; a large
hawk; eagle; sacred bird of most
native tribes. See gondo (ra, a).
capupu (ca, ta), n.; a witness.
Cp. viacapupu, evidence; and upu-
puri, evidence.
cara (ca, ea), n., dial.; finger,
toe. See munwe.
-cata, vb. tr. (Nd., cada); to marry
(of the man); der. -catiswa, -catwa,
to m. (of the woman); -catisa, to
give in marriage (of parent); to
marry (of officiant).
cauouo (ca, Za) (var. caoo), n.;
the temple (of head); syn. shaya (ya,
dza), Ma.; combe (ca, ga) ? in
Ka. (C.S.L.) combe=bone above the
eye.
ce-, poss. cone. ca- (q.v.) as modi-
fied by a foil. syll. contg. -i-, as
cinhn ceshiri, the bird's thing. N.B.:
In Ma. ce- is used before all nouns
except proper names and nouns of
(mu, va) or (-, va) classes; as cinhu
cedare, a thing of iron, but cigaro
caThomas, cigaro ca6a6a, Thomas's
chair, father's chair; ce- (kupfcka,
etc.), a thing to (wear, etc.).
-cecetedza, vb. tr.; to make level,
even; to smooth off; der. -cecetera,
to be even; Ka., -ita cecetere, to
make level.
ceci (ya, dza), n., for. ; church (the
building). See kereke. N.B.: The
final vowel in foreign words like this
is very lightly whispered as a rule.
cedza (ca, S. only), n.; a signal,
first dawn. See ciratidzo (ca, ea).
cefu (ya, no pl.), n., for.; poison.
-ceka, vb. tr.; to cut; to saw; to
reap (with knife or sickle); to cas-







CEKUTI

trate (animals); Nd., to have diar-
rhoea; der. -cekera, e.g., -cekera nho-
imba, to vaccinate for smallpox;
-cekera nmushoyga, to make a cut (or
cuts) for rubbing in any medicine;
-ceka napakati (M., ygepakati), to
cut in half; -cekaceka, to cut up
small, mince; -cekanya, to mince.
cekuti, M. (for cokuti), indef.
pron.; such and such, and so on;
wakati cckuti cckuti, he said such
and such. See cokuti, and cp.
nyakuti.
-cema, vb. int.; to weep, lament,
repine; to utter proper cry (of bird,
beast, etc.); der. -cemera, to cry for,
desire; -cemesa, -cemedza, to cause
to cry; syn. -rira.
-cembera, vb. int.; to be aged,
esp. of women; to be past child-bear-
ing; der. cembere (ya, dza), an old
woman.
cembere (ya, dza), n.; an old
woman. Sec cembera.
-cembere, adj.; old; for proper
prefixes see Table I.c, and note
jcmbere for nouns of (ya, dza) and
(ra) classes.
-cena (1) adj.; white, clean, clear,
pure; white (of hair, but see imvi);
for prop. adj. cone. see Tables I.c
and II. (cena, jena); e.g., imba
cena, white house or houses; pfumo
jena, a white spear; cilnh cicena, a
white thing. (2) Vb., to be white.
etc.; hence adj. -akaccna, mncc-ka
wakachena, white cloth; der. -cenesa,
to whiten; -cenesa myoyo, to please,
gladden; adv. pacena, openly, pub-
licly; cipo capacena, a free gift.
-cenama, vb. int.; to show the
teeth, grin, grimace. Cp. -nyenama.
-cenesa, vb. tr.; to whiten; -c.
mijyoo, to gladden, please; -c. ma-
zwi, to explain, make meaning clear;
der. from -cena.
-cenjera, vb. int. and tr.; to be-
ware, beware of; be wise, artful;
der. cenjedza, to deceive; to warn;
put one on guard; syn. -inuka.
cenura (ca, za), n., Ma.; a funeral
feast (at end of mourning period).
See bira.
-cenura, vb. tr.; to cleanse; to


CETE
clear, find not guilty; Ze., to chip;
der. -cenuruka, be pale, faded.
-cenya, vb. int., Nd.; to wink,
blink, twinkle. See -bgaira.
cenze (ca, ta), n., Ma.; a mane.
See zenze (ra, a) and hwenze.
-cerigedza, vb. tr.; to deceive,
cheat. See -nyeggera and cp.
-cenjera, be artful, etc.
-ceggera, vb. tr.; to deceive; cheat.
See -nyerigera and cp. -cenjera.
-ceggeta, vb. tr.; to keep (goods,
people, feastdays, laws); to pro
serve, take care of; der. -cengetera,
to keep for; -ceggetedza, intense to
keep very carefully; -ceirgeteka, be
kept, saved; muceggeti (wa, va),
keeper, guardian; ceygeta knita, be
sure to do, take care to do; egn.
kotsa, M., to keep (in store), lay by.
ceggo (ca, ga), n., Ze.; the wall
of room or house. See cidziro (ca,
ta).
ceglgu (Ze., ca, ga; Ka., ya, dza),
i,.; roan antelope. Cp. Nd. mpara-
para (ya, dza).
cepfu (ya), n., for.; poison; var.
zefu (ia).
-cera, vb. tr.; (1) to accuse; Zc.,
betray; to be prejudiced against (and
to act accordingly). Cp. Ma., -tsera.
(2) To dig a hole, to dig up (pota-
toes, ground nuts, etc.); to quarry,
:o mine; to draw (water); to gather
(fruit or vegetables); der. -cerera,
e.g., -cerera pasi, to bury.
-cerecedza, vb. tr., Ma., Nd.; to
remember, bring to mind; to think.
See -raggarira.
-cerekedza, vb. tr., Ka.; to look
well at, examine.
cero (ca, S.only), n.; (1) Ma.,
hoar-frost. See mazaya. (2) Cero
(ra), i. (or adv.), Nd., the day after
tomorrow.
cese (ca, ea), n.; edge of spear-
blade; the one half of spear-blade to
right or left of central ridge; syn.
nzeve, zheve, urodzi, rutivi.
-ceta, vb. tr.; to tell tales of, to
slander. Secc -cera.
cete, adv. ; only; alone; freq. with
num., e.g., rimpe cete, only one;
syn. Bedzi; Basi, Ma.







-CEUDZA
-ceudza, vb. tr., Ze.; to circum-
cise. See -dziggisa, Ka.
-ceuka, -cevuka, vb. int.; to look
back, look round. See -tarira.
-ceza, vb. tr. and int., Ma.; to
beckon, make a sign, give a warn-
ing; der. -cezera, to beckon to; -c.
neziso, to wink, wink at; ndamiu-
ceza kuti Ucanerwa' (' ndicaku-
nera '), I warned him that he would
be beaten (that I would beat him).
ci-. 1. Subj. or obj. concord of
3rd pers. for sing. n. of (ca, ga)
class; ex. cigaro cinovuya, the chair
is coming; ndakacivona, I saw it.
2. Adj. cone. agr. with sing. n. of
(ca, ga) class, used also with nu-
meral -mye; ex. cinhu cimye citema,
one black thing.
3. Tense formative in vbs. (a) pre-
fixed to imperatives to make them
more instant; ex. cienda, go at
once.
(b) With indicatives to form par-
ticiples or to give idea of continuing
action; ex. vakatiza ndiciri kunuya,
they ran away while I was still
coming; ndakamutora acirwara, I
took him, he being ill.
4. Prefixed to numerals to make
them ordinal; ex. music wecina, the
fourth day.
5. Noun prefix of sing. conso-
nantal noun stem for (ca, ga) class;
e.g. for stem -nhu, ci-nhu, a thing;
but mu-nhu, a person.
6. Prefix meaning 'in themanner
of,' e.g., Ci Ngezi, English (language,
etc.).
clara (ca, va), n., Nd.; men's
regular meeting-place in village; any
meeting-place; a church; an assem-
bly; congregation. See dare (ra, pl.
mad. a) and kereke; var. Ka., ci-
vara (ca, Za), Ma., ciware (ca, ea),
for the village meeting-place.
ci . o. Many nouns of this
formation may be found under the
verb stems from which they are
formed, thus: -dziva, to hinder, stop;
der. cidziviro, a stopper, cork. Nouns
of this formation are commonly
names for the instrument or the
effect of the action indicated by the


CIBARWE
verb, and the meaning can generally
be guessed from the verb.
ciasha (ca, ea), n., Nd.; wicker
fish-trap; see duvu (ra, a).
cibaro (ca, Za), n., for.; tax; agree-
ment for indentured labour; -bara ci-
baro, to pay tax; vacibaro, inden-
tured labourers.
cibvumba (ca, ea), Ma. civumba, n.;
a grave; Ka., a carcass; see guva
(ra, P. mak. a).
cibvunzo (ca, ga), n., Ze.; a ques-
tion; der. from -bvunza, to ask; Ka.,
vunzo (civunzo); Ma., mubvunzo.
ciBairo (ca, ca), n., Ka.; reward,
wages; syn. mubairo (wa, ya); tuso
(ra, a), Ma.
ciBarwe (ca, sometimes pl. ga), n.;
maize. Variants are maBarwe (a)
pl. only; ciBave (ca, rarely pl.), Ze.;
gwere (ra, commonly pl. mag. a),
Ma.; Bonore (ra, pl. mab. a), Nd.;
cibere (ca, ga), dial.
N.B.-To grow mealies, after pre-
paring ground, take hoe (Badza) and
make hole (gomba), put in two or
more grains (tsagga, Ma. magwere
or mbeu dza mag.) and cover with
earth (-fusira). All this is called
-kavira (Ka.), -dyara (Ze.), -Zara
(Ma.). When the seedling, tsuri
(Ze., Ma.), nuggo (Ka., Ze.) comes
up (-mera, -Buda) and the weeds
(tsora, Bundo, Ma. citse) follow, you
wee:1 (-sakura), and repeat at in-
tervals two or three times. Then the
male flowers (Ze. mupugga we ci-
Barwe, mucekecera, Ka. ijgara, Ma.
igarara) appear (-tumbuka, -Buda),
and next the young cob (Ma. ciqo, Ka.
hupi, Ze. guri, hara) appears (-Buda,
Ze. -furura) and the silky tassels of
female styles (ndebvu, rurevu) are
fertilized, the cob becomes big (-kura),
and the grains (Ka., shagga; Ze.,
Ma., tsaiga; Ma., magwere) are
formed under the leaflike wrappings
(Ka., makanda; Ma., mazani; Ze.,
mashiza, mateko). Whcn these are
ripe (-ibva), they! are left to dry
(-oma), and then, either (a) (Ka.,
Ze.) leaving the stalks (Ka., Ze.,
Ma., magunje; Ma. also mazhonje)
standing, or (b) (Ma., Ze., and some-






CIfATO
times Ka.) cutting them, you pluck
(-kowa, -godogora, -koroora) by hand
the cobs (Ka., mahupi; M., mimhu;
Ze., maguri) and collect them (-wo-
rera; Ma., -jorera) into baskets (Ka.,
Ze., Ma., mateigu; Ze., Ma., tswa-
nda) for storage in the store-huts
(matsapi). When they are quite dry
you take out (-Buritsa), strip off
(-furura) the leaf wrappings (maka-
nda, etc.), and then shell the mealies
by hand (-menya; Ka., -cokonyora;
Ze., -tsokonyora, -tokonora; Ma.,
-punuggura), or by rubbing on rock
(Ze., Ka., -kwiza), or (Ma.) by beat-
ing a sackful with sticks (-ponda);
then put the bare grain into bins
(matura) made in the village grain
store (hozi), or into pots (matenhe,
s. denhe) for the house.
ciBato (ca, ga), n.; handle (gen.);
tongs; der. from -bata, hold; cp.
mupini (ca, ya).
cibayo (ca, ea), n.; (1) a stabbing
pain, esp. pleurisy; a stitch; (2) a
stabbing instrument, a fork.
cibere (ca, ea), n., dial.; mealies,
maize. See cibarwe.
cibibi (ca, Za), n.; a cripple or de-
formed person. See cirema (ca, ea).
ciBimvu (ca, ea), n., Ze.; a part;
see cimhedu.
cibutwa (ca, ea), n., Ma.; half a
sack (of grain or meal).
cidina (ca, ea), n., for.; a brick;
syn. citena (ca, ta), Ze.
cidya (ca, ra), n. ; the thigh; syn.
citumbi (ca, ea), Ka.; nthunji (ya,
dza), Nd.; for pronunciation see
-dy-.
cidyo (ca, ea), n.; (either sing. or
pl.) food; syn. Zokudya; a feast, see
Bira (ra, a). For pronunciation see
dy-.
cidza (ca, ea), n., Ma.; a beetle
for beating floor or. earth round a
post; a foundation, site prepared for
building. Cp. cikwauro (ca, ea), a
smaller piece of wood with one flat
side, used for beating earthen floors
(-kwaura umba), gen. done by kneel-
ing women.
cidzere (ca, ea), n., Ma., Nd.; a
small ant-hill made by a small


CIDUU
variety of white ants. See civuru
(ca, ga); citsope (ca, ea).
cidzidziso (ca, ga), n.; teaching;
a lesson (taught). See cidzidzo (ca,
za).
cidzidzo (ca, ga), n.; a lesson;
something learnt or to be learnt.
See cidzidziso (ca, ta); syn. dzidzo
(ya, dza), Ka.; cifundo (ca, ga), Ze.
cidzimamuriro (ca, Za), n.; a fire-
fly that alternately shines and is
dark.
cidzimu (ca, Za), n., Ze.; sore on
lips (after fever); sore lips; ex.
ndine zidzimu, my lips are sore. See
cironda (ca, ea).
cidziro (ca, pl. madz. a), n.; (1)
the wall (of a hut of poles and mud);
syn. dziro (ra, pl. madz. a); (of
stone) jiigo (ra, a); rugiggo (rwa,
pl. mag. a); (of room) ceiggo (ca, Za),
Ze.; ukuri (hwa), Ma. (2) C. is
also used of coloured earth used in
decorating pots.
cidziviro (ca, ga), n.; a stopper
(for bottle, etc.); syn. cidzivo (ca,
ga); Ma., mudziwo (wa, ya); Ka.,
dziviro (ya, dza); Nd., citsiyo (ca,
ea).
cidziuo (ca, ga), n.; stopper, cork.
See cidziviro.
cidakwa (ca, Za), n.; a drunkard.
See mukariri (wedoro) (wa, va).
cidandari (ca, ga), n.; a musical
instrument, a one-stringed bow.
cidao, cidawo (ca, Za), n.; a
family name which boys inherit from
their father and retain through life.
A girl at marriage takes the cidao
of her husband. See mutupo (wa,
ya); both mutupo and cidao are in-
variable names and are generally
kept for honorific or ceremonial use.
cictima (ca), n., Nd.; darkness.
See rima (ra).
cidimbu (ca, ea), n.; a piece (of
anything). See cimhedu (ca, ea),
-dimbura, and ciBimvu (ca, ea), Ze.
cido (ca, ga), n., Ka.; a forge.
See cisindi (ca, ea).
ciduhumiro (ca, ea), n., Nd.; a
lid, cover. See cikwidibidzo (ca, za).
ciduu (ca, ea), n.; a wicker fish-
trap. See dfuu.







CIEDZO
ciedzo (ca, ea), n.; (1) Nd., a fish-
hook; a fishing line; see cira'uro
(ca, )a); (2) a measure; sUn. cienza-
niso, ciyero, cipimo (all ca, ga).
cienzaniso (ca, ca), in.; a measure,
a comparison. See -enzanisa.
cifananidzo (ca, ga), n.; a picture,
a likeness; der. from -fanana, to be
like; -fananidza, to make like; syn.
mufananidzo (wa, ya).
cifefe (ca, ea), v.; a shot-gun;
Ze., a cartridge, or shot. See pfuti.
cifemo (ca, ca), n.; breath; -va
necifemo, to be out of breath.
cifeve (ca, ea), n., for.; a harlot,
prostitute.
cifua, cifuva (ca, ga), n.; (1) a
cold in the chest; (2) Ka., conscience.
See also cipfuva.
cifukidzo (ca, ea), n.; a covering.
See -fuka.
cifundo (ca, ea), n.; a knot; a
joint; Ze., a lesson; see -funda and
nhelgo (ya, dza); cifundo ceruva, a
bud (of flower).
cifuniro (ca, ga), n.; a lid, cover;
syn. cikwidibiro (ca, ca), ciduhu-
miro (ca, ea).
cigadzo (ca, ga), n.; a stand (for
setting anything on); c. cekandycra,
a candlestick; syn. (of candlestick)
citimiko cemnjenje (ca, ea), Ka.;
cigadziko cecibani (ca, ca), Nd.
cigama (ca), n.; a rough half (of
any measure); esp. in phrases like
musudze unecigaina cemvura, the
bucket is half-full of water; ndipe-
vo cigama cemvura mnukomici, or
yisa cigamlia cemivra mukomici,
give me half a cup of water. Cp.
-ita gamiha or gama, to fill half-full;
and cigamha.
cigamha (ca, ea), n., Ze.; aprop;
der. cigamiso (ca, Za) Ze., a buffer;
cigamha cemvura, a (cup, etc.) half-
full of water. Cp. cigama.
cigaro (ca, ca), n.; a seat; a chair;
a saddle; from -gara.
cigayo (ca, za), n.; a mill; used
of any machine worked by turning a
handle, as mincer, separator, etc.;
der. from -gaya.
cigero (ca, ea), n., (?for.); scis-
sors; a pair of scissors. See -gera.


CIKEPE
cigidi (ca, ca), n.; gun (muzzle-
loader). See pfuti (ya, dza).
cigondiso (ca, ca), n., Nd.; a pro-
mise, pledge. See citsidzo (ca, ga).
ciguaburo (ca, ca), n.; a stumb-
ling-block; syn. cikuhuniso (ca, ga);
cipumhuniso (ca, ca), Nd. See
-kuhuna.
cigumisirwa (ca, ea), n. ; the last;
in Ma. esp. of the last-born child,
see rugotwe (riwa), Ka.
cigunwe (ca, ea), n. ; registration
certificate; see gunwe, the thumb or
toe; syn. paso (ya, dza), for., and
citupa (ca, ca), for.
cigutsa (ca, ca), n.; stump (of
tree); syn. citsa (ca, a) ; Ka., citsika
or citsiga (ca, ca); Nd., citsiki ( ca,
ca).
ciguvare (ca, ca), n., Ze.; door-
sill, threshold. See cikumbaridzo
(ca, ca).
cihuri (ca, ca), n.; door-stop, cross-
bar for fastening door; bolt; syn.
cipflgo (ca, ca); cokupfigisa (ca,
ea).
cihwagga, cihwapgwa (ca, ea),n.;
parrot, parakeet; syn. ciwegga,
cihwegga (ca, ea); gwere, gwagga
(ra, a); nyandoro (wa, va).
cihwiriri (ca, ca), n.; Nd., a top;
Ma., a piece of gourd pierced in two
holes and spun on a string.
ciimbo (ca, ga), n.; a song. See
rwiyo (rca, dza).
ciirira (ca, ga), n., Nd.; a water-
fall. See bopomo (ra, a).
cijana (ca, ea), n., Ma. ; a turn (at
work). See jana.
cikadzi, adv.; in the manner of
women; kunfunda tambo kioecikadzi,
to tie a granny knc.l: 1,.I .',.i
huni i cikadzi, to cut ..... 1I1.. :
woman.
cikakamira (ca, za), n.; a horn
(musical); a bugle; syn. gwamanda
(ra, a), wamanda (ya, dza).
cikara (ca, ea), n.; animal (car-
nivore), wild beast. Cp. mhuka (ya,
dza), general; and cipfuo (ca, ca),
domestic and farm.
cikepe (ca, ea), n., for.; a canoe
(from Du. ? skep, a ship); syn.
bgato (bga); mladia (wa, ya); gwa,







CIKO
igwa (ra, a); qgarawa (ya, dza),
Sica.
ciko, conj., Ma.; since; ciko ndapi-
nda, ndanyaarar, ever since I came
in I have been quiet; ciko ndaka-
barwa, handisakambooona- shumba
ever since I was born I have never
seen a lion; syn. ciIguri, cipo, both
used in same way; ciggo, Ze., is
followed by ca, as ciygo cha nda-
pinda, since I came in; Ka., kubvira
zdicipinda, since I came in.
cikohono (ca, ta), n., Ze., Ma.;
(of gun) the hammer. See cikovono
(ca, ga), kovono (ya, dza).
cikokoviro (ca, ga), Nd.; a whist-
ling sound (made through the
hands); -ite cikokoviro, to make this
sound; Ma., cikowiro (ca, ga).
cikomba (ca, ga), n.; a suitor,
lover (in Ma. even the lover of a
married woman or a girl promised
to another); Ka., a bridegroom; Ze.,
an accepted suitor.
cikomborero (ca, ga), n.; a bless-
ing; a piece of good luck; syn.
ropafadzo (ya, dza).
cikonhi (ca, ea), n.; a door, a
wooden gate. See gonhi (ra, a).
cikore (ca, ga), n., Nd., Ma.
(and ciggore); a bunch, cluster of
fruit. See cimotso (ca, ga).
cikoro (ca, ga), n., for.; a school.
Cp. citoro= store.
cikosoro (ca, ca), n.; a cough;
syn. gotsorwa (ra, a), Nd.; cikoso-
rwa (ca, ca), Ma.
cikovono (ca, ga), in., Ka.; (of
gun), the hammer. See cikohono,
Mla., Ze.; muridzo (iwa, ya), Ze.;
ruhuggiso, Ze., Ma.; rukugxgiso,
Ka.; cikuijgo, Ma.
cikuhuniso (ca, ca), n.; a stumb-
ling-block. See cigumburo (ca, gu)
and -kuhuna.
cikuku (ca), n., Ma.; measles.
See biripiri (ra).
cikumbaridzo (ca, ea), n.; door-
sill; threshold; syn. ciguvare (ca,
ea), Ze.; dimba (ra, a), Nd.
cikumo (ca, ga), n.; a weevil;
borer; syn. cipfuno (ca, ga), Ka.;
citseketso (ca, Za), Nd.; Ka., an in-
strument for stripping bark off trees.


-CIMBIDZA
cikundu (ca), n., Ma.; the mange;
Ka., rukundu. And see gwembe
(ra).
cikunwe (ca, ca), n.; little finger
or toe. See gunwe (ra); Ka., ciku-
iwahuiwane (ca, ea).
cikusggo (ca, ca), n., Ma.; (of
gun), hammer. See cikovono (ca,
za).
cikurukuta (ca), n., Nd.; the
mange. See gwembe (ra).
cikuvu (ca, ca), n., Ma.; the navel
cord; syn. rukuvute (rwa, pl. huvute
dza).
cikuva (ca, ca), n., Ma.; raised
platform in house for standing pots
on.
cikuwa, adv.; in phr. -ridza ciku-
wa, to laugh (or shout) in unison.
cikwama (ca, ga), n.; a purse,
leather pouch.
cikwaggari, cikwaggani (ca, 7a),
n.; a boundary mark; a signpost; a
metal token given as receipt for tax
(dog, cycle, car, etc.).
cikwauro (ca, ca), n.; a wooden
beetle for stamping floor. See
cirovo and cidza (ca, ca).
cikwembe (ca, ta), n., Ze.; a box,
case. See bokisi (ra, a).
cikwepa (ca, ca), n.; a pipe (for
tobacco). See ndudu (ya, dza).
cikwerete (ca, ga), n., ?for.; a
loan; a thing lent; a debt; -pa ci-
kwerete, to lend; -tsika c. or-ripac.,
to repay. See -kwereta and agava
(ya, dza).
cikwidfibidzo, cikwidibiro (ca, ta),
i.; a lid, cover; sin. cifuniro (ca,
ga), ciduhumiro (ca, ca); var. hwi-
dibidzo (ya, dza); c. ccziso, eyelid.
cikwizho (ca, ca), n.; a grater;
from -kwizha.
cimano (ca, ga), n.; tongs; pin-
cers; any kind of clip for holding
things (-mana); syn. mano (a),
mbato (dza), cimbato (ca, Za).
cimata (ca), n.; stammering, a
stutter. See -kakamira, Ka.
-cimbidza, vb. int.; tomakehaste,
do quickly; cimbidza kuiuya, make
haste to come; cimbidza hurry up I
(whatever is being done); syn.-kuru-
midza; cimbidzika, Ka.; -kasira,






CIMBUDGUMBUDGU
Ka., Nd.; der. -cimbidzira, be be-
forehand (in doing), make haste (for
a purpose); -cimbidzisa, make others
hurry.
cimbuggumbuggu (ca, ea), n., Nd.;
a dumb person. See mbeveve (ya,
dza).
camera (ca, ea), in.; (1) yeast or
leaven; meal prepared in course of
beer-making; see doro (ra); syn.
mumera (wa, ya); (2) a shoot or
sprout.
cimhedu (ca, va), n.; a part or
piece (broken off something); Ze., a
chapter; a crumb; syn. mhedu (ya,
dza); cibimvu (ca, ea), Ze.; cidimbu
(ca, ea); rupande (rwa, pl. map. a);
gaggo (ra, a); deme (ra, a).
cimhete (ca, ga), n.; a ring. See
mhete (ya, dza).
cimhiko (ca, ga), n., Ka.; a bunch
(of fruit). See cimotso (ca, ea).
cimiro (ca, Za), n.; height, age;
cp. zero (ra); a thing for standing
on; a stop, full stop (punctuation);
a pause.
cimJe, num. or indef. pron.; one,
or some, other, in agr. with sing. n.
of (ca, Za) class. See -mge.
cimotsi, ord. num., Ka.; first, as
imba yecimotsi, the first house; ci-
motsi ce Sondo, Monday, the first
day of the week; syn. ciposhi, Ze.;
cipotsi, Ma.; ciposi, Nd.
cimotso (ca, Za), n.,; a bunch of
fruit; syn. cimhiko (ca, ea), Ka.;
sumbu (ra, a), Ka.; cikore, ciggore
(ca, ga), Nd., Ma.; buma (ra, a), of
fruit or of bees swarming; citsoko
(ca, ga), Ma., of grapes, or single
part of banana bunch; ggoma (ya,
dza), Ma., of the complete banana
bunch.
cimumumu (ca, ga), n., Ma.; a
dumb person, stutterer. See mbe-
veve (ya, dza); Ze., mumumu (ra,
a), a dumb person.
cimutanhatu (ca), n.; the Pleiades.
See star.
cinamo (ca, ea), n., Ma.; a patch
of cloth; syn. cinemo (ca, ga), Ka.;
citembge (ca, ea), Nd.
cinaniso (ca, ea), n.; a wonder,
marvel; syn. cishamiso (ca, ea).


CIDGEZI
cindore (ca, Za), n., Ka.; an ear-
ring; see mhete (ya, dza) for ring;
the r in this word is practically an 1.
cinembo (ca, ea), n., Ze.; a
chapter.
cinemo (ca, ea), n., Ka.; a patch
of cloth; syn. cinamo (ca, ea), Ma.;
ciremo (ca, ea), Ze.; citembge (ca,
ga), Nd.; in Ma. cinemo=vanity,
from -nema, to be vain, to wear
smart clothes.
cinhambo (ca), n.; a short time or
distance. See nhambo (ya).
cinhoyi (ca, va), n., Ma.; a mote
(in eye); a splinter.
cinhu (ca, Za), n.; a thing. Cp.
munhu (wa, va), person. See ciro
(ca, ga).
-cinjika, vb. tr.; to lay one thing
across another; to cross; der. -cinji-
kisa, caus.; -cinjikana, to be across
one another; mucinjiko (wa, ya),
cinjikano (ca, ea), a cross.
cino (1), dem. pron. agr. with
sing. nouns of (ca, Za) class, always
placed after the noun; this (near);
cigaro cino, this chair (here).
cino (2) (ca), n., Ka.; manner,
way.
cinu (ca, ga), n.; (1) a small cala-
bash (for oil or fat); (2) Ka., a sharp
pain; a stitch.
-cinya, vb. int., Ka.; to sin, do
wrong; der. -cinyira, to sin against,
to wrong.
cinyai (1), adv., Ka.; slowly, soft-
ly, gradually. See -nyatsa. (2) n.
Nd.; soot. See cilai (ca).
cinyamupupuri (ca, Za), n.; a
whirlwind; syn. cipupuri (ca, ea),
Ma., Nd.
cinyaridi (ca, ga), n., Ka.; a scor-
pion. See rize (ra, a); karize (ka,
twa).
cinyuka (ca, ga), n., Nd.; a spring
(of water); syn. cisipiti (ca, ea);
citubu (ca, Za).
ciijai (ca, no pl.), n.; soot. See
cinyai (ca), Nd.
-ciggamidza, vb. tr.; to meet (a
guest); syn. -ciggura.
ciggezi (ca), n.; the English lan-
guage, ways, etc.; Vgezi, from
' English' through Port. ingereza.'







CIDGIDZIRA
ciggidzira, vb. tr.; to pour water
over fingers before eating; to catch
(falling water in buckets); to hold
out the hollowed hand to catch water.
ciggo (ca), conj., Ze.; since; ciygo
ca ndaka6arwa, since I was born.
See ciko.
-ciggudzira, vb. tr.; to meet, wel-
come (guest); to overtake (esp. by
taking a short cut).
-ciggura, vb. tr.; to meet (a guest).
See -ciggudzira and -ciggamidza.
cilgguri, coni., Ma.; since. See
ciko.
ciggwa (ca, ga), n.; bread; syn.
(of mealie meal) cipapata (ca, ga);
cipondamgoyo (ca, ga); voroto (bga),
Ka., for.
cigono (ca, ga), n., Ka.; the tsetse
fly; a gadfly; syn. meswi (ya, dza),
Ze., gunura (ra, a), Ma.
cipani (ca, ea), n.; (1) a span
(' cipani') of oxen; (2) a suit of
clothes.
cipagga (ca, ea), n.; blade (of
spear-head, arrow-head); syn. cipasa
(ca, za).
cipaggo (ca, ta), n., Ma.; shelf
for wood inside hut or on verandah.
Cp. Bakwa (ra, a).
cipapata (ca, ga), n.; dough of
mealie meal; unleavened cake hastily
baked. See ciggwa (ca, ga).
cipari (ca, za); n., Ma.; a proverb
or saying; a riddle. Ex. of proverb,
Ico waona batisisa, mudzimu haupi
kayiri, lit., what you see, hold fast;
the spirit doesn't give twice. Ex. of
riddle, Gona ratqa, wasara muno-
?gora, the medicine horn is burnt,
its stirring stick remains; Ans. Nzira
or twizi, the path or the river. Syn.
shumo (ra, a), Ka.; tsumo (ya, dza),
Z.; musande (wa, ya), Nd.; cirabge
(ca, ea), Ka.
cipasa (ca, ea), n.; blade (of spear-
head, arrow-head); syn. cipagga (ca,
ea).
cipefu (ca, ea), n., Ka., or cipedu;
a crumb; piece broken off; syn.
cimhedu (ca, ea); fufu (ra, a);
muvuruvuru (wa, ya), Ma.
cipembere (ca, ea), n.; rhinoceros.
See nhema (ya, dza).


CIPOTERO
cipere (ca, ea), n., Ze.; hyena.
See Bere (ra, a).
cipfigo (ca, ea), n.; a fastening,
bolt; crossbar to fasten door. See
cihuri (ca, Za).
cipfundo (ca, ga), n.; (1) a knot;
a joint (of the body); (2) Ma., a
native plant whose fibrous root is
used for brushing clean the grinding
stones; syn. cifundo (ca, Za), Ka.
cipfuno (ca, Za), n., Ka.; weevil;
borer. See cikumo (ca, ga).
cipfuo (ca, ga), n. (Ma., cipfuyo);
animal (domestic or farm). Cp.
mhuka (ya, dza), animal in gen.;
cikara (ca, Za), carnivore, beast of
prey.
cipfuva (ca, ea), n.; chest; chest
complaint such as pneumonia. More
commonly used of chest complaints
than of the chest. See also diti (ra,
a), Ma., Nd.; dundundu (ra, a),
Ma., Ze.
cipikiri (ca, Za), n.; a nail (iron).
See mbambo (ya, dza), hoko (ya,
dza), for peg.
cipiko (ca, ga), n.; an oath; see
-pika; syn. mhiko (ya, dza). Used
also of the mutupo name, by which
one swears.
cipimo (ca, ga), n.; a measure.
See -pima.
-cipiri, ordinal num., used with
poss. prefix; second; musi wecipiri,
Tuesday, i.e., the second day (of
the week); kwecipiri, secondly.
cipiripiri (ca), n.; pepper; chillies;
the plant is mupiripiri (wa, ya), the
fruit cipiripiri or mhiripiri (ya, dza).
cipiso (ca, ea), n.; a flat-iron,
branding-iron; syn. simbi yokucisa,
flat-iron.
cipo (ca, Za), n.; a gift, present;
cp. tuso, cituso; cipo capacena, a
free gift, a gift made publicly.
cipondamgoyo (ca, ea), n.; un-
leavened bread of any flour and hast-
ily baked (as on a journey). See
cipapata (ca, ea).
-ciposhi, ord. num., Ze.; first;
musi weciposhi, the first day (of
week), Monday; syn. -cimotsi, Ka.;
-cipotsi, Ma.; -ciposi, Ma., Nd.
cipotero (ca, ea), n., Ze.; a refuge;






-OIPOTSI
syn. Bako (ra, a), a cave; nare (ya,
dza), Ka.; citiziro (ca, ga); camo
(ca, ga), Ka.
-cipotsi, Ma., -ciposi, Ma., Nd.,
ord. num.; first. See -ciposi.
cipjairo (ca, ea), n. ; a brush. See
citgairo (ca, ea).
cipukuto (ca, ga), n.; a duster,
towel.
cipumhuniso (ca, ea), n., Nd.;
stumbling-block. See cigumburo (ca,
ga).
cipupuri (ca, ga), n., Ma., Nd.; a
whirlwind; syn. cinyamupupuri (ca,
7a).
cirabge (ca, ga), n., Ka.; a riddle.
See cipari (ca, ea).
ciradza (ca, ta), n.; (1) a drunk-
ard; syn. mukariri wedoro (wa, va);
muraradzi (wa, va). (2) A strong
person (or animal), as ndico ciradza
cokurima, that one is best at hoeing.
ciraidzo (ca, ga), n.; advice, an
order; syn. zano (ra, a).
ciraiggano (ca, ea), n.; an agree-
ment; syn. citenderano (ca, ca).
ciraggo (ca, za), n.; (1) Ka., Ze.,
punishment; (2) Ma., a little (esp.
of help in work or eating), e.g., -ita
cirarjgo, to give a little help; ciraygo
caqika, that'll do, that's enough.
cirariro (ca, ga), n.; supper, even-
ing meal; syn. cirayiro (ca, ea), Ka.
See -rarira.
ciratidzo (ca, ea), n.; sign; mark;
signal; beacon; syn. civoniso (ca,
Za); ciziviso (ca, Za); cedza (ca);
mucerekedzo (wa, ya).
ciraviro (ca, za), n., Ka.; a pro-
mise. See citsidzo (ca, ga).
ciravuro, cirauro (ca, Za), n.; fish-
hook (from -ravura, to fish); syn.
ciredzo (ca, Ca), Ka.; ciedzo (ca, ga),
Nd.
ciraya (ca, ea), n., Ze.; blunt end
of spear (used for digging); syn.
cireya (ca, ga), Ka.; suso (ra, a),
Ma.
cirayiro (ca, ea), n., Ka.; supper;
syn. cirariro (ca, ga); and see -ra-
yira.
cirebvu (ca, Za), n.; chin.
ciredzo (ca, Za), n.; a fish-hook;
syn. ciravuro.


