An open air Farmers Institute in a rural
district of the State of Bspirito Santo. Dr.
Bemvindo Novaes, not in view, lecturing on farm
preparation of coffee for market.
Recess in a country school near Limeira,
State of Sao Paulo. The teacher surrounded by
the pupils. Apparently no lack of vitamins in
their food. Also no lack of human sympathy.
The dugout canoe with outboard motor makes a
dependable means of transportation on the lower
Rio Doce. State of Espirito Santo. ServiCing
hundreds of miles of tortuous river bank. Espe-
cially convenient during low water when the flat
bottomed steam boats navigate either with diffi-
culty or not at all. The specialist (Agricultor
Ambulante) finds it possible to visit several
cacao n^rhards in a day. School teachers, pupils,
and householders enjoy its benefits. Someone has
remarked "it would run in a heavy dew".
- ---,---- -- I
The great chocolate metropolis, Ilheos, State
of Bahia, believes in the ornamental in architec-
ture, as well as the useful.
The public graded school nearly ready to
ring the bell.
Agricultural College of the State of Minas
Geraes. Located at Vigosa. Established by the
State. Planned and directed by P.H.Rolfs, formerly
Dean of the Florida Agricultural College.
Main building 100 by 300 ft. (31 x 93 meters).
Lawn in foreground a part of the airplane landing
field in perfect condition.
~ Li - -'~.
t "i.1. Ji-C luxurious r'ipc.do ;. luc7 o ens tz f
thm.tn22 7 1 of hQ-co. ciD'.s an:-i' liTieous p te. for
t' ze city of -hi,.
U .to by�
1 S S. * '
XT. ScienCO rt �ork, 7ioloy,
Tr Lth, i cu tu r
7L.lU \sL0. 2'2 7C).r
'-:if chae at 0.o �rto, >:rniuco, :de if
stick froi t"u. a ruis : DL leaves, ch .
small matter Ss LcJk of roney cannot daunt the
tes have carried out splendid invest -tions with
vcr - -er resources. Tese scientists, e ed
with patience and zeal, have done one of the finest
pieces of sugSEr cone breeding th.t one is ernittcd
-1 2" 33
.-~~ �,;- I 0 ].
.. . . w rids
Seedbeds in the Sert o; The trrde winds
whipped .nny sci.in. to piccs; The sun's pLerc
in:: rrys ?�ss through dxncstic; A m:ttin2 roven
from sert�o jrass withstands both. The scic:mtist
don't give ut.
F- to b
1~~~- C ifr5 7�n
Clad ve �et'Sbles under irrij-tion at Cone-do, t.te of
.'-r byb. � ":..' v:jinter, fro fog a.nd no rEis to bother. ?v;elve
.hours of bright um..S'i:- e vc' "-ay The., teDrto zone
vegetables grow prodigiously. A half acre would s )$ply a
vbole tov.n with luxuriant ve .etbles the rye-r round end
c o-incidentlly with vita.mines.
by courtesy of
Dr. Jos6 Augusto Trinidnde
cane h -nz proven its adaptation to soil and climate
(acclimated), milling tests must be made. The
find test is the 'vrietyr tht will -rodeuce a
ilo of soJar ?t the least expenDiture fr hun
Cutting ew - rieti es of Cane.
The najor project of the '.x errimnt Str=tion
at Camoos, State of .io de Janeiro, is the breeu-
in: and testing of ntv variEties of sur'r cCn�.
LAbiorers. ;re chosen "or their skill in cutting
A D ) e r ) rin- C r ne .
�C � . .t
Trunk of Isabella grape vine fifty years
old, in the mountains at Caxirs, State of ?i3
Grande do Sul. Southernmost tstte in Brasil.
In the mou sains, snovs nnd freezing occur
every winter. Delicious Yiagaras and Concords
also rioen in October, in the mountains of Ceart,
( 3 de:rnees S.latitude). The same varieties
ripen during January and February in the State
of Sao Paulo. As one approaches the Equator from
Sao Paulo, the date of ripening is retarded,
influenced by the advent of the reiny season;
Shifting of t"E tradevinds.
