Brazil - Agricultural Travelogue #1.

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Material Information

Title:
Brazil - Agricultural Travelogue #1.
Series Title:
Photographs
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Photographs
Folder: Brazil - Agricultural Travelogue #1.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000208:00012

Full Text

Breaking camp in the morning. Women and

children and dogs enjoy such hikes more than riding

in an ox cart (if they had one). Journies of an

hundred mileA are no obstacle and require only

three or four days.

Photo by
P.TH.Rolfs
1937


I


III. Shrinking Skies, Deepening Waters,
Expanding Rails.

Transportat ion.


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Landing the Jangada, full sail ahead; on
the crest of big comber. Lit on its nose; no
matter the next high one will right it and
full sail will carry it above high tide. No
hitching necessary. Nonsinkable and nonwreckable;
made of balsa logs, light and tenacious as cork;
four or more logs held in place with chunto palm
bolts, as pliable and tough as hickory. Popular
as a fishing craft on the Northeast coast and for
shooting turbulent waters of the upper Amazon
and tributaries. The'full sail also serves to
launch the jangada; easy, for the experiencedIt
Praia de iLucuripe, St te of Cear'.


*


II:2


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III:3


Two freight sail boats (locally called "Santa

rIJrias") on the River Parahyba, State of Rio de

Janeiro. ringing sugar to Ca~pos. Lead boat manned

by pilot.



Photo by
P.TI.Rolfs,
Lay, 1937


*





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"Canoa" sailing up the River SAo Francisco,

from Propria, State of Sergipe, to Piranhas, State

of Alagoas. To visit the Paulo Affonso Falls.

The "canoas" are eight feet broad and six or

eight times that long, carry an extraordinary

spread of canvas.

Meals and beds most excellent; the passenger

provides his own food, bedding and seats. During

high water, following the rainy season, steamboats

ply the river to near the falls.

Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


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Belem, State of Para" Parking space is



trict. Nimble sailboats and expert sailors ser-

vice many hundreds of miles of water front.

Rivers in Para are numerous and tortuous

On the vast delta of the Amazon no one has ever

count ed the pa sses.

Photo by
p.H .olf s
1933
.t:. @
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I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936




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I VI:-


Favorite type of sail skiffs on the niCile

Amazon. # here the ITpaj6s merges v:ith the Amazon

River; a vcrit-ble inl-nd. sea.

I&:rket day at Santarem, State of Pnra.


I






II1:7


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xi.


Traveling up the Ananbyhy, Stp.te of I.htto

Grosso. A launch trailing tvwo barges and a

skiff. Laying up for the night.


Photo by
PF. .Rolfs
1933


1U


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936





I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936


III:3




































Barge goinj up the A..anbyhy iver, State of

I.:atto Grosso. Unroute to Mate groves. The passen-

gers furnish their own food and bedding. Just

killed a steer. Strips and ribs hung up to dayr.

Cooking by open fire in the barge.




Photo by
P.. 'olfs
May, 19.33


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Sterner Ajud&:nte docked ntu Aveiro, St3te of

F- K.iss Tolfs inspecting grert slabs of Amnazon

River fish drying. Then baled it makes an article

of commerce.



Photo by
P. H.Rolfs
1933


I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936








_ I :10


Fueling up. A blast frxm the steamboat

brought a flock of these diminutive nimble skiffs

scuttling to the dock and beat the steamer in.

;tate of Para.


I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936





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ITI:11

























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Stuck in the mud. Shallow draft stern wheel

freighter on the ;io Doce (State of -spirito Santo),

at lov" w'eter; stuck on a mudbar across the channel,

no great inconvenience; Pried off; Backed up stream;

Turned about and wheel foremost she cut her own

channel; arrived at destination on time.

Photo by
P. T.Rolfs
1933


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I .T: 12


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Lonurnt elected under guidance of the
A.uto Club of .rasil. Commemorating the inaugura-

tion of the :io de Jc- iro- S -o Thaulo ighwvay.


Photo by
P.:.93olfs,
1936


1U





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Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936





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VI. The Mig C's.




C). Cattle

Agreste and Caatinga

Climatologically, the Caatinge lies between

the Agreste (grass zone) and the Sert o (desert).

The region of intense annual drought and sperce

rainfall. Trees adapt themselves by shedding,

partially or completely, their leaves. During the

rainless season, cattle find these leaves palatable

and nutritious. ence caatingp and cattle.


I













VI:C:1


In the Arestee. S3Li24ms Ite, a tmnical

caatinga tree. Selected varieties of this species

sold by Florida nurserymen produced delicious

fruits. Sometimes called Spanish plum. That

appear to be burrs on the tree are diminutive

Tillandsia, belonging to the pineapple family.

IT ear Cranhuns, State of Perna:-buco.


Photo by
12332


1

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Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-

board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian

Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e

decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"

Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936


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A iry riveu' bed in the Are ste (grass coun-
tr). .:iss 'olfs