CIRO

cirema (ca, ea), n.; a cripple, de-
formed person; syn. rema (ra, a);
ciBiBi (ca, na).
ciremba (ca, ga), n.; a doctor,
healer; the feather head-dress worn
by a chief on ceremonial occasions;
the mantis.
ciremera (ca), n., Ma.; authority.
N.B.: ciremera means authority of
right or office; simba, strength, is
often used inexactly for authority.
ciremJaremja (ca, ea), n.; the
bat; var. muremlaremga (wa, pl.
vamur. va); cinyamuremqaremia (ca,
ca); camuremijaremija (ca, za).
ciremo (ca, ea), n., Ze.; a patch of
cloth. See cinamo (ca, ca).
cirevo (ca, ga), n.; a law, decree.
order; a word, a saying; der. from
-reva, to say; cp. Ma. uncmarevo
mazhinji, you have a lot to say;
syn. murairo (wa, ya); murao (wa,
ya), Ka., Nd.; mutemo (5wa, ya),
Ma.; cisuijgo (ca, ga), Ma.; cironzo
(ca, ea), Nd.; (of chief) nhemo (ya,
dza), Ka.; kuceygeta c., to keep the
law; -darika c., -pindirira c., to
transgress, go beyond the law;
-putsa c., -vuna c., -tyora c., to break
law.
cireya (ca, va), n., Ka.; blunt end
of spear (used for digging); syn.
ciraya (ca, ea), Ze.; suso (ra, a),
Ma.
-cirika, -ciruka, vb. int. and tr.;
to jump, leap, jump over.
cirikadzi (Ka., ya, dza; or Ze., ca,
.a), n.; a widow; var. shirikadzi (ya,
dza).
cirimi (ca), n.; a lisp, a difficulty
in pronouncing certain sounds; ane-
cirimi, he lisps.
cirimo (ca, ta), n.; dry season;
hoeing season; spring.
cirindo (ca, ca), n.; a watch-hut
in fields.
cirigigiriro (ca, ea), n.; a looking-
glass; der. from -rigigirira. Cp.
ndijgiriro (ya, dza).
ciro (ca, Za), n.; a thing. In Ma.
c. is the regular word for 'thing';
in other parts it is used mostly in
negative sentences, e.g., handina
ciro, I have nothing.






CIRODZO
cirodzo, cirodzero (ca, za), n.;
grind-stone or other tool for sharp-
ening.
cirodzeso (ca, ga), n., Ka.; a file.
cirombo (ca, ea), n.; (1) Ma., wild
beast, beast of prey=cikara; (2) a
spirit, a variety of shave; (3) Ma.
idiom, cirombo cemukomana, a great
big fellow.
cirombowe, Ma., Nd.; an honorific
greeting, but less so than cagga-
mire, which see.
cironda (ca, .a), n.; a sore,
wound; var. ronda (ra, a); syn.
bonje, uonje (ra, pi. maonje), Nd.;
cidzimu (of sores on lips after
fever), Ze.; utepa (Ze.?).
cirondo (ca, ga), n.; an excava-
tion; c. cedaga, an earth-pit; c.
cematombo, a quarry.
cironzo (ca, ca), n., Nd.; a com-
mand, order; from -ronza, to tell.
See cirevo (ca, ea).
ciroigo (ca, ea), n.; an earthen-
ware pot, a water jar.
ciropa (ca, .a), n.; the liver; syn.
citaka (ca, ga), Ze.
ciroro (ca), n.; kitchen Kaffir.
ciroto (ca, ea), n.; a dream; var.
ndoto (ya, dza); syn. kurota (kwa);
murotso (wa, ya), Ka.; hope (ya,
dza). N.B.: murotso is said to be
used of what is seen in dreaming.
cirovo (ca, ga), n.; a floor-beater;
wooden beetle for stamping earth
down to make a hard floor; syn.
cikwauro, cidza (ca, Za).
cirumiko (ca, ga), n.; horn used
for cupping; var. murumiko (wa, ya).
cirundu (ca, ea), n., Nd.; island.
See citsuwa (ca, ga).
ciruggurira, Ka. cirugguriro (ca),
n.; indigestion, heartburn.
ciruo (ca, Za), n., Ka.; (1) tax.
Cp. mupeto (wa, ya); (2) peak of
roof. See cisuvi (ca, ea).
cirwere (ca, ga), n., Ze.; sickness.
See denda (ra, a).
-cisa, vb. tr.; to iron (clothes).
See -pisa.
cisambara (ca, ga), n., Ma.; brass
wire work (on stick handles, etc.).
cisepedzo (ca, ea), n., Nd.; a
splinter. See rubanzu (rwa, a).


CISUSU
cisero (ca, ga), n.; a sieve; a
shallow basket used for sifting flour;
syn. musero (wa, ya); rusero (rwa,
dza).
ciseuo (ca, ea), n.; relish of any"
kind eaten with porridge. See uu-
savi (bga); murivo (wa, ya).
cishaishi (ca, ga), n., Nd.; sin,
offence. See rutadzo (rwa, a).
cishamiso (ca, ga), n.; a wonder,
a marvel; a miracle; syn. cinaniso
(ca, ea); shamiso (ya, dza); nenji
(ra, a), and see -shura; katyamadzo
(ya, dza), Ka.
cisholgo (ca, ga), n.; an orna-
ment.
cishuvo (ca, ca), n.; a yearning, a
strong desire; var. cisuvo (ca, Ca).
cisi (ca, ga), n., Ma.; a holiday,
special day on which no work is
done; prob. a great day. Cp. musi
(wa, ya).
cisikwa (ca, ea), n.; a created
thing, a creature; from -sika.
cisime (ca, Za), n., Nd.; a well.
See tsime (ra, a).
cisimiro (ca, ea), n.; a garment;
pl. clothing, clothes.
cisindi (ca, ea), n.; a blacksmith's
forge; syn. cido (ca, ga), Ka.
cisipiti (ca, ea), n.; a spring (of
water); syn. citubu (ca, ga); cinyuka
(ca, ga), Nd.; tsime (ra, a).
cisisinindo (ca, ta), n., Nd.; heel;
see citsitsinho (ca, ga); var. cisisi-
nho (ca, ea), Nd.
cisomo (ca, ea), n.; the core of a
boil (mota).
cisorokadzi (ca, ea), n., Nd.;
adze, ? adze handle. See mbezo
(ya, dza).
cisote (ca, ea), n., Ka.; a bundle,
sheaf (of grass, etc.); syn. musu-
mbu (wa, ya).
cisuggiro (ca, ea), n.; a fastening,
a place to fasten (things, oxen) to;
from -sunga, tie.
cisuggo (ca, ga), n.; something
that binds, a bond; hence, a law,
command; from -sugga, tie. See
cirevo (ca, ea).
cisuxgwa (ca, Za), n., Nd.; slave.
See muranda (wa, va).
cisusu (ca, ga), n.; the larger in-






CISUSUNTHO
testine; Ma., the crop of a bird. Cp.
susu (ra, a), stomach of animal.
cisusuntho (ca, ta), 1n., Nd.; a
basket-strainer (for beer, etc.); syn.
ciino (ca, ga).
cisuvi (ca, ta), n.; peak of roof;
ridge of roof; syn. ciruvo (ca, ta), Ka.
cisuvo (ca, ta), n. ; a yearning, a
strong desire; e.g., ndinecisuvo ceku-
kuvona, I long to see you. Syn. ci-
shuuo (ca, ta), Ka.
ciswa (ca, ta), n., Ka., Ze.; a
bundle, sheaf (of grass, etc). See
musumbu (wa, ya).
cigino (ca, ga), n., Ka. Ze.; a
basket used for straining (beer, etc.);
syn. tsuiguro (ya, dza); cisusunho
(ca, ga), Nd.
cio (ca, Za), n.; (1) Ma.; the
young mealie cob on its first appear-
ance; syn. hara (ra, a), Ze.; (2) a
razor.
ciguguro (ca, ta), n.; breakfast;
from -qugura, to breakfast.
cita (ca, ga), n., Ma.; a group;
o congregation, society; a flock (of
birds). Cp. nzaiga (ya, dza) and
auggano (bga), gujgano (ra, a).
citaa (ca, ta), n., Nd.; a fishing net.
See rutava (rwa, pi. nhava dza).
citadzo (ca, za), n.; a fault,
offence; sin; from -tadza.
citaka (ca, ga), n., Ze. ; the liver;
syn. ciropa (ca, ~a).
citambarariro (ca, ea), n.; a foot-
stool, leg rest, place for stretching out
the legs; see citsiko (ca, ga) and -ta-
mbarara; syn. citandavariro (ca, ga).
citambo (ca, ga), n. ; a game (gen.
name); note also citambo cemunhlui,
a fine or pretty person.
citarisiro (ca), n., Ze.; hope. See
tariro (ya, dza).
citema (ca, ta), n.; lit. a black
thing, used in Ma. for sin; cp. ci-
tadzo, civi.
citembge (ca, ta), n., Nd., Ma.; a
patch of cloth. See cinamo (ca, ta).
citena (ca, ea), n., Ze.; a brick;
syn. cidina (ca, ga).
citenda (ca, ta), vn.; sickness;
syn. denda (ro, a).
citende (ca, ea), in.; heel. See
citsitsinho (ca, ea).


CITSIKO
citenderano (ca, ta), n.; an agree-
ment; syn. ciraggano (ca, ta); bvu-
mirano (ya, dza).
citeggu (ca, ta),n.,Ma.; a basket.
See deggu (ra, a).
citesi (ca, ga), n., Nd.; a slave.
See muranda (wa, va).
citeyo (ca, ga), n.; a trap, snare;
from -teya.
citima (ca, ea), n., for. (Eng.
steamer); any locomotive engine,
esp. a railway engine or train; c.
camunjanji, railway train; c. capa-
nyanza, steamship; cakudeyga, c.
cakubururuka, an air steamer, flying
machine; var. citimira (ca, ta).
citiziro (ca, ta), n.; a refuge; a
place to run to for refuge. See cipo-
tero (ca, ea).
citorogga, (ca), n., Nd.; pepper
(esp. red p.); var. Ma., toroiga, the
pepper; mutorogga, the chilli plant.
See mhiripiri (ya, dza).
citoto (ca, ta), n.; a kind of
beetle (inedible). See cituta-matuzi,
nyeee.
citsa (ca, ea), n.; stump (of tree);
syn. cigutsa (ca, ea); citsa ceimyoto.
a firebrand; kacitsa (ka, twa), an
ember.
citsaka Ma., citsake Nd. (ca, ga).
n.; a bird's nest. See dendere (ra,
a).
citsama (ca, Za), n.; a group.
handful (of people or things). See
tsama (ya, dza).
citsawuko (ca, ea), 1.; a part,
used in Ma. spec. for a chapter;
from -tsawura. to separate, set aside.
citse (ca, Za), n., Ma.; a weed.
tares (N.T.) See Bundo (ra, a).
citsetseko (ca, ea), n., Nd.; a
boring insect; ?weevil. See cikumo
(ca, ea).
citsidzo (ca, ea), n., Ma.; a pro-
mise; syn. cirauiro (ca, ta); cigo-
ndiso (ca, ea); and cp. cipiko (ca, ta).
citsika Ka., citsiki Nd. (ca, Za),
in.; a stump (of tree). See cigutsa
(ca, ea).
citsiko (ca, ga), n.; the step or
tread of ladder or staircase; a foot-
stool, see citambarariro (ca, ta);
from -tsika.







CITSITSINHO
citsitsinho (ca, Za), n. (Nd., cisi-
sinho, cisisinindo); the heel; syn.
nhende (ya, dza), Ma.; citende (ca,
ea), dial.
citsiyo (ca, ea), n., Nd.; a stopper,
cork; syn. cidziuiro (ca, Za).
citsoko (ca, ga), n., Ma.; one row
or section of a bunch of bananas;
any small bundle or bunch (firewood,
mealies, etc.). See cirotso (ca, ea).
citsope (ca, ga), n., Ma.; small,
dome-like ant-hills, whose earth is
specially good for floors. See civuru
(ca, ea), Ka.; curu (ca, ga).
citsuwa (ca, ga), n. (var. pi. tsuwca
dza); island; syn. ciwi (ca, ga), Ka.;
cirundu, cituru (ca, Za), Nd.
citsuvi (ca, ea), n.; peak of roof,
roof ridge; syn. chisuvi (ca, ga).
citumba (ca, ga), n.; temporary
hut in gardens; sUn. dumba (ra, a),
Ze.
citumbi (ca, Za), n.; Ka., the
thigh; Ma., the calf. See cidya (ca,
ea) and tsafu (ya, dza).
cituna (ca, ga), n.; a corpse, dead
body; syn. mutumbu (wa, ya).
citgairo (ca, ga), n.; a brush (for
sweeping), a broom; a beer skimmer;
syn. mutgairo (wa, ya) and cipfundo
(ca, ea); var. cipgairo, Ma.
citubu (ca, ga), vn.; a spring (of
water); syn. cisipiti (ca, ea); cinyuka
(ca, ea); time (ra, a).
citupa (ca, ta), in., for.; a native
pass; a registration certificate.
cituru (ca, ta), n., Nd.; island;
s!n. citsuwa (ca, Za).
cituso (ca, ga), n.: a reward; a
present : syn. tuso (ra, a): cipo (ca,
ea).
cituta-matuei (ca, ga), ; a kind
of beetle (not eaten). Sec citoto (ca,
Ma).
ciushi Nd., ciutsi Ma. (ca, ca), n.;
smoke. See utsi (hwa).
civumba (ca, ea), n., Ma., Nd.; a
grave. See guva (ra, a).
civa (ca, ea), n.; a snake, one of
the cobras. Sec under snake for
other names of snakes.
-civa, vb. tr.; to covet, lust after;
der. vuciva (bga), ruciva (rwa), de-
sire, lust, covetousness.


civara (ca, Za), n., Ka. (Nd.,
clara); (1) meeting-place of men in
village, see dare (ra, a); (2) dim. of
oara (ra, a), a spot. See uara.
ciuazhe (ca, ga), n.; kind of snake.
See snake for other kinds.
civeve (ca), n.; cramp; paralysis;
pins and needles.'
civi (ca, ea), n. (commonly in pi.
eivi); sin, transgression. See cita-
dzo (ca, ea).
civoniso (ca, ca), n.; a sign, mark,
signal. See ciratidzo (ca, ca).
civunu (ca, Za), n., var. ciunu;
loins; waist.
ciluru (ca, Ca), n., Ka.; small
ant-hill, made by a smaller variety
of white ant. Cp. citsope (ca, ta),
Ma., and see churu (ca, ga).
ciwenga (ca, ca), n.; parrot. See
cihwagga (ca, ca).
ciwi (ca, ga), n., Ka.; island. See
citsuwa (ca, ea).
ciwunde (ca, ca), n.; a desert, a
wilderness. See renje (ra, a).
ciwururo (ca, va), n., Ka., var.
ciweruro, Ma., a skimmer (for milk,
etc.). Cp. citgairo (ca, ga).
ciya, dem. pr. agr. with. sing.
nouns of (ca, la) class, always fol-
lows its noun; that (referred to be-
fore) gen. of things out of sight; ex.
cigaro ciya, that chair (we were talk-
ing of).
ciyereso (ca, ca), n., Ze.; a bal-
ance, scales (for weighing); from
-yera, Ze., to weigh.
ciziso (ca, ea), n.; a prominent
bone of joint, esp. c. cegumbo, ankle;
c. ccrn ioko, wrist; c. cebvi, knee-
cap. See ziso (ra, a).
ciziviso (ca, a),n.; a sign ; mark;
signal; used in Ma. N.T. for con-
science. Sec ciratidzo (ca, ma).
cizororera, cizororo (ca, ea), n. ; a
halt, a resting-place (on journey).
Sec -zorora.
cigaro (ca, Za), n., var. cicariro;
womb. See nhumbu (ya, dza).
co-, poss. cone. ca- (which see) as
modified by a following syllable
contg. u; ex. cigaro comunihu uyu,
this person's chair; co-(kupfeka, etc.),
a thing to (wear, etc.).







-COCONYA
-coconya, vb.; to peck (of chicks
breaking out); syn. -dzohona, Ma.
-cokonyora, vb. tr., Ka.; to shell
mealies by hand; syn. Ze., -tsoko-
nyora, -tokonora; Ma., -punujgura.
Cp. Ze., Ka., -kwiza, to get grains
off cobs by rubbing on a rock.
cokuti (Ma., cekuti); such and
such; and so on; gen. reduplicated,
e.g., wakataura cokuti cokuti, he
said such and such.
cokwadi (ca), n.; the truth; cer-
tainty; used as adv.=of course;
-ziva cokwadi, to be certain. Cp.
idi, Zokwadi.
conya, vb. int., Ka.; to pullfaces
(perh. in contempt). Cp. -tsunya.
cora, vb. int., Ze.; to beckon,
make a sign; der. -corera, to beckon
to. See -ninaira, -ceza.
coto (ca, ea),n.; fireplace,hearth;
furnace; yisa pacoto, keep warm (of
food, etc.).
cowa, coa (ca), n., Nd.; mush-
room (gen.). See howa (ya, dza).
coya (ca), n.; hair (pubic). See
vudzi (ra).
-cukuca, vb.; to rinse the mouth;
c. mazino, to clean the teeth. See
-sukurudza.
cuma (ca, pl. rare, za), n.; a bead
or beads; Ma., -nera c., or -rima c.,
to make marriage payments or lobola.
Cp. Nyanja, cuma=wealth, property
of any kind, esp. beads as most port-
able.
cumbu (ca, ga), n.; lead (the
metal); syn. mutobvu (wa, ya).
curu (ca, ta), n.; large ant-hill of
white ants. Cp. civuru (ca, ea),
Ka.; citsope (ca, ga), Ma.; cidzere
(ca, ea), Ma., Nd.
-cururika, vb. int.; to spill over,
overflow; see -bvinza; der. -curu-
ridza, to pour water over hands be-
fore eating.


-DZAAMA

D
d-as in Eng. deaf. Many words
formerly entered under d will be
found here under d, which is far
more commonly used than d, but is
not found in combination with any
other consonant; e.g., doro, beer,
but -dzoka, to return, and ndoro, an
ornament.
dende (ra, mad. a), n., Ze.; a
shrew, a field rat with long snout.
See gonzo (ra, a).
diabolose, diabore (wa, va), n.,
for.; the devil; a demon (possessing
a person). See mjeya (wa, ya) and
shave (ra, a).
dibu (ra, pl. mad. a), n.; a trap
(with branch and noose).
doropa (ra, pl. mad. a), n. (Du.,
dorp); town, gen. used of European
towns. See musha for native towns.
dy-. This combination of two
letters has been chosen to represent
the sound heard in the verb -dya, to
eat. There are four or five different
sounds for this word in different dia-
lects, and there have been as many
as fifteen different ways of writing
these sounds. It is desired that the
one written form -dy should be used
in every case and that speakers of
different dialects should continue
each to give this digraph the sound
that it stands for in his own dialect.
Thus sounds hitherto represented by
-djga, -ldya, and -dhla, etc., will
continue to be made in their respec-
tive areas, but all alike will be re-
presented in writing by -dya.
-dya, vb. tr., for pronunciation sec
dy-; to eat; -dya maria, to cost; to
be expensive; der. -dyiwa, pass. to
be eaten, to be eatable; -dyisa, to
feed (as a mother feeds her child or
an invalid); cidyo (ca, ga), food;
Zokudya, food, eatables; rudyi (rwa),
the right hand (i.e., the eating hand).
-dyara, vb. tr.; to sow (gen.); var.
-dtara, Ka.; -Zara, Ma.; der. mu-
dyari (wa, va), sower; syn. -kusa,
-kusha, -kushanya, -miza, -mgaya.
-dzaama, vb. int.; to take shelter
(as from rain). See -dzamba.







-DZADZAMBIDZA
-dzadzambidza, vb., Ka.; to try.
Sec -edza.
-dzaka, vb. int., Ka., Nd.; to
come down, descend; see -dzika;
der. -dzakira, app.; -dzakisa, -dzasa,
cals., to lower, let down, take down.
-dzama, vb. int., Ma., Nd.; to be
deep; der. -dzamisa, to deepen, make
deep; pakadzama, a deep place, or,
it is deep here; -dzamika miti, to set
up poles firmly; syn. -dzika, Ka.
-dzamba, vb. int.; to take shelter
(from rain, etc.); -dzambira zuva, to
lie in the sun; syn. -dzaama, Nd.;
-vanda; and cp. -potera.
-dzamura, vb. tr.; to take a hand-
ful. See -tsamura.
dzara (ra, a), n.; a toe. See
gunwe (ra, a).
-dzeggedzeka, vb. int., Ze.; to
stagger; syn. -pepereka, -mevuka,
Ka.; -dzuggunyika, Ma.; -tendedze-
ka, Nd.
dzibga (ra, a), n.; nasal mucus;
Ka., a cold in the head; var. dzihwa
(ra, a); -fura dz., -pfura dz., -mina
madz., to blow the nose.
-dzidza, vb. tr.; to learn; der.
-dzidzira, appl., to learn for, etc.;
-dzidzisa, to teach; cidzidzo (ca, ea),
dzidzo (ya, dza), a thing learnt, a
lesson; cidzidziso (ca, ea), teaching;
mudzidzi (wa, va), a pupil; mudzi-
dzisi (wa, va), a teacher.
-dzidziuka, vb. int., Ze.; to rise
again (from the dead). See -muka.
-dzika, (1) vb. int.; to come down,
descend; be deep; der. -dzikira,
appl., to come down to; -dzikisa,
cans., to bring or let down; syn.
-dzira, Ka.; -dzaka, Ka., Nd.; -bu-
ruka, Ka., Ze.; (2) to set up (poles);
(met.) to plant, establish, found.
Cp. -sima, to plant; -dzamika.
-dzikatira, vb. iit.; to stand in
the light; ndadzikatirwa ndi N., I
hid behind N.
dziko (ra, a), n., Ka.; foot, hoof
(of cattle). See tsoka (ya, dza).
-dzima, vb. tr. and int.; to put out
(a light, a fire); to go out (of light,
etc.).
dzimai (wa, pl. vadzimai va), n.;
Nd., woman; Ka., Ma., Ze., the pl.


DZIPA-UAFI
is used honorifically of women in
most dialects.
-dzimara, vb., Ze., -dzimarara; to
finish by; used idiomatically to ren-
der until, till, thus: adzimara agika,
till he come; ridzamarara zuva rino,
till this day; ikadzamarara ikave-
yguva ino, till this time; sevenzai
kudzimara ndiuye, work till I come.
-dzimba, vb. int., Ko.; to ache; to
hurt; to pain. See -rwadza.
dzimbahwe (ra, pi. madz. a), n.;
grave of chief or great man. See
guua (ra, a).
-dzimi)aira, vb. int., Ze.; to take
a nap; be sleepy, nod. See -vata.
-dzimurira, vb. tr.; to burn a
'fire-guard' round house or village
for protection against bush-fires.
Cp. -uauira.
dzinara, conf. Ma.; till, until.
See dakara, and cp. -dzimara.
dzinde (ra, a), n., Ka.; stalk (of
grain); stubble; stump (of plant or
tree).
dzino, dem. pr. agr. with pl. noun
of (ya, dza) class, always after its
noun; these (near); e.g., yombe
dzino, these cattle (here).
dzinza (ra, pl. madz. a), n., Ma.;
a family, breed, stock. See mhuri
(ya, dza).
-dziega, vb. tr.; to drive away,
chase; to dismiss (worker, etc.);
der. -dziggira, -dziggirira, to chase
after; syn. -tanda and its der.; -ti-
zisa, -tizirira, -rumbirira.
-dziggisa, vb. tr., Ka.; to circim.
cise; syn. -ceudza, Ze.; -ceka, Ma.;
der. vudziggiso (bga), circumcision;
dzigga (ra, pl. madz. a), a circum-
cised person, one in a circumcision
school.
dzirgidzi (ra, a), n.; a hornet,
wasp.
dzio (ra, pl. madz. a), n., Nd.,
Ma.; a quarrel; -ita madzio, to
quarrel, be quarrelsome. See nharo
(ya, dza).
-dzipa, vb. tr.; to choke, strangle;
der. -dzipxa, to choke (int.), to be
choked.
dzipa-vaft (ra, pl. madz. a), n.,
Ka.; the death-rattle.







-DZIPURA
-dzipura, vb. tr., Ma.; to weed by
hand. See -sakura.
dzira (ra, a), n.; a sinew, tendon.
See runda (ra, a).
-dzira, vb. int.; (1) Ka., to come
down, descend; der. -dzisa, -dzirisa,
to lower, let down. (2) Zc., to smear
or plaster floor or walls in house.
Cp. -dzura, -dzurura.
dziro (ra, pl. madz. a), n.; a wall
(properly, of poles). See cidziro (ca,
ea).
dziso (ra, pl. madz. a); the eye.
See ziso (ra, a).
dziua (ra, a), n.; a pool, lake;
syn. gagga (ra, a), Ka., Nd.; gahwi
(ra, a), Ma., a puddle, pool onrocks;
gawa (ra, a), Ka.; divino (ra, a),
Ka., pool in river; guvi (ra, a), Ka.
=gahwi; nyanza (ya, dza), Ko.
-dziva, vb. tr.; to hinder, prevent;
keep off (by putting something in the
way; der. -dzividza, -dzivisa, tr. to
hinder; -dzivira, to put a stopper to.
to cork; -dziaira nzira, to stand in
way, block way; -dzioira huro, to
stick in the throat; -dzivirira, to
defend, shield from; to stand in
(someone's) light; to keep off (a
blow, rain, light, etc.) from; -dzivi-
rirwa, to be constipated; -dzivura,
reversive, to open, unstop; -dzivurira
mvura, to irrigate (by opening
sluices).
dziviro (ya, dza), n.; a stopper,
cork. See cidziviro (ca, ga).
-dzivura, vb. tr.; to open, unstop
(bottle, etc.); to open (ears); der.
-dziuurira, to irrigate (by opening
water-furrows).
dziya, dem. pr. agr. with pl. noun
of (ya, dza) class, always after its
noun; those (out of sight, referred
to), e.g., yombe dziya, those cattle
(we saw just now).
dziya (ra, a), n., Ma. (cp. ziya,
Ka.); heat or sweat; pamadziya, in
the hot weather.
-dziya, vb. int.; to be warm; der.
-dziyisa, to make warm; -dziya
moto, to warm oneself at fire; -dziya
mushana, Ka., to warm oneself in
the sun; syn. -gota.
-dzohona (Ma., -dzomha), vb. tr.;


-DZURUDZUTA
to peck, peck at, esp. of breaking
eggs by a tap from without or with-
in; syn. (of chicks) -coconya, Ka.;
(of hen), -ruma.
-dzoka, -dzokera, vb. int.; to
come or go back; to return. See
-dzora; ndadzoka Harare, I have
come back from Salisbury, wadzokera
Harare, he has returned to Salis-
bury; dzokcra kumshla, go back to
your home; der. -dzokesa, -dzosa,
-dzosera, caus., to return, to send
back.
-dzondora, vb. int. (or -dz. maziso);
to stare; der. -dzondorera, to stare
at; syn. -yeva, Zc.; -Zoora, Nd.
-dzoggonyera, vb. tr.; to interfere
with; to ruffle; to spoil (e.g., some-
one else's work).
-dzora, vb. tr.; to send back;
cause to return; der. -dzoka, -dzo-
kera, int., to come back, return;
-dzokesa, -dzosa, -dzosera, -dzorera,
to give back.
dzoro (ra, pl. madz. a), n.; a turn
(at work, etc.); -ita madzoro, to take
turns. See jana (ra, a) and -ravana.
dzoro (ra, pl. matsoro a), n., Ma.;
the wild banana tree. See tsoro,
shazhu (ra, a), Ka.
-dzoua, vb. Ka (cp. Ma. -bzova);
to roar, to sing with loud bass voice;
(of a river) to go down.
-dzudza, vb. int., Ma.; to leak.
Sec -bvinza.
dzumburudza, vb. tr.; to rinse;
syn. -sukurudza.
-dzuna, vb. tr., Ma.; to castrate;
syn. -ceka.
dzuggu (ra), n.; giddiness (from
faint or drink): -ita dz., -na nedz.,
to be giddy. See tio (ya, dza).
-dzuggunyika, vb. int., Ma.; to
stagger. See -dzeggedzeka.
-dzuigura, vb. tr.; to make giddy,
cause to be giddy; der. -dzuggurwa,
pass., to be giddy; -dzuggudza tr.
(Ma.), to shake (things or people).
Cp. -zuiguza and dzuggu (ra).
-dzura, vb. tr. ; (1) Ze., to weed (by
hand); syn. Ka., -dzurira; Ma., -dzi-
pura; (2) Ma., to smear floor (with
cow-dung).
-dzurudzuta, vb. tr.; Ka., -dz.







-DZURURA
minoyo, to cause to feel sick, to nau-
seate; Ma., to smooth over (plaster-
ing).
-dzurura, -dzura, vb. tr.; to smear
floor; plaster walls. Cp. -dzira, Ze.
drai (ra), n., for.; salt. See mu-
nyu (wa).
-dtara, vb. tr., Ka.; to sow; dcr.
mudgari (wa, va); see -dyara.
dZaua (ra, a), n., Ze.; a scar. See
vagga (ra, a).
-dginya, vb. tr.; to press, be tight;
der. -ddinyirira, to squeeze; -dZinyi-
rirana, to crowd together; var. Ma.,
-beinya. See -ina.
deinyu (ya, dza, or ra, a), i., Ka.;
lizard; syn. mukotyo (wa, ya), Ma.;
gondyo (ra, pl. mak. a), Nd.
deipu, adj. agr. with sing. n. of
(ra, a) class; black. See -gipu.
d@iti (ra, pl. madz. a), n.; one of
the Matabele people, a Mundevere;
var. mudgiti (wa, va).
-deoka, vb. int., Nd.; to belch.
See -drova.
-droua, vb. int.; to belch; syn.
-beka, Ma.; dzoka, Nd.
deuku, adj. agr. with sing. n. of
(ra, a) class; red. See -tAuku.
-druta, -drutura, vb. tr.; to sip;
syn. -ipura, Ka.
-drura, vb. tr., Ze.; to pound. See
-twa.







D
C--the implosivc d, now tirst dis
tinguished with a separate letter. It
is the common d-sound of Mashona-
land, but does not occur in combina-
tion with other consonants; e.g.,
-dada, to be proud; but danda, a log.
-da, vb. tr.; to love; to like; to
want; to be about to; der. -disa, to
love very much, to want greatly;
rudo (rwa), love; will; -diwa, -ci-
kanwa, to be loved; mudikanwa,
mudikani, mudiwa (wa, va), a be-


-DAKWA
loved person, a darling; sy/n. -vilgga,
to wish for; in Ka., kuda is used
adv. for perhaps, e.g., kuda anovuya,
perhaps he will come; idiom, zicida,
if all is well; maybe.
daca (ra, pl. mataca, a), n., Ka.;
frog; toad; syn. daft (ra, a).
-dada, vb. int.; to be impudent,
vain; to be disrespectful; to 'put on
side,' be affected; der.-dadira, appl.,
uwith obj.; and see -dadira, to abuse.
-dadamira, vb. int.; to stand on
tiptoe; syn. -sasavira.
-dadira, vb. tr.; to abuse, revile,
insult (Ka.); syn. -tuka, -nyomba,
Ze.; and cp. -tadzira, to do wrong to.
daft (ra, pl. matafi a), n., Ma.,
Ka.; a frog; syn. dawa (ra, a), Ma.;
datya (ra, a), Ze.; zura (ra, a), Ze.;
jedye (ra, a), Nd.; mutanje (wa, ya),
Nd.
-dai (-dayi), vb. int.; to be like
'this,' to be so'; syn. -daro, -dero;
ita kudai, do like this; kudai tinoita,
even as we do.
dai (dano, deno), conj.; if (when
introducing a condition impossible
or not expected to be fulfilled. Ex.
Nd., dai waia pano, mukoma waVgig
iyga asafa, if you had been here, my
brother would not have died; Ka.,
deno wayga uri pano, hangadzi ya-
ygqu haizati yaifa; Ma., dai wayga
uri pano, haneadzi yaygu iVgadai
isakafa; dai, dano, deno may be
used to introduce a (generally un-
likely) wish, e.g., dai (or kcudai)
ndina mapapiro. would that I had
wings I
-daidza (-dayidza), rb. tr.: to call.
Sec -davidza.
-daira (-dayira). eb. int., Ma.; to
answer a call. See also -cfavira.
-dakara, vb. int., Nd.: to Ibe glad.
See -fara.
dakara, conj. and prep., Ma.; till,
until; as prep., as far as; e.g., da-
kara avoye, till he come; dakara
kwa Mutari, as far as Umtali; da-
kara pamusi uno, till this day.
dako (ra, pl. matako a), n.; gen.
in pl. buttocks.
-dakwa, -dakiwa, vb. int.; to be
drunk, to get drunk.






DAMA
dama (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; (1) a
word; (in pl.) news. See izwi (ra,
a) and shoko (ra, a); (2) the cheek;
cheekbone; cp. rushaya (rwa, pl.
shaya dza); pl. matama (a), some-
times= buttocks, see matako (a).
dambaza (ra, no pl.), n.; young
locusts (in hopping stage). See wiza
(ya, dza).
dambudzo (ra, mat. or mad. a), n.;
trouble; distress.
-dana, vb. tr.; to call, summon.
See -davidza.
danda (ra, pl. mat. a),n.; abeam,
log. Cp. mutanda (wa, ya).
dandadzi (ra, pl. mat. a), n.;
spider's web; syn. mutandiro (wa,
ya), Ka.; mamburi edandemutande,
Ma. See mamburi (a).
dandemutande (ra, pl. mat. a), n.;
spider (a common name, perhaps
generic); in Ka. used also of the
spider's web; syn. Buve (ra, map.
a); nyarutanda (wa, va), Ma.
danho (ra, gen. in pl. matanho a-),
n.; a bridge (esp. of trees); a ladder
(gen. pl.); a step (of ladder or stair-
way); syn. mudanho (wa, ya), Nd.;
zambuko (ra, pl. maz. a).
-danidzira, vb. tr.; to call (sum-
mon). See -davidza.
daniko (ra, P. mat. a), n.; the
step (of ladder or stairway). See
danho (ra, a) and citsiko (ca,
ta).
dano, deno, conj.; if, introducing
impossible condition. See dai.
dagga (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; a cattle
kraal; a herd, flock; used, by natives,
of the so-called slave pits.'
daggwani, adv., Ma.; perhaps.
See pamie.
daggwe (ra, pl. mat. or mad. a),
n.; first-born child.
dapi (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; water-
rat. See gonzo (ra, a).
daggwaza (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; a
deserted hut. See imba (ya, dza).
dara (ra, a), n.; a shelf (high and
wide) in hut; a platform or tower in
the fields for watchers of the crops;
hence table; also, bier.
dare (ra, pl. mad. or mat. a), n.;
(1) village meeting-place out of doors,


DEDERA
with fire and shelter from wind,
where men meet; syn. Banze (ra, a);
womudare, neighbours. (2) Ka.,
sleeping hut of unmarried boys. See
imba (ya, dza).
dare (ra, pl. mat. a), n., var. sing.
utare (hwa); iron; pl. matare=
scraps of iron, but pl. madare=large
pieces or things of iron; see simbi
(ya, no pl.); dare jena, silver; dare
deuku, copper; dare rendarira, brass;
dare rakadururwa, cast iron; dare
rakanuiswa, steel.
-darika, vb.; to step over (a
boundary); to transgress, break (a
law); to jump over, pass over.
-daro, vb. int. (var. -dero); to be
like that,' to be or do 'so'; nda-
kadaro, I'm just so, I'm no better;
eakadaro, thus, so.
datya (ra, pl. mat. a), n., Ze. (for
pronunciation see ty-); a frog. See
daft (ra, a).
davi (ra, pl. mat. a), n., Ka.; a
branch (of tree). See nhawani (ya,
dza), Ma.
-davidza (-daidza), vb. tr.; to call;
Ka., to answer; see answer; syn.
-danidzira; -dana; -shevedza; (to
name) -tumidza zita, -idza; (call
out) -kuwa or -ridza huwi,' -ridza
here; -koka; -mutsa (arouse).
-da'ira, vb. int.; to believe; to
answer a call; der. -davirika, be
trusted, be faithful; -davirira, to
answer for; -Zidavirira, to answer
for oneself; Ma., -dawira, to believe;
-daira, to answer a call.
-davuka, vb. int.; to fly up from
the ground, rebound; to spurt out (of
water or fire); der. -davusa, to cause
to fly up.
dawa (ra, pl. mat. a), n., Ma.; a
frog. See dafi (ra, a).
-dawusa, vb. tr., Ka.; to spread
out in sun. See -nanika.
debge (ra, pl. mat. a), n., Ka.; a
hide (raw). See dehwe (ra, a).
dede (ra, pl. mat. a), n., Nd.,
Ma.; baboon. See gudo (ra, a).
-dedera, vb. int.; to shake (as with
fear or cold); syn. -bvunda, -gwenda;
der. -dederesa, cause to shake, to
terrify.