Ehoto by ,
P. :. Rolfs '
Exper-imental Vineyard at Caxias, State of
io TGrane do S1. Isa.bella tock thirty,-two
ye rs old, -raft ed to many .uropean vn rieti es.
Dr. C' este Goobato, State Vineyardist.
Pho to by
4*. -r -
Testing many varieties of grepes, at
C xias, State of "io Gre ane do Sul. The first
plantings ,were made over fifty years ago.
P. . . olf s
A cocoanut oasis in the Sertao over two
hundred miles from the ocean,- a natural pheno-
mena. For eons water has been evaporating, leav-
ing a saline residue but not sufficient to inhibit
the growth of mangoes, see lower left. In a few
million years more it may become a salton sea.
- -- --
Called Cassava in Florida. Produces a meal
that is all but universally used as food; espe-
cially in the drier and more arid regions. Innu-
merable varieties are cultivated. The percent of
starch in the fleshy roots may vary anywhere from
ten to thirty per cent. A root weighing eighty-six
points was exhibited in the Dade County (Florida)
Fair in 1901. Grew without cultivation in a
In the grass zone in Brasil, near Joao Pessoa,
State of Parahyba. Prof. Joaquim Carvalho indica-
ting the last year's growth. In this region it is
semi-deciduous. An ideal crop; needs only one
shallow cultivation a year; stores up starch for
years; may be harvested any time in dry weather.
--1-- --- --~1~.-~~ - �- -- -- -- __I -~�; - I -~~ ---_1.-~~-
Five year old orchard of Itzanma Avocados. Miss
Rolfs and Prof. Correa critically examining the fruit.
The first of the superior varieties to fruit in 3ra-
sil. Imported by the M:inas Geraes Agricultural Col-
lege in 1925. Nurserymen have 'sold thousands of
trees budded to this variety. LNany tens of thousands
of trees budded to varieties belonging to the Gua-
temalan, Mexican and hybrids have been sold. Although
the first tree fruited only ten years ago, thousands
t crates of their fruit have already been marketed
in Brasil. One planter marketed seven thousand
crates in 1937.
Brasilians differ radically from Americans in
that the whole population, nearly fifty million,
are avocado eaters. No other large country con-
sumes so much 6f this fruit. Relatively few
Americans know an avocado when they see it. A
small percent apply the vulgarism "alligator pear".
California and Florida, by high pressure propaganda,
have made the better class Americans avocado
- ~I -- I -- -
/ Shorter legend for avocado
photo. Maly be substituted
for legend attached to
A five-year old Itzamna avocado tree in the
orchard of the Agricultural College of Minas Geraes.
(Vigosa). Miss Rolfs and Prof. Correa making a
critical examination of the fruits. Dr. K. A.
Ryerson, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in 1925
presented the Collgge with two budded trees, about
twelve inches tall. Many thousands of budded
Itzamna trees are now producing commercial fruit.
:n the coastal rain forest, st hoD SC3astio, |
State of Sio Paulo. Cavendish Banana plantation.
Some two months planted. For export to England.
The banana bulbs are set out in rows and beds.
Then the forest is felled. # n two years tAe
branches and all but the largest trunks have rot-
ted, adding to the fertility of the soil, The
first crop ready for harvesting. Ln four or five
,rears more the soil will be in fine shape for
planting to citrus. (See Mammel, Brazilian-Ameri-
can, �pr. 16, p. 23, col 3.)
Half a million eight-months old seedlings,
on Ford's vast rubber plantation, Boa Vista, State
of Part. Before seeding, the soil was broken up
a meter ( 3 1/3 ft) deep. Result;- an unparall-
eled vigor and uniformity. An example of Ford
- -- --
And w:ho :~ s not eaten cashew nuts 7? s
the dominant species on parts of the "taboleiro"
of Bahia. This huge specimen has a diameter at
the collar of three and a half feet and a sporad
of over an hundred and twenty five feet. In or-
chards they grow about the size of citrus trees.