DEHWE
dehwe (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; a hide
(raw); syn. debge (ra, a), Ka.;
nehwe (ra, a), a dressed hide; ga-
nda (ra, a); dovo (ra, a), Nd.
deketa (ra, a), n., Ka.; a bog,
swamp. See matope (a).
deko (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; husk;
shell or pod; the leaflike wrappings
of mealie cob.
dema, adj. agr. with sing. n. of
(ra, a) class; black; any dark colour.
See -tema.
deme (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; piece of
broken gourd. See cimhedu (ca, ea)
and gaggo (ra, a).
demo (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; an axe
or chopper; syn. sanu, shanu (ra, a),
Ka.; dimuro (ra, a), Ze.; and rutso
(rwa), hubga (ya, dza), varieties of
axe.
denda (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; sick-
ness; var. nhenda (ya, dza), citenda
(ca, za); syn. kurwara (kwa);
uurwere (bga), Ka.; cirwere (ca,
za), Ze.; hosha (ya, dza).
dende (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; cala-
bash; kind of pumpkin. See nhagga
(ya, dza).
dendere (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; (1)
Ma., a rough basket for carrying
fowls; syn. Nd., sekete (ra, a); (2)
Ka., nest.
denhe (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; (1) a
pot for grain or flour. See hari (ya,
dza); (2) Ka., Ma.; an otter. See
mbiti (ya, dza). (Tone: 1, middle;
2, low.)
denhere (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; bush
country; veld (uninhabited); forest.
See saggo (ra, a).
deno, dano, conj.; if (introducing
impossible condition). See dai.
denutsa, vb. int., Ko.; to rest.
degga (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; the
sky; heaven; a roof ; kudeyga, above;
Nyadeyga, Wedeyga, Wakumatepga,
names used for God. See gore (ra,
a) for Nd.
-deggenyisa, vb. tr., Ka.; to move,
shake; var. -deggenesa; der. -degge-
nyika, int., to move, shake; syn.
-tsukunyisa, Ze.; -seggura, -tenhe-
dza, Ma.; -tarausa, Nd.
-dfeggeza, -deggezera, vb. tr.; to


-DIMURA
balance (as a load, etc., on the
head).
deggu (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; a large
basket; syn. citeggu (ca, Za), Ma.
dera, adv., Nd.; north; ndakabva
dera, I came from the North.
-dero, vb. See -daro.
-derudza, vb. int., Ka.; to have
diarrhoea; syn. -panza.
dete, adj. agr. with sing. n. of (ra,
a) class; thin. See -tete.
-detsa, vb. tr., Nd.; to help; der.
-detsera, appl.; mudetseri (wa, ta),
helper. See -batsira.
dika (ra, pl. mat. a), n., Ka.;
wooden beetle for floor beating. See
cirovo.
-dikanwa, vb. pass. of -da; to be
wanted; to be loved. See -da.
dika-tika; -ita dika-tika, to halve,
make half-full. See gamha, ziamga.
-diki, adj.; small, tiny. For
proper Adj. concords see Tables I.c
and II.; and note that for sing. and
pl. nouns of (ya, dza) class -diki
become ndiki; for sing. n. of (ra, a)
class it becomes diki; e.g., cinhu
cidiki, a tiny thing; imba ndiki,
small house or houses; 6ayga diki,
a small knife.
dikita (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; sweat;
syn. ziya (ra, a); pfundira (ya, dza).
dikiti (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; a kind
of pumpkin or cattle melon. See
uhagga (ya, dza).
dima (ra, pl. mad. a), n., Ma.,
Nd.; (1) sweet potato. See mba-
mbaira (ya, dza); (2) S. only, dark-
ness. See rima (ra).
dimba (ra, a), n.; Ma., a door;
Nd., the door-sill, threshold. See
gonhi (ra, a).
-dimbura, vb. tr.; to divide, cut in
two; to break (string); to cross (a
road); der. dimbu (ra, a), a piece,
slice; cidimbu (ca, ea), a bar (in
music); -dimbuka, be broken; -di-
mbudzira, to catch up another travel-
ler by taking a short cut; -dimbu-di-
mbura, to break into small pieces.
-dimura, vb. tr.; to cut, cut
through; chop; amputate; go across
(a path or district); pass another on
road without seeing him.
27







DIMURO
dimuro (ra, pl. mat. a), n., Ze.;
an axe, chopper. See demo (ra, a).
dindijgwe (ra, pl. mat. a), n.,
dial.; leopard; cheetah. See iggwe
(ya, dza).
-dini? interrog. vb.; to be (or say)
what?; e.g., ndadini, what have I
done? what is my fault? munhu nyu
wakadini? what sort is this man?
in Ka., Ze., gen. contracted to -dii.
digga (ra, a), n.; the 'two-headed'
snake (harmless); scientific name,
typhlops dinga. See snake.
-dira, vb. tr.; to pour (in); see
-durura; to sacrifice, see -teura; der.
-dirira, pour into; -diridza, to water
(garden), irrigate (by watering-pot).
firo (ra, pl. mat. a), Ma., Ze.;
baboon. See gudo (ra, a).
disa (ra, pl. mad. a), n., Nd.;
dung (of cattle). See matuti (a).
-disa, vb. intense. and caus. of -da;
to love very much; to cause to love.
diti (ra, a), n., Ma., Nd.; the
chest. See cipfuva (ca, ga).
divino (ra, a), n., Ka.; a pool in
river. See dziva (ra, a).
-diyi (-dii). See -dini.
-do-, vbl. formative; e.g., donzwa,
please listen; tidonzwca, let us listen;
dondipa ico, please give me that.
Note: This is perhaps a contraction
from -da ku-, i.e., love to (do) . .
-dododza, vb. tr.; to rap, tap;
hammer gently. Cp. -gogodza, -gu-
gudza.
-doka, vb. int.; to set, go down
(of sun, etc.); to be discouraged,
downhearted; usadoke, don't be
downhearted ; syn. -Bira, Nd. ; -vira;
der. madokero (a), the west, place of
sunset.
dombo (ra, pl. mnll. a), n.;
boulder, large rock. See ibge (ra, a).
dondo (ra, pl. mad. a), n.; bush
country; veld (gen. uninhabited);
forest. See saggo (ra, a).
-donha, vb. int.; to drop, leak;
also, to rain, see -na; to moult;
der. donhe, donwe (ra, a), a drop;
-donhedza, -donhisa, caus., to cause
to drop; to let fall. See -bvinza.
donhe, donwe (ra, a), n.; a drop.
See -donha.


DORO
doggo (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; (1) a
deserted hut; (in pl. matoggo), a
deserted kraal. See -imba (ya, dza),
(2) Ma., clay pit for pottery, etc.
N.B.: 1 has 2nd syll. on doggo
slightly lower note; 2 rises on 2nd
syll.
doo, dovo (ra, pl. mat. a),n., Nd.;
a hide; skin of animal. See dehwe
(ra, a).
dope (ra, gen. in pl. mat. a), n.
mud, clay.
doro (ra, no pl.), n.; (1) beer
(strong); syn. hwahwa (hwa), Ze.;
mhamba (ya), Ma.; bgabga (bga),
K.; sweet beer, Bumhe (ra), Ze.;
Biti (ra), Ka.; maheu (a), Ma.;
matimba (a), Ma.; diba (ra), Ka.;
(2) doro (ra, pl. mat. a), n. ; veget-
able garden by stream. N.B.: 1 has
2nd syll. on doro on slightly lower
note; 2 rises on 2nd syll.
doro, -Bika doro, words connect-
el with beer making.
I. Steep (-nyika) grain (gen. ared
millet; Ka., rukweza; Ma., njera;
Ze., Zio) for two days, more or less
according to heat. On third day take
out from water (-bvisa mumvura, or
Ka., -nyukura; Ma., -nyura; Ze.,
-nyikura), put in basket (deggu) (or
(Ze.) in pot (hari) or in a sack), and
cover (-kwidiBidza) with leaves and
stones. The operation so far is
called kutsindika. Leave it so three
or four days till it sprouts (-mera).
Then spread it in sun (-nika, Ka.,
Ze.; -nanika, Ma.) to dry (-oma);
then grind (-kuya). The result is
(ufu we) cimera, Ma., Zc.; mumera,
Ka.
11. Seventh day. Set, a large pot
(Ka., Ma., gate; Zr., gambe) on the
fire and put cimera in it, and fill near
to brim with cold water. Stir (Ka.,
-kugga; Ze., Ma., -kurugga) and
bring to a boil. This thin mixture is
called on its first (or second) day
(Ka., Ma.) magutu, (Ze.) masusu,
(Ze., Ma.) mapise (or pise), maheu,
and on the next day (second or third)
mhaiga, or Biswa. The mhaigga is
next set on the fire (-gadza pamoto)
and boiled (-Bika); it is now mati-






DOVA
mba; it is again left two days, and
on the ninth (or tenth) from the start
you add (-puma) more cimera. It is
now musugga and is fit to drink.
Next, in another pot you prepare
more magutu (masusu, mapise, as
above) and add this to the musuigga
in the gate. To do this is called
(Ka.) -kumina doro, (Ma.) -kumira
foro, (Ze.) -dira. The beer is now
ready to drink (on the eleventh or
twelfth day), but it isn't very strong
till the next day (the twelfth or thir-
teenth). After that it gets sour and
weaker. This second day after the
kukumina doro is the time for a
feast. For drinking, the beer is
strained (-gina, Ma. -susa, Nd. -su-
sunha) through a fine basket-strainer
(Ze., ciino; Ma., tsugguro; Nd.,
cisusunho) and is served clear enough
to be drunk in cups.
dova (ra, S.), n.; dew; syn. Beto
(ra), Ma., Nd.; veta (ra), Ka.
dovi (ra), v. ; a thick relish made
of monkey-nuts; monkey-nut butter.
dowe (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; veget-
able (wild) with edible root; also
called furo (ra, a). Tone, dowd.
dfowo; -ita d., vb. int.; to run.
See -tiza.
duba (ra, pl. mad. a), n., Nd.;
zebra. Sec mbizi (ya, dza).
-dudza, vb. tr.; to tell, say to;
explain; der. -dudzira, to explain to
or for; to interpret. See -udza.
-duhumidza, vb. tr.; to cover, put
lid on. Sec -kwidfiira.
-duku, adj.; small; little; for
proper adj. cone. see Tables I.c and
II.; and note that for sing. and pl.
n. of (ya, dza) class -duku becomes
nduku; and for sing. n. of (ra, a)
class it becomes duku; e.g., cinhu
ciduku, a small thing; vmba nduku,
a small house or small houses; 6a-
yga duLku, a small knife.
-dukupisa, vb. tr.; to make small;
to lessen; to humiliate; der. -Zidu-
kupisa, to be humble. See-ninipisa.
-dumaidza, vb. tr., Nd.; to cover,
put lid on. See -kwidiBira.
-dumara, vb. int.; to be blunt
(with jagged edge); der. -dumadza,


DURUNHURU
-dumaza (to turn the edge blunt).
See -koma.
dumba (ra, a), 11.; (1) a kind of
drum. See ggoma. (2) d. (ra, pl.
mat. a), a temporary hut in gardens.
See citumba (ca, Za).
dumbo (ra, a), n.; a large needle
for sewing mats; syn. dumo (ra, a);
and see tsono (ya, dza).
dumbu (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; belly;
syn. nhumbu (ya, dza); ndani (ya,
dza), Nd.; mimba (ya, dza); -vata
(etc.) nedumbu, to lie on the face;
Ze., dumbu=a bunch (of flowers,
arranged); a crowd of people.
dumbusa-shagga (ra), Ka.; late
rains (heavy, about February).
dumo (ra, a), n.; a large needle
for sewing mats; syn. dumbo (ra,
a); and see tsono (ya, dza).
dundira (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; (1)
Ka., the bladder; see -tunda; syn.
furidzo (ra, a). (2) Ze., a kind of
beetle.
dundundu (ra, a), v. ; the chest.
See cipfuva (ca, ea).
dunhu (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; (1)
Nd., hill, mountain ; gen. lower open
slopes of hill or mountain; see gomo
(ra, a); var. mutunhu (iwa, ya). (2)
Bush country; veld (uninhabited).
See saggo (ra, a). (3) Ze., a dis-
tance between places; stage on jour-
ney. (4) Ka., a place, spot; syn.
nZimbo (ya, dza).
dunZi (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; a ewe
with lamb or kid; also hen. See
nhunmi (ya, dza).
duggurira (ra), n.; var. ciruigu-
rira (ca); heartburn, indigestion.
See -gotiwa, -moniwa moyo.
dura (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; a bin or
any receptacle for storing threshed
grain. Cp. tsapi (ya, dza), for un-
threshed grain.
-dura, vb. tr.; (1) to tell; confess;
der. -durira, to interpret. See -udza.
(2) Nd., Ma., to bore. See -Booora.
duri (ra, pl. mat. a), n.; wooden
mortar for pounding grain.
duru (ra, a), n., Nd.; rubbish-
heap. See marara (a).
durunhuru (ra, a), n.; rubbish-
heap; sun. pamarara (pa), nundu-
29






DURURA
thwe (ya, dza), zambadota (ra, a),
zararota (ra, a), zarezare (ra, a).
-durura, vb. tr.; to pour out;
empty out; syn. -dira, to pour in;
-dirira, pour into; -sururidza (Ka.),
ciggidzira (Ma., Nd.), to pour over
fingers.
-dusa, vb. tr., Nd.; to take away;
take out.
duswa (ra, a), n., Ze.; (rat's)
nest; syn. mavusa (a); ishe (ra, a),
Ze. N.B.: ishe, rat's nest; ishd,
chief.
dutu (ra), n.; a gale, a strong
wind; var. mututu (wa, ya), Nd.
See mhepo (ya, dza).
duva (ra), n.; a flower; more
commonly ruva (ra, a).
duie (ra, a), n., Ze. dial.; zebra.
See mbizi (ya, dsa).
duuu, duu (ra, pl. mat. a), n.;
wicker fisl-trap; syn. ciduu (ca,
ea), mutuu (wa, ya), ciasha (ca, ga).
duzu (ra, a), n., Ze.; a blister
caused by burning. See mhoni (yu,
dza).






E
-edza (-idza), vb. tr.; (1) to
measure, syn. -enzanisa, -pima,
-yera; to try, syn. -vavarira, -dza-
dzambidza; Nd., -erera; to tempt.
(2) -edza, int.; to become light;
kwaedza, at early dawn; -edzisa, to
sit up all night 'till morning doth
appear.' See -idzisa. (3) -edza,
Nd.; to fish with hook.
-emba, vb., Nd.; to sing. See
-imba.
-enda (-inda, -yenda), vb. int.; to
go; der. -endisa (kune N.), to send
or take to N.; -indidzana, be on
visiting terms; -indika, to go for-
ward, make progress; -enda na-, to
accompany, escort, syn. -perekedza.
-enzana (-yenzana), vb. int.; to be
alike, equal (esp. of measurements).
See -fanana; der. caus. -enzanisa,


-FADZA
-enzanya, to make equal; cienzaniso
(ca, ea), a measure, comparison.
See -edza.
-enzera, vb. int., Ko.; to sleep; lie
down; see -vata; der. -enzerera,
waenzererepi, where did you sleep?
-enzeresa, to cause to sleep, to sleep
very much.
-ereketa, vb. int., Nd.; to speak;
to talk; der. -ereketera, to translate,
to nag at; -ereketedzana, to quarrel.
See -reketa.
-erera, -yerera, vb. int.; to flow
(as water); in Nd., to try; for which
see -edza.
-ese, adj. and pr.; all; for proper
prefixes see Table I.F. See -ose, al-
ternative form; var. -eshe, Nd.
-etsemura, vb. int.; to sneeze; var.
-etsura; and see -hotsira.
evaggeri (ya, dza), Ka.; evaggerio
(ra, pl. maev. a), Ze.; the Gospel.
Cp. vaggeri (ra, pl. mav. a), Ma.
eya, adv., Ma.; yes; all right; a
grunt of assent. For respect a pl.
form may be used, eyai.






F
f-as in English fan. Many words
with initial f- in Karanga have pf-
in other dialects and may be found
so entered.
-fa, vb. int.; to die; be spoilt,
broken; wither; be done up; vakafa,
the dead; ndafa nenzara, I'm dead
with hunger; myedzi wakafa, last
month (i.e., the one that has just
died); der. -fira, to die for or at;
-firwa, to be bereaved; -fa necitima,
to meet with a railway accident,
even if unhurt.
faci (ya, dza), n., for.; a barrel,
cask. See pfaci (ya, dza).
-facuka, vb. int., Ka.; to overflow
(of river, water-furrow, etc.); var.
-fashuka; and see -puduka, Ma.
-fadza, vb. tr.; (1) to make glad;
to please; syn. -farisa; der. -fadzwa,






-FAMBA
pass.; -Zifadza, to please oneself, be
selfish; -fadzisa, to please very much,
to cause to please; (2) to widen, en-
large.
-famba, vb. int.; to go; to walk;
der. -fambira, go to, visit; -fambisa,
go quickly, go far, cause to go;
-fambidzana, be on visiting terms;
-fambiro-mo, to walk, not knowing
the way; -famba gakanaka, lead a
good life; -famba nhando, to go aim-
lessly, lead a bad life; -famba-
famba, go to and fro, go about;
-famba hangu, hedu, etc. (Ze., ea-
ygu, -edu), to go (my, etc.) own
way; see haigu; -famba negotsi, f.
nesure, to walk backwards.
-fambidzana. See -famba, vb.
int.; to be on visiting terms; syn.
-indidzana, -kumbidzana.
-fambiro-mo, vb. int., Ka. (Ma.,
-fambira-mo); to walk, not knowing
the way. See -famba; and cp.
-garira-mo, to wait without knowing
what for.
-fana, aux. vb.; to (do) meanwhile,
begin by doing; fana kutema, first
cut. See -sana, which is used in
same way with same meaning. Cp.
-nyatsa, -tsana.
-fanana, vb. int.; to be alike; to
resemble one another; uyo anofa-
nana naN., that one is like N.; der.
-fananidza, -fanaidza, to make like,
to compare, to copy; syn. -todzana,
-enzana.
-fanira, aux. vb.; ought, must;
e.g., you ought to go, unofanira
kwenda or wakafanira kwenda. (The
form with -no- refers to a present
necessity, the form with -aka- to an
habitual one, and is therefore a less
urgent counsel.) Impers. gakafanira,
it is right, necessary; -ita Zisaka-
fanira, to do wrong.
-fanza, vb. int.; to be broad; (as
n.) breadth; to effervesce; tr. to
scatter about; der. -fanzisa, to
widen; ufanzu, breadth. See upami.
-fara, vb. int.; (1) =-fanza, to be
broad; der. -faruka, be broad. See
-fanza.
-fara, vb. int. (2); to be glad, be
pleased; der. -fadza, -farisa, to
31


please; -farira, to rejoice over or at,
to welcome; -farirana, to be recon-
ciled; syn. -shaggara, Ka.; -ita no-
mxoyo mucena, Ze.; -dakara, Nd.
-farisa, vb. tr. and int.; tr. to
gladden, please; int. to be very glad.
-fashamira, vb. int., Ka.; to rise
(as river in flood).
-fashuka, vb. int.; to leak, over-
flow (of water-furrows); Ka., to
come up profusely (of grain); syn.
-ti fasha; -pfacuka, Ka.; -pucfuka,
Ma.
fasitera (ra, a), n., for.; a window;
syn. bhuri (ra, a), lit. a hole; and
vafetera, faftera, variants of fasi-
tera.
-fema, vb. int.; to breathe; Nd.,
to be fat; der. -femera, to breathe
on; -femesa, to breathe quickly,
pant, take long breaths; -fema kunze,
f. mukati, to breathe in, breathe out.
-femba, -femha, vb. tr.; to smell;
-f. fodya, to take snuff; der. -fembe-
dza, -femhedza, to sniff; -fembera,
to guess; syn. -nhuwidza, -kamba
mgea.
-fembera, vb. int.; to foretell,
smell out (by divination); hence, to
diagnose (by medical examination);
to guess. See -vuka.
-femedzeka, -femereka, vb. int.;
to breathe pantingly, to be out of
breath; syn. -va necifemo, va nema-
hemahema.
-femha, vb. tr., Ma.; to smell.
See -femba; -femhedza hwema, to
sniff a scent.
-fegzgura, vb. tr., Ma.. See -futu-
nura, Ze.
-feruka, vb. int., Ma.; to foam.
froth up. See -pupuma.
-fesa, vb. int.; to rain lightly.
See rain.
fesha (ya, dza), n., Ka.; native
salt. See mutomba (wa).
-feua, vb. int.; to live as a prosti-
tute, be a harlot; der. cifeve (ca,
ea), a harlot.
-flfu, adj., Nd.; blue; any dark
colour. See -gipu. For proper adj.
conc. see Table I.c; and for sing.
and pl. of (ya, dza) class and for
sing. of (ra, a) class use fifu.






FIGU
flgu (ra, a), n., Ko. (perli. fr. Por-
tuguese); banana. See hoBo (ra, a).
-finha, vb. tr., Ma.; to bore; to
slight; der. -finhira, Ma.; -pflnya,
Ka., to ridicule, call names; int.
-finwa, Ze., Ma., to be satiated,
satisfied, be bored, 'fed up.' See
-guta.
-fira, vb. tr.; to die for, to die at
(a place); see -fa; wakatifira, he
died for us; wakafira Harari, he died
at Salisbury; and see -firwa.
firwa, vb. int., pass. of -fa, die);
to be bereaved by death; e.g., waka-
firwa ndimai wake, he lost his
mother (by death).
-fisha, vb. tr., Nd.; to hide. See
-vanda.
fodya (wa; but in Ka. ya), n.; for
pronunciation see dy-; tobacco, snuff;
-quta f., to smoke or snuff; -femha
f., -femha f., to snuff; nemba (ya,
dza) yefodya, a palmful of tobacco.
-fokonora, vb. tr., Ka., Ma.; to
scrape out, scoop out. See -fuku-
nura.
-fondoka, vb. int., Ma., Nd.; to
be blunt. See -koma.
-fora, vb. int., for.; to drill (?
from Eng. fall in '); der. -forisa, to
drill, tr.
foroma (ra, a), n., for.; a brick
mould ('form'); the lining (of a
garment); hence, vb. tr. -foroma, to
mould bricks.
foshoro (ya, dza), n., for.; a
shovel or spade; (prob. der. by meta-
thesis from the Eng. shovel); hence
-foshora, vb. tr., to shovel up, to use
a shovel.
-fudza, vb. tr.; to herd, to tend
(livestock), to take cattle to pasture
(rufuro); der. mufudzi (wa, va), a
herdboy. See -fura (2).
fudzi (ra, a), n.; the shoulder
(human); var. pfudzi. Cp. Banda-
(v)uko (ra, a), shoulder of ox, etc.
fufu (ra, a), n.; a crumb; husk,
sawdust. See cipefu (ca, ga).
-fufudza, vb. tr., Ze.; to bear
(fruit). See -Bereka.
-fufudzika, vb.; to miscarry (of
woman). See -odza (used of ani-
mals).


-FUNDA
-fufuma, vb. int.; to rise, swell (of
river or dough); der. -fufumira (of
water), to rise into house from below ;
-fufumuka, int., to expand, swell out;
-fufumusa, tr., to cause to ex-
pand.
-fufura, vb. tr., Ka.; to bribe;
give gift secretly.
fufura (ra, a), n., Ma.; a butter-
fly. See shave-shave (ra, a).
-fugama, vb. int., Ka.; to kneel.
See -pfugama.
-fuka, vb. int.; to put on, or drape,
a cloth in the native style; der.
-fukidza, tr., to cover, clothe; fuki-
dzo (ra, a), cifukidzo (ca, ga), a
covering; cifukidzo ceziso, eyelid;
-fukura, to uncover.
-fukatira, vb. tr.; Ze., to turn the
back on, e.g., -fukatira mhepo, to
turn one's back to the wind; Ma.,
to nurse in one's arms. See -fuggata.
-fukenyika, vb. int.; to be un-
clothed, naked.
-fukunura, vb. tr.; to dig up, un-
earth; to take out (soil from hole,
stone from fruit). See -fokonora.
-fukusira, vb. tr.; to scrape a hol-
low, to burrow; der. mafukusiro (a),
hollow where fowl lies in sun.
-fukuta, vb. tr., Ma.; to bore and
eat as the weevil does. See -pfu-
kuta.
-fuma (1), vb. int.; to rise early;
der. -fumira with inf. or loc., to make
an early start at (work or journey);
fumo, adv., Ze., at dawn.
-fuma (2), vb. int., Ka.; to be or
become rich; to accumulate (?); der.
-fumisa, tr. to make rich; Nd., to
bless (materially); fuma (ya, dza),
riches; -nefuma, adj. rich; mufumi,
mupfumi (wa, va), a rich man.
-fumbira, vb. tr., Ma.; to cover
mouth by hand; to gag, muzzle;
syn. -pfumbira, Ze.; -fuggira, Nd.;
and see -Bumira.
-fumuka, vb. int.; to fly up, be
carried up (as dust, etc.); syn. -pu-
puruka; Ma., Ze., to have a bad
name, a bad reputation.
-funda, vb. tr.; (1) Ka.; to tie a
knot; der. cifundo (ca, ea), a knot,
a joint; (2) for., to learn, to read;






FUNDO
der. -fundisa, teach; mufundisi (wca,
va), teacher.
fundo (ya, dza), n.; a joint (of
finger, etc.). See nheggo (ya, dza).
-fundukira (munzira), vb. int.,
Ma.; to get out (of the way).
-funira, vb. tr., Ka.; to cover, put
cover on (pot, etc.); see -kwldiBira
and -fuggira, Ma.; der. -funura, to
uncover, open, peel off.
-funuka, vb. int.; Nd., to be blunt,
dull; Ze., to form a scab. See
-koma.
-funya, vb.; to crumple; Ka., to
draw up the legs, cross the arms;
der. -funyana, be crumpled, wrinkled;
-funyanisa, tr., to crumple, curl up,
wrinkle; -funyira, to crumple; syn.
-unya, -unyana, -unyanisa.
-fugga, vb. tr. and int.; to think;
to think of, and so, to remember;
see -raijgarira; der. pfuggwa (ya,
dza), a thought; mufulgo (wa, ya),
Ka., a thought; -zifugga, to be con-
ceited.
-fuggata, vb. tr.; to embrace; der.
-fuggatira, to hold in the arms, to
nurse in arms, to gather to one (as a
hen her chicks); syn. -mbunda,
-mbundira, -mbundikira, -gumba-
tira, -kumbaira, Nd.
fuggavure (ya, dza), n.; a kind of
snake. See snake.
-fuggidzira, vb. tr.; to suspect;
Ze., to covet, lust after.
-fuglgira, vb. tr.; Ma., to cover,
wrap up, shut; Nd., to cover mouth
with hand, to muzzle, gag; der.
-fuugura, uncover, peel off, open.
See -funira, Ka., and -fumbira, Ma.
fuggo (ra, a), n.; a wave, billow;
syn. manhanda emvura.
fupa (ra, a), n.; a bone. See
pfupa (ra, a).
-fura (1), vb.tr.; (-f. dzihwa),to blow
the nose; syn. -pfura dzihwa, -mina
madziwa, Ma. Cp. Ze., -fura ziso,
to take something out of the eye.
(2) int., to graze (of cattle); der.
-fudza, to cause to graze, to herd.
-furatira, vb. int.; to turn (one's
back); -f. mhepo, to turn one's back
to the wind; der. -furatidza, tr to
turn round, cause to turn round.


-furidza, vb. tr.; to blow up (tyres,
etc.). Cp. -vutira.
furidzo (ra, a), n.; the bladder.
Cp. last word; syn. dcundira (ra, pl.
mat. a), Ka.
furimudegga (ra, a), n.; the
giraffe. See swiza (ya, dza).
-furira, vb. tr.; to seduce, tempt.
furo (ra, a), n.; (1) pasture, graz-
ing ground; see -fura, rufuro. (2)
Froth, foam; Ze., f. romukaka,
cream; see furofuro (ra, a). (3)=
dowe, a wild plant with edible root.
-furura, vb. tr.; to strip leaf-
wrappings from mealie cobs.
-fusira, vb. tr.; to cover over with
earth (as seed sown); to fill in with
earth (any hole dug); var. -futsira,
Ma.
-futa, vb. int.; to be swollen; be
fat (of animals); to burn up (of a
fire); der. -futsa, -futisa, Ka., to
blow up, inflate; to light (a fire),
also -futidza; and see -pfuta, -pfu-
tidza.
fute (ya, dza), n., Ka., Ko.; the
castor-oil bean. See pfuta.
-futsa, -futisa. See -futa.
-futunura, vb. tr.; to shape pots
by hand, Ze.; or with a bit of cala-
bash, Ma.; syn. -feggura, Ma.
-futura, vb. int.; to expand, un-
fold; Ka., to rise (as bread).
-fuva, vb. int., Ka.; to be raw,
half-cooked.
fuva (ya, dza), n., Ka.; native
game played with stones or seeds and
rows of holes in ground or board;
syn. tsoro (ya, dza), Ze., Ma.






G
g-Everywhere except after b it
has the sound of g in the English
get. After b it indicates velarisa-
tion. In producing it the back of the
tongue should be raised as for the
sound of u. E.g., in -gara, to sit, the







GABA
g has the same sound as in Eng.
get. But in bge, ibge, stone, it is
the sign of velarisation.
gaba (ra, a), n.; a tin pot, can, or
mug; ga6a rokudiridza, a watering-
pot. See neka (ya, dza).
-gacira, vb. tr.; to receive, accept;
syn., -gamucira, -gashira, -ashira,
-tambira.
-gadza, vb. tr.; to appoint, ordain
(to an office); -gadza myoyo, to paci-
fy, soothe; -gadzika (-gadza) pa-
myoto, to put (pot, etc.) on the fire;
-gadzira, to arrange, prepare; -ziga-
dzira, -gadzirira, to get (oneself)
ready; -gadzikana, be settled (as
water), be still.
gadzi (1), adj. agr. with sing. n.
of (ra, a) class; e.g., biza gadzi,
a mare. See -kadzi. (2) n., a fe-
male, e.g., gadzi rebiza, a mare; iri
gadzi yge repi? whose female is this ?
-gadzika, vb. tr.; to put down,
settle into its place; to set (pot, etc.)
on fire; der. -gadzikana, to be settled;
to clear (of muddy water settling).
See -gadza.
-gadzira, vb. tr.; to prepare. See
-gadza.
gadzo (ra, a), n., Ze.; nipple (of
gun). See mutoto (wa, ya).
gahwi (ra, a), n., Ma.; a small
pool. See dziua (ra, a).
gaka (ra, pl. mak.), n., Ma., Nd.;
cucumber; the c. plant, rukaka (rwa,
pl. haka dza); the seeds, haka (ya,
dza); wild c., Vgaigaigga (ya, dza),
Ka.
gakanje (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a
crab.
gakava, in phr. -ita gakava, vb.
int.; to quarrel; der. -gakavara, to
quarrel. See nharo (ya, dza).
gakava (ra, pl. mag. a), n., Ka.;
the muscle over the stomach.
gama, -ita gama or gamha; to fill
half full. See cigama.
gamanyuci (ra, a), n., Ka.; the
swallow. See nyeiganyeiga (ya,
dza).
gamba (ra, pl. mag. a), n.; Ka.,
the gap between the grain stools
under a store-house (tsapi); Ze., a
patch of colour, cp. vara (ra, a);


-GARA
Ma., a brave man, warrior; Nd., a
storm cloud.
gamba-mnedzi (ra, a), n., Ka.; a
miscarriage, abortion. Cp. gambe
(ra, a) and gava-mijedzi (ra, a).
gambe (ra, pl. mak. a); (1) Ze., a
large earthenware pot, used in beer-
making, see doro (ra); Ka., a large
piece of broken pot; syn. gate (ra,
a); also in Ka., gambe (ra, a), a still-
born child; and cp. gamba-mzjedzi
(ra, a), a miscarriage.
gambigga (ra, a), n., Ka.; a
crocodile; see zgwena (ya, dza).
gamha (ra), n.; a half (roughly);
-ita gamha, to half-fill; gamha
rekomici, half a cup. See Ziamia,
dikatika.
-gamha, vb. tr.; to catch (a fall-
ing thing); to prop up, support; der.
cigamha (ca, ea), a prop; cigamiso
(ca, ea), a buffer.
-gamucira, vb. tr.; to receive, ac-
cept; see -gashira, Ma.; der. -gamu-
cidza, to give.
ganda (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; skin;
hide; leather; peel; shell; see dehwe
(ra, a); g. rezai, the thin inner skin
of egg; g. reziso, eyelid.
gandira (ra, a), n.; a kind of
drum (hung round neck). See jgoma
(ya, dza).
gandwa (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Nd.;
a pool. See dziva.
gano (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; Ka., an
axe for chopping or felling; Ma., a
battle-axe.
ganurwa (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a
chapter; from -ganura, to divide,
limit.
gaga (ra, a), n.; dry, barren land;
Ka., with short grass.
gagga (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; (1)
guinea fowl; see hagga (ya, dza).
(2) g. (ra, pl. mag. a), an unripe
fruit.
gaggo (ra, pl. mak. or mag.a),n.;
a potsherd (as used for roasting
grain); Ma., a frying-pan; Ka., a
round hoop or ring. See cimhedu
(ca, ea) and gambe (ra, a).
galgwa (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Ka.;
a pool. See cziua.
-gara, vb. int.; to sit; stay; live;






GARAURWA
last; der. -garira, -garirira, sit on;
wait for; lie in ambush for; watch;
mugariri (wa, va), man who gains
wife, not by lobola, but by living and
working in her village; mugariro
(wa, ya), nature, habit; -garisa, to
stay long; to cause to sit or stay;
-garana, to settle (as sediment);
-garika, live quietly, be prosperous
and settled; note the following uses:
yara nchinyora, keep on writing;
anogara acivuya, he is always
coming; -garira-mo, to wait without
knowing what for; -gara'nhaka, to
inherit, see nhaka.
garaurwa (ra, pl. mak. a), n.;
phlegm, mucus of throat; var. Ka.,
gararwa (ra, a).
garegare, adv.; by-and-by; -ita
garegare, to stay a little while.
-garika, vb. int.; to be settled,
prosperous; to live quietly. See
-gara.
garo (ra, a), n.; stock (of gun).
garwe (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; croco-
dile. See ggwena (ya, dza).
-gashira, vb. tr., Ma.; to receive,
accept; see -gamucira; der. -gashi-
dza, to give; -gashirira, appl.
gashu (ra, a), n., Ze.; a rope of
twisted bark of four strands; a riem.
gate (ra, pl. mag. a or mak. a), n.,
Ka., Ma.; large earthenware pot;
esp. used in beer-making, see doro
(ra); syn. Ze., gambe (ra, pl. mak.
a).
gava (ra, pl. mag. a or hava dza),
n.; jackal, fox. See muggubge (ya,
dza), Ka.
gava-miedzi (ra, a), n., Ka.; a
miscarriage, abortion. See gambe
(ra, a) and gamba-mgedzi (ra, a).
gavi (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; var. gai
(ra, pl. makai a); bark-rope; see
rwodzi (rwa).
gawa (ra, pl. mag. a), n., Ka.; an
inland pool, lake; see dziva (ra, a).
-gaya, vb. tr.; to grind, etc. (by
machine); is used of almost any
operation with a machine worked by
turning a handle or wheel-e.g.,
mincing, separating milk, milling
grain, etc.; cigayo (ca, Za), the mill
or other machine used this way.


GOBA
gedani (ra, pl. mak. a), n., for.;
a chain; var. ketani (ra, a).
-gedageda, vb. tr. and int.; to
gnash, or grind, teeth; int., to shake,
be unsteady, chatter (of teeth); der.
-gedagedesa, to cause to gnash, etc.;
syn. -rumanya; -kwetsana, Nd.
-gegeca, vb. tr.; to gnaw, gnash
teeth. See -tetena.
-gera, vb. tr., for.; to cut with
scissors; der. cigero (ca, ga), scissors.
-gere, irreg. tense-form of -gara,
to sit, etc. Other ex. of this irreg.
tense are -zere, fr. -zara, to be full;
-vete, fr. -vata, to lie down; -mire,
fr. -mira, stand; -nyerere, fr. -nya-
rara, to be still; these forms have a
Present Continuous meaning, and
their regular Present (in -no-) indi-
cates the beginning of the action-
e.g., ndinomira, I am (in the act of)
standing, I am getting up; ndimire,
I am (still) standing; vanogara, they
are (just) sitting down; vagere, they
are (still) sitting. -gere is also used
commonly to express 'not yet' as
follows: vapedza here? vagere-i.e.,
Have they finished? Not yet, where
perh. vagere is short for vagere
vaciita, they are still doing it. See
-gara.
giwa (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Ma.,
Ze.; a white man. See muruggu
(wa, va).
-go-, tense formative; indicates pos-
sibility, and more commonly in con-
secutive narration a sequel, cp. -zo-;
ex. ticagovuya pasture, we shall come
later; agozofara, then surely he will
be happy.
go (ra, pl. mago a), n., Ka.; hor-
net, wasp. See igo (ra, a).
go go go? interj.=May I come in?
-ti go go go, to say go go go, or to
knock at a door; der. -gogodza, to
knock at door; var. -gugudza.
Sgobvu, (1) adj. agr. with sing. n.
of (ra, a) class; thick. See -kobvu.
(2) (ra, a), n.; a scar, a thickening.
See vagga (ra, a). N.B.: 1, gobvd;
2, gobvu.
goBa (ra, a), n., Ka.; a quiver (for
arrows); syn. Banhire (ra, a), Ze.;
mutedya, mutendya (wa, ya), Ma.






GOBORONDO
goborondo (ra, a), n., Nd.; croco-
dile. See jgwena (ya, dza).
-goca, vb. tr.; to roast; syn. -koca;
-kagga (fry); -sasika (to toast, dry
by heat).
godo (ra, a), n.; (1) a bone; see
pfupa (ra, a); (2) g. (ra, no pl.), n.;
jealousy, envy. Seeshanje(ya, dza).
godzi (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Nd.;
vulture; var. rukodzi (rwa, pl. mak.
a). See gora (ra, a), a larger kind
of vulture.
-gofu, adj.; hollow; for proper adj.
cone. see Tables I.c and II.; and
note that for sing. and pl. n. of (ya,
dza) class -gofu becomes hofu; and
for sing. n. of (ra, a) class it becomes
gofu; syn. -nemhaggo, with prop.
cone. as given in Table I.D.3.
-gogodza, vb. tr., var. -gugudza;
to knock (on a door). See -ti go go
go.
-gogoma, vb. int., Nd.; to run.
See -tiza.
goko (ra, a), n.; (1) Nd., crocodile;
see rgwena (ya, dza); (2) (ra, a),
Ka.; he-goat (large, old); see -go-
tora (ya, dza); (3) gokb (ra, pl.
mak. a), n., a crust or skin (like the
skin on milk or porridge after it has
stood a while).
gokora (ra, pl. mag. a or mak. a),
n.; the elbow; syn. cikokora (ca,
ta), Nd.
gokoro (ra, a), n., Ze.; boggy
place by riverside; see matope (a).
gomba (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a hole,
pit; syn. rindi (ra, a); hunza (ya,
dza) (for game); mugodi (wa, ya),
(mine).
gombe (ra, pl. mak. a), In.; Ma.,
bank (of river); see hombe-kombe;
Ka., big cup, var. cikombe (ca, ea).
-gomera, vb. int.; to groan.
gomo (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; hill,
mountain; syn. dunhu (ra, a), Nd.;
mutunhu (wa, ya).
gomombo (ra, a), n., Nd.; croco-
dile; see igwena (ya, dza).
-gona, vb. int.; to be able to; der.
-goneka, be possible; -gonesa, make
possible, enable; syn. -kwanisa, -va
nesimba re, -kwana.
Note.-In Ka. -gona, be able, and


-GONYA
-kona, be unable; but elsewhere
-kona=to defeat, cause to fail;
-konwa, -koniwa=to be defeated, to
fail, be unable; e.g., gandikona, it
has beaten me; wandikonesa, you
make it impossible for me (to work
or do some implied action).
gona (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; horn
(for medicine or powder); sometimes
a small calabash for these uses; see
runyagga (rwa, dza); riddle, gona
ratqa, wasara munoygora, the medi-
cine horn is burnt, but there remains
the stirring stick. Ans., the path.
gonagombe (ra, a), n., var. gona-
mombe; a smoking-horn or pipe for
hemp; a powder horn. See ndudu
(ya, dza).
-gonda, vb. tr. and int., Nd.; to
trust; to hope; kugonda, or gonda
(ra)=hope, in Ndau N.T.; der.
-gondisa, to give a pledge to, assure,
promise; cigondiso (ca, ea), a pledge,
promise.
-gondisa, vb. tr., Nd.; to give a
pledge, promise; see -gonda; and
see -ravira (2).
gondo (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; an
eagle or large hawk; syn. capuggu
(ca, ga); and see gora (ra, a), vul-
ture.
gondobge (ra, a), n.; a ram (of
sheep); var. gondohwe (ra, a), ho-
ndohwe (ya, dza).
gondohwe (ra, a), n.; ram (of
sheep).
gonhi (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; door;
syn. (of reeds), sasa (ra, a), Ka.;
dimba (ra, a), Ma.; ruvi (rwa, pl.
nduvi dza), Nd.; musuwo (wa, ya),
strictly the doorway.
gono, (1) adj. agr. with sing. n. of
(ra, a) class; male; see -kono. (2)
n. (ra, pl. mak. a), a male animal
(esp. of wild animals); e.g., igono,
it's a male; cp. ndume, male, simi-
larly used as adj. agr. with sing. and
pl. n. of (ya, dza) class.
-gonya, vb. tr. and int.; to draw
up the legs (in sleeping); to be
drawn up, bent; der. -gonyana, int.,
to coil, curl up; -gonyanisa, tr., to
bend, coil up; gonyo (ra, a), Ze., an
angle, corner.






GONE
gonye (ra, pl. mak. a or mag. a),
n., Ka., Ma.; a worm; maggot; see
honye (ya, dza).
gopero (ya, dza), n., for.; a button;
see konopo (ya, dza).
gora (ra, a), n.; vulture; larger
than godzi (ra, pl. mak. a), Nd.
gore (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; (1) a
cloud; syn. guti (ra, pl. mak. a);
(heavy mist), mubvumbi (wa, ya);
(2) (Nd.), the sky, heaven, see
degga (ra, a); (3) a year; gore rino,
this year; gore rakapfuoura, last
year; makore ose, every year; syn.
mwaka (wa, ya), chaka (ca, Za),
dial.
gorogga (ra, pl. mak. a, or mnag.
a), n.; a trench, ditch, water-furrow;
dry river bed; syn. mugero (wa,
ya), a water-furrow.
gororo (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; robber,
highwayman; dist. from mbava (ya,
dza), a furtive thief.
gota (1) (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Ka.,
Ze.; sub-chief, councillor of para-
mount chief. See mambo (wa, va)
and gotsi (2).
gota (2) (ra, pl. mag. a), n. ; sleep-
ing hut of unmarried boys (or of un-
married girls); see imba (ya, dza).
-gota, vb. int.; to warm oneself;
-gota mote, to warm oneself at a
fire; -gota zuva, to warm oneself in
the sun; syn. -dziya (noto).
gotokoto (ra, a), n.; Nd., a he-
goat; see gotora (ya, dza); Ka., a
kind of bird.
gotora (ya, dza), n.; he-goat; var.
gotora (ra, a), Nd., and hotora (ya,
dza); syn. nhoggo (ya, dza), Ka.,
Ze.; mboco (ya, dza), Ma.; goto-
koto (ra, a), Nd.; goko (ra, a), Ka.;
also mugotora (wa, ya), Ko.
gotsi (1) (ra, pl. mak. a, or mag.
a), n.; the back of the head; -famba
negotsi, to walk backwards; -taura
qotsi ndi N., to talk of N. behind
his back, and so gen. to backbite.
gotsi (2) (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Ma.;
sub-chief, councillor of paramount
chief. See mambo (wa, va) and cp.
gota (1).
gotsorwa (ra, a), n., Nd.; a cough.
See cilosoro (ca, ea).


GUMBA
gotwe (wa, pl. vag. va), n., Ze.;
the last-born child; see rugotwe (rwa,
dza), Ka.
goua (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; red soil,
Ka., Ma.; dry river-bed, Ma.; low-
lying (and marshy) land, Ka., Nd.
-gova, vb. tr.; to divide (a thing
into shares), to share out; der. -go-
vera vanhu, to divide amongst peo-
ple; -goverana, int., to share, e.g.,
ndagoverana na N., I shared with
N.; var. -kova, etc., and -kowa, etc.
gouo (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a clot of
blood; Ka., a weasel; var. goho (ra,
pl. mag. a).
gozho (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Ka.; a
rat; see gonzo (ra, a).
gudo (ra, pi. mak. a), n., Ka.,
Ze.; baboon; syn. ciro (ra, a), Ma.,
Ze.; bvene (ra, a), Ko., Ze.; detfe
(ra, a), Nd., Ma.
gudza (ra, pl. mak. a, or mag. a),
n.; a native blanket or small sack,
in either case made of closely netted
bark-rope; cp. gumbezo (ra, a), the
imported blanket.
-gugudza, vb. tr.; to shake, beat
(clothes, etc.); and see -gogodza.
guhu (ra, a), n., Ka.; news; re-
port; rumour; sec izwi (ra, a) and
shoko (ra, a).
gukutu, adj. agr. with. sing. n. of
(ra, a) class; hard; see -kukutu.
gukuzumbu (ra, pl. mak. a), n.,
Nd.; a tomato. See Buno (ra, a).
-guma (1), vb. int.; to stop, to
end, come to an end; cokngumisira,
the last; -giumisira, to be the last, to
bring to an end; -gumira pa gomo
(on a journey), to end at, turn back
at, the hill; gumisiro (ya, dza), end,
result; magumo (a), magumiro (a),
the end or edge of anything; paku-
guma, or, kiguma, lastly, at last.
-guma (2), vb. int., Nd.; to arrive;
see -qika.
-guma (3), vb. tr.; to knock
against, esp. to knock stem of tree
to shake down fruit; der. -gumira,
to knock at (with violence); -gu-
mana, -gumirana, to collide.
gumba (ra, a), n.; scandal, ill-
reports; -taura g., to slander; see
makuwa (a).






-GUMBATA
-gumbata, vb. int.; to fold one's
arms; der. -gumbatira, -gumbatidza,
to embrace. See -fuggata.
gumbezo, gumbeze (ra, a), n.; a
blanket (imported); see gudza (ra, a).
gumbi (1) (ra, a), n., Ma.; a
crowd (large); syn. cita (ca, Za),
group; vanhu vazhinji(-zhinji), very
many people; (2) (in pl. mak. a),
eaves (of house).
gumbo (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; leg;
ndine gumbo, I have a (bad) leg;
ndakafamba namakumbo, I travelled
on foot; syn. murenje (wa, ya),
Nd.; mwendo (wa, ya), dial.; gumbo
(rcygoro, etc.), wheel (of wagon,
etc.); g. renyasi, the hind leg; and
(p. mupambare, mupimbira, mupi-
mbiri (all wa, ya), the shin.
-gumbura, vb. int.; to stumble;
dcr. -gumbusa, -gumburisa, cause to
stumble; -gumburwa, be made to
stumble; cigumburo (ca, ea), stum-
bling-block; syn. -kuhuna.
-gumbusa, see -gumbura.
gumi (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; ten;
gumi revana, ten children, lit., a
ten of children; fifty houses, either
mtakumi mashanu eimba, or imba
miakumi mashanu, where mak. ma-
hlanu is in apposition to imba, thus:
houses, five tens (of them).
-gumina, vb. int.; to be lame, to
limp; see -kamina.
-gumira, vb. tr.; to knock at (with
violence); to knock against; der.
-gumirana, to collide, knock together;
see -guma.
-gumisa, -gumisira; see -guma.
gumie (ra, a), n., Ma.; see humje
(ya, dza).
gunde (ra, a), n.; stalk; root stalk
(of maize); sugar-cane; syn. gunje
(ra, a); dzinde (ra, a), Ka.; mazonje
(ra, pl. only), Ma.
guneri (ra, a), n., Nd.; a feast and
dance; Ma., food prepared for a para-
mount chief; see -Bira (ra, a).
gunje (ra, a), n.; stalk of maize
or sweet cane; syn. mazonje (a), Ma.
gunura (ra, a), n.; horse-fly; gad-
fly; see nhunzi (ya, dza).
gunwe (ra, pl. rarely mag. a), var.
cigunwe (ca, ea); the thumb; toe,


-GURUPIRA
esp. the big toe; cigunwe (ca, ga),
the registration certificate bearing
thumb-print; cp. mutendeka (wa,
ya), index finger or forefinger; nya-
kasiana (wa, va), little finger.
-gunma, vb. tr.; to touch (in pass-
ing), brush against.
guggano (ra, a),n., Ma.; a gather-
ing, assembly; see vuugano (bga).
guygumbani (ra, a), n.; porcu-
pine; see nuggu (ya, dza).
guggutga, gujgupga (ya, dza or
ra, a), n.; a patch of burnt grass;
the soot of burnt grass.
guiguvu, guggu (ra, pl. mak. a),
n.; a crow; syn. sawara (ra, a), Ma.
guigwa (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; the
sea; cp. gaggwa (ra, a), a pool.
gupa (ra, a), n.; a tick infesting
cattle, etc.
-gura, vb. tr.; (1) to pull out
(tooth); to take out (as hoe-head
from handle); syn. -gurura, Ma.;
-kura, Nd.; (2) to cut; to decide a
case; -gura nzira, to cross a road;
-gura nyika, to cut across country;
-gura napakati, to cut in half; der.
-guka, pass, be cut, broken.
gura (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a de-
serted garden going back to bush.
guri (ra, a), n., Ze.; mealie cob
with grain; cp. gurinwa (ra, a),
Ze., the cob stripped; syn. (cob with
grain), Ka., hupi (ra, a); Ma.,
gwere (ra, a); (stripped cob), Ka.,
guri; Ma., Buggu (ra, pl. map. a).
gurinwa (ra, a), n., Ze; see guri
(ra, a).
gurokuro (ra, a), n.; the windpipe,
the larynx, voice-box; (of bird) crop;
and see cisusu (ca, ga).
guru (1) (ra, a), n.; stomach (of
animals); the large intestine.
guru (2), adj. agr. with sing. n.
of (ra, a) class; big. See -kuru.
gurumbiro (ra, a), n., Ze.; rope;
cord. See tambb (ra, a).
-gurupira, vb. tr.; to look to for
help (esp. voluntary help); ndinogu-
rupira T., I expect help from T.,
even, I rely on T.; der. -gurupidza,
-gurupidzwa, e.g., T. wakandigurn-
pidza, T. came to my help; ndaka-
gurupidzwa ndi T.; also, to be saved
38






-GURURA
trouble or expense, ndagurupira ne-
mari, I am saved expense.
-gurura, vb. tr., Ma.; to pull out
(tooth, or hoe-head from handle); see
-gura; der. -guruka, to come out.
gurwe (ra, a), n.; a kind of
beetle (edible). See ndere (ra, a).
-gusa, vb. tr.; to take away, re-
move; to shave (hair or beard); syn.
-veura (shave); -bvisa (remove).
gushe (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a
bristle; hair (on animals or on bodies
of men); fur; var. guse (ra, pl. mak.
a), Ka.
gugi; -ita g., -ridza g., vb.; to
clap hands (in greeting).
guta (1) (ra, a), n.; village (of
chief, walled, large); town; see
musha (wa, ya).
-guta (2), vb. int.; to be satiated,
satisfied; to have enough; der.
-gutisa, -gutsa, to satisfy; be very
full; -gutiswa, pass.; syn. -finhwa,
Ze., Ma.; -Zimbirirwa (of over-eat-
ing), see -Zimba, to swell.
guti (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a cloud;
rainy fog; syn. gore (ra, pl. mak. a).
guvu (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; the
navel; var. cikuvu (ca, ga); syn.
mukumvu (wa, ya), Nd.; mucombo
(wa, ya), dial.
guva (1) (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a
grave; a sleeping place; pl. makuva,
graves or graveyard; syn. bgiro (bga,
pl. mabg. a), Ka.; i6a (ra, a), Nd.;
civumba (ca, ga), Ma., Nd.; (of
chief) dzimbahwe (ra, a); mapa (a),
Ka.; (2) g. (ra, a), n., Ka.; bran (of
grain stamped or ground); syn. ma-
butu (a), Ma.; mapapa (a), Nd.;
mbgizhu (dza), Ze.; mafifi (Ma.);
and see hundi (ya); (3) Ka., the
floor.
guve (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Nd.; a
flood (not merely a river in flood).
See Boporodzi (ra, a), Ka.; jezi (ra,
a), Ma.; and cp. mugove (wa, ya),
Ze.
guui (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a pool
(on rocks); see dziva (ra, a).
-guvura, Ka., -guura, Nd., vb.
int.; to cast the skin (as snakes do);
der. guvurwa (ya, dza), Ka., guurwa
(ra, pl. mak. a), Nd., the cast-off


GWARA
skin; syn. -bvunura, bvunurwa (ra,
a), Ma.
guyo (ra, pl. mak. a or mag. a),
n.; the lower grindstone in hand
grinding; see also ibge (ra, a), and
cp. huyo (ya, dza).
guyu (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a fig
(the fruit, a small kind); cp. mu-
kuyu (wa, ya), the tree that bears
guyu; also vonde (ra, a) and muvo-
nde (wa, ya).
guzuggu (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Ka.;
tomato; see Buno (ra, a).
gwa, igwa (ra, pl. magwa a), n.;
a canoe (made of bark); syn. bgato
(bga); mgadiya (wa, ya); cikepe (ca,
ea) (for.); ggarawa (ya, dza),
Swa.
-gwabvura, vb. tr.; to scratch (esp.
of animals); see -kwegga, -kwenya.
-gwadama, vb. int., Nd.; to kneel;
der. -gwadamira, to kneel to, to wor-
ship.
gwai (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a sheep;
syn. hwai (ya, dza).
gwani (ra, a), n., Ka.; the cha-
meleon; syn. ruvavi (riwa, pl. mav.
a); rwavi (wa, varw. va), Ma.;
rwaivi (rwa, pl. ndwaivi dza), Nd.
-gwama, vb. tr., Nd., Ma.; to
touch, to graze in passing.
gwama (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; a
large purse. Cp. cikwama (ca, ga),
a small purse.
gwamanda (ra, a), n., Ma.; a horn
(as used for music or in war); see
wamanda.
gwande (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; bark
(of trees); piece of bark used as a
dust-pan; hence, dust-pan; syn.
gwati (ra, a); Bande (ra, pl. map.
a), Ma., Nd.
gwanza (ra, a), n., Ka.; a path;
see nzira (ya, dza).
gwanzi (ra, a), n., Ma.; path; see
gwanza.
gwapa (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; Nd.,
armpit; Ka., a stain, patch of colour;
syn. hapxa (ya, dza), armpit.
gwara (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; trail
(of animals in grass or bush); spoor;
hence, gwara rakurumbi, Ka.; gwara
renzou, Ma.; both names for the
Milky Way; see star.






GWARI
gwari, kwari (ya, dza), n.; part-
ridge; see cikwari (ca, ga).
gwasha (ra, pl. mak. a), n., Nd.;
a forest; mumagwasha, in the bush
country; see sagjgo (ra, a).
gwatakwata (ra, pl. mak. a), n.;
young locust (in the hopping stage);
see wiza (ra, a).
gwati (ra, a), n.; bark (of trees);
dust-pan (i.e., piece of bark used as
dust-pan); see gwande (ra, a); Ze.,
gwati rehamba, shell of tortoise.
-gwauta, vb. int., Ma.; to bark (of
dogs); see -ukura.
gwema (ra, a), n., Ka.; a strong
smell); see hwema (hwa).
gwembe (ra), n.; the mange;
syn. rukundu (rwa), Ka.; cikundu
(ca), Ma.; cikurukuta (ca), Nd.,
Ma.
-gwenda, vb. int., Ka.; to shake
(with fear or cold); cp. -ygwenda
-yjgwenda, Ma., to shake (of things
on an uneven surface).
gwenzi (ra, pi. mak. a), n., Ze.,
Ma., Ko.; pi. bush country; veld
(uninhabited); sing. a shrub, small
bush; see saggo (ra, a).
gwegga (ra, a), n.; Ma., desert,
wilderness; Ka., a very wicked per-
son.
gweggo (ra, a), n.; instrument
with which to scrape (-kwegga) a
pot.
gwere (ra, a), n., Ma.; maize,
mealies; commonly in pl.; sing.
gwere may be used of one grain, or
of one cob with its grains; see ci-
Barwe (ca, ga).
gweshe (ra, a), n.; a blunt object
(esp. knife); igweshe, it is blunt;
-va gweshe, to be, become, blunt;
see -koma.
gwewewe (ra, a), n.; a porcupine;
see nuggu (ya, dza).
gwindiri, indecl.; in phrases: ini
gwindiri haygu, I am quite well; -ti
gwindiri, feel fresh or fit.
-gwinya, vb. int., Ma., Nd.; to be
strong, energetic; in Ka., -gw., to
put forth all one's strength.
gwirikwiti (ya, dza), n., Ze.;
measles; see Biripiri (ra).
gwiro (ra, pl. mak. a), n.; ladder;


something to climb (-kwira) by; see
danho (ra, a).
gwiza (ra, a), n., Nd.; a large red
locust; see wiza (ra, a).





H
h-represents a voiced h, '.closely
resembling the sound in the Afri-
kaans hand.' It is a sound that
accompanies its following vowel in-
stead of merely preceding it. But in
the combinations kh, ph, th in the
Eastern dialects the b represents
ordinary aspiration. This letter will
be found very frequently here where
in previous vocabularies, esp. of Ka.
and Ze., it was omitted because it
was felt quite truly that it was not
an ordinary aspirate, e.g., hope for
ope; munhu for munu, etc. m and
n, preceding a labial or dental initial
consonant of a root, change that in-
itial to this h, and it is specially in
these cases that the h has hitherto
often been omitted-e.g., m+piko=
mhiko; m+tikiti=nhikiti; n+tari-
dzano=nharidzano; n+tau (root of
-taura)=nhau, etc.
ha-, negative prefix; (1) ha- with
the -a- of vb. ending changed to -i
is the neg. used for pres. and fut. of
ind.; e.g., handidi, I do not want;
handicatori, I shallnottake; handiri
kutora, I am not taking; but cp.
handina kutora, I did not take, I
haven't been taking, lit. I am not
with taking; handina (cinhu), I have
nothing; (2) ha . sa . neg.
of past tenses of indicative; e.g.,
handisavona, I have not seen, I did
not see (today); handisakaita, I did
not do (yesterday); (3) ha . zati
(sati) . a past neg. with a not
yet' sense in it; e.g., handizati nda-
vona, I have not yet seen; haasati
avuya, he has not yet come. Note:
In dependent sentences (i.e., after
most conjunctions and in consecutive






HADZI
narrative) the ha- is dropped with
past tenses and' -sa- alone remains,
e.g., go ndisakatora, or (Ze., Ka.) Zo
ndikasatora, because I did not take.
hadzi, adj. agr. with sing. and pl.
n. of (ya, dza) class; female; see
-kadzi.
hal, adv.; (1) no; see kwete. (2)
With questions to express surprise;
e.g., urikuyenda hai? I say, are you
going?
haiva, adv.; no; see kwete.
hakata (dza), n.; the diviner's
' bones '; dice; -kanda hakata, to cast
the 'bones,' to divine; (? der. from
mucakata, the tree whose fruit pro-
vides the bones ').
hakuna, vbl. phrase; there's noth-
ing, there's none (or no one); e.g.,
ndipevo mvura. Hakuna, please give
me some water. There is none; ha-
kuna cha ndinoda, there's nothing
that I want, I want nothing.
hama (ya, dza), n.; a relative; a
brother (very loosely); used also com-
plimentarily of any friend; der.
ukama (hwa), relationship, affinity.
hamba (ya, dza), n.; a tortoise;
syn. kamba (ya, dza), Ma., Nd.
hameno, hapeno, adv.; I don't
know; equivalent to a shrug of the
shoulders; hameno hake, he'll know,
but I don't; hameno haygu, for my
part I don't know; hameno hako,
you ought to know, or, that's your
affair, not mine.
hamuna, vbl. phrase; there's noth-
ing (in here); there's no one in. See
hakuna.
hana (ya, dza), n., Ka., Ze.; con-
science, feelings; heart (as seat of
feelings); Ma., harura (ra, a).
handa (ya, dza), n.; a puppy.
handi, neg. of the copula ndi; it
is not . .; they are not . .; e.g.,
handi dzaygu, they are not mine;
handi rimyero (bayga), it is not the
same (knife).
handira (ya, dza), n.; a bull; syn.
hando (ya, dza); ndunda (ya, dza);
nzombe (ya, dza); and see mukono
(wa, ya).
hando (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a bull.
See handira (ya, dza).


HARI
hanya (dza), n.; care, carefulness;
heed.
hanzu (ya, dza), Ma., Nd.; a
shirt, coat, outer garment. Cp.
hazu (ya, dza), Ka., clothes, cover-
ing, and hembe (ya, dza), shirt.
hangadzi (ya, dza), n.; brother (of
woman); sister (of man). See App.
on Relationships.
hagga (ya, dza), n.; guinea-fowl;
var. gagga (ra, a), nhagga (ya, dza).
haggaiva (ya, dza), n.; pigeon;
see njiva (ya, dza).
haggiro (ya, dza), n., Ka.; frying-
pan; see Biya (ra, pl. map. a), Ma.;
der. from -kagga, to fry.
haggu, hako, hake, hedu, henyu,
hauo; note ex. of their use: Kubva
haygu, I don't know (and so on with
the other persons); N. acavuya here?
is N. coming? hameno hake, I don't
know, ask him, it's nothing to do
with me; hapeno haeo, it doesn't
matter about those; kubva hako, I
don't care, it's your affair; ndino-
tamba haygu, I just play, as for me
I play, or, I play 'on my own';
6ayga haro, as for the knife; sarai
henyu, good-bye (lit. stay, for your
part); in all cases Ze. prefers gajgu,
Zako, Zenyu, etc.
hapana, vbl. phrase; there's noth-
ing (here), there's none. See hakuna.
hapeno, adv. See hameno.
hapxa (ya, dza), n. (var. pl. Ma.
magapxa a); armpit; syn. gwapa (ra,
pl. makw. a), Nd.
hara (ra, a), n.; (1) Ze., the un-
ripe mealie cob on first appearance;
syn. cigo (ca, ea), Ma. (2) A sheath
(gen. in pl. mahara).
haraBga, harahwa (ya, dza), n.;
a very old man.
Harare, n.; Salisbury, the old na-
tive name still in common use. Cp.
Mutari for Umtali where the Eng.
name is a mispronunciation of the
native name.
harati (ya, dza), n.; a kind of
caterpillar (edible).
hari (ya, dza), n.; an earthenware
pot, cooking pot. For kinds of pots
see gate, ciroggo, roggo, mbia, cinu,
denhe.






HARURA
harura (ra, a), n., Ma.; feelings;
conscience, consciousness of guilt or
any kind of startling fear. See hana
(ya, dza).
hasha (ya, dza), n.; temper;
anger; harshness; -va nehasha, to
be angry, harsh; -peyga nehasha, to
fly into a rage.
hata (ya, dza), n.; a pad (usually
coiled) for protection when carrying
a load on the head; anything coiled
up, e.g., a roll of wire, a tape-
measure, a coiled snake.
hatizii, vbl. phr.; I don't know
(colloq., short for hatizivi); note ti-,
pl. for sing.
-hatura, vb. tr., Ka.; to grasp;
seize; to catch (fire). See -Bata.
. hazu (ya, dza), n., Ka.; clothes;
covering. See hanzu (ya, dza).
hekani (waro) I interj. expressing
thanks or pleased assent; thank
you; that is so.
hembe (ya, dza), n., for.; a shirt.
See hanzu (ya, dza).
here? interrog. particle placed gen.
at end of question, or sometimes next
to the word to be shown as the point
of the question, e.g., vanonuya here?
will they come? unoda here kuti
vavuye? do you wish that they
should come?
-hetsura, -hitsura, vb. int.; to
sneeze; see -hotsira.
hobo (ra, a), n.,Ma.,Nd.; banana
(the fruit), cp. muhobo (wa, ya),
the tree; syn. hova (ra, a), Ka.;
figu (ra, a), Ko.; nigga (ya, dza),
Nd.; (wild banana tree) tsoro (ya,
dza), mugova (wa), pl. magova (a),
the fruit; the magova, dried and
pierced, were used as ornaments and
rattles.
hobodo (ya, dza), n.; Ka., a small
bag, pocket; Ze., a pouch for to-
bacco; see homije (ya, dza).
hobvu, adj. agr. with sing. and pl.
n. of (ya, dza) class; thick. See
-kobvu.
hoko (ya, dza), n.; a nail or peg.
See mbambo (ya, dza), cipikiri (ca,
za).
hokoyo interj.; look out I take
care I hokoyo kuna N.! woe to N.


HOSI
homa (ya, dza), n.; a hard ball
(like hockey ball).
homba (ya, dza), n.; a snail-shell.
See hozhwe (ya, dza).
hombekombe (ra, a), n., Ze.; bank
(of river); syn. gombe (ra, pi. mak.
a), Ma.; Biriri (ra, a), Nd.; and see
mhiri (ya).
hombge (ya, dza), n.; Ka., a deep
hollow vessel; Ze., anything hollow;
Nd., bracken.
hombora (ya, dza), n.; a kind of
snake.
home (ya, dza), n., Ma., Nd.; a
small bag, pocket; syn. mbudu (ya,
dza); hobodo (ya, dza), Ka.; nyede
(ya, dza), Nd.
hona (ya, dza), n., Ka., var. pl.
mahona (a); bone; see pfupa (ra, a).
hondo (ya, dza), n.; war; army;
Ka., an enemy; a heron (var. kondo,
ya, dza); syn. pfumo (ra, a), Ka.
(lit. spear, as in other dialects);
muregga (wa, ya), rebellion; nkondo
(ya, dza), N. dial.
hondohwe (ya, dza), n., Ma., Ze.;
ram (of sheep). See gondohwe (ra, a).
hono, adj. agr. with sing. and pl.
n. of (ya, dza) class; male. See
-kono.
honye (ya, dza), n.; worm; mag-
got; syn. gonye (ra, a), Ka.; andsee
harati (ya, dza), an edible kind of
caterpillar.
hogo, hugu, adv.; yes; var. hogu.
hope (ya, dza), n.; sleep; dream;
Ma., Nd., also face; ndabatwa ne-
hope, I am sleepy; -rinda h., Ze.;
-nata hope, Ka.; -rara hope, Ma., to
sleep.
horera (ya, dza), n., Ma.; the sting
(of the bee), see rumbovera (rwa, a).
horwe (ya, dza), n., Ze. (Hera);
partridge; see cikwari (ca, ea).
hosha (ya, dza), n.; sickness; dis-
ease; see denda (ra, pl. mat. a).
hosi (ya, dza), n., var. pi. vahosi
(va); a first wife; esp. a chief's first
wife; in Ka. the second wife of chief
is called vagota (va), third and other
wives, muroxjgo (wa, va); in Ze. the
second and later wives are simply
vakadzi (oa); the whole group of
wives, murojgo (wa, va); in Ma. all






HOTA
wives of chief, muroggo (wa, va);
chief wife, hosi or mukaragga (wa
va).
hota (ya, dza), n.; canna-seed.
hotora (ya, dza), n., Ze.; he-goat.
See gotora (ra, a).
-hotsira, vb. int., Ka.; to sneeze;
der. -hotsidzwa, intense ; syn. -itsura,
-etsura, -etsemura, -otsira (Ma.).
hova (ra, a), n., Ka.; banana
(fruit); cp. muhova (wa, ya), the
tree; and see hoBo.
hova (dza), n.; pl. of rukova,
river.
hove (ya, dza), n.; fish; der.
kakove (ka, twa), a small fish.
howa (hwa, no pl.), n., Ze., Ma.;
mushroom (gen. name); syn. Bgowa
(bga), Ka.; cowa (ca), Nd., Ma.
hozhwe (ya, dza), n.; a snail; cp.
homba (ya, dza), a snail shell.
hozi (ya, dza), n., Ma.; hut for
storing bins maturea) of meal and
grain; gen. contains also sleeping-
place for unmarried boys or girls;
see imba.
hubga (ya, dza), Ka., huhwa
(hwa), Nd.; a kind of axe; a battle-
axe.
huku (ya, dza), n.; the common
fowl; syn. nkuku (ya, dza), N.E.
dial.
hukute (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a water-
snake.
huma (ya, dza), n., Ma., Ka., Nd.;
forehead; syn. mhanza (ya, dza),
Ze.; mhazha (ya, dza), Ka.
humba (ya, dza); Ma., pig (esp.
as totem name); Ze., wild pig;
house-tick; Ka., a poisonous tick.
See jguruve (ya, dza).
humUe (ya, dza), n., Ka., Nd.; a
party for hoeing, a hoeing bee '; a
reciprocal arrangement between neigh-
bours so as to get a lot done in short
time in one place after another; Ma.,
gumje (ra, a); and cp. nhimbi (ya,
dza) and jaigano (ra, a).
humuija (ra, a), n., Ze.; mumps;
see magwirikwinya (a).
hunde (1) (ya, dza), n.; Ze., a
large tree; Ka., the stem or trunk
of a tree; Ma., a tree-stump; (2) adv.
Ma.; yes; syn. eehu, Ma.; huggu,


HWAENZE
hoggu, Ze.; hogo, Ka.; eya, e, he-
kani, yevo, evo, etc.
hundi (ya, no pl.), n.; chaff, bran
(of grain threshed); syn. windi (ya,
dza), Ka.; makoto (a), Ma., Nd.;
and see guva (ra, a), Ka.
huni (dza, sing. rare rukuni rwa);
firewood; sing. one piece of firewood;
iiyga rehuni, a bundle of firewood;
danda (ra, a), a log for firewood.
hunza (ya, dza), n., Ma., Nd.; a
pit (to trap game); syn. Ka., huzha
(ya, dza); and see gomba (ra, a).
hugga (ya, dza), n.; a kind of eel.
huggurubge (ya, dza), n. See
hurugguhwe (ya, dza).
hupi (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a maize
cob with the grains on; cp. Ze.,
guri (ra, a), Ma., gwere (ra, a).
hura (ya, dza), n.; ears of millet
(rukwcza) and of Kafir corn (mla-
pfunde), but not of maize.
huro (ya, dza), n.; the throat; dcr.
hurwana (ya, dza), dimin., the gul-
let; gurokuro (ra, a), larynx, voice-
box, windpipe.
huru, adj. agr. with sing. and pl.
n. of (ya, dza) class; big, great; sec
-kuru.
hurugguhwe (ya, dza), n., Ma.; a
bare, rounded rock; any rounded
stone or pebble. Cp. huggurubge
(ya, dza), Ka., of any large loose
stone; and -uuruggana, to be
round.
husha (ya, dza), n.; a whip-lash;
syn. Ka., rukusha (rwa, pl. husha
dza).
hute (ya, dza), n.; a wild plum,
something like a damson; fruit of
the mukute (wa, ya).
huva (ya, dza), n.; a raised place
in hut for standing pots on; sec
-teura and cp. cikuva (ca, ea).
huwi. See -ridza h.
huyo (ya, dza), n.; the upper
grindstone in hand grinding. See
ibge (ra, a).
huzha (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a game-
pit; see hunza (ya, dza).
hwaenze (lhwa), n., Ma.; the
shoulders, strictly the back between
the shoulders; pahwaenze paygu,
said by a man carrying a child on






HWAHWA
his back with one leg over each
shoulder.
hwahwa (hwa, no pl.), Ze.; beer
(strong). See doro (ra).
hwai (ya, dza), n.; sheep; syn.
gwai (ra, pl. maak. a); dim. hwaiana
(ya, dza), lamb, Ze.; hahwai (ka,
twa), lamb, Nd.
hwambo (hwa), n., Ma., Nd.; bait;
syn. bgago (bga).
hwagga (hwa, no pl.), n., Ma.;
native 'medicines' used as charms
for any evil purpose; see bgaiga
(bga), Ka.
-hwara, vb. int.; Nd., to hide one-
self, see -vanda; Ma., to escape
from, escape.
hwarasanza (hwa), n., Nd.; plat-
form; scaffold; table; see dara (ra,
a).
hwari (ya, dza), n.; partridge; see
cikwari (ca, ea).
-hwata, vb. int., Ma.; to squat (in
order to hide); see -Bgata, Ka.
hwedza, adv.; tomorrow, Ze.; day
after tomorrow, Ma.; Ze., kusuera
hwedza, the day after tomorrow. Cp.
wedza (ya, dza), Ka., a milking
vessel.
hwema (hwa), n.; odour; scent;
syn. Bgema (bga) and gwema (ra,
a)r Ka.
hwerekwere (ya, dza), n.; part-
ridge; see cikwari (ca, za).
hwi, adv.; no; gen. conveys sur-
prise at being asked the question;
see kwete.
-hwihwinya, vb. int.; to shine,
glitter; glisten (e.g., of ox in good
condition); der. from radical hwihwi.
Cp. bgi bgi and -bgibginya and
hwiri hwiri.
-hwira, vb. tr., Nd.; to eat by
throwing dry food into mouth; syn.
-bgira.
-hwirira, vb. int.; to return, come
back; der. -hwiridza, give back, send
back; -hwiridzira, to repeat, do over
again.
hwiza (ya, dza), n.; giraffe; see
swiza (ya, dza).