In 1901 some highly productive trees occurred
At Coconut Grove, Florida. One persisted until
Fiber of this palm is employed in the manufac-
ture of various types of brushes and brooms. Some
of these fibrovascular bundles are as long as the
mid-rib of the leaf (14 feet). An important export
from the State of Bahia. Dominating forest trees
are cut and reduced to charcoal. Burning the refuse
makes it easy to collect the piassava.
The papaya, called "1amao"' in Portuguese,
Melon Pawpa. Delicious as the best Jersey musk-
melon. Highly developed by the native horticul-
tural experts before America was named. Fruits
vary from the size of a walnut to ten or more
pounds weight. The most delicious grow in rich
rainforest regions. The largest shown here weighed
more thun five pounds. Seeds have been carried
to all tropical and subtropical countries.
XV. Touring in Brasil.
How to See the Usual and the Unusual
1). Tourist, Y:turlist or Sciettist.
Whether one or the other of these is merely
a matter of temperament. The tourist, whose time
is alv.ays ver' precious, demands ani pays for the
;cst,- means of transport, reals and lodging. An
a amorous flea pursing his mate :ay upset the rou-
ti n of an entire hotel staff and cause a violent
headache for the "Gerente". A thirsty bedbug may
cause a world wide scandal. The grapevine tele-
phone functions wherever two or more tourists
meet. oo censorship can stop them. No dictator
is poweri~l1 enough to proscribe them. Great. de
luxe"continental trains are run for their con-
venience; and expense. A five minute delay is
unpardonable. very day trainloads of tourists
halt at the rim of the G rand Canyon of the Colora-
do for three hours to see the incomparable spec-
tcle . Rhetoricians have tarried for weeks to
v:rite under the inspiration. Poets have burst
forth in ethereal meter. Artists have taken
months to transfer their feelings to canvas.
"A naturalistt, said Bradford Torrey, ''Never
knows what he is looking for and is most delighted
when he finds it.' He maintained that everything
\ as worth observing and recording; sometime and
somewhere it will fit into nature's jigsaw puzzle.
_ __ __ _
He knew because he vrote several delightful books
on natural history. He disparaged the scientist,
because, as he said, the scientist knew just what
he was looking for and never lets up until he had
Dr. Joseph Le Conte, Professor of Geology in
the University of South Carolina, traversed afoot,
the unexplored stretches of the Apalachian Moun-
tains, carrying with him his rations, consisting
of "side meat" (bacon) and "cohn" (corn) bread.
He wrote the most delightful textbook, "Elements
of Geology", ever compiled. The great western
empire, California, had to smile and wheedle to
coax him to her University. Dr. H.S.Fawcett,
one of the most brilliant biological scientists
living, has repeatedly said, at the close of the
day's work, "By jinks, I have forgotten to eat
my lunch". And then looks up at a negro janitor,
remarking, "If I take it home my wife will be
distressed for days". Before he had a wife, he
often slept under trees where he was studying.
Imagine, if you can, a naturalist turning tourist
or the latter exchanging places with the immortal
Joseph-Le Conte. It can't be done. It is purely
a matter of the temperament of the individual.
2>. To Sete Quedas and Iguassu.
Everybody, whether tourist, naturalist or
scientist, should visit the sublime Iguassu Falls.
The tourist should go by palacial steamer from
Buenos Aires direct to the modern hotel on the
Argentine side of the River Iguassui The hotel
is equipped far entertaining tourists, including
high prices and guides to conduct parties to the
spectacular points. It will take about two days
to do the falls. (The great Niagara has been so
extensively improved that a large percent of the
visitors do both the American and Canadian Falls
in a day.