I
i-pron. as in French or Italian,
not as in many English words.
-i-, (1) tense infix giving a sense of
habitual action in past time-e.g.,
taiyenda, we used to go, or simply
we went, with the habitual sense so
implicit in the context that it needs
no emphasis (such as 'used to') in
translation.
(2) Used predicatively as follows
with nouns of (ya, dza) and (ra)
classes; ibiza, it's. a horse; iyombe,
it's cattle, they are cattle.
(3) -i or -yi, suffix with impera-
tives, and, in Ze., also with obj.
cone. -ku- (2nd pers.), to make a
plural; e.g., sing. nuya, come thou;
pl. vuyai, vuyayi, come ye; and in
Ze., vanokiuda, they want you (sing.),
vanokudai, they want you (pl.).
(4) -ii. (or -iyi or -inyi, Ma.);
what?; e.g., unodei (-eyi, -enyi),
what do you want? where in all
three cases the e results from coal-
escence of -a- and -i-.
(5) i-, subj. pron. cone. agr. with
sing. n. of (ya, dza) class; as infix,
-i-, obj. pron. cone. for the same nouns.
ibge (ra, a), n.; stone; var. bge
(ra, a); cibge (ca, ea); syn. buwe
(ra, a), Ma., Nd.; Zihwe (ra, pl.
maahwe a), Ma.; (boulder) dombo
(ra, a); (flat rock) ruware (rwa, a);
(lower grindstone) guyo (ra, a);
(upper grindstone) huyo (ya, dza);
(soapstone) munyaka, munyakwe (wa,
ya); (small grindstone for snuff)
mhondo (ya, dza), Ma.
ibgo, pers. pr. standing for sing.
n. of vu- prefix; it; e.g., vupfu
bgake ndibgo, his flour that's it, or
his flour is it; novupfu nabgo, with
flour also (lit. and it).
ibva, sing. imperative of -bva, to
come out; e.g., ibva! get out I (or
come out I)
-ibva, vb. int.; to be ripe; to be
well cooked.
ibvi (ra, a), n.; the knee; var. bvi
(ra, a), Ka.; cibvi (ca, ga), Ko.
iBa (ra, pl. mai6a a), n., Nd.; a
grave; see guva (ra, a).








ici, dem. pr. agr. with sing. n. of
(ca, ga) class; placed before or after
its noun; this (near); e.g., cigaro ici,
this chair (here).
ico, (1) pers. pr. standing for sing.
n. of (ca, Za) class; it; e.g., ndico,
that is it; cigaro naco, the chair too
(lit. and it); (2) dem. pr. agr. with
sing. n. of (ca, Za) class, gen. after
its noun; that (there); e.g., cigaro
ico, that chair (there).
-idza, vb. tr., Ka.; to measure; to
try, tempt; to become light, to dawn ;
der. ciidzo (ca, ga), scales, measure;
-idzisa, to sit up all night till dawn;
-idziwa, pass.; idzo (ya, dza), trial,
experiment.
idzi, dem. pr. agr. with pl. n. of
(ya, dza) class, before or after its
noun; these (near); e.g., yombe idzi
or idzi yombe, these cattle (here).
idzo, (1) pers. pr. standing for pl.
n. of (ya, dza) class; they, them;
e.g., neyombe nadzo, with thecattle
too (lit. and them); yombe idzi ndi-
dzo, these cattle are they; (2) dem.
pr. agr. with pl. n. of (ya, dza)
class, gen. after its n.; those (there);
e.g., pombe idzo, those cattle.
idea, adj. agr. with sing. n. of (ra,
a) class; new; var. itra; see -tga.
idi (ra), n.; truth; e.g., idiko here?
is that true? diko it is true I munhu
wedi, a truthful man, a real man;
idikol really you don't say sol
ygedi (nedi), truly.
-idu, suffix part of poss. adj. or
pron. requiring poss. cone. for prefix,
see Table I.n; our, ours; note that
the -a- of the cone. always coalesces
with the -i- of -idu to produce -e-;
e.g., cigaro cedu (for ca-idu), our
chair; ndi (Ma., yge) cedu, it is ours.
igo (ra, pl. mago a), n.; a hornet
or wasp; var. go (ra, a), Ka.
ihwo, pers. pr. standing for n. of
(hwa) class; he, it.
iko, pers. pr. standing for sing.
nouns of (ka, twa) and (kwa) classes;
he, it; e.g., kana aka ndiko, this
small child is he; kambudzi ako ndi-
ko, that little goat is the one; no-
kuda nako, with love too (lit. and it).
-imba, vb. int.; to sing; der.


INYI
-imbira, sing to or for; -imbisa, to
sing loudly or much, to precent;
muimbi (wa, va), a singer.
imba (ya, dza), n.; house; collec-
tive pl. dzimba, all the houses in one
place; syn. umba (ya, dza), Ma.;
nyumba (ya, dza), Nd.; mhatso,
mphatso (ya, dza), Nd.; (h. of chief)
gumba (ya, dza), Ka.; nyagga (ya,
dza), Ma.; (h. of headman) zhombge
(ya, dza), Ma.; (h. of unmarried)
gota (ra, a); dare (ra, a), Ka.; Buwa
(ra, a), Nd.; kora (ra, a), Ma.;
(deserted h.) daggwaza (ra, a), Ka.;
doggo (ra, a); (h. for storing grain)
hozi (ya, dza), Ma.
imbga (ya, dza), n.; dog; dim.
imbganana (ya, dza), puppy; cp.
hand (ya, dza) and kambganana
(ka, twa) for puppy; imbgakadzi (ya,
dza), bitch; (male) tsonzoro (ya,
dza).
imi, imii, 2nd pers. pl. pron.
(apart from vb.); you, pl.; sometimes
reduplicated, imimi, imiimii.
imo, pers. pr. standing for loca-
tives in mu-; e.g., mumba ndimo, in
the house that's wherein.
imvi (dza), n.; white hair. See
vudzi (ra, a).
-inda, vb. int.; to go; der. -indisa,
to cause to go, to send or take (to);
-indidzana, to be on visiting terms;
-indika, to make progress; -indirira,
to make further progress; -indirwa,
to be travelled, used (of a road).
inda (ya, dza), n.; a louse; var.
nda (ya, dza), Ka.
ini, inini, pers. pr. apart from vb.;
I, me; ini mene, ini mbune, I my-
self; ndini, it is I; vakavona ini,
they saw me.
ino, (1) dem. pr. agr. with pl. n.
of (wa, ya) class or sing. n. of (ya,
dza) class, always after its noun;
e.g., miti ino, these trees; umba ino,
this house; (2) loc. adv. Ma.; here;
wuye-no (for wuya-ino), come here;
and cp. neno (na-ino).
inyi? interrog. pron. and adj.;
what? what sort of? cinyi icil what
(thing) is this? unodenyil what do
you want? munhunyil what sort of
man? Commonly contracted inspeech,






IDGWE
esp. in Ka. and Ze., to -ii; e.g.,
unodei! what do you want? munhu
wei? what sort of man?
iggwe (ya, dza), n.; leopard; syn.
ggwe (ya, dza), Ka.; khamba (ra,
a), Ma., Nd.; mbada (ya, dza);
dindijgwe (ra, a), dial.
-ipa, vb. int.; to be bad; syn.
-shata; -nyazjgara; and see -uora;
adj. form, -akaipa; der. -ipisa, to
make bad, spoil.
ipapo, loc. adv.; there yonder;
ipapo naipapo, again and again;
ipopo naipopo, again and again.
ipo, pers. pr. standing for locatives
in pa-; e.g., pano ndipo pakanaka,
here it is pleasant; pamusha napo,
at the village also.
ipopo, conj.; so; and so . .
-ir, num. adj.; two, Ma., Nd.
See -viri.
iro, (1) pers. pron. standing for
sing. n. of (ra, a) class; it; e.g., iri
bayga ndiro, this knife is it; 6agga
rako naro, your knife too (lit. and it);
(2) dem. pr. agr. with sing. n. of (ra,
a) class; that (there); e.g., 5ayga
iro, that knife (there).
irwo, pers. pr. standing for sing.
n. of (rwa) class; it; e.g., rwendo
rwedu irwo ndirwo, our journey that
is it; norwendo narwo, with a jour-
ney also (lit. and it).
-isa, vb. tr.; to put, place, set.
See -yisa.
ishe, she (wa, pl. vashe va, Ka.
madzishe a.); chief (of small dis-
trict or village); Ka., a paramount
chief. See mambo (wa, va).
ishwa (ya, dza), n.; the flying
white ants, termites.
isu, isisu, pers. pr. apart from vb.;
we, us.
-ita, vb. tr.; to do; to make; der.
-itwa, pass.; -itika, to be done, be
capable of being done; -itira, -itirwa,
act. and pass., to do, be done, to or
for; -itisa, to make (someone) do,
cause to do; magiita, thank you (lit.
you have done it).
itga, adj. agr. with sing. and pl. n.
of (ya, dza) class; new; see -tga.
itgo (ya, dza), n.; the kidney; var.
ipgo, Ma.


itwo, pers. pr. standing for pl. n.
of (ka, twa) class; they, them; e.g.,
tumbudzi utwo nditwo, those small
goats are they; tumbudzi natwo, the
small goats also (lit. and them).
ivu (ra, a), n.; earth; soil;
ground; clay; syn. vu (ra, a), Ka.
iuo, pers. pr. standing for pl. n. of
(wa, va) class; they, them; e.g., ivo
ndivnaani? who are they? ndivo, it
is they; navo, with them, and they.
iwo, pers. pr.; it, them; standing
for (1) sing. n. of (wa, ya) class, or
(2) pl. n. of (ra, a) class, or any
noun of ma- prefix-e.g., muti uyo
ndiwo, that tree is the one; mazuva
ano nawo, these days also (lit. and
them).
iya, dem. adj. agr. with pl. n. of
(wa, ya) class and sing. n. of (ya,
dza) class, placed after its noun;
that, those (referred to before, out of
sight); e.g. yombe iya, that ox (that,
we were talking of); miti iya, those
trees (out of sight).
iye, pers. pr. standing for sing. n.
of (wa, va) class; he, him; e.g., iye
ndiani? who is he? ndiye, it is he;
ucayenda naye (naiye), you shall go
with him.
iyi, dem. adj. agr. with pl. noun of
(wa, ya) class or sing. n. of (ya, dza)
class; before or after its noun; these
(near by); this; e.g., miti iyi, these
trees; iyi nzira, this path.
iyo, (1) dem. adj. agr. with pl. n.
of (wa, ya) class and sing. n. of
(ya, dza) class, gen. after its noun;
those (there); that (there); e.g.,
miti iyo, those trees; imba iyo, that
house; (2) dem. pr. standing for
these nouns; it, them; e.g., ndiyo
miti yakanaka, they are the good
trees; nzira yedu nayo, our path too
(lit. and it.)
izwi (ra, a), n.; word; voice; (in
pl.) news; (in music), tone of voice,
speech tone, note; syn. shoko, soko
(ra, a); dama (ra, a); guhu (ra, a),
Ka.
iZi, dem. adj. agr. with pl. n. of
(ca, Za) class, before or after its
noun; these (near); e.g., eigaro iFi
or ifi gigaro, these chairs (here).








iZo, (1) dem. adj. agr. with pl. n.
of (ca, Za) class; gen. after its noun;
those (there); e.g., Zigaro igo, those
chairs (there); (2) pers. pr. standing
for pl. n. of (ca, Za) class; they,
them; e.g., ndigo, those are they,
hence idiomatically, ndieo and ndi-
toao, yes; that's it; just so; truly;
netigaro nago, and the chairs too.







J
j-pronounced as in Eng. jam.
Note: In Fr. Biehler's Dict. j stands
for the sound zh, as the z in Eng.
azure, the j in French je. This sound
is here represented by zh; thus zhi-
zha, rainy season, not jija.
jaha (ra, a), n.; young man (of
marriageable age); syn. jaya (ra, a),
mujaya (wa, va), mukomana (wa,
va), tgimborume, gimborume (ya,
dza).
-jaira, vb. int., Ze. (Hera); to be
accustomed or used to (person, place);
der. -jaidza, to accustom, make (per-
son) accustomed. See -rovera.
jambga (ra), n., Ma.; ill-luck,
misfortune, a false accusation; adj.
-nejambga, unlucky; falsely accused;
syn. njodzi (ya, dza), Ka.; (ill-luck)
ropa rakaipa, Ka.; see ropa (ra, a)
and rushambga (rwa).
jana (ra, a), n., Ma.; a turn; -ita
majana, to take turns (at work, etc.) ;
ijana raygu, it's my turn; var. ci-
jana (ca, Za); syn. dzoro (ra, a),
Ka.; and see -ravana.
-janyaura, vb. int.; to use bad or
filthy language; to be rude; var. Ze.,
-jenyaura.
jaggano (ra, a), n.; a mutual plan
by which several friends or neigh-
bours join in hoeing the lands of each
in turn; a hoeing bee'; syn. humge
(ya, dza), gumje (ra, a); and cp.
nhimbi (ya, dza) where the induce-


JOKWE
ment is a beer-drink on the field;
ijaygano raggu, it is my hoeing
party.
jaggo (ra, a); Ka., zaggo (ra, a),
n.; a charm (Ka., worn round the
neck; Ma., worn by children).
jasi (ra, a), i., for.; an overcoat,
raincoat; var. jazi (ra, a).
jaya (ra, a), mujaya (wa, va), n.;
young man (of marriageable age).
See jaha (ra, a).
jeca (ra, a), n.; sand. See rushe-
sha (rwa).
jedye (ra, pl. macedye a), n., Nd.;
frog. See daft (ra, a).
jeke (ra, pl. maj. a), n.; a winter
garden, gen. by bank of stream. Cp.
doro (ra, a).
jeko (ra, a), n., for. (?sickle); a
sickle.
jembere, adj. agr. with sing. n. of
(ra, a) class; old (past bearing).
See -cembere.
jena, adj. agr. with sing. n. of (ra,
a) class; white; e.g., biza jena, a
white horse. See -cena.
jena-guru (ra), n.; the full moon.
jero (ra, a), n., Ma.; age, size;
e.g., tiri (we) jero rimyero, we are
(of) the same age; var. Ka. zero (ra,
a); uyo wezero raygu, he is of my
age.
jeye (ra, a), n.; a joke, jest, piece
of fun; -ita jeye, to be in jest; -taura
jeye, to talk in jest.
jezi (ra, a), n., Ma.; a flood. Cp.
Boporodzi (ra, a), Ka., of heavy rain
and wind.
jinda (ra, pi. mac. a), n.; (1) Ze.,
a chief's son, grown up and estab-
lished as head in his own village;
(2) young bees in their cells; (3) (ra,
pl. maj. a) fledgling birds.
jira (ra, pl. maj. a, sometimes
macira a), n.; cloth; syn. iguuo,
aguwo (ya, dza); muceka (wa, ya),
Ka.; Biza (ra, a), Ko.
jokocera (ra, a), n., Ma.; a bush;
in pl. a bushy place, copse, shrub-
bery. See salgo (ra, a).
jokoso (ra, a), n., Nd.; a spear.
See pfumo (ra, a).
jokwe (ra, a), n., for.; a yoke;
Ze. sometimes, joki (ra, a).






JONI
joni (ra, a), n., for.; a soldier or
policeman. See mujoni (wa, va).
-jonjora, vb. int., Ma.; to squint.
jono, -ita jono, vb. int., Ma.;
to snore. See gonono, Ka.; igoro-
dodo, Ze.
joggwe (ra, a), n.; cock-bird of
any sort; e.g., joygwe rehuku, re-
ujisa, etc.
joti, joto (ra, a), n.; iron brace-
let; pl. maj. a is used of a chain.
jovera (ra), var. njovera (ya), n.;
syphilis.
juru (ra, a), n.; white ant, ter-
mite; syn. mushwati (wa, ya), Ze.;
mutswa (wa, ya), Nd.; mucenje
(wa, ya); ishwa (ya, dza). Note:
In termite colony the majuru are the
soldiers, micenje the workers, ishwa
the flying ones on a nuptial flight,
mai reshwa or Ka. gonye reshwa
the queen; and mutate (Ma.) those
found exploring in earthen tunnels
in houses; guruhumbga, a small
species making small, dome-like
mounds called cififa (Ze.), citsope
(Ma.), and civuru (Ka.), which are
found in open country.







K
k-pronounced as in Eng. kin;
when the sound is followed by
marked aspiration this is indicated
by kh. Ex. khamba, leopard (Ma.,
Nd.), where the aspiration must be
shown to distinguish from kamba,
tortoise.
ka, (1) it; subj. and obj. pron.
cone. for nouns of (ka, twa) class.
(2) ka- prefixed to a cardinal number
makes it adverbial, (so many) times;
e.g., he came five times, wakavuya
kashanu; kashoma, a few times, sel-
dom; kazhinji, many times, often;
kaygani? kaygana how many times ?
syn. ru- is used in the same way in


-KAIRA
Ka. (3) ka-, dimin. prefix, may be
added to almost any noun stem to
make a diminutive, e.g., kamhedu,
a small bit, from mhedu (ya, dza),
a bit. Note that the ka- is prefixed
to the stem, which can generally be
found by nutting off the conc, prefix
of the pl.; e.g., kakomo, dim. from
gomo (pl. makomo), a hill; kapadza,
dim. from Oadza (pl. mapadza), hoe;
kana or kamyana, dim. from mVana,
child; kakove, dim. from hove, fish;
only a few diminutives are entered
in this vocabulary because they can
easily be traced from their stems.
-ka-, a tense formative of past
tense used in consecutive narrative
after the first -aka- past; e.g., ndaka-
vuya, ndikavona, ndikakurira, I came,
I saw, I conquered.
kabanzi (ka, twa), n.; a splinter.
See -Banzura, Banzu (ra, a).
-kabida, -kabita, vb. int.; to lap
water (as a dog); to drink from the
hand; syn. -kapa, -kapita.
kabudura (ka, no pl.), n.; shorts.
See burukwa.
-kaca, vb. tr.; to pound (with a
stone); to eat sadza (porridge) with-
out murioo (relish) =Ma. -katsa; and
cp. -twa.
kacece (ka, twa), n.; a baby.
-kacidza, vb. tr., Ze.; to tickle (of
a tickling in the throat; e.g., nda-
kakacidzwa, I was made to cough.
-kadzi, adj.; female; for proper
adj. conc. see Table I.c and note
that for sing. and pl. n. of (ya, dza)
class -kadzi becomes hadzi, and for
sing. n. of (ra, a) class it becomes
gadzi.
kafudzagombe (ka, twa), n.; the
tick-bird, cattle egret (follows cattle
and picks ticks off them).
kagumi, num. adv.; ten times;
wakavuya kagumi, he came ten
times.
-kahadzika, vb. int., Ka.; to be as-
tonished. See -shama.
-kaira, vb. int.; to be insufficient,
fall short; der. kairira, to fail to
reach to, e.g., of a ladder or pole
too short; -kairirwa na-, to be short
of, to lack.
48






-KAKA
-kaka, vb. int.; to be stiff (of a
person or thing that moves with diffi-
culty). See cikaka (ca, ea).
-kakamira, vb. int., Ka.; to stam-
mer; syn. -dzadzama, Ze.; -mamata,
Ma.
kakara (ka, twa), n., Ze.; a small
animal; dim. of cikara (ca, ea), wild
animal.
kakare, adv., Ze.; again.
-kakata, vb. tr., Ka.; to drag,
draw, pull; der. -kakatira, appl. See
-kweva.
-kakavara, vb. tr.; to oppose, dis-
pute (in words).
-kama, vb. tr.; to milk; der. -ka-
misa, caus. and intense ; -kamiwa,
pass.; -kamira, appl.
kamba (wa, pl. vak. va), Ma.,
Nd.; a tortoise; dist. from khamba
(ra, a), leopard.
-kamba, vb., Ka.; to scent (as of
dogs); Ze., kamba myea, to smell,
inhale scent; and see -femba.
-kambaira, vb. int.; to crawl,
creep.
kamera (ra, a), n.; Nd. (from
Port.?); a room; also Ka., a camel.
See imba (ya, dza); nZimbo (ya,
dza); ugaro (hwa).
kamhutu (ka, twa), n.; (1) Ma., a
sip, a small taste; cp. -quta, Ka.,
to sip; -dzutura, to sip; (2) Ze., a
mosquito, gnat; see utugga (hwa).
-kamina, vb. int., Ka.; to be
lame; to limp; syn. Ze., -gumina;
Ma., -tsumina, -tsamina.
kamiro (ya, dza), n., Ka., var.
hamiro (ya, dza); a milking vessel;
milk pail; syn. Ma., mutumba (wa,
ya).
kamge, adv.; once; at once, all
together; in another place, else-
where; cp. pamie.
-kamura, vb. tr.; (1) Nd., to wring
out, squeeze; see -gina. (2) Ze.,
Ka., Ma., to lessen, to divide, to take
away some.
kana, coni.; (1) Ka., Ze.; if;
kana ucida, if you wish. (2) Ma.,
although, even if; even; or; e.g.,
kana ndicitaura, though I speak,
even if I speak; kana 6a6a ndamu-
vona, I saw even father; kana uyu,


-KADGANISO
kana uyo, either this man or that;
whether-this one or that.
-kana, vb., Ma.; to fight; -kana
na N., to fight with N., to fight N.;
der. -kanidza, contradict; and see
-rwa.
kana (ka, twa), n.; a small child,
dim. of mgana; var. kamiana (ka,
twa).
-kanda, vb. tr.; to throw; der.
-kandira, throw at; to lay (eggs);
-kandira hakata, to throw the
' bones' (or dice) for divining (or
gaming); see -vuka.
kandiro (ka, twa), n.; a small
plate; a saucer.
kandyera (ra, a), n., for.; a
candle; for pronunciation see -dy-.
kani? interrog. particle; cp. here.
Kani seems to indicate more surprise
on the questioner's part than here
does.
kani-kani, -ita k.; to shine, glitter
(of any bright thing); hence -kani-
kira, to be polished, to shine.
kano, dem. adj. agr. with sing. n.
of (ka, twa) class, always after its
noun; this (near); e.g., kambudzi
kano, this small goat (here).
-kanuka, vb. int.; to be aston-
ished; see -shama; der. kanukisa,
int., to astonish, fascinate.
-kanya, vb. tr.; to knead; Ka., to
digest; der. -kanyira, appl.; -kanya-
nisa, to mix.
kanyenye (ka, twa), n.; a small
lamb or kid; Ze., a weevil; syn.
Ka., bgizana, dim. of gwai (ya,
dza).
-kagga, vb. tr.; to fry; der. ha-
ggiro, frying pan. See -goca.
-kaggaidza, vb. tr.; to confuse,
perplex; pass. -kajgaidzwa; var.
-kagganidza.
kaggani? kargani-ko? interrog.;
how often? syn. ruigani? ruggana?
-kagganisa, vb. tr. and int.; to
make a mistake; do wrong; miss the
path; to cause to forget; to confuse,
perplex; cp. -kaggaidza; -kayganisa
myedzi, to miscarry (of woman); der.
karganiso (ya, dza), a mistake.
kagganiso (ya, dza), n.; a mis-
take. See -kagganisa.






-KADGANWA
-kagganwa, vb. tr., var. Ka. -ka-
igagwa; to forget; der. -kagga-
ijwira, to forgive (Ka.); -kagganisa,
-kagganidza, to mix up, confuse; do
wrong; -kagganika, to be forgotten.
-kapa, -kapita, vb. tr.; to lap up
(as a dog); to drink water from the
hand; syn. -kabida.
-kapadza, vb. int.; to shake the
head (in scorn).
kapadza (ka, twa), n.; a small
hoe; dim. of Badza.
kapfariwari (Ka, pl. tumapfariwari
twa), n., Ma.; a spark; see sase
(ra, a); kapf. kemunhu, a hot-head,
a fiery person.
kapuka (ka, twa), n.; a small
animal, an insect, any small living
creature; dim. of mhuka (ya, dza);
var. cipuka (ca, ta); syn. kakara
(ka, twa).
kapundu (ka, twa), n.; a dot, a
point. See Bundu (ra, a).
-kapura, vb. tr.; to pull up weeds;
to skim off dirt.
-kara, vb. int.; to have a craving
for meat, be gluttonous in eating
(meat); der. -karira, to long for,
crave for (meat).
kare, adv.; some time ago; before.
Note following series: kakare, a short
time ago; kare, some time ago; ka-
karekare, a good time ago; karekare,
very long ago; nakare nakare, ever,
always.
karikwarikwa (ka, twa), n., Ze.;
pit of stomach; uvula; pulse; var.
kadikwadikwa, cidikwadikwa.
karize (ka, twa), n.; scorpion;
dim. of rize (ra, a); syn. rize (ra, a);
cinyaridi (ca, ga), Ka.
-karudza, vb. tr., Ka., Nd.; to
startle; der. -karuka, be startled;
syn. -patidza, -bvumbutsa.
-karuka, vb. int., Ka., Nd.; to be
astonished. See -shama; and see
-karudza.
-kasa, vb. int.; to stop (of rain);
e.g., mvura yakasa, the rain has
stopped. Cp. Ka., -gasa, to stop (of
rain or anything).
kasemo (ka, twa), n.; a small
splinter; -sempa, to get a splinter
into one; cp. rusemo (rwa), Ka.,


KETANI
small splinter; and note Ze., rusemo
(rwa), hatred.
kashoma, adv.; seldom, a few
times.
kasikana (ka, twa), n.; a young
girl. See musikana.
-kasira, vb. int., Nd.; to hurry; to
be fast. See -kurumidza.
-kata, vb. tr.; to coil, coil up; en-
tangle; der. -katana, to be coiled,
coil (intr.), be tangled; hata (ya,
dza), a coil.
katiyo, (ka, twa), n., Ze.; a chick.
See rutiyo (rwa, pl. nhiyo dza).
-katsa, vb.; to eat porridge (sadza)
without relish; var. -kaca, Ka.; syn.
-temura, Ka., Nd.
katsuri (ka, twa), n.; a whistle;
a blade of corn. See tsuri (ya, dza).
katguku (ka, twa), n.; a baby (up
to a few days old).
-katyamara, vb. int., Ka.; to be
astonished; see -shama; der. -katya-
madza, to astonish; katyamadzo (ya,
dza), a wonder. For pronunciation
see under ty.
-kavira, vb. tr.; .to plant seed
mealiess, beans, which are not broad-
cast). See ciBarwe (ca, va).
-kawura, vb.; to cease from (do-
ing). Cp. -rega.,
kaya, dem. adj. agr. with sir,. n.
of (ka, twa) class, always after its
noun; that (referred to, out of sight);
e.g., kambudzi kaya, that kid (we
spoke of).
-kaya, vb. tr., Nd.; to pick
(flowers, fruit, etc.). See -tanha.
-kaza, vb. tr.; to warn; frighten;
hesitate; der. -kazira, dissuade.
kazhinji, adv.; many times, often;
syn. ruzhinji (in some dialects).
-kekedza, vb. int.; to giggle,
laugh; var. -ti ke ke ke.
kereke (ya, dza), n., Ka.; church;
var. kirike, Ze.; ceci, Ma.; ciara,
Nd.
-kerekedza, vb. int.; to cackle.
keri (ya), n.; address for a letter;
der. from the common c/o . on
letters; e.g., handizivi keri yake, I
don't know his address.
ketani (ra, a), n.,for.; a chain. See
gedani (ra, a) and majoti (a), Ma.






KHAMBA
khamba (ra, a), n., Ma., Nd.;
leopard. See ijgwe (ya, dza).
khora (ra, a), n., Ma.; sleeping
hut of unmarried boys (or of un-
married girls). See imba (ya, dza).
kirike (ra, a), n., Ze.; church. See
kereke (ya, dza).
kitsi (wa, va), n.; cat (tame),
from Eng. and very commonly used.
See maggove.
-kiya, vb., for. (Eng., key); to
lock; cp. kiyi (ya, dza), a key, a
lock; -kiyinura, vb., to unlock.
-ko, (1) locative suffix; e.g., kupi-
ko? where? ibva-ko, get out from
there. (2) Poss. cone. suffix for 2nd
pers. sing., thy; e.g., cigaro cako,
your (thy) chair. See Table III.
-kobvu, adj.; thick; stout, strong;
for proper adj. cone. see Tables I.c
and II.; and note that for sing. and
pl. n. of (ya, dza) class -kobvu be-
comes hobvu; and for sing.. n. of
(ra, a) class it becomes gobvu; e.g.,
cinhu cikobvu, a thick thing; imbga
hobvu, stout dog or dogs; 6aygo
gobvu, thick pole; hence -kobvuma-
ra, Ka.; kobvuka, Ze., to be thick.
-kobvuka, -kobvumara, to be
thick. See -kobvu.
-koca, vb. tr., Nd.; to roast. Sec
-goca.
-koceka, -kocekera, vb. tr.; to
hang up (on hook); to hook up; der.
-kocekedza, kocekedzanisa, to hang
up; -kocekerwa, pass.; -koconora, to
unhook, take off nail; syn. -kore-
kedza.
-koconora, vb. tr.; to unhook, un-
link; take down from hook or nail.
See -koceka.
-kodza, vb. tr.; to thicken, make
fat; der. from -kora.
-kodzera, vb. tr.; to suit, fit, be
becoming to; syn. -nakira.
-kodzogga, vb. tr.; to stir (por-
ridge, etc.).
-koka, vb. tr.; to call together, in-
vite; der. -kokera, appl. See -da-
vidza.
koko, locative adv.; there; over
there.
-kokora, vb. tr.; to scrape (esp. a
pot). See -kwegga.


-KOPERA
-kokota, vb. tr.; to scrape (pot or
plate); Ma., to clean fingers or pots,
to clean up; Ka., to eat remains out
of pot. See -kwegga.
-koma, vb. int.; (1) to be blunt (of
tools, etc.); syn. -komara; -ua
gweshe; -funuka, Nd.; -fondoka;
-dumara. (2) To be unwilling, to
refuse; syn. -komera, tr.
-komara, vb. int.; to be blunt (of
tools, etc.). See -koma.
-komba; (1) vb. tr., to surround;
hem in; bend round; go round the
roof in thatching; der. -kombama,
to be bent; -kombera, -komberedza,
-kombamisa, to bend; cp. -poterera.
(2) vb. int., to be strange, wonderful,
Ka.; be beautiful, Ze.
-komborera, vb. tr.; to give liber-
ally to; to bless; der. -komborerwa,
to be lucky; to be blessed; cikombo-
rero (ca, Za), a blessing.
-kona, vb. tr. and int.; tr. to de-
feat, make to fail; e.g., kurima
kwandikona, I cannot dig; i.e., dig-
ging has beaten me; der. -konesa, to
make impossible, e.g., wandikonesa,
you have made it impossible for me
(to work or do some implied action),
hence, you have interrupted or hin-
dered me; -koniwa, to be unable, be
beaten; but note Ka., -kona, to be
unable; be impossible.
-konesa, vb. tr., Ka.; to make im-
possible, hinder. See -kona.
-koniwa, vb. int.; to fail, be un-
able. See -kona.
-kono, adj.; male; for prop. adj.
conc. see Table .c, and note that
for sing. and pl. n. of (ya, dza) class
-kono becomes hono; and for sing. n.
of (ra, a) class it becomes gono, but
that for hono and gono there is more
often heard 'mukono we . .', e.g.
mukono weyombe, wembga, etc.; lit.
the male of cattle, of dog, etc.
konopo (ya, dza), n., for.; a but-
ton; der. -konopera, to button;
-konopora, to unbutton; syn. ku-
numbu (ya, dza), Nd.; gopero (ya,
dza), Ze.; butawu (ya, dza),
Ma.
-kopera, vb. tr., Nd.; to beckon,
beckon to. See -ninira.







-KORA
-kora, vb. int.; to be fat; to be or
become thick (of milk, etc.); der.
-korisa, fatten; -kodza, to make
thick; -korera, app., to bear patient-
ly, Ma.
kora (ra, a), n., Ma. See khora
(ra, a), sleeping hut.
-korekedza, vb. tr.; to hang up (on
a hook); hook up. See -kocekera.
-koromoka, vb. int.; (1) to roll,
roll down; der. -koromotsa caus. to
roll down (tr.); -koromotsera, to roll
(e.g., stones) down on to. See
-kugguruka. (2) To fall down, come
down (of a hut).
-koromora, vb. tr. ; to pull down,
demolish; der. -koromoka (2).
-koroora, vb. tr., Ma.; to pluck,
esp. of plucking mealie cobs from
stalk. See -kowa, -tanha.
kose kose; Ma., kwese kwese,
adv.; everywhere, in every direc-
tion.
-kosha, vb.; (1) int., to be dear;
to be precious, costly; syn. -dura, to
be expensive. (2) tr. Ka., to twist
string (Ze., Ma., -kosa).
-koshora, vb. int., Ka.; to cough.
See -kosora.
-kosora, vb. int.; to cough; der.
-kosodza, -kosoresa, to make to
cough; syn. Ka., -koshora; Nd.,
-kotsora.
-kotama, vb. int.; to bow, bend,
stoop down; der. -kotamira, to bow
to; to lap up water; -kotamisa, to
cause to bow. Cp. -komba, -gonya,
-peta.
-kotsa, vb. tr.; (1) Ma., to keep,
keep (in store); lay by; see -ceggeta;
(2) Ka., to enquire into (a case), to
cross-question.
-kotsira, vb. int. (Ma. prefers -ku-
tsira); to be sleepy; to sleep, doze;
see -vata; der. -kotsirisa, to quiet a
child.
-kotsira, vb. int., Ma.; to sneeze.
See -hotsira.
-kotsora, vb. int., Nd.; to cough.
See -kosora.
-kola, -kovera, etc., vb.; to
divide, share. See -gova.
-kovona, vb., Ka.; to peck. Cp.
kovono (ya, dza).


KUBVA
kovono (ya, dza), n., Ka.; (of gun)
the hammer. Seri clkovono, ciko-
hono.
-kowa, -kowera, etc., vb., Ma. ;to
divide, share. See -gova.
-kowera, vb.; (1) tr. Ka., to make
wooden articles; (2) int. Ze., to be
skilful.
-kowa (-kohwa), vb. tr.; to bring
in the harvest, to carry the harvest;
der. -koiwa, pass., to be harvested;
also to pluck mealie cobs from stalk;
syn. -sodogora, -koroora; and see
-tanha.
ku, (1) prefix of infinitive of vb.,
of vbl. n. and of locatives in ku- ; it is
also used impersonally; ex., kutamba
kwakanaka, play is nice; kufambisa
kunondinetsa, to go fast makes me
tired; kuno kwakare6a, it is very
high here; kunodziya nhasi, it is
warm today; it is (as shown inci-
dentally in ex. above) the subj. and
obj. cone. agr. with locatives and in-
finitives used as nouns; e.g., kumu-
sha kwakanaka, handikuzivi yguvoa
hurn, home is sweet, I haven't
known it for a long time; -ku- is
also the obj. cone. of 2nd. pers. pr.
sing., you (thee), e.g., ndakakuvona,
I saw you.
ku, (2) locative formative or prepo-
sition; to or from, towards; always
with idea of motion; -ku- is used be-
fore most common nouns, e.g., waka-
yenda kumiusha, he went to (his) vil-
lage, he went home; before most
names of places nothing is used,
e.g., wakayenda Harari, he went to
Salisbury; before pronouns, proper
names of persons, and nouns of I.A
class (i.e., n. having no prefix in
sing., as baba, pl. vababa) the forms
kuna (kune) are used, e.g., ndaka-
mutuma kuna 6a6a wake, I sent him
to his father. Before names of per-
sons kwa is used in sense to, from,
or at N.'s place,' e.g., kwa Mutasa,
to, from, or at Mutasa's town; kwa
is also used before names of rivers
and of towns named after rivers or
persons, e.g., wakabva kwa Mutari,
he came from Umtali.
kubval interj., Ma.; well what






KUBVIRA
about it? kubva haggu (hedu, etc.),
I (we, etc.) don't care; kubva hake
(hako, etc.), well I what if he (does,
did, has, etc.); more defiant and defi-
nite than hameno, which see. See
also -bvira.
kubvira, kubva, (1) conj.; since-
e.g., kubvira ndicipinda, since I came
in; (2) prep., since, e.g., kubvira
kwazuro, since yesterday.
-kubvura, vb. tr.; Nd., to paddle
a canoe; Ka., to stir porridge adding
meal.
kubani, adv., Nd.; south; lit. in
the lowlands. See south.
-kucidzira, vb. tr. ; -k. myoto, to
stir up fire; -k. huni, to push fire-
wood into fire.
-kucura, vb. tr.; to jolt, give jolt
to. See -zurguza.
-kudza, vb. tr.; to enlarge, mag-
nify, honour, praise; der. -kudzisa,
to cause to enlarge (etc.); -Zikudza,
to exalt oneself, boast; -kudzwa, be
praised, enlarged.
kudzimara, conj., Ze.; until. See
-dzimara.
kuda, adv., Ka.; perhaps. See
-da and pamge.
kudini? interrog.; what? how?
See -dini.
-kudubura, vb. tr.; to uncover,
open; to take off flesh.
-kuhunwa, vb. int.; to stumble;
var. -kuhurjwa; syn. -zadzarika, Ze.;
-tsatsarika, Ka.; -pumhuna, Nd.;
-gumbura; der. -kuhunisa, -gumbu-
sa, cause to stumble; cikuhuniso (ca,
ea), stumbling block; -kuhudza,
knock.
kukati, adv.; to or from the
middle; kukati kica, among, be-
tween. Cp. pakati, mukati.
-kukudza, vb. tr.; Ka., to drag
fish; der. mukukudzi (wa, va), drag-
net fisherman; Ma., to call fowls.
-kukura, vb. tr.; Nd., to reap;
gather harvest; Ze., to rake; Ka.,
to take everything, collect; Ka., to
throw up rubbish (of a river); der.
-kukurwa, pass.
-kukuridza, vb. int..; to low (of
cattle); to crow (of cock).
-kukurudza, vb. tr.; to sweep


KUN-A-(-E-)
away everything; to wash away; to
clean grass.
-kukutu, adj.; hard; sound; well;
for proper adj. conc. see Tables I.c
and II.; cinhu cikukutu, a hard
thing; imbga hiukutu, a sound dog;
ivu gukutu, hard soil.
-kuma, vb. int.; to low (of cattle);
to crow (of cock). See -cema, -rira.
-kumanidza, vb. tr., Nd.; to mix
together; add together. See -ku-
mbanidza.
-kumba, vb. tr.; to gather to-
gether; to loot.
-kumbaira, vb. tr., Nd.; to em-
brace, take in arms. See -fulgata.
-kumbana (na), vb. tr.; to meet;
come together (of sexual intercourse);
der. -kumbanidza; -kumbanira na N.,
to share with N., to use a thing in
common witl N.
-kumbanidza, vb. tr.; to cause to
meet; to add together; to mix.
-kumbatidza, -kumbata. See -gu-
mbata.
-kumbidzana, vb. int.; to be on
friendly (borrowing) terms. See
-fambidzana, -indidzana.
-kumbira, vb. tr.; to ask for
(something); to request, beg; cp.
-bvunza, to ask a question; der.
-kumbirira, to pray for, to intercede;
-kumbidzana, to be on friendly
terms; kumbiro, kumbiriro (ya, dza),
a request, prayer, petition.
-kumina (cforo), vb. tr.; final mix-
ing in beer-making; syn. -dira. See
-doro (ra).
kumsoro, locative adv.; above, on
top; north.
kun-a-(-e-), prep. (or locative for-
mative) ; to; from; (in comparisons)
than; this form instead of ku- is used
with pron., proper names of persons,
and before nouns of (wa, va) class
which have no prefix or are names of
relationship, as Baba, mukoma. In
Ma. kuna becomes kune before the
following: Myana and all other
names of junior relatives and all
nouns of other than (wa, va) class.
Eix. oanorea kuna Sakarombe, they
speak to S.; kumbira kuna Gambo,
ask of your father; enda kunama-






-KUNDA
mbo, go to the chief; but enda ku-
mu6iki, go to the cook; enda kune-
haneadzi yako, go to your sister.
N.B.: For kune mvura, there is rain,
see ku- (1), the impersonal use.
-kunda, vb. tr.; to overcome, con-
quer. See -kurira.
kuno, dem. adj. agr. with nouns
of (ku) class, locative or infinitive,
always after its noun; this (here);
e.g., kudya kuno, this food (here);
kumusha kuno, to this village (here);
adv., here, at or to this place. Cp.
pano and muno.
kunumbu (ya, dza), n., for.; a
button; -kunumburira, to button.
kunyagge, conj., Ze.; though, al-
though. See nyaggwe, Ka.; kana,
Ma.; kunyati, Nd.
kunyasi, adv.; below, underneath;
south.
kunyati, conj., Nd.; though, al-
though. See kunyagge.
kunyi? kuyi? interrog. pron. stand-
ing for n. of (kwa) class; what?
kutamba kunyi? to dance, what is
it? what dance?
kunze, adv.; outside; e.g., ceygo
cokunze, the outer wall; kunze kwe-
mba, outside of the house; used to
render apart from,' excluding,' as
kunze kwaygu, apart from me, ex-
cluding me; var. kuzhe, Ka.
-kunga, -kwigga, vb. tr.; (1) to
cock (a gun); syn. -yanyura, Ze.;
cp. -tyesa, Ka., to half-cock; pau-
gari, Ze., Ma., at half-cock; to put
a string to a bow; der. rukuggiso
(rwa), trigger; cikuxJga, hammer (of
gun). (2) To stir (in pot), Ka.
kuige, see -ige; like, as if; e.g.,
kuyge shumba, like (or as if) a
lion.
-ku3gura, vb. tr.; Ze., to comfort;
Ka., to covet; to complain; -kuygu-
rira, Nd., to pity.
-kugjguruka, vb. int.; to roll down,
roll over; der. -kuggurutsa, -kuggu-
rusa (caus.), to roll (things) down;
syn. -mburumbuka, Ma., Nd.; -ko-
romoka, Ze.
-kupa, vb. tr.; to bale out; to clean
a sore; der. -kupira N., to throw
water over N.


-KUSA
-kupaira, vb. tr., Nd.; to paddle
(canoe).
kupenya (kwa), n.; light; bright-
ness; lightning; kupenya kwazuua
daylight.
kupi? kupi-ko? (1) interrog. adv.,
where? (2) Interrog. pron., agr.
with noun of (kwa) class; which?
-kupudza, kupura, vb. tr., Ze.; to
beckon, beckon to. See -ninira. Cp.
Ka., -kupura, to wipe off, skim off;
to return wife to her father.
-kura, vb. int.; (1) to grow; der.
-kurira, to surpass, conquer; -kurisa,
to make big, cause to grow, to grow
very much; -kudza, to make big,
exalt; -kurirana, to make a draw (in
contest); -kurirwa, to be overcome;
to be great with child, near time of
delivery.
kure, adv.; far, far away; kure
kure, very far away; kure kwemba,
far from the house.
-kurira, vb. tr.; to overcome, sur-
pass; syn. -kunda; -nyisa, Nd.;
-pinda.
-kuru, adj.; big; great; for proper
adj. cone. see Table I.c; and note
that for sing. and pl. n. of (ya, dza)
class -kuru becomes huru, and for
sing. n. of (ra, a) class it becomes
guru; e.g., cinhu cikuru, a big
thing; imba huru, big house or
houses; bayga guru, a large knife;
gikuru, adv., greatly, much.
kuru (ya, dza), n., Ze.; cartridge,
bullet, ball (of gun). -
-kurumbidza, vb. int., Ka.; to
make haste. See -kurumidza.
-kurumbira, vb. int., Ka.; to be
renowned, famous; syn. -ziviswa;
-zivikana; -kurumbirwa; -wirira,
Ma.; va nembiri, Ma.
-kurumidza, vb. int.; to make
haste, do quickly; Ka., to incite to
fighting. See -cimbidza; -kurumbi-
dza, Ka.; -kasira,Nd.; -fambisa.
-kurugga, vb. tr., Ko.; to mix,
stir. See -sagganisa.
-kuruggira, vb. tr.; to smooth off;
give smooth surface (in pot-making).
-kusa, -kusha, vb. tr.; to sow
(broadcast); Ma., to sow shallow.
See -dyara.






KUSERI
kuseri, adv.; at the back, behind,
round the corner. See seri.
-kusha, kusa, vb. tr.; to sow
(broadcast); der. mukushi (wa, va),
a sower; -kushanya. Cp. -dyara, to
sow by planting.
kugika, kugikira, conj. followed by
the vbl. forms with -ci- or -ka-;
until. See -gika, to arrive.
kuti, conj.; (1) that, in order that,
followed by vb. in dependent form;
e.g., kuti ndivone, that I may see;
in sentences like 'he said that the
boy was here,' wakarena kuti muko-
mana uri pano, the kuti introduces
a clause in direct speech, not in in-
direct speech as is done in English,
and the sentence becomes, he spoke
saying, The boy is here. (2) Kuti
also means if in Ma. and Nd., and
is used in Ma. with the participial
forms (-chi-), in Nd. with indicative,
e.g., if you wish; Ma., kuti ucida;
Nd., kuti unoda; but Ka., Ze., kana
ucida.
-kutunura, vb. tr.; to take off
(clothes), esp. of stripping off a thing
like a glove or vest; syn. -bvisa (or
-bisa) iJguvo.
-kutura, vb. tr.; to empty entire-
ly; to clear out (box, tin, etc.); to
turn upside down, upset; to capsize
(boat); pass. -kuturwa, to be thrown
out.
kuuzuru, adv.; upward, above;
north; kuuzuru kwegomo, up above
the hill.
-kuva, vb. tr.; (1) -kuva mvura,
to prevent rain. See rain. (2) To
gather together; der. -kuaira, to
gather up what was scattered.
-kuvadza, -kuadza, vb. tr.; to
hurt, injure; der. -kuvadziwa, to be
in hurt condition; -kuvadzwa, to be
injured; -Zikuvadza, to hurt oneself;
and see -kuvara, int., to be hurt,
meet with accident.
-kuvara, -kuwara, Ma., vb. int.;
to be hurt, meet with accident; der.
-kuvadza, tr., to hurt.
-kuwa, vb. int., Ma.; to call out
for help; syn. -ridza huwi; and see
-davidza.
-kuya, vb. tr.; to grind (meal) on


KWANZI
stone in native fashion; der. guyo
(ra, a), the lower grindstone; huyo
(ya, dza), the upper.
kuya, dem. pr. agr. with nouns of
(kwa) class, loc. or inf., always after
its noun; that (referred to, out of
sight); e.g., kudya kuya, that food
(we saw); kumusha kuya, to that
village (out of sight).
kuzhe, loc., Ka.; outside; the out-
side (of); see kunze; kuzhe kwemba,
outside of the house.
kuzoti, conj.; Ma., so that; Ze.,
when, as soon as, after.
kwa, (1) locative formative (or
preposition); at, to, or from the place
of N., used before actual names of
persons and with names of towns
that are also names of persons or
rivers; e.g., ndabva kwa Mutasa, I
came (today) from Mutasa's (vil-
lage); mja, at, in is used exactly as
kwa.
kwa-, kwe-, kwo-, (2) poss. conc.
for nouns of (kwa) class, whether loc.
or inf.; of.
kwa, (3) prefixed to an absolute
pron. (Table I.H) means a real
thoroughly good thing of its kind-
e.g., bayga kwaro, a real knife;
munhu kwaye, a genuine man; ci-
karayga kwacho, good chikarasga.
kwadi, adv., Ma.; gently, quietly;
often doubled, kwadi kwadi.
-kwadzana, vb. int.; to be intimate
friends; to agree together; to be re-
conciled (after quarrel); (mus.) to
harmonize; -kwadzanisa, tr., to re-
concile.
kwaedza, adv.; at dawn.
-kwana, vb. int.; to be enough,
adequate; to be fit; der. -kwanira,
be enough for, be fit for, to fit well;
-kwanisa intense.) to be able (Ma.);
(caus.) to make enough, to complete;
-kwanisira, to make (something)
enough for . .; -kwanisika, to be
finished; to be possible.
-kwanisa, vb. int., Ma.; to be able.
See -kwana and -gona.
kwanzi, irreg. pass. of -ti, to say,
etc.; kwanzi ndi N., it was said (to-
day) by N.; pres. tense, kunzi ndi
N., N. says. See kwazi.






-KWARA
-kwara, vb. int.; to scratch a hole
(as dog does).
-kwarabvura, vb. tr.; to scratch
hard (as a cat in fighting).
-kwasha, vb. tr.; to look for, seek,
hunt. See -taka.
-kwaqa, vb. tr.; to paddle (canoe).
-kwatama, vb. int.; to lie; -k.
nepasi, to lie on the ground; -k.
nenhumbu, to lie on the face.
-kwatura, vb. tr.; to strip hark
from tree; to scratch off skin or a
scab; see -uvura; der. -kwatuka,
int., to split off, peel off, come loose
from.
-kwayisa, -kwazisa, vb. tr.; to
greet, welcome; to say 'kwayiwa,'
Skwaziwa' to; var. -kwayidza.
kwayiwa, kwaziwa, interj.; Hail I
Good-day I the common greeting on
any occasion; pl. kwayiwayi, kwazi-
wayi, often used for respect.
-kwazisa, vb. tr.; to greet. See
-kwayisa.
-kwazi, irreg. pass. of -ti, to say,
etc.; it is said, it was said (today)-
e.g., kwazi ndi6a6a, father says
(said), lit. it is (was) said by father;
pres. kuzi, huzi, he says; and see
kwanzi; huzi ndi N., N. says.
kwaziwa kwaziwayi I good-day I
See kwayiwa I
kwago, adv., oft. doubled for em-
phasis; very much; truly; altogether.
kwefu (kwenyu, kwavo), loc. adv.;
at, in, to, or from our (your, their)
village; home (our, your, his, or
their). See -icu and kwa- (1).
-kwegura, vb. int.; to get old,
grow old.
-kwenya, vb. tr.; to scratch; syn.
-kweiga, -gwabvura, -para.
-kwenzera, vb. int., Ma.; to move
a little one way or the other; kwe-
nzera-no, come nearer; kwenzera-yo,
go farther away; der. -kwenzedza,
cause.
-kwegga, vb. tr.; to scrape (e.g.,
a pot); to scratch; syn. -kokora,
-kokota, -para; and cp. -kwenya, of
scratching what itches; and -kwena,
of striking a match.
-kwereta, vb. tr.; to borrow; der.
cikwerete (ca, ea), a loan; -pa ci-


-KWIRIMA
kwerete, to lend; -dya cikwerete, to
borrow; syn. -posa, -posha, -pombe-
ra, Nd.; -tora (or -dya) maigava (or
cikwerete).
-kwese kwese, adv. (kwose kwose);
everywhere. See -ose, -ese.
-kwesera, vb. tr., Ka.;tofile. See
-kwizha.
-kwesha, vb. tr.; Nd., to file; Ka.,
to scour, polish. See -kwizha.
kwete, adv.; no; syn. hai, la, tai,
hwi; (emph.) Bodo, taiba, haiva;
(enclitic) -Ba.
-kwetsa, vb. tr., Ma.; (of grass) to
clear away, hoe up; to scuffle the
ground. Cp. -sevura, Ka., to clear
ground for a garden.
-kwetsana, vb. int., Nd.; to gnash.
-kweva, vb. tr.; to drag, draw,
pull; lead (by a rope); der. -kwe-
vera, app.; syn. -kweya, Nd.; -pfu-
wa, Ma.; -kakata, Ka.; -zhuva,
Ze.
-kweya, vb. tr., Nd.; to drag,
pull; der. -kweyera. See -kweva.
-kwidza, vb. tr. (caus. of -kwira);
to raise, lift up higher; (mus.) set
higher pitch; der. -kwidzira; -kwi-
dzisa, to raise very much.
-kwidzegigara, vb., Ka.; to hand
over the chieftainship, to crown as
chief; to make chief; to bestow a
blessing (by laying on hands); to be
very tall (of a tree).
-kwidzika, vb. tr., Ze.; to load.
See -tuta.
-kwidzima, vb. int., Ze.; to be
bright, to shine.
-kwinyata, vb. tr.; to take hold
of, grasp. See -Bata.
-kwidiBira, vb. tr.; to cover with
lid; turn over (of pot); der. -kwici-
Bidza, cover; syn. -funira, -duhumi-
dza; -dumaidza, Nd.
-kwira, vb. int.; to ascend, climb
up; rise (as dough); (of animals) to
copulate; -kwira pabiza, to ride, ride
on, a horse; der. -kwidza, to raise;
-kwiridza, to lift, put higher; -kwi-
rira panamambo, to go up to the
chief with a case, to take out a sum-
mons.
-kwirima, vb. int., Ka.; to run.
See -tiza.






-KWISHURA
-kwishura, vb. tr.; to beat with a
stick. See -rova, -nera.
-kwiza, vb. tr., Ze., Ka.; to shell
mealies by rubbing cob on rock; Ze.,
to file. See -cokonyora.
-kwizha, vb. tr., Ma., Nd.; to file,
use grater; syn. -kwiza, Ze.; -kwe-
sera, Ka.; -kwesha, Nd.; der. ci-
kwizho (ca, ea), a grater.
kwose kwose, loc. adv. (kwese
kwese); everywhere; in every direc-
tion.







M
m., pron., as m in mat.
ma-. Words formerly entered under
ma-, other than plurals of (ra, a)
class, may be found here under mha,
if not under ma.
mabandi (a), n.; harness of straps,
etc.
mabva-zuva, Ma., Nd.; mabvira-
zuva, Ze., adv.; east; the sunrise.
Cp. Ka., uubva-zuva (bga).
mabviro (a), n.; source, origin;
see -bva. Cp. mauambo (a).
maBonore (a, sing. donore ra, rare),
n., Nd.; maize, mealies. See ci-
Barwe (ca).
maButu (a), i., Ma.; bran; husks.
See Butu (ra).
macacaca (a), n.; heavy rain.
See cacaca (ra).
macakwinya (a), n., Ka.; a bog
or boggy place. See matope (a).
macende (a, sing. jende ra), n.;
testicles; syn. Zirema (ga), nzonyo
(dza), matsukwe (a).
madyo (a), n. (der. from -dya, to
eat), Ka.; greediness, gluttony; -na-
madyo, greedy. For pronunciation
see under -dy-.
madza (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a doc-
tor's fee; see musharo (twa); Ka.,
-toriwa madza, to forfeit.
madzaggaradzimu (a), n.; a will-
o'-the-wisp; a ghost or ghostly light;
57


MAGONDO
var. dzimudzaggara, mudzimudza-
ggara, and the sing. dzaggaradzimu
(ra).
madzi-, a prefix gen. indicating a
collective plural. Many ma- plurals
also have a collective sense-e.g.,
misha, villages, but mamisha, the
villages of a district thought of col-
lectively.
madzibaba (a), madziBambo (a),
n.; forefathers, ancestors.
madzihwa (a), n.; nasal discharge.
See dzibga (ra, a).
madziro (a, pl. only), n.; a wall;
wall-poles in place. See cidziro (ca,
fa).
madziya (a, pl.), n.; heat; pama-
dziya, in the hot season. See -dziya.
madambi (a, pl.), n., K.; tricks,
pranks, whim; unemadambi, a man
of tricks (e.g., a conjurer); syn. ma-
tari (a), Ma.
madeko (a, pl.), n. or adv., Ka.;
evening; madekwano, this evening;
syn. mauro (a), manheru (a).
madembandikuteme (a), n.; the
three stars of Orion's Belt. See star.
madewere (a, pl.), n., dial.;
monkey-nut oil. See -mafuta.
madokero (a, pl.), n.; the west;
syn. mauirira (a), Ka.; kumadokero
eHarare, west of Salisbury.
maenza (a, pl.), n.; the rainy
season. See zhizha (ra).
mafemo (a, pl.), n.; breath; -ita
inafemo, to be out of breath; syn.
-nemahemahema, breathless.
mafl (a, pl.), n., Ma.; ill-will; a
grudge, malice.
mafukusiro (a, pl.), ., Ka.; lying-
place of fowl in sand. See-fukusira.
maturo (a, sing. furo ra), n.; pas-
ture, grazing ground; pl. only in
Ka., Ze.; sing. used in Ma., Nd.
mafuta (a, pl.), n.; fat (any kind);
(dried ox fat, uncooked) mhanda (ya);
(monkey-nut oil) madewere (a), N.
dial.; manduwi (a), dial.; adj. -na-
mafuta, fat.
magarire (a, pl.), n.; habit, cus-
tom. See mugariro (wa, ya).
magaro (a, pl.), n. (rare); buttocks.
See matako (a).
magondo (wa, pl. amnag. va), n.,






MAGUMO
Ma.; hyena; see Bere; in Ka., a
nickname for wolf.
magumo, magumiro (a, pl.), n.;
the end or edge of a thing. See
-guma.
maguta (a, pl.), n.; abundance;
kune maguta gore rino,- there's
plenty of food this year; maguta
eeiyo, plentiful crops.
maguva (a, pl.), n.; a graveyard,
cemetery (lit. graves).
magwirikwinya, Ma.; makwirikwi-
zha, Ka. (a, pl.), n.; mumps. Cp.
Ze., humuia (ra, a).
mahannya (a, pl.),n.,Ka.; amash
of fruit; -seka mahannya, to laugh
to scorn, laugh to excess.
mahara (a, sing. hara ra), n.;
sheath, case (for knife, sword, pen,
etc.); var. muhara (wa, ya), Ka.;
makara (a, pl.), Nd.
mahemahema (a, pl.); -va nama-
hemahema, be out of breath. See
-femereka.
maheu (a, pl.), n.; beer (sweet).
See doro (ra).
mai (wa, pl. am. va or vadzimai
va), n.; mother; mother's sister,
etc.; hon. of any elder woman; pl.
amai, gen. used hon. for sing.; mai
guru, mai mukuru, m.'s elder sister;
mai nini, mai muduku, m.'s younger
sister; maiwel maivayguwei! excla-
mations meaning oh, dear I oh I con-
veying surprise mixed with dis-
pleasure.
maiwe I See mai.
majada, adv.; on the back; -ita
majada, to lie on the back; syn. -ita
manhede.
majoti (a, pl.), n., Ma.; a chain;
handcuffs. See joti (ra), an iron
bracelet or ring.
makakurimie (a, pl.), n., Ka.; a
holiday, day of cessation from work.
See cisi (ca, ea).
makanda (a, sing. gandara, skin),
n.; Ka., the leaf wrappings spathess)
of mealie cob; idiom., pa makanda,
one's very own (used after a poss.
pron.); e.g., cavgu pamakanda, my
very own; Nd., the west.
makando (a, pl.), n., Ma.; a na-
tive basket, made of two parts, of


MAKUSE
which the upper fits over the lower
as a cover.
makanyi (a, pl.), n. or adv., Ma.;
next year; last year. See make;
var. makenyi.
makara (a, pl.), n., for.; coals;
live (i.e., burning) coals. Cp. ma-
ratya (a, pl.), and see mahara.
makaro (a, pl.), n.; greed, glut-
tony; -namakaro, adj., greedy, glut-
tonous.
makashu (a, pl.), n., Ka.; harness
(of riems). Cp. mabandi (a), for.
makave (a), n.; wire coiled round
end of spear or arrow shaft to bind
in the haft (musika, wa, ya; Ma.,
nyimbiri, ya, dza); syn. ukambo
(hwa), Ze.; nyezhe (dza), Ka.
make, makenyi (a, pl.), n. or
adv.; last year; next year; make
aya, year or years after next, year
or years before last; syn. makanyi,
last (next) year; in Ma., makodya,
last year, and make, next year.
makina (a, pl.), n.; dynamite; any
explosive.
makodya (a, pl.), n., Ma.; last
year; syn. make, gore rakapinda,
etc.
makoko (a, pl.), n.; scrapings of
food (from pots, etc.). See -kokora.
makor go (a, pl.), n.; pudenda
muliebria.
makorokotol interj.; congratula-
tions I well done I good luck I bravo I
-itira N. makorokoto, to congratulate
N.
makorosibande (a), n.; braces;
syn. makurubande (a).
makoto (a, pl.), n.; (1) Ma., Nd.,
chaff or bran (of grain threshed or
winnowed); see hundi (ya, dza); (2)
Ze., shell of nut or bean.
makukurudzi (a, pl.), n., Ka.;
driftwood; anything carried down by
floods, wreckage; syn. makutse (a),
Ma.
makure (ya, dza), n.; a snake (of
cobra kind). See snake.
makurubande (a, pl.), n.; braces;
syn. makorosibande.
makuse (a, sing. guse ra), n., Ka.;
fur, wool. Cp. gushe (ra, mak. a);
and see uudzi.






MAKUSHE
makushe (a, sing. gushe ra), n.;
hair, long coarse hair, bristles. See
gushe (ra, a) and makuse (a).
makutsi (a, pl.), n., Ma.; wreck-
age; stuff (wood, etc.) carried down
and washed up by floods; syn. maku-
kurudzi (a), Ka.
makuwa (a, sing. guwa ra), n.;
scandal, ill-report; -ita makuwa, to
slander. See gumba (ra, a).
-mama, vb. int.; to defecate.
-mamata, vb. int.; to stammer;
syn. -kakamira.
mambakwedza (a, pl.), n.; day-
break, early dawn; cp. maggwana-
ggwana; syn. marirakwedza (a), Ze.;
cedza (ca); utogga (hwa), Ze.;
tsuka-'utogga (ya, dza), Ka.; adv.
fumo, kwedza, at dawn.
mambo (wa, pl. vam. va), n.; chief
(paramount); used honorifically of
various people; syn., in Ka. she (wa,
oa) is used for a paramount chief;
elsewhere ishe (she), chief of village
or its district; samusha (wa, wasam.
oa), headman of village; muridzi
wemusha (wa, va), headman, Ko.;
and note gota (ra, a), Ka., Ze., and
gotsi (ra, a), Ma., councillors of
paramount chief; mukuru (wa, va),
any important person, head of family.
mambune (a, pl.), n.; in phrase,
namambune, on purpose; cp. Ka.,
namanune, on purpose; -ita mavune,
to do purposely.
mamburi (a, pl.), n.; a strong net
(for catching game); a string figure
in 'cat's cradle'; see rutava (rwa,
nhava dza); -konba mamburi, to set
a trap (net).
mami (mhami), adj. agr. with
sing. and pl. n. of (ya, dza) class;
wide. See -pami.
mamina (a, pl.), n., Nd.; magic.
See pipi (ra, a).
mamvere (a, pl.), n.; hair (of body
or of animals). See vudzi (ra, a).
mamvete; -ita mamvete (or ma-
mvetete), to make a whistle with
leaves between fingers.
-mana, vb. tr.; to hold between
two (as in a vice or cleft stick); der.
-manidza, -manikira, to squeeze;
-manikidza, to compel, force; -ma-


-MANYA
nika, -manikana, be narrow, tight;
cimano (ca, ea), tongs; mano (dza),
a smith's vice; rumano (rwa), pin-
cers; -manikidzana, to crowd, press
together. See -gina.
manda, mhanda (ya, no. pl.), n.;
dried ox fat; uncooked fat; Ka.,
tallow. See mafuta (a, pl.).
mandondo (a, pl.), n., Ma.; a bog,
boggy place. See matope (a), and
cp. -ndondomera, to get bogged.
manduwi (a, pl.), n.; monkey-nut
oil. See mafuta (a).
manenjil interj.; that's very
strange I well I never! See nenji
(ra, a).
manhanda (a, pl.), n., Ma.;
wrinkles (on face); m. emvura,
waves; and see fuggo (ra, a); syn.
nhama (ya, dza), Ka.; and see -fu-
nyana, -wunyana.
manhede, adv.; on the back; in
phr. -ita manhede, to lie on the back.
manheru (a, pl.), n. or adv., Ma.;
evening. See madeko (a), Ka.;
mauro (a), Ze.
manhoko (a, pl.), n.; dung (of
goats or antelopes). See matu i (a).
-manidza, -manikira, vb. tr.; to
squeeze; -manidzira myana, to bear
a still-born child. See -aina and
-mana.
-manikidza, vb. tr.; to squeeze,
compel; see -mana; der. -maniki-
dzana, to crowd together; ndamaei-
kidzwa kwenda, I must go; lit. I
am compelled to go.
manja (a, pl.), n.; palms (of
hands); -ita manila, to clap.
mano (dza, sing. rumano rwa), n.;
a vice (tool); tongs, pincers. See
-mana.
mano (a, sing. zano ra), n., var.
mazano (a); plans; cleverness;
e.g., anemano (anemazano), he is
clever.
mano (a, pl.), (gen. doubled mano-
mano for emph.); lies; patter' in a
song; -ita manomano, to pretend.
See manyepo (a).
manombge (a, pl.), Ka.; beestings,
i.e., cow's first milk after calving.
See munamba (wa, ya).
-manya, vb. int.; to run; der.






MANYADZI
-manyisa, to gallop, to run fast. See
-tiza.
manyadzi, manyadzo (a, pl.);
shame; shyness; shamefacedness;
var. nyadzi (ya, dza); syn. nyowa
(ya, dza), Nd.; and the verbs -nyara,
-goda, and -tseruka.
manyambiri (a, pl.), n., Ma., Nd.;
twins; see maviri (a), Ka.; ma-
ambi (a), Ze.; and note, ndo wepa-
maviri, he is one of twins.
manyepo (a, pl.), n.; lies, lying
talk; syn. manomano (a).
manyoka (a, pl.), n., Ma.; gripes;
any stomach ache; syn. nyoka (ya,
dza), used in same sense in Ka. See
nyoka.
manyoggo (a, pl.), n.; flatulence;
gripes of small infants; parts of the
small intestines.
maga (a, sing. iya ra, rare), n.;
cracks (in hands or feet); chaps.
-magga, vb. tr.; to tie, bind;
arrest; -maggwa, pass., to be caught
in a cleft or narrow place; unapo
panopinda gonzo, muswe ucimaygwa,
you are keeping something back or
telling lies (lit. you have a place
where a rat goes through but its tail
sticks fast).
-maggara, vb. tr.; to accuse, lay a
charge against, esp. to give informa-
tion, tell tales against; der. -magjga-
rira, app.
maggara (ya, dza), n.; kind of
snake. See snake.
maggava (a, sing. vgava ra or
muygava wa), n.; a loan; a debt;
-tora (or -dya) maygava; to borrow;
-va namaygava, to owe, be in debt.
See xgava.
maggove (ya, dza); var. cima-
jgove (ca, ga); a cat; syn. nema-
igwe (ya, dza), nemagga (wa, va);
(wild) Bogga (ra, a), niriri (ya, dza);
mpaka (ya, dza), Swa.; rende (ra,
a), Ma.; kitsi (wa, va).
maggura (ya, no pl.), n. See
mhaggura.
ma3gwana, adv., var. maggwani
(Nd.); tomorrow; syn. Ze and Ko.,
hwedza; and note Ze., hwedza ma-
ygwana, tomorrow morning; hw.
mauro, tomorrow evening; maygwana


MARARA
(udya? aya?) Ka., day after tomor-
row.
maigwanani, maggwanana, adv.;
in the morning. See maijgwana-
igwana; and note maiygwanani ano,
this morning.
maigwanaggwana, adv.; in early
morning. Cp. kwaedza, mambakwe-
dza, both of which indicate the
earliest dawn; and maggwanani,
maggwanana, used of any morning
time.
maggwani, Nd., adv.; tomorrow.
See maigwana.
map-. N.B.: Many words in map-
are pl. of a sing. n. in p- or B-, and
may be found under one of those
letters.
mapa (a, pl.), n., Ka.; grave of
chief. Cp. iba (ra, a), Nd., grave;
and see guva (ra, a) (1).
mapa (ya, dza), n., Ze.; a skin
apron; perh. mhapa.
mapapa (a, pl.), n., Nd.; bran (of
grain stamped or milled). See guua
(ra, a) (2).
mapapu (a, sing. bapu ra), n.;
lungs; syn. mazazu (a), Ma., Nd.
mapere (a, pl.), n.; leprosy; una-
mapere, leper; syn. Ka., mapere-
mbudzi (a, pl.).
mapflwa (a, sing. pfiwa ra), n.;
hearth-stones, i.e., the three stones
used to support pot on open fire. See
pfuwa (ra, a).
mapfunde (a, pl.), n.; Kaffir-corn.
mapiyo (a, pl.), n.; poles put
across gate or door as bars.
maputi (a, pl.), n.; pop-corn; Nd.,
maButiputi (a).
maradzano, mharadzano (dza, pl.),
n., Ka.; cross-roads; adjournment;
der. fr. -paradzana; cp. mhararano
(dza).
maranzi (a, pl.), var. miaranzi
(wa, ya), n., Ma.; rays of sun. See
bgirazuva (bga).
maraigga (a, pl.), n.; matter from
the eyes; syn. ubonyo (hwa), Ma.
marara (a, pl.), n.; rubbish; dirt;
pamarara, rubbish-heap; syn. Nd.,
furu (ra, a); Ka., Ma., Ze., duru-
nuru (ra, a); Ze., zambadota (ra, a),
zararota (ra, a), zarezare (ra, a),






MARARANO
cizarezare (ca, a); nunduthwe (ya,
dza), Ma.
mararano (dza), n. See mhara-
rano (dza).
maratya (a, pl.), n.; charcoal,
coal. See makara (a), masimbe (a),
mazimbe (a).
marevo, -ita marevo, vb.; to use
bad language.
maria (a, pl. or ya, sing.), n.;
money; maria aygu or yaygu, my
money; mari maygani or marinyi?
how much money? maria macena,
silver.
marimba (a, pl.), n.; a native
piano of strips of hard wood laid
across supports or on a calabash
sounding-board.
marimiezuro, adv., Ze.; the day
before yesterday.
marirakwedza (a, pl.), n.; dawn;
break of day. See mambakwedza
(a).
maropa (a, sing. ropa ra), n.;
blood; in some parts the pl. is used
generally of menstrual discharge and
the sing. only of blood.
marovu (a, pl.), n.; the soft cen-
tral part (seeds, etc.) of a pumpkin.
marutsi (a, pl.), n.; vomit, what
is vomited. See -rutsa.
marwadzi (a, pl.), n.; diseases;
sicknesses; der. fr. -rwara.
masambo (a, pl.), n., Ma.; men-
strual discharge; see mashambo (a);
-ita in., to menstruate.
masaramuso (a, pl.), n., Nd.;
magic. See pipi (ra, a).
masase (ya), n., also nyamasase
(wa); the morning star. See star.
masese (a, pl.), n.; sediment (of
beer); dregs (after straining).
mashambo (a, pl.), n.; menstrua-
tion, menstrual discharge. See
-shamba and -tema rushagga; and
cp. -masambo (a).
mashawi, masawi (a, pl.), n., Ka.,
Ze.; a weed like rukweza (millet);
tares (in N.T.). See sawi (ra, a).
mashoiga, masogga (a, pl.), n.;
meeting-place of rivers or roads; -ita
mashoyga, meet (or do something)
exactly at the right time. See ma-
sogga (a), Ma.; and cp. mawiro (a).


MATINJE
mashu (ya, dza), n., Ka.; locusts
(gen. name). See wiza (ya, dza).
mashura (a, pl.), n.; miracles;
omens; wonders. See -sura mare, vb.
masikati, gen. adverbially, some-
times sing. form sikati; daytime as
opp. to night-time; usiku nesikati,
day and night; Ka., noon; masikati-
ygwana, about 11 a.m.
masimbe (a, pl.), n.; charcoal.
See matsito (a).
masogxga (a, pl.), n., Ma.; meet-
ing-place (of rivers or roads). See
mashogga (a, pl.), Ka.; and mawiro
(a).
masunda, -inda (-famba) namasu-
nda; to go backwards.
masunugguro (a, pl.), n.; an out-
span; a halting-place.
measure, adv.; afterwards; behind.
See sure.
masusu (a, pl.), n.; mixture of
yeast and water in beer-making, =
magutu or pise. See under doro
(ra).
marina (a, pl.), n.; dirt; filth.
See gina (ya).
masutu (a, pl.), n.; mixture of
yeast and water in beer-making. See
under doro (ra).
matadza (a, pl.), n.; the gums;
palate.
mataga (a, pl.), n.; temporary
huts for watchers in gardens.
matako (a. sing. dako ra), n.;
buttocks; syn. magaro, matama.
matanhidzo (a, pl.), n., Nd.; a
ladder; stairs. See uukwiriso (bga),
matanho (a).
matanho (a, sing. danho ra), n.;
a bridge (esp. of trees); a ladder,
stairs. See fanho (ra, a).
matari (a, pl.), n., Ma.; tricks;
pranks; whims; unematari, a man
of tricks (e.g., a conjurer); syn.
madambi (a), Ka.
mate (a, pl.), n.; spittle.
matekenya (a, sing. tekenya ra),
n.; jiggers; the sing. is rare.
matimba (a, pl.), n., Ma., Nd.;
beer (sweet, two days old). See
under doro (ra).
matinje (a, pl.), n.; pudenda muli-
ebria. See Bece.






MATOPE
matope (a, sing. rare, dope ra), n.;
mud; a bog or boggy place; syn.
macakwinya (a), Ka.; deketa (ra,
a), Ka.; mandondo (a), Ma.; (by
river side) gokoro (ra, a), Ze.
matoto (a, pl.), n.; droppings (of
fowls). See matuti (a).
matsi (ya, dza), n.; a deaf person;
Ze., a kind of rat; Ma., mumatsi
(wa, va); der. umatsi (hwa), vu-
matsi (bga), deafness.
matsigo (a, pi.), n., Ma.; a hem;
syn. mupendero (wa, dza).
matsito (a, pl.), n., Ze.; charcoal;
the hard soot on a cooking pot. See
also masimbe (a).
matsive (a, pl.), n.; revenge;
-itira m. kcna N., to take vengeance
on N.
matsukwe (a, pl.), n.; testicles.
See macende (a).
matsutso (a, pl.), n.; pa m., in
the autumn =pakutsutsa.
matumbo (a, pl.), n., Ma.; the
bowels; syn. ura (hwa).
matuti (a, pl.), n.; dung (of man);
and note (of cattle) ndove (ya, dza);
disa (ra, a), Nd.; (of fowls) matoto
(a); (of goats) noko (ya, dza); (of
goat or antelope) manhoko (a),
Nd.
maurgira (a, sing. upgira ra), n.;
echo; syn. mukoho (wa, ya), Ma.,
Nd.
mauro (a, pl.), n. or adv., Ze.;
evening. 'See madeko (a), manheru
(a).
mavambi (a, pl.), n., Ze.; twins.
See mauiri (a).
mavambo (a, pl.), n.; source,
origin; beginning.
maviri (a, pl.), n.; twins; ndo
wepamaiiri, he is one of twins; syn.
mavambi (a, pl.), Ze.; manyambiri
(a, pl.), Ma., Nd.
mavirira (a, pl.), n., Ka.; the
west; der. from -vira, to set (of sun).
Cp. madokero (a), and makanda (a)
Nd.
mavivi (a, pi.), n.; garden rub-
bish for bonfire.
mauune (a, pl.), n., Ka.; -ita
mavune, to do on purpose. Cp.
mambune (a), Ma.


MBADA
ma'usa (a, pl.), n., Ka.; (rat's)
nest; syn. duswa (ra, a), Ze.
mawere (a, pl.), n.; a steep slope;
precipice; adj. -nemawere, steep.
mawiro (a, pl.), n.; confluence of
rivers, i.e., where the one 'falls'
into the other. Cp. mashoiga (a).
mayi (wa, va), n.; mother. See mai.
mazaya (a, pl.), n.; hoar-frost, ice;
-ita mazaya, to freeze; syn. cero (ca),
Ma.; and see cando (ca).
mazazu (a, sing. zazu ra), n., Ma.,
Nd.; lungs. See Bapu (ra, a).
-mazha, -mazhura, vb. tr.; to
grind coarsely.
mazhuruzhuru (a, pl.), n., Ka.;
bridge of nose.
mazimbe (a, pl.), n.; live coals.
Cp. masimbe (a), charcoal.
mazonde, -dya maz.; vb.; to con-
fiscate; retain unjustly goods pledged
or left in trust or given as part of a
bargain cancelled; e.g., wakandidya
mazonde, she ate' my gifts and is
now marrying another without re-
turning anything.
mazuruzuru, -na nenmaz. Ma.; to
have a presentiment of evil to come
(as of a schoolboy who knows that a
beating is due).
mazuua ano, adv.; these days,
now; also mazuva 'ya, now, for
mazuua aya, see Table I.G (1). Ka.
mazuva awa, these days.
mazuva aya (with the aya dis-
tinct and on rising tone), adv.; those
days, formerly. See Table I.G.4.
magiita thank you; lit. you have
done them I If the thanks are for
something done before today, the
proper tense is used, makadiita !
-mba, aux. vb.; signifies an action
that took place, or will take place,
immediately; followed always by
perf. tense (dependent) thus: Wamba
awira pasi, he fell down at once (to-
day); wakamba awira pasi, he fell
down at once; umba wainda, go at
once, or, you must go at once; timba
tayenda, we must go.
mbabvu (dza, sing. rumbabvu
rwa), n.; ribs.
mbada (ya, dza), n.; leopard.
See iggwe (ya, dza).







MBAMBAIRA
mbambaira (ya, dza), n.; potato;
sweet potato; syn. Bura (ra, a);
dima (ra, a).
mbambo (ya, dza), n.; a nail; a
wooden peg. See hoko (ya, dza),
cipikiri (ca, Za).
-mbandidzira, -mbandidzirana, vbs.
See -mbandika; and -tgikinyira, Ma.,
to jam.
-mbandika, vb. tr. and int., Ka.;
to pinch, bruise; to jam, be tight;
der. -mbandidzira, to pinch; -mba-
ndidzirana, to crowd together.
mbanje (ya, dza), n.; wild hemp,
dagha.
mbare (ya, dza), n.; blisters
caused by sitting too near a fire.
mbariro (dza, sing. rumbariro
rwa), n.; cross-piece of timber or
pole; the laths binding other poles
together; the wall-plate.
mbata-munwe (ya, dza), n., Ze.;
a ring (for finger). See mhete (ya,
dza).
mbato (ya, dza), n.; pincers,
tongs; forceps; cp. mano; der. from
-bata.
mbava (ya, dza), n.; a thief. Op.
gororo (ra, a), robber, highwayman.
mbavarira (ya, dza), n.; a war
song; Ze., perseverance.
mbayo (ya, dza), n., Ka.; evil-
speaking, quarrelsomeness; Ma.,
greediness.
mbembe, onomatopoetic radical; -ti
mbe mbe, vb.; to be white, to be
shining.
mbeggo (ya, dza), n.; (1) a scraper
for removing perspiration; (2) hate
(from -uegga).
mbereko (ya, dza), n.; skin or
cloth for carrying babe on back.
mberi, adv.; beyond, in front, on
ahead; pamberi, in front; pamberi-
pa (pe, po), in front of; and see
sure.
mbesa (dza), n.; crops (of corn,
etc.).
mbeu (ya, dza), n.; seed; and cp.
(large seed or stone of fruit) tso-
lJgoro (ya, dza); (pip-like seed of
pumpkin, etc.) mhunzi (ya, dza),
mhodzi (ya, dza), nhikiti (ya, dza);
(grass seeds) tsine (ya, dza), Ka.
63


MBITI
sine (ya, dza); (canna seeds, used
in rattles) hota (ya, dza).
mbeva (ya, dza), n.; field-mouse.
See gonzo (ra, a).
mbeveve (ya, dza), n.; a dumb
person, a stammerer; Nd., a stam-
mer, impediment in speech; syn.
cimumumu (ca, ga), Ma.; mubibiBi
(wa, va), Ze.; cimbuigumbuggu (ca,
ea), Nd.
mbezo (ya, dza), n.; adze; der.
from -veza; syn. semo or tseno (ra,
a), Ze.; cisorokadzi (ca, ga), Nd.
(? handle of adze).
mbga (ya, dza), n., Ka.; dog. See
imbga (ya, dza).
-mbgera, vb. int.; to fall; to drop.
mbgizu (ya, dza), n., Ze.; bran (of
grain, etc., pounded or milled); see
guva (ra, a) (2).
mbia (ya, dza), n.; an earthen-
ware pot. See hari (ya, dza).
mbidzerere (ya, dza), mbizerere
(ya, dza), Ka.; a swing, a see-saw;
-ita mb., to swing.
mbira (ya, dza), n.; (1) a native
'piano,' of tongues of metal with a
gourd sound-box. Cp. njari, which
contains its own sound-box and has
no gourd. (2) a rock rabbit, coney.
mbiri, numi. adj. agr. with nouns
of (ya, dza) class; two; e.g., yombe
mbiri, two head of cattle.
mbiri (ya, no pl.), n.; fame, repu-
tation; glory.
mbirimi (ya, dza), n.; Ka., a dili-
gent person; Ze., a shrewd person;
Ma., a conceited person.
mbiru (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a pillar,
support for a roof. See mutomba
(wa, ya), Ma.; mutsigo (wa, ya),Ze.
-mbishi, adj.; raw, unripe, un-
cooked; for proper adj. cone. see
Tables I.c and II.; and note that the
adj. becomes mbishi for sing. and
pl. n. of (ya, dza) class, and also for
sing. n. of (ra, a) class; e.g., cinhu
cimbishi, an unripe thing; nyama
mbishi, raw meat; dura mbishi, un-
cooked sweet potato.
mbiti (ya, dza), n., Ze.; an otter;
syn. denhe (ra, a), Ka., Ma.; nzidzi
(ya, dza), Ka.; mbinza (ya, dza),
Ma.






MBIZI
mbizi (ya, dza), n.; zebra; syn.
cuba (ra, a), Nd.; duve, Ze.; and
note mbizi yeutare, bicycle.
-mbo-, verbal formative. Study
examples following: Ndamboenda
kumunda, I first went to the garden;
ndicamboenda kumunda, I will just
go first to the garden (and by impli-
cation, I will then . .); handisaka-
mbonona nzou, I have never seen an
elephant; wambovuya, he has al-
ready come (and gone again); imbga
yamboruma here! has the dog bitten
before (of today)? imbga yakambo-
ruma here? has the dog ever before
bitten? ndigombodya here? shall I
first be able to eat? cimbomira, just
wait a bit; ndambonyoreyi? what
did I write meanwhile? handina ku-
mbomuvona, I have never seen him,
I have not seen him before.
mboco (ya, dza), n., Ma.; he-goat.
See gotora (ya, dza).
mboni (ya, dza), n.; the pupil ol'
the eye.
mboigga (ya, dza), n.; (1) Ze.,
bone. See pfupa (ra, a). (2) In the
Matoppos there are mboiga (ya, dza),
praise-givers, who are daughters of
chiefs brought there as vakadzi na
Myari (wives of Myari). They live
in the mountains, and as lately as
Nov., 1929, people from Ci6i and
elsewhere took girls there as is their
custom when the rains are late.
They live on the gifts offered there
to Myari; if a chief's cow bears a
black calf it is to be given to MVari;
if he has no black calves he must
exchange for someone else's black
ones and make his offering.
mboggoro (ya, dza), n.; donkey;
syn. Bemhe (ra, a), Ma.; and mu-
bemhe (wa, ya), Ze.
mborera (ya, dza), Ma.; the sting
of the bee. See horera (ya, dza);
rumborera (rwa, a), Ka.; ushugga
(hwa), usori (hwa), ucdunda (hwa),
Ze., and ruwora (rwa), Ma.
mboro (ya, dza), n.; penis.
-mbovova, vb. int., Ma.; to go
down (as floods, tyres, etc.); syn.
-dzova, Ka.; -pxa.
mbowo (ya, dza), n., Ma.; a wit-


MBUZAMBUZA
ness; umbowo (hwa), evidence; syn.
capupu (ca, za), mupupuri (wa,
va).
mbudzi (ya, dza), n.; goat (gen.).
See gotora for he-goat, nhunzi for
she-goat; der. mbudzana (ya, dza),
kid.
mbudu (ya, dza), n.; (1) a small
bag, pocket. See home (ya, dza).
(2) Ma., a mosquito.
-mbunda (1), vb. int.; to be
beaten; to give up; to fail; e.g.,
ndambunda kuciita, I can't do it.
See -tadza.
-mbunda (2), vb. tr.; to embrace;
see -fuggata; der. -mbundira, -mbu-
ndikira, embrace; -mbundirana na-,
to shake hands with.
-mbundikira, vb. tr.; to embrace.
See -mbunda (2).
mbundurira (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a
blood-blister. See mhoni (ya, dza).
mbune, invariable; self; own;
added to names standing for persons
or living things or to their pronouns,
for emphasis; e.g., mambo mbune
or mambo iye mbune, the king him-
self; ini mbune ndakamuvona, I my-
self saw him; ude cake iye mbune,
it is his own; and note namambune,
purposely.
mbuxgo (ya, dza), n.; a soft ball.
See bora (ra, a).
mbuo (ya, dza), n., Ze.; the blind
fly; syn. vuuu (ra, a), Ka.
-mburumbuka, vb. int.; to roll
down, roll over; der. -mburumbutsa,
-mburumbudza, to cause to roll. See
-kuiguruka.
-mbururuka, vb. int., Ma.; to fly.
See -bururuka.
mburwa (ya, dza), n.; a pimple;
pustule; syn. bundu (ra, a).
mbuva (ya, dza), n.; food prepared
for carrying on journey.
mbuya (wa, pl. ambuya va, Ze.
vambuya va), n.; (1) grandmother;
(2) mother-in-law; and hence (3) a
midwife. See App. on Relationships.
mbuyambuya (ra, a), n., Ka.; the
mantis; syn. Ze., ambuya muderere
(wa, va); Ma., ciremba (ca, ea),
nyamuputsahari (wa, va).
mbuzambuza (ya, dza), n.; a kind







MBUZI
of hornet or wasp. See igo (ra,
a).
mbudi (ya, dza), n.; a water-
snake. See snake.
-medza; Ka., -midza, vb. tr.; to
swallow.
-medura, vb. tr.; to break (with
the hand); see -putsa; -medura na-
pakati, to break in half; -meduka,
be broken off, chipped off; mhedu
(ya, dza), a chip, a broken-off piece.
-mene, indef. pron. of emph.; the
very, -self; e.g., cinhu cimene, the
very thing, the thing itself. Note:
Ka., ndi- (or ndo-)mene, myself; ti-
(or to-) mene, ourselves; umene, thy-
self; mumene, yourselves; amene,
himself; vamene, themselves; and
cp. Ze., ini mene, isu mene, ivo mene,
etc., for same meaning; and see
mbune.
meno (a, pi.), n., irreg. pl. of zino
(ra); teeth; Ka., lock of a gun.
-menya, vb. tr.; to peel; to shell
by hand (e.g., mealies).
menyu, adj.; alive. See mhenyu.
-mera, vb. int.; to come up, grow
(of seeds, plants); -mera meno, to
teethe; -merera, be grown over, to
grow up again; -mesa, -medza, or
-meresa, to cause to grow.
mereti (ya, dza), n.; a needle.
See nariti (ya, dza).
mesa (ya, dza), n.; knife (from
Du. mes). Cp. Ze., mesi (ya, dza);
and see Bagga (ra, a).
meso (a, sing. ziso ra), n.; lit.
eyes; hence the face. Cp. maziso
(a), regular pl. of ziso (ra).
meswa, -ita m., vb.; to miss one
another (by going different ways);
syn. -pesana. Perhaps meswa should
be mheswa, from root -pesa of vb.
megi (ya, dza), n., Ze.; the tsetse
fly; syn. cinono (ca, ea), Ka.
meterwa (ya, dza), n.; shrill
whistling sound through teeth (with
or without the help of one or two
fingers), esp. used by herd-boys
driving cattle; -ridza m., to whistle
thus. Cp. cikokowiro, Nd.; and
cikohwiro (ca, ga), a hollow whistle
made with the aid of partly closed
palms.


-MHARA
metsa, conj., Nd.; until, till; e.g.,
metsa avuye, till he come; metsa
nyamashi, till today.
-mevuka, vb. int., Ka.; to stagger;
totter; go from side to side. See
-dzeggedzera, Ze.
mhaka (ya, dza), n.; fault; case;
affair, matter of complaint or accu-
sation; syn. mhoga; -pa mhaka, to
blame, accuse; handina mhaka, Iam
not to blame; handi mhaka yandi,
it's not my fault.
mhako (ya, dza), n.; a hollow or
cleft where bees hive.
mhamba (ya, no pl.), n., Ma.;
beer (strong); see doro (ra); -Satwa
ygemhamba, to get drunk.
mhambo (ya, dza), n.; a young
hen; a pullet; syn. tseketsi (ya,
dza) or hadzi (or nunzi) ye huku (ya,
dza).
mhanda (ya, dza), n.; a fork (in
branch, between fingers, etc.); the
space between horns of animals; -ita
mhanda, to differ, disagree (in argu-
ment); unemhanda, you've gone off
on the wrong track; -itirana mh.,
dispute.
mhandara (ya, dza), n.; a girl
(marriageable); syn. musikana (wa,
va).
mhande (ya, dza), n.; Ka., black
grains of millet; Ze., Ma., crushed
grain mealiee or other); Ze., mhande
yejira, strip of cloth.
mhando (ya, dza), n.; a kind,
sort, species; a tribe. See rudzi
(rwa, dza); mutovo, musaku (wa, ya).
mhandu (ya, dza), n.; Ka., one
who is fearless in war; Ma., enemy.
See muveggi (wa, va).
mhanza (ya, dza), n.; baldness;
bald spot, bald forehead; see human
(ya, dza); var. mhazha (ya, dza),
Ka.
mhagga (ya, dza), n.; mild beer,
a stage in beer-making. See doro
(ra).
mhaggo (ya, dza), n.; a hole (in
tree or tooth); a natural hive (in such
a tree hollow); -nembaygo, hollow.
mhaggura (ya, dza), n.; iron ore.
-mhara, vb. int.; to perch, roost;
to alight (as a bird).







MHARA
mhara (ya, dza), n.; a perch;
roosting-place for fowls.
mharadzano (dza), n., Ka.; cross-
roads; adjournment; syn. mhararano
(dza).
mhararano (dza), n.; cross-roads;
place where roads meet; syn. mhara-
dzano (dza), Ka.
mharuparu (ya, dza), n., Ze.; a
main rafter in roof; syn. nhuggo (ya,
dza), Ka., Ma.
mhata (ya, dza), n.; the anus.
mhatsa (ya, dza), n., Ma.; differ-
ence; e.g., hapana mhatsa, there's
no difference. See -patsana.
mhatso (ya, dza), n., Nd.; house.
See imba (ya, dza).
mhazha (ya, dza), n., Ka.; bald-
ness; bald forehead, bald spot. See
mhanza (ya, dza).
mhece (dza), n.; pudenda muli-
ebria. See Bece (ra, a).
mhedu (ya, dza), n.; a piece or
part (broken off). See cimhedu (ca,
ea).
mhembge (ya, dza), n.; a duiker;
a buck.
mhendero (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a
border, hem. See -pendera and mu-
pendero (wa, ya).
mheni (ya, dza), n.; lightning;
syn. rupaggo (rwa), kupenya (kwa);
rupaygo rwemheni, a flash of light-
ning.
mhenyu, adj. agr. with sing. and
pl. nouns of (ya, dza) class; alive.
See -penyu.
mhepo (ya, dza), n.; wind; a
breeze, air; syn. dutu (ra), a gale;
mgeya (wa, ya), of a light breeze;
mututu (wa, ya), Nd.
mhera nekare, adv., Nd.; ever,
always.
here (ya, dza), n.; an alarm;
-ridza mnhere, to cry heree' to raise
the alarm, cry for help.
mherepere (ya, dza). I., Ma.; the
swallow. See nyeiganyegga (ya,
dza).
mhegi (ya, dza), n., Ze.; knife
(from Du., mes). See Bagga (ra, a).
mhete (ya, dza), n.; a ring (for
finger); syn. cimhete (ca, ga), Ka.;
mbata-munwe (ya, dza), Ze.; cp.


MHODZI
(ear-ring) cindore (ca, ga), Ka.;
ndandazi (ya, dza), Nd.
mhezi (ya, dza), n.; the itch; a
skin disease; var. mhizi (ya, dza),
Ka.
mhiko (ya, dza), n.; an oath;
Ka., hire (esp. for war). Cp. cipiko
(ca, ea) from the same root -pika,
which see.
mhikuro (ya, dza), n.; a lever;
prop or stay. See -pikura.
mhimbiri (ya, dza), n., Ka.; spoil
in war, loot. See mimbiri (ya, dza).
mhindirira (ya, dza), n., K.; back
door, door of escape (allows of pass-
ing through, -pindirira) ; from -pinda;
-ita mhindirira, to go past.
mhindiso (ya, dza), n.; doorway;
from -pinda. See musuvo (wa, ya).
mhindo (ya, sing.), n.; of the
moon's waning phase of nine days;
or of the three days in which no moon
is seen; prob. from -pinda. See
njedzana (ya, dza).
mhinduro (ya, dza), n.; an answer;
from -pindura.
mhinna (ya, dza), n.; the wooden
head used by boys on arrows for
killing small birds. See arrow.
mhino (dza, pi.), n., Ka.; nose;
in Ka. the sing. mhuno is nostril,
the pl. mhino, the nose.
mhinzo (ya, dza), n.; sharpness;
edge (of spear); der. from -pinza, to
be sharp.
mhiri (ya), n.; esp. in phrases:
pa- or ku-mhiri, on the other side (of
river); mhiri muno, mhiri ino, on
this side; mhiri kwa, on the other
side of; ihiri nemhiri, on opposite
banks; mhiriyo, over the other side.
mhiripiri (ya, dza), n.; pepper,
chilies; syn. cipiripiri (ca, ea); cito-
ro3ga (ca), Nd.
mhiro (dza), n., Nd.; the nose.
mhizha (ya, dza), n., Ka.; a cap-
able workman; mhizha yedare, a
blacksmith, Ze.; -ita mizha, to be
proficient. Cp. tsanzi (ya, dza).
mhizi (ya, dza), n., Ka.; the itch.
See mhezi (ya, dza).
mhoani (ya, dza), n.; ostrich, Ma.,
Nd.
mhodzi (ya, dza), n., Ze.; seed







MHOFU
(of pumpkin, etc.). See mbeu (ya,
dza).
mhofu (ya, dza), n.; eland; syn.
nhuka, shava (' the Red One ').
mhombo (ya, dza), n.; an habitual
adulterer, adulteress, or fornicator;
from -pomba; var. Ka., mhombge
(ya, dza).
mhondo (ya, dza), n., Ma.; small,
rounded stone for grinding tobacco
on for snuff. See ibge (ra, a).
mhondoro (ya, dza), n.; lion; esp.
perhaps one supposed to be possessed
by a spirit. See shumba (ya, dza).
mhoni (ya, dza), n.; a blister; syn.
(fire-bl.) mbare (ya, dza); (burn)
duzu (ra, a), Ze.; (blood-bl.) mbu-
ndurira (ra, a).
mhopo (ya, dza), n.; a wart.
mhoga (ya, dza), n.; fault; case,
affair, matter of complaint or accusa-
tion. Note: Handi mh. yandi, it's
not my fault, or, it's not my busi-
ness; -pa mhoqa, to blame, accuse.
See mhaka (ya, dza).
mhou (ya, dza), n.; (1) cow; var.
yombe yehadzi; mai weyombe; (2)
ostrich, Ka, Ze.; syn. mhoani (ya,
dza), Ma., Nd.
mhuka (ya, dza), n.; animal (gen.
a grazing one). Cp. cipfuo (ca, Za),
domestic; cikara (ca, ga), carnivor-
ous.
mhukuta (ya, dza), n.; dust.
mhumhi (ya, dza), n.; wild dog.
mhuno (ya, dza), n.; the nose.
See mhino (dza), Ka.; mhiro (dza),
Nd.
mhunzi (ya, dza), n., Ka.; seed
(of pumpkins, etc.); syn. mhodzi (ya,
dza), Ze.; nhikiti (ya, dza), Ma.;
and see mbeu (ya, dza).
mhuijga (ya, dza), n.; a native
grain, kind of millet.
mhuijgu (ya, dza), n.; a snake of
cobra family. See snake.
mhuri (ya, dza), n.; a family,
household; syn. Buri (ra, a), dzinza
(ra, a), nhundu (ya, dza), umba (ya,
dza); and cp. rudzi (rwa, dza).
mhuru (ya, dza), n.; a calf; foal.
mhute (ya, no pl.), n., Ma.; mist.
See Bute (ra, a).
mhutu (ya, dza), n.. Ma.; the


-MDA
cheek; a mouthful; esp. in phr.
-sekera mumhutu, to laugh 'up the
sleeve,' laugh without showing it;
-ita mhutu, to drink a mouthful;
kamhutu (ka, twa), a sip, a taste.
Cp. -quta, -qutura.
-midza, vb. tr.; Lo swallow. See
-medza.
mimba (ya, dza), n.; belly; womb;
see dumbu (ra, a), nhumbu (ya,
dza); -va nemimba, be pregnant.
mimbiri, mhimbiri (ya, dza), n.,
Ka.; spoil in war, loot; syn. mha-
mbara (ya, dza), Ma.from-pambara.
-mimina, vb. tr.; to pour off;
drain; strain off.
-mina, vb. tr.; -m. madzihwa, to
blow the nose; syn. -fura dzihwa, to
blow violently; var. -pfura dzihwa;
Nd., -mira.
-minyuka, vb. int., Ze.; to be
sprained; syn. -shodogoka, Ze.;
-shodoka, Ka.; -nika, Ma., Nd.
-mira, vb. int.; to stand; to wait;
to halt; der. -misa, mirisa, to cause
to stand; -mirira, to wait for; chi-
mbomira, just wait a moment; -mi-
risa myoyo, to make one feel sick;
-Zimisa, to control oneself; -misira,
to give a second wife in place of her
dead 'sister'; and note the irreg.
perfect, munhu umire, the man is
standing.
-misa, vb. tr., caus. of -mira, which
see; to set up, cause to stand.
misi (ya, pl.), n.; see music (wa,
ya); days, esp. in phr. misi yose,
misi yese, always; misi isiygaperi,
for ever.
mitsimba, -ita mitsimba, to
wrestle. See -rwa.
-miza, vb. tr., Ma.; to sow (broad-
cast); -mizira, to splash, flip water
off fingers. See -dyara.
mi- (old spelling, mw-; or Ka.,
mg-). Nouns with these initial con-
sonants are either (1) sing. n. of (wa,
va) class, e.g., myana wa, pl. vana
va, or (2) of (wa, ya) class, e.g.,
myoto wa, pl. myoto ya.
mia-, ma-, locative formative (or
prep.); at, in; see under kwa-.
-mga, vb. tr.; to drink (in Ka., to
suck); der. -mgiisa, to give a person
67







MDADIYA
drink (esp. as a nurse with sick man
or mother with infant); -miira, appl.
e.g., vanomira-pa, they drink some;
-miira mumvura (nokufa), to drown,
die by drowning.
miadiya (wa, ya), n., Ma.; a
canoe; syn. 5gato (bga), Ka.; cikepe
(ca, ga), for.; gwa, igwa (ra, a), Ka.,
Ze.; 3garawa (ya, dza), Swa.
mgaka (wa, ya), n.; a year.
miakani (wa), n., Ma.; spring
(about Oct.). See cirimo (ca, ea),
ruswiswi (rwa).
mgiambabvu (wa, ya), n.; a swell-
ing of glands (esp. in groin), gen.
connected with a sore or wound else-
where.
mgamuna (wa, va), n., Nd.; a
man (as dist. from woman); male,
husband. See murume (wa, va).
mjana (wa, va), n.; child (in gen.
sense); syn. pxere (ya, dza), Ze.,
Ka., Ko., mupxere (wa, va), Ma.,
from -pxera, to suckle; formerly
spelt phere, Ka., pkere, Ze., (mu)-
pwere, Ma., Ko.; mucece (wa, va);
and note mijanagari (wa, va), Ka.,
son of a chief or headman.
mianakadzi (wa, va), n.; a daugh-
ter; cp. mianarume (wa, va), son;
in Ka. mjanakadzi may equal son-
in-law, a woman calling her daugh-
ter's husband by the same name as
her daughter.
mganakomana (wa, va), n.; son;
syn. mianarume (wa, va), mukororo
(wa, va), mukorore (wa, va), mnana
womukomana (wa, va). See App.
on Relationships.
mianarume (wa, va), n.; son; boy.
mijanaZari (wa, va), n., Ka.; son
of a chief; heir. Cp. mucinda (wa,
va).
mianda (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a sheaf
(of grass, etc.). See ciswa (ca, Za),
musumbu (wa, ya).
miando (wa, ya), n.; a gentle
breeze; damp, moisture; adj. -ne-
myando, damp; cp. -nyoro.
mjanza (wa, ya), n., Ma.; track
of rats, etc., in field. See mgazha,
Ka.; mgenza, Ze. (wa, ya).
mjaramu (wa, va), n., Ma. (=mu-
ramu, Ka. Ze.,; brother-in-law, sis-


MDEDZI
ter-in-law. See App. on Relation-
ships.
mgari (wa, pl. vamy. va), n.; the
Great Spirit; used by some for God;
other names for God are Wedeijga,
Nyadeiga, the One Above; Musika-
vanhu, the. creator of men; Yave, fr.
the biblical Jehovah.
-mgawura, vb. int.; to be clear,
cloudless (of sky); op. -ti weru-
weru.
-mgaya, vb. tr.; to sow broadcast;
to sprinkle; Ze., -mrampaidza, to
sprinkle.
-mgazha, miezha (wa, ya), n.,
Ka.; the track of animals in field
(game, rats, rabbits); Ze., mienza;
Ma., mianza (wa, ya).
-mie, (1) num. adj.; one, in pl.
some; always after its noun in this
sense; (2) other; always before its
noun in this sense-e.g., munhu
mumye, one person; mumge munhu,
another person; cimye necimge, each
(thing); cigaro cimyeco, the same
chair; pamye, pamyepo, in the same
place; and see pamJe.
mJea, mijia (wa, ya), n.; spirit
(living, of living person); air, breath;
syn. mudzimu (wa, ya), a disem-
bodied spirit; mumvuri (wa, ya), dis-
embodied spirit (lit. shade); shave
(ra, a), an unfriendly spirit; Jgozi
(ya, dza), a malevolent spirit; rombo
(ra, a), a luck-bringing spirit. Notes:
(1) Myea Sante, Myea Unoyera,
Myea Mutsene, Myea Wakashana-
ygurwa, Myea Wakatsawurwa, are
are renderings in various missions
for the Holy Spirit. (2) Myea waka-
ipa, my. wakashata are used of the
devil and of demons; also my. is used
by some for disposition,' heart';
possessed with a devil, -nemyea wa.
kaipa, -nedemoni, -neshave, -nedia-
bore, -nemudemona.
mnedzi (wa, ya), n.; moon; hence
month; the moon's phases are as fol-
lows: New moon, greeted with clap-
ping and cries of Tenderekedzi we!
maygwani igumi'; first 'quarter,'
ten days, called in Ma. njedzana, in
Ka. rucenje; second 'quarter,' ten
days again, called in Ma. and Ka.






-MDEKURIRA
alike rikati; last quarter,' nine days,
called in Ka. and M. mhindo (ya,
dza). Of the last nine days (mhi-
ndo), on the seventh, eighth, and
ninth it is said myedzi wafa, the
moon is dead; on the tenth day it
reappears and is greeted as above.
Full moon, jenaguru, or wavate-
ndere. Names of months are as fol-
lows, but with many local variations:
Myedzi wendira (much rain), end of
Dec. and part of Jan.; my. woku-
rume mealiess), end of Jan. and part
of Feb.; my. wokukadzi, about Feb.;
my. kubvumbi (drizzle), about Mar.;
my. bantwe (end of rain), about
Apr. ; my. cikuyguru (reaping), about
May; my. cikumi (threshing), about
June; my. civabvu, about July; my.
nyamavnvu (wind), about Aug.; my.
1 ," ...1... ... (return of heat), about
-.:. , glumiguiru (great heat).
about Oct.; my. mbudzi (rain be-
gins), about Nov.; my. rita (rain),
about December. (Taken from Fr.
Biehler's Dictionary.)
-mgekurira, -miemiera, vb. int.,
Ka.; to smile; syn. -nyenama, Ma.;
-nyenyema, Ka.; -nyemyerera, Ze.
mgena (wa, ya), n.; a hole. See
-mina.
mgene (wa, pl. vene va), n., Ka.;
owner, master.
mgeni (wa, pl. oaeni or veni va),
n.; a visitor, guest; e.g., ,,..i.,i,; .,
nemyeni, I have a guest.
mgenje (wa, ya), n.; Nd., grass;
sec uswa (hwa); Ma., a torch.
mgenza (wa, ya), i., Ze.; track of
small game in fields; syn. Ma..
mianza (wa, ya); Ka., miazha,
mgezha (wa, ya).
myegga (wa, pl. madzimy. a), n.,
Ka.; a bride. See muroorwi (wa,
va); muaitsa (wa, va), Ma., Ze.
-mgesa, vb. tr., Ma., Nd.; to tear.
mina, miena (wa, ya), n.; a hole
(e.g., rat-hole); my. wepfuti, muzzle
of gun.
-mgisa, vb. tr.; iMa., to give or
cause to drink, when the giver holds
and presents cup etc., to mouth,
caus. of -mya; Ka., to suckle (babe),
caus. of -mya, Ka., to suck; in Ma.,


MOWA
Ze. -amna (to suck), -amrisa, are
found.
mgise (wa, ya), Ka.; tail (of
animal). See muswe (wa, ya).
myondo (wa, ya), n., Ze.; the shaft
of a spear; see rwiriko (rwa, pl.
nziriko dza); and see pfumo (ra, a).
mgonzora (wa, ya), n.; an ear of
corn, of muyga.
mioggo, Ka.; mjoggora (wa, no
pl.), n.; marrow (of bone).
mgoto (wa, ya), n.; fire; syn. mu-
riro (wa, ya), Nd.; var. moto (wa,
ya), Ze.
mgoyo, moyo (wa, ya), n.; heart;
-va nomyoyo mucena, to be glad,
cheerful.
-mo, loc. suffix; in; e.g., yisa-mo,
put it in; wabva-mo, he came out
from within.
mombe (ya, dza), n.; a head of
cattle; cattle. Sec rombe (ya, dza).
-mona, vb. tr.; to twist, screw
round; to stir thick porridge (sadza).
See -monya, -shonyorora.
mono (ya, dza), n.; castor-oil bean.
See pfuta (ya, dza).
-monya, vb. tr.; to twist, screw;
der. -monyera, to screw in, to twist
round (something); -monyana, to be
twisted; tr., -monyeredza, twist
round; monyereka, whirl round,
spin; -monyorora, to untwist; int.,
monyonoka, to come untwisted;
-monyeka, int., to coil easily; syn.
-mona, -shonyorora.
mora (? mhora) (ya, dza), n., Ze.;
spring (of gun or knife).
mose, pron.; you all; var. myese,
Ma.; mgeshe, Nd.
mota (ra, pi. mam. a), n.; a boil,
abscess; var. myota (wa, ya), Ma.;
mota (ya, dza), Ma.; syn. bonje (ra,
a); and see cisomo (ca, Za), the core
of a boil.
moto (wa, ya), n., Ze.; fire. See
mgoto (wa, ya).
motsi, num., Ka.; one, in counting
without naming the things counted;
syn. potsi, poshi, Ze., Ma. ; posi, Nd.
motsi (mhotsi?) (ya, dza), n.;
short, curly hair; -ita motsi, to curl.
mowa (?mhowa) (ya, dza), n.; a
kind of spinach.
69






MOYO
moyo (wa, ya), n.; heart; mind.
See mjoyo (wa, ya); and note im.
mucena, good-will; m. mutema, ill-
will.
mparapara (ya, dza),n.,Nd.; roan
antelope. See ceiggu (ca, ta).
mphandwe, mhandwe (ya, dza),
n., Nd.; a girl of marriageable age.
See musikana (wa, va).
mphatso, mhatso (ya, dza), n.,
Nd.; house. See imba (ya, dza).
mpheni, mheni (ya, dza), n., Nd.;
lightning. See mheni (ya, Jza).
mphepo (ya, dza), n., Nd.; cold;
ep. mhepo (ya, dza). See cando
(ca).
mphezi (ya, dza), n., Nd.; itch.
See mhezi.
mphoo (ya, dza), n., Nd.; =mhou
(ya, dza), cow.
mphute (ya, dza), n., Nd.; =
mhute (ya, dza), mist. See Bute.
msoro (wa, ya), n.; head. See
musoro (wa, ya).
mu- (1), locative formative (or pre-
position); in, into. See ku- for rules
of usage of mu-, reading mu- for ku,
mwa for kwa, muna for kuna; and
see also kuna.
(2) mu-, subj. pron. conc. of 2nd
pers. pl.; you; e.g., munoda, you
want.
(3) -mu-, obj. pron. cone. of 2nd
pers. pl (for var. see -ku . i);
you, pl.; e.g., ndinomuda, I love
you, or ndinokudei.
(4) A locative in mu- may also re-
quire a subj. or obj. concord and
takes mu- for either-e.g., mumba
munodziya, in the house it is hot.
mu .. i, mu .. o; many nouns
are formed from vbs. by prefixing
mu- to the verb stem and changing
the final a to -i or -o. Those in -i
generally indicate the doer of the
action belonging to the verb. Those
in -o gen. indicate a thing resulting
from the action; e.g., -ceka, to cut;
muceki, one who cuts; -cera, to
gather fruit; mucero, the fruit; -bata,
to work; mubati, a workman; mu-
bato, a piece of work.
mubarisi (wa, va), n., Nd.; tax-
collector.


MUIBIBIB
mubvumbi (wa, ya), n.; mist with
rain; damp cloud. Cp. gore (ra, a),
guti (ra, a).
mubvumu (wa, ya), n., Nd.; a
kind of palm tree. See mucihgwe
(wa, ya), Ka.; mucindwi (wa, ya),
Ma.; murara (wa, ya), Ze.
mubvunzo (wa, ya), n.; a ques-
tion. See -bvunza, ask.
mubvuri (wa, ya), n.; a shadow
(gen. of a living thing). Cp. bvute,
shade of any sort.
mubvuti (wa, va), n., Ma.; a rob-
ber (lit. a snatcher); syn. gororo (ra,
a), highwayman.
mubada (wa, ya), n.; a walking
stick. See tgimbo (ya, dza).
mubairo (wa, ya), n.; reward,
wages. See cibairo (ca, Za), tuso
(ra, a).
mubanze (wa, va), n.; a neigh-
bour, one using the same banze. See
Banze (ra, a) and dare (ra, a).
mubari (wa, va), n.; a parent,
esp. in pl. vaSari (va); syn. muBe-
reki (wa, va).
muBati (wa, va), n.; a worker,
workman; a ruler, governor.
muBatiri (wa, va), n.; a servant,
maidservant; an assistant (at any
piece of work); syn. muBatidzi (wa,
va), Ze.; muBatisi (wa, va), Ka.
muBato (wa, ya), n., Ka.; work;
Ma., a handle. Cp. ciBato; and see
basa (ra, a).
muBatsiri (Ma.), mubetseri (Ka.);
(wa, &a), n.; a helper. See -Batsira,
-Betsera.
muBatwa (wa, va), n.; slave (cap-
tured in war); also mapxa, muranda
(wa, va).
muBatwi (wa, va), n.; a drunken
man. See mukaririwedoro (wa, va).
muBayo (wa, ya), n.; a fork, any
implement for sticking into things.
See -Baya.
muBereki (wa, va), n.; parent;
anyone carrying a child on the back
as native mothers do. See muBari
(wa, va).
muBetseri (Ka), muBatsiri (Ma.)
(wa, va), n.; helper, assistant. See
-Batsira, -Betsera.
muBibibi (wa, va), n., Ze.; a dumb






MUBIKI
person; one with a stammer or
stutter. See mbeveve (ya, dza).
muBiki (wa, va), n.; a cook.
muBigga (wa, va), n., Ma.; mes-
senger (of a chief). See mutumija
(wa, va) and Nd., mudzimbahwe
(wa, va).
mubondo (wa, va), n., Nd.; second
and following wives; Ka., vagota (va).
muBoshwe (wa, ya), n., Nd. (also
mooshwe, wa); the left hand; see
ruBoshwe (rwa); kumu6oshwe, ku-
mooshwe, to the left.
mubuggwe (wa, ya), n., Nd.; a
salt-bearing reed. See buggwa (ra,
a) and mutomba (wa, ya).
mucairi (wa, va), n.; waggoner,
driver; fr. -caya, Zulu.
mucapo (wa, ya), n.; a paddle (of
canoe).
mucece (wa, va), n.; child (infant
in arms); see mnana (wa, va); der.
kacece (kca, twa), small infant.
muceka (wa, ya), n.; cloth; a belt,
waistband; dysentery; Ka., a flag;
syn. jira (ra, a), iguvo, jguwo (ya,
dza); Ma., muceka wenya6arwc,
rainbow.
muceki (wa, va), n.; one who cuts;
a cutter. See -ceka.
mucekecera (wa, ya), n., Ze.; the
male flowers of maize; syn. Ze.,
mupugga weciBarwe; Ka., ijgara (ya,
dza); Ma., igarara (ya, dza).
mucembere (wa, va), n.; an old
woman (past bearing). See-cembera.
mucenje (wa, ya), n.; the workers
in a 'white ant' (termite) colony.
See under juru (ra, a).
muceigeti (wa, va), n.; keeper,
guardian; Ka., the Saviour. See
-ceggeta; syn. murindi (wa, va),
mutariri (wa, va).
mucerechedzo (wa, ya), n.; a mark;
Ka., mucerekedzo (wa, ya).
mucero (wa, ya), n.; fruit. Cp.
-cera, to pluck fruit (Ka.).
mucinda (wa, va), n. (pl. also ma-
cinda a); son of a paramount chief.
Cp. Ka., in anaaari, muzari (wa, va).
mucindwi (wa, ya), n., Ma.; palm
tree. See muciggwe (wa, ya).
mucinyi (wa, va), n.; a sinner.
See -cinya.


MUDOMBO
muciggwe (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a
palm tree; syn. Ze., murara (wa,
ya); mucindwi (wa, ya), Ma.; mu-
bvumu, muigwarara (wa, ya), Nd.
mucocororo (wa, ya), n.; (1) a
cock's comb; (2) a boundary furrow
between two gardens; hence a cycle
track on a dusty road; syn. for 1,
Ka., jorocoro (ra, a), mucorocora
(wa, ya).
mudya (wa, ya), n.; string (of
apron, etc.), straps for tying up a
garment. For pronunciation see -dy-.
mudyo (wa, ya), var. rudyo (rwa);
the right hand (lit. the eating hand);
var. mudyi, rudyo, rudyi. See-dy-.
mudzi (wa, ya), n.; a root.
mudzidzi (wa, va), n.; a pupil,
learner; disciple; fr. -dzidza.
mudzidzisi (wa, va), n.; a teacher;
from -dzidza.
mudzimba (wa, va), n.; the hunter
who strikes first. See muvimi (wa,
isa).
mudzimbahwe (wa, va), n., Nd.;
messenger (of a chief). See muBilga
(wa, va), mutumia (wa, va).
mudzimu (wa, ya), n.; spirit (of a
dead person); syn. mumvuri (wa,
ya), lit. a shade, and see mjea (wa,
ya).
mudziggwa (wa, va), n., Ka.; one
who is circumcised. See -dzizgisa.
mudzira (wa, ya), n.; a sinew,
tendon. See runda.
mudzivo (wa, ya), n., Ma.; a
stopper, cork; Ze., a corner; Ka.,
the end, the last one. See cidziviro
(ca, ea).
mudzogga (wa, ya), n.; biltong;
strips of dried meat.
mudandaara (wa, ya), n.; central
ridge of spear-blade or arrowhead;
syn. musana (wa, ya).
mudanho (mudantho) (wa, ya),n.,
Nd.; a bridge. See dfanho (ra, a).
mudariki (wa, va), n.; a trans-
gressor. See -darika.
mudikani, mudikanwa (wa, va),
n.; a beloved one; a darling. See
-da.
mudinhi (wa, ya), n.; the coccyx,
the bone at the end of spine.
mudombo (wa, ya), n.; ingredient






MUDONZO
mixed with snuff (to make it milder).
Ash of banana skins and a native
spinach is used; syn. mukuma (wa,
ya); mutyaba (wa, ya), Ma.
mudonzo (wa, ya), n.; a walking
stick, staff; see tgimbo (ya, dza);
var. mudombZo (wa, ya), Ma.
mududziri (wa, va), n.; an inter-
preter; see -dudzira; syn. musha-
nduri (wa, va), Ka.
muduggwe (wa, ya), n.; a column;
-ita muduygwe, -famba nomudu-
Vgwe; to march in file. See runda-
za (rwa).
mufambi (wa, va), n.; a traveller;
a stranger; a pilgrim; mufambi-
fambi (wa, va), n.; a tramp, one
who is constantly on the road.'
mufananidzo (wa, ya), n.; a pic-
ture, likeness.
mufari (wa, va), n.; a merry per-
son; a happy person. See -fara.
mufaro (wa, ya), n.; joy; glad-
ness. See -fara.
mufemberi (wa, pl. vaf. va), n.; a
diviner; one who foretells, guesses;
one who smells out' a wizard. See
gaxga (ya, dza); var. pfemberi (ya,
dza).
mufirwa (wa, va), n.; a person
bereaved, a mourner. See -fa and
-firwa.
mufudzi (wa, va), n.; a herd-boy.
See -fudza.
mufundi (wa, va), n., for.; a
scholar, one who is learning; from
-funda, for., to learn.
mufundisi (wa, va), n.; a teacher;
a missionary.
mufuggo. (wa, ya), n.; an idea, a
thought; syn. pfuggwa (ya, dza).
mufute (wa, ya), n.; the castor-
oil plant. See mupfuta (wa, ya).
mugano (ra, ya), n.; a boundary,
limit.
mugari (wenhalca) (wa, va), n.;
an heir, successor. See -gara nhaka.
mugariri (wa, va), n., Ma.; a man
who, instead of paying lobola' lives
and works in his wife's village; also
cp. mugarire waygu, it is my custom.
mugariro (wa, ya), n.; habit;
nature; custom; state; var. Ka.,
mugarire (wa, ya).


MUJAHO
mugayi (wa, va), n.; a miller,
mill-boy. See -gaya.
mugero (wa, ya), n.; a water fur-
row; irrigation channel.
mugodi (wa, ya), n., for.; a hole,
pit; esp. a mine. See gomba (ra, a).
mugoti (wa, ya), n.; stick for stir-
ring porridge; syn. musika (wa, ya),
Ka.
mugova (wa, ya), n.; wild banana
(so called); the fruit are called ma-
gova (a), and dried and pierced are
used as ornaments and rattles; syn.
tsoro (ya, dza).
mugove, mugovo (wa, ya), n.; a
share. See -gova.
mugoveri (wa, va), n.; one who
distributes shares; a sharer.
mugovera, mugobera (wa, ya), n.;
Saturday; music wemugovera, Satur-
day.
mugumo (wa, ya), n.; end; result;
der. mugumisiro (wa, ya), end.
mugwagwa (wa, ya), n.; road;
syn. muva (wa, ya); mugwanyo (wa,
ya), Ma.; and cp. nzira, zhira, path.
mugwaku (iwa, ya), n.; ladle;
spoon. See rugwaku (rwa, a).
mugwanyo (wa, ya),n., Ma.; road.
See mugwagwa (wa, ya).
muhedeni (wa, va), n., for.; a
heathen.
muhobo (wa, ya), n.; the banana
plant. Cp. hobo (ra, a), the fruit.
muhomba (wa, ya), n.; raised
garden beds for vegetables, etc.
muhonde (wa, ya), n., Ma.; a
plant of the euphorbia family; the
candelabra plant; Ze., mukonde (wa,
ya).
muhota (wa, ya), n.; the canna
plant. Cp. hota (ya, dza), canna
seed.
muhova (wa, ya), n.; the banana
plant. Cp. hova (ra, a), the fruit.
muhwe (wa, ya), n.; a crack in a
pot; a current in water; the edge (of
table or village).
muiri (wa, ya), n., Nd.; body.
See muviri (wa, ya).
muiti (wa, va), n.; a maker, doer.
Cp. musiki (wa, va).
mujaho (wa, ya), n.; sports; race
meeting, etc.






MUJAYA
mujaya (wa, va), n., Ka.; young
man. See jaha (ra, a).
mujoni (wa, va), n.; a soldier,
policeman.
-muka, vb. int.; to wake; rise
(from a lying position); -muka-Ze, of
rising from the dead; syn. -simuka,
to rise (from sitting); -dzidziuka, Ze.,
to rise again; and note Ka., -rara-
ma-Ze; der. -mukira, to arise for or
to; -mutsa, to cause to rise, to wake
up (tr.), to raise.
mukadzi (wa, va), n.; woman;
wife. See -kadzi, adj. female.
mukaha (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a gorge;
gulf.
mukaka (wa, ya), n., pl. rare;
milk.
mukamba (wa, ya), n.; a pod-
mahogany' tree; in Ma. mukwamba
is used of a palm whose timber is
useless.
mukandiri (wehakata), (wa, va),
n.; a diviner; a caster of bones or
lots. See gjaiga (ya, dza).
mukanwa, mukajwa (mwa, no
pl.), n.; the mouth (inside as dist.
from muromo (wa, ya), the lip). Sec
muromo (wa, ya).
mukanyiro (wa, ya), n.; Ka.,
dough; Ma., the kneading dish; the
manner of kneading.
mukaiwa (mwa), n., Ka.; mouth.
See mukanwa (mwa).
mukarabge (wa, va), n., Ka.;
wife's father. See App. on Relation-
ships.
mukaragga (wa, va), n.; (1) one
of the tribe of the Uakaragga; (2)
Ma., the first wife of a chief; (3)
Ze., the honey-guide, honey-bird.
mukariri (wedoro) (wa, va), n.,
Ka.; a drunkard; syn. cidakwa (ca,
ga), ciradza (ca, ea), muraradzi (wa,
va); and see muBatwi (wa, va).
mukati, adv.; in the midst, in the
middle; mukati ma-.
mukhondo (wa, ya), n., Nd.; a
spear. See pfumo (ra, a).
mukiwa (wa, pl. mak. a), n., Ma.,
Ze.; white man. See muruggu (wa,
va).
mukoho (wa, ya), n., Ma., Nd.;
an echo; syn. mauggira (a).


MUKUMBO
mukokeri (wa, va), n.; leader of
oxen; voorlooper.
mukoko (wa, ya), n.; a cylinder of
bark set in a tree for a beehive.
mukoma (wa, va), n.; elder
brother' of man or woman; elder
sister of woman. See App. on Re-
lationships.
mukomana (wa, va), n.; boy,
youth; (sometimes) young man. See
jaha (ra, a).
mukombe (wa, ya), n.; calabash
used as water-ladle or cup.
mukonde (wa, ya), n.; (1) bead-
belt worn by women; (2) the 'can-
delabra' plant, a kind of euphorbia:
Ma., muhonde (wa, ya).
mukono (wa, ya), n.; a bull, and
gen. of the male of any animal; syn.
for bull, hando (ya, dza), Ka.; ha-
ndira (ya, dza), ndunda (ya, dza),
nzombe (ya, dza).
mukorore, Ma., mukororo, Nd.
(wa, va), n.; son; in Ma. esp. of the
relation between a mayinini (or mu-
garira) and the son of the sister to
whose husband she has been given;
see mugarira; Ka., mukorore (wa,
va), grandson, used as title of en-
dearment.
mukoshi, mukosi; (1) (wa, ya), n.
rope or string of plaited bark or fibre;
see tambo (ra, a); (2) m. (wa, va),
n., the man who plaits string, etc.
mukotyo (wa, ya), n., Ma.; for
pronunciation see ty-; a lizard. See
deinyu (ya, dza), Ka.
mukova (wa, ya), n., Ka.; door-
way; open yard (in a kraal). See
musuuo (wa, ya), ruvazhe (rwa, va-
zhe dza), Ka.
mukove (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a pod
(esp. of tree fruit); syn. nokwara
(ya, dza), Ze.; Ma., deko (ra, a).
mukoweri (wa, va), n.; Ze., a
skilful person; Ka., one who mends
wooden articles.
mukuma (wa, ya), n.; an ingre-
dient (of ash) mixed with snuff or
tobacco (to make it milder). See
mucdombo (wa, ya); mutyaBa (wa,
ya), Ma.
mukumbo, in phr. -tiza mukumbo
na, to elope (used of a girl); -tizisa






MUKUMVU
mukumbo (used of the man elop-
ing).
mukumvu (wa, ya), n., Nd.; the
navel. See guvu (ra, a).
mukunda (wa, va), n.; a daugh-
ter. See App. on Relationships.
mukundi (wa, va), n.; a winner
(in contest); one who overcomes.
See -kunda, and cp. mukuriri (wa,
va).
mukuni (wa, ya), n.; a heavy pole
set to fall on a narrow passage in a
trap for game. See citeyo (ca, ea),
for other traps.
mukugguru (wa, ya), n.; a roll,
bale, large bundle.
mukupo (wa, ya), mukupo wehoma
(wa, ya), n., Ma.; a bat or hockey
stick.
mukuriri (wa, va), n.; a con-
queror, winner (in contest). See
-kurira.
mukuru (wa, va), n.; chief; any
great person; head of family. See
mambo (wa, va).
mukute (wa, ya), n.; a wild fruit
tree, with fruit like the damson plum.
Cp. hute- (ya, dza), the fruit.
mukutu (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a
quiver. See mutendya (wa, ya).
mukuwasha (wa, va), n.; son-in-
law; and sometimes brother-in-law,
or even father's sister's husband;
see App. on Relationships; syn. mu-
kwambo (wa, va), Ma.
mukuyu (wa, ya), n.; the fig tree;
op. guyu (ra, a), the fig (fruit); syn.
muvonde (wa, ya).
mukwambo (wa, va), n.; son-in-
law; brother-in-law; at a wedding
he is the bridegroom in relation to
the bride's people and village, but he
remains mukwambo to them all his
married life. See App. on Relation-
ships. *
mukwago (wa, ya), n.; a paddle
(of canoe).
mumembe (wa, ya), n.; barrel (of
gun).
mumera (wa, ya), n., Ka.; yeast,
leaven; yeasty meal prepared in
course of beer-making; see doro
(ra); syn. cimera (ca); mamera (a).
mumiriri (wa, va), n.; intercessor,


MUNO
advocate; one who 'stands up for'
another.
mumge, num. and pron.; one;
someone; other; agr. with sing. n.
of (wa, va) class or (wa, ya) class.
mumono (wa, ya), n.; castor-oil
plant. See mupfuta (wa, ya) and
mhono (ya, dza), the castor-oil bean.
mumumu (ra, pl. mam. a), n.,
Ze.; a dumb person. See cimumumu
(ca, Za).
mumvuri (wa, ya), n., var. mu-
bvuri; shade; shadow; reflection;
prob. mumvuri is the shadow (par-
ticular), bvute, bvuri, shade (gen.);
-kanda mumvuri, Ka., to visit.
muna, prep. (or locative forma-
tive); in; at. See note under pana
for use of these forms.
munamato (wa, ya), n.; a prayer.
See -namata.
munamba (wa, ya), n.; beestings,
i.e., cow's milk of the first few days
after calving; porridge made with
this milk.
munami (wa, va), n.; a plasterer.
See -nama.
munanzi (wa, ya), n.; a simple
flute of reed or bamboo with three
notes.
munda (wa, ya), n.; garden; field
(of any crop); syn. ruwa (rwa); ma-
furo (a).
mundarira (wa, ya), n.; copper
wire, a ring or coil of copper wire.
Cp. ndarira (ya, dza).
mundimu (wa, ya), n.; orange
tree, lemon tree, any kind of citrus
tree. Cp. ndimu (ya, dza), the fruit.
munhagu (wa, ya), n., Ma.; a
pace. See nhawararo (ya, dza).
munhegga (wa, ya), n. (pl. gen.
manhepga a); a feather.
munhikwi (wa, ya), n.; a hiccup.
munhu (wa, va), n.; a person, man
(gen.); dist. from murume, man as
dist. from woman.
munhuliadzi (wa, va), n.; a wo-
man, female person.
munhurume (wa, va), n.; a man,
male. See murume (wa, va).
muno, dem. pr. agr. with a mu-
locative, always after its noun, or
standing alone; this (near); in here;






MUNONDO
e.g., mumba muno, in this house;
pinda muno, come in here.
munondo (wa, ya), n., Ka.; large
knife, sword. See Bagga (ra, a).
munonoki (wa, oa), n.; a laggard,
a loiterer. See -nonoka.
munoggedzo (wa, ya), n., Ma.; the
index finger, forefinger. See mute-
ndeka (wa, ya), Ka.
munthanzi, munhanzi (wa, ya),
n., Nd.; a line, a row. See rundaza
(rwa, pl. mindaza ya).
mununudzi, mununuri (wa, va), n.;
a peacemaker, mediator, redeemer.
munuggu (wa, ya), n.; quill of
porcupine; syn. manheyga enuyguor
miseve enuVgu, i.e., feathers or ar-
rows.
munuggwa (wa, va), n., Ka.; an
illegitimate child (i.e., of unknown.
father); syn. nyamuza (wa, va),
Ma.; mubvandabarwa (wa, va), Nd.
munuiuna (wa, va), n.; younger
brother' of man or younger sister'
of woman. See App. on Relation-
ships.
munwe (wa, ya), n., Nd. cinwe
(ca, Za); finger; toe; thumb, gunwe
(guru), cigunwe and cikunwe (ca,
ea); var. mugwe (wa, ya), Ka.; cara
(ca, ga) (N. dial.); note, index f.,
Ma., munoygedzo (wa, ya), cinoyge-
dzo (ca, ea); Ka., mutendeka (wa,
ya); middle f., wapakati, cidapakati,
Ma., Ka.; little finger, Ma., nyaka-
siwana; Ka., cimupwahupwani (ca,
Za); ring finger, tembayemyana, Ma.
munwi (wa, va), n.; a drunkard.
See muraradzi (wa, va).
munya (wa, ya), n.; porridge
(sadza) that has become cold.
munyai (wa, va), n.; messenger.
See mutumga (wa, va).
munyaka, munyakwe (wa, ya), n.;
soapstone. See ibge (ra, a).
munyaiggadzi (wa, va), n.; an evil-
doer. See -nyaggara, -nyaiggadza.
munyaradzi (wa, va), n.; a con-
soler, comforter. See -nyarara.
munyarari (wa, va), n.; a quiet
person.
munyasi, adv.; down below, down
south; Ze., alongside, near.
munyato (wa, ya), n.; teat, nipple


MUPATA
(of cow). See nyaso (ya, dza),
shuJgu (ya, dza).
munyeggedzeri, munyeijgedzi (wa,
va), n.; a deceiver; var. munye1ggeri
(wa, va).
munyeggetero (wa, ya), n., Ka.;
prayer. See munamato (wa, ya).
munyepi (wa, va), n.; liar. See
-nyepa.
munyori (wa, Va), n.; a writer.
See -nyora.
munyu (wa, no pi.), n.; salt; syn.
cai, deai, for.; mutomba (wa), fesha
(ya, dza), shece (ya, dza), of native
salts.
munza (wa, ya), n.; band for fas-
tening clothes, an apron string, the
straps of the mbereko for carrying
babe on mother's back; var. munzha,
mudya (wa, ya).
munzere (wa, ya), n., Ma.; the
left hand; the left; syn. ruBoshwe
(rwa), Ka.; rumoshe (rwa), Ze.;
Boshwe, Nd.
munzwa (wa, ya), n.; a thorn;
syn. muwa (wa, ya), Ka.
munmi (wa, ya), n.; a point; ve
nomunei, to be sharp, pointed.
muggawa (wa, ya), n., Ma.; a
debt. See rigava (ya, dza).
muggoza (wa, ya), n., Nd.; red or
brown millet. See rukweza (rwa).
muggoja (wa, va), n.; a nursing
mother; syn. mutere (wa, va), Ka.
muiggumurudzi, mhuggumurudzi
(ya, dza), n.; a snake of cobra
family. See snake.
muggwarara (wa, ya), n., Nd.; a
kind of palm tree, tall. See muci-
ggwe (wa, ya).
-mugunyira, vb. tr.; to suck (a
sweet, etc.). See -amja.
mugwe (wa, ya), n., Ka.; finger.
See munwe (wa, ya).
muoko (wa, ya), n., Nd.; the arm.
See ruvoko (rwa, a).
mupambare. See mupimbira.
mupambi (wa, va), n.; cattle thief;
highwayman.
muparadza-mvura (wa, ya), n.,
Ze.; a name for the rainbow. See
murarauggu (wa, ya).
mupata (wa, ya), n.; a valley,
glen; a pass; a corner.






MUPAWA
mupawa (wa, ya), n., Ka.; the
rubber tree. See namo (ya), mupira
(wa, ya).
mupefu (wa, ya), n., Nd.; tail (of
fish). See besu (ra, a).
mupembe (wa, ya), n., Ka., Ma.;
barrel (of gun); Ze., ramrod; syn.
mutanda (wa, ya), Ma., Ze., barrel
(of gun).
mupemi (wa, va), n.; an itinerat-
ing entertainer, who goes from vil-
lage to village singing and dancing
for a living; often called beggar,
prob. from misunderstanding; syn.
rombe (ra, a).
mupendero (wa, pl. mhendero dza),
n.; a hem (in sewing).
mupenyu (wa, va), n.; a living
person. See adj. -penyu.
mupergo (wa, va), n.; a lunatic.
See Bembvu (ra, a) and -pegga.
mupereki (wa, va), n.; a servant,
csp. house-boy, waiter.
muperekedzi (wa, va), n.; a guide,
leader, escort.
mupetisi (wa, va), n.; tax-collec-
tor; syn. muterisi, muruvisi, muba-
risi, all (wa, va).
mupeto (wa, ya), n.; a tax; syn.
mutero (wa, ya), ciruvo (ca, Za),
cibaro (ca, ga); der. mupetisi, tax-
collector.
mupfidzi (wa, va), n.; a penitent
person; from -pfldza.
mupflgo (wa, ya), n.; a cross-bar
for fastening a reed-door. Op. ci-
pfigo (ca, ea).
mupfumi (wa, va), n., (1) Ze.,
Ma., a rich man; from -pfuma, Ze.,
Ma., to be rich; Ka. var. mufumi
(wa, va), fr. Ka., -fuma, to be rich.
(2) a tailor; from Ka., -pfuma, to
sew.
mupfumiro (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a
seam (in sewing); from -pfuma, to
sew.
mupfuri (wa, va), n.; a black-
smith. See -pfura; and cp. mhizha
(ya, dza).
mupfuta (wa, ya), n.; castor-oil
plant; cp. pfuta (ya, dza), the
castor-oil bean; syn. mufute (wa,
ya), Ka., Ko.; rupfuta (rwa); mu-
mono (wa, ya); and for the bean,


MURANDAKADZI
fute (ya, dza) and mhono (ya,
dza).
mupimbira (wa, ya), n.; var. mu-
pimbiri (wa, ya), Ze.; the shin. See
gumbo (ra, a).
mupinduriri (wa, va), n.; a
sponsor; one who answers (-pindura)
for another; a godfather.
mupini (wa, ya), n.; handle (esp.
of hoe, axe, etc.); var. mupinyi (wa,
ya).
mupira (wa, ya), n.; a ball (of
rubber); rubber; syn., for ball see
bora (ra); for rubber, namo (ya,
dza), Ka.; ndande (ya, no pl.), Nd.
muponesi, muponisi (wa, va), n.;
a deliverer; the Saviour.
mupristi (wa, va), n., for.; a priest.
muprofita (wa, va), n., for.; a
prophet.
mupunu (wa, va), 1n.; a naked per-
son; syn. funumunu, Bunyumunyu
(ra, a), mupushu (wa, va), mushutu
(wa, va), mutitinini (wa, ya); adj.
wabasi, washiuku, uneshuku, uygo-
deno, usineyguvo; vb. to be n., -pu-
shuka, -fukenyika, -ita mushu.
mupugga (wa, no pl.), n.; rice;
Ze., m. weci6arwe, male flowers of
maize.
mupuggu (wa, ya), n., Nd.; beard.
See ndebvu (ya, dza).
mupupuri (wa, va), n.; a witness.
Cp. -pupura, to give witness; upu-
purl (hwa), evidence.
mupushu (wa, pl. vam. va), n.; a
naked person. See mupunu (wa, va).
mupxere (wa, va), n.; a young
child; var. cipxere (ca, ea) and pxere
(ya, dza); and see miana (wa, va).
murairo (wa, ya), n.; a law, com-
mand, order; from -raira, to tell,
command. See cirevo (ca, ea).
muramu (wa, va), n.; brother-in-
law. See App. on Relationships, and
also miaramu (wa, va).
muranda (wa, va), n.; a slave;
servant; syn. muBatwa (wa, va),
captive; Ka., mapxa, mutapxi (wa,
va) (a child captive); Nd., tyoko (ya,
dza), citesi, cisuigwa (ca, ea); Ma.,
bandadzi (ra, a).
murandakadzi (wa, va), n.; a
maidservant, female slave.






MURANDU
murandu (wa, ya), n., for.; a fault,
matter of complaint. Cp. mhoga and
mhaka (ya, dza); and cp. Ka., mu-
randu (wa, ya), a share of meat.
muraggariro (wa, ya), n., Ka.;
thought; memory. See -ragjgarira.
murao (wa, ya), n., Nd., Ka.; a
command; word, order; from Nd.,
-raa, to say. See cirevo (ca, -a).
murapi (wa, va), n.; a healer;
doctor. See ciremba (ca, ea).
murara (1) (wa, ya), n., Ze.; a kind
of palm tree; the vegetable ivory
palm. See muciggwe (wa, ya), Ka.
murara (2) (wa, ya), n., Ma.; a
line (drawn); a stripe (on cloth).
See mutaro (wa, ya).
muraradzi (wa, va), n.; a drunk-
en man; a drunkard; syn. mukarire-
wedoro (wa, va), Ka.; ciradza (ca,
ea), Ma., Nd.; munwi (wa, va),
Ze.; cidakwa (ca, Za); mubatwi
(wa, va).
murarauggu (wa, ya), n.; the rain-
bow; Ze., red cloud in the east at
end of rains; other names for rain-
bow, muceka-wenyabarwe (wa, ya),
Ma.; mutsiwe-mvura (wa, ya), Ze.;
muparadzamvura (wa, ya), Ze.
murariro (wa, ya), n., Ma.; sup-
per, the evening meal. See -rarira.
muravu (wa, ya), n.; a snare (of
sticks and string, for hares).
murebvu (wa, ya), n., Nd.; beard.
See ndebvu (ya, dza).
murenje (wa, ya), n., Nd.; leg.
See gumbo (ra, a).
muregga (wa, no pl.), n.; name of
a spirit that brings war; rebellion.
See hondo (yd, dza).
mureri (wa, va), n.; nurse (of a
child); from -rera; var. murezi (wa,
va), Ka.
mureveri (wa, va), n.; advocate,
intercessor. See -reva.
murevo (wa, ya), n.. Ze.; trunk
(of elephant). See musigga (wa, ya).
mureza (wa, ya), n.; a banner,
flag. Cp. Ka., muceka (wa, ya), a
flag (lit. cloth).
murezi (wa, va), n., Ka.; the
nurse (of a child). See mureri (wa,
ia).
muridzi (wa, oa), n.; owner; m.


MUROORI
womusha, headman of village, see
mambo (wa, la); a player on an in-
strument, from -ridza, caus. of -rira,
to sound, cry.
muridzo (wa, ya), n., Ze.; (of gun)
the hammer; fr. -ridza. See ciko-
hono (ca, ea).
murimi (wa, va), n.; a gardener;
cultivator, peasant. See -rima.
murimo (wa, ya), n.; Ze., medi-
cine; Ma., work. See mushogga (wa,
ya), medicine.
murindi (wa, va), n.; a watcher,
guard. See -rinda.
muripo (wa, ya), n.; compensa-
tion; payment; fine. See -ripa.
muriro (wa, ya), n., Nd.; fire. See
mroto, moto (wa, ya).
murisi (wa, va), n., Ka.; herd-
boy; syn. mufudzi (wa, va).
murivo (wa, ya), n.; relish, i.e.,
any food (meat, fish, vegetables,
sauce, gravy) taken with sadza (a
stiff porridge') to give flavour to a
dull though satisfying meal; and note
-temura, Ka., Nd., -katsa, Ma., to
eat without relish.
muroi (wa, va), n.; wizard, witch;
dealer in black magic. See muroyi
(wa, va).
murombe (wa, pl. mar. a), n.; a
strolling player who goes from vil-
lage to village singing and dancing
for a living. Cp. mupemi (wa, va);
var. rombe (ra, a).
murombo (wa, va), n.; a poor per-
son; Ka., a servant or slave.
muromo (wa, ya), n.; lip; mouth;
point (of spear, arrow); muzzle (of
gun). See mukanwa (mwa).
murogga (wa, ya), n.; a side-
stream; a rut; a ravine.
murogjgo (wa, va), n.; Ze., a
chief's wives spoken of collectively;
Ka., a chief's third or later wife;
Ma., any of a chief's wives, except
the first, who is hosi (ya, dza) or
mukaragga (wa, va).
muroori (wa, va), n., Ze.; bride-
groom, from -rovora, to pay lobola;
syn. cikomba (ca, ga), Ka.; sakwana
(wa, va), Ka., from -wana, to marry;
Ma., mukwambo (wa, va), for which
see App. on Relationships.






MUROORWI
muroorwi (wa, va), muroora (wa,
va), n., Ze.; a bride; a newly mar-
ried wife; syn. Ka., mijegiga (wa,
pl. madzimyeyga a), murovora (wa,
va); Ma., muitsa (wa, va).
murota (wa, no pl.), n.; a native
soap made from the ash of a plant.
See sipo (ya, dza).
murotero (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a
dream; see -rota; var. ciroto (ca,
7a), ndoto (ya, dza), murotso.
murotso (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a
dream, what is seen in a dream.
murove (wa, ya), n.; Ze., a flood;
Ka., Ma., a wet place.
murovora (wa, va), n.; a bride,
newly married wife. See muroorwi
(wa, va).
muroyi (wa, va), n.; (male)
wizard; (fem.) witch; anyone deal-
ing in black (i.e. malevolent) magic;
der. uroyi (hwa), witchcraft; var.
uroi, muroi.
-murudza, vb. tr.; to raise up.
See -muruka.
murudzi (wa, ya), n.; a whistle
(the sound); -ridza m., to whistle
(with lips); syn. muridzo (wa, ya),
Ka.; and cp. meterwa (ya, dza) and
cikohwiro (ca, ga).
-muruka, vb. int.; to rise (from
sitting); der. -murukira, to rise for;
-murudza, to raise up.
muruko (wa, ya), n.; thread in
weaving; string binding of woven
mat; a line (hollowed out or raised),
like the binding lines in a mat. See
-ruka.
murumbgana (wa, va), n.; boy;
Ma., son.
murumbi (wa, va), n., Ka.; white
man. See muruJgu (wa, va).
murume (wa, iia), n.; man (dist.
from woman); a male; husband. Cp.
munhu (wa, va), a person; syn.
migamuna (wa, va), Nd.; munhu-
rume (wa, va), Ze.
murumiko (wa, ya), n.; hornused
for cupping; var. cirumiko (ca, ga).
murunyana (wa, va), n., Ka.;
younger brother of a husband; an
-ana diminutive of murume. See
App. on Relationships.
muruijgu (wa, va), n.; a white


MUSHA
man; syn. muzulggu (wa, va), Nd.;
giwa (ra), mukiwa (wa) (pl. makiwa
a), Ma., Ze.; murumbi (wa, ta), Ka.
muruvisi (wa, va), n., Ka.; tax-
collector. See mupetisi (wa, va).
murwere (wa, va), n.; a sick per-
son. See -rwara.
murwi (wa, ya), n.; a heap; a
bank (of earth).
murwi (wa, va), n.; a fighter,
soldier; fr. -rwa, to fight.
musakara (wa, ya), n.; a rag;
worn-out garment. See -sakara.
musaku (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a kind,
class; syn. mhando (ya, dza), Ma.
musana (wa, ya), n.; (1) back (of
person or animal); central ridge of
spearhead or arrowhead; Ka., after-
birth in animals; (2) pamusana pa,
pamsana pa, on behalf of, on account
of, for the sake of.
musande (wa, ya), n., Nd.; a pro-
verb, saying. See cipari (ca, ea).
musari (wa, ya), n., Ka.; the after-
birth (in animals); syn. bvuwo (ra,
a), Ma.; shapato (ra, a), Nd.; butiro
(ra, pl. map. a), Nd., Ze.
musasa (wa, ya), n.; (1) Ka., a
troop of cattle; var. sasa (ra, a). (2)
A kind of tree; a booth, shelter of
boughs; a camp.
muse (wa, ya), n., Nd.; tail (of
beast or fish). See muswe (wa, ya).
museggere, mushenjere (wa, ya),
in.; bamboo.
musero (wa, ya), n., Ka.; a sifter,
sieve. See cisero (ca, ea).
museve (wa, ya), n.; arrow; nipple
(of gun); museve wezuva, sunbeam,
sun's ray; for parts of arrow see
nargiro (ya, dza), runji (rwa), nya-
mhatu (wa, ya), zheve (ya, dza),
cipasa (ca, -a), muromo (wa, ya),
and mhinna (ya, dza).
musevenzi (wa, va), n., for.; a
workman, labourer. See -seuenza,
for., to work for a master.
musha (wa, ya, and coll. pl. ma-
misha a), n.; village; home; ku-
musha, to or at home; kumusha
kwako ndokupi? where isyourhome?
syn. guta (ra, a) (fortified, of chief);
muzinda (wa, ya); nzaiga (ya, dza),
muzi (wa, ya), Nd..