The naturalist has more leisure and so
should include both Sete Quedas and Iguassu in
his itinerary. He can take the excursion train
from S5o Paulo to Presidente Epitasio, connecting
with a steamer on the upper Parrana iver, for
Guayra, the "mate" metropolis. Here he will want
a week at least to study Pnd record nature in her
captivating and enchanting moods. The miraculous
under water explosions; Land plants and animals
adapting themselves to a perpetual mist from the
falls. The voluminous Sete Quedas, said to have
a five million horse power hydroelectric poten-
tial and to be one of the most powerful water-
falls in the world, potentially. Flocks of
noisy parrots and brilliant macaws. The three
story jungles. Presumptious tropical trees
occupying the topmost story. Gigantic bamboos,
sixty feet tall, content with the middle story.
The lowly wild orange contending with hundreds
of other species for floor space. Lianas in
every direction at every elevation, from floor
to ceiling. The fatigued naturalist regretting
that he had allow':ed himself only a week, leaves
a call at the desk. A comfortable and dainty
train carries him to Porto do I.endez, forty
miles away, at the foot of the rapids and head of
the lower Parana River. Here is another delight.
The passengers at the railway station board a
double tracked, inclined cable trolley and step
off at the ship's side.
The steamer discharges him at the city of
Foz do Iguassd, with ample but simple accomoda-
tions for normal travel. An auto road takes him
to the sublime falls; fifty feet higher than the
:iagara Falls and during high water, with a much
greater volume. The naturalist and scientist
will find the low water period more auspicious.
The former should allow himself two weeks, at '
least. Come provided with several volumes for
recording notes and a roll of his favorite film
for each day's stay. One roll should be highly
sensitive to color. A rainbow cast by the moon,
in the mist, is a rare spectacle. It will be
discounted without tangible evidence; and then
too, such a photograph would probably be the only
one extant. Or he may be so lucky as to get a
photograph of swallows diving thru the falls to
their nests behind it.
A scientist has unlimited time and infinite
patience to work out his theme. He can follow
the route of the naturalist or go to Curityba,
State of ParanA, and there hire a truck or auto-
mobile and go directly to the Iguassi Falls,
some three hundred miles west. After he has
spent two months taking notes and making expos-
ures, collecting and labelling specimens, he will
have enough material to keep him very busy for
two or three years to come.
Material for volumes and volumes of natural
history and scientific lore has been grouped
around the sublime Iguassu.
3). To Paulo Affonso Falls
In North Brasil.
The traveler, whether naturalist or scientist,
should make his first trip (the second and suc-
ceeding trips will be inevitable) to the Paulo
Affonso Falls during low water, August to Novem-
ber. Railhead from the north is at Garanhuns,
Pcrnambuco. Two hundred miles to Pedra, nearest
town to the falls. It takes two days by auto to
do it, the road is tortuous and lined with inter-
esting and important things one wants to see.
Railhead from the south is at Propria, State
of Sergipe. From Propria to Piranhas, State of
Alagoas, an hundred miles up the Sio Francisco
River, is an enchanting trip. Something truly
out of the ordinary. It is made by "canoa",
with gigantic sails. May take a day or two or
may take a week at worst if the wind is obstre-
perous. From the landing at Piranhas to Pedra,
forty miles, is a half day by auto.
Three great waterfalls, Sete Quedas,
the sublime ITuassu and Paulo Affonso.
Falls of Sete Quedas, at Guayra, State of
Parana. The falls extend for nearly a mile from
this point. Prevailing south east winds keep the
woods to the left perpetually bathed in rainfall.
Veritable fairyland for a scientist, if he don't
mind getting wet. The rain comes from above, below
and all sides. An umbrella is of no use. Either
the scientist or naturalist passes from surprise to
wnazement. Engineers say that there is a potential
of five million hydroelectric horsepower.
Junrie atuaa. Lc jj
das Sete 'jedes* fiss Rolfe .%pullS
er h'- iLght looks I ik a srub.
__ __ ___ __ __
S.he 1.r Irn. , tIlv;: t" t .s
( C.v.. . h-ils) . .... t'-6 rtp Cs. sof't ,cnY es,
. c L.-l i trol y tr nso n . - -
P" .. - ... ..L' is
fr-a 4ilay tU ste-:Er. T.-tI I'na iS Still,
Sufficiently treacherous to require .n cx.^rt
Se Iras a n.
~ 1 I-- T" � 3 i+o
ir Y I
Iguassd, the sublime
Beyond the corner, in the background, is the
voluminous "Garganta do Diabo" (Devil's Throat).
After the rainy season, Iguassu is more volumi-
nous than iriagara an-- fifty feet higher.
In the center, UIiss Rolfs, surrounded by
enchanting and amazing scenes.
F: .. ol f s
Decorated, n tivc pott ry. Propri, -rip
b rougt in for mrket dy.
On the .y to -flo .Affonso Folls.
"'r:et L ' t . rori, St te of -r" ipe, ,t r-il-
hid on the southern bank of te 3.o Franncisco
T.iver. At low: water. Some hundred and fifty
miles up the river are the falls. It may take a
day or possibly a week by sail boat, called a
"canoa". Nearly all the same length, about
fifty feet, and / eight feet broad; sails rigged
similarly. Palm-thatched cabins. Lodging and
cousin excellent,- the passengers provide their
ovn food, bedding and chairs.
/-See also sailboat under "Transportation. 7
Photo by P.H.-olfs, 1933
Paulo Affonso Falls.
Under water explosions occur at irregular
intervals, at the foot of the falls. Throwing up
tons of water and shooting up sky rockets two
stories high. A canoeist riding one of these
explosions would be "out of luck" indeed. The
"untutored mind" living along the turbulent
rapids o; tuh upper Amazon and tributaries ase
cribe such phenomena tot)owerful malignant
spirit that must be appa-.sed vith proper ritual
and incantation. The spirit must be a powerful
one to belch up such a quantity of water. Your
turn next I What causes the explosions ?
:1rrket Day at Campina Grande, State of
Parahyba. Waiting to check in with pack
animals loaded with farm produce. Over half
of the loads are bricks of brown sugar (rapa-
At Santarem, State of Para, where the
great Tapaj6s unites with the voluminous
Amazon. Ocean steamers pass on their way to
___ __ _ ____ _ __ _ ___ _ ~__ __ __ _
Fencing on the Sertao
A fence on the sertao. Ingenuity and patience
know% no race boundary. Prof. JosC Guimarses
Duque told a descendant from the Pre-Colurbians,
storm proof, goat proof and man proof fence. 'o
sensible man vwuld risk himself or his trousers
on it. Goats can't climb it nor squeeze thru.
t breaks the ripping trrde wind and yet is open
enough to keep sand from drifting into dunes.
Not a nail; not a wire; nor a vine was used.
The only implement employed a machette. A ravine
a half mile away furnished all the mIaterial. T7he
machete cut the posts; trimmed the branches and
dug the post holes. The native carried the
materiel from the revine; set the Dosts ond wove
the branches neatly an' securely_ �Next I Can you
beat it ?
Palace of the first Dutch Governor,
constructed nearly three centuries .o.* A
very interesting land mark in 35. Luiz, State
of IF ranhio.
. . .. . .. . . . ...
n jearaly~ th, i-uie--i ,tt,~. - t-, e , e
4-v 4 .i HHIIk
. ........ . ..... re lD tORir cD. . .
nearly tbree c3.htuc:ies ro but tbe uce of the
bj er.-'tiC'lI bluc ... tito n'-cCU:- -I-cc
N A. .. .
;cs'o. t c L tz,
. ... . .. .
-..w 'd h ,.:.- L -.,. , .-
c 7.�8 4k-
1?~3; rtiEf3~.l~~t T,~SJtc~~~1L~�3 ~~
Tv1' tl.~ le
_ I~_~___ ----- -~~I-1�-- -- -----------� - -- ------- ��-�- --I__.-----.
S. -- --
t- f-\" ].' . .... .r-.. .. '- -t -
T. . . C If'.
__ _ _______ __ ____ __1_1_ 1______1 ___ ____1__ ___ __T _____ __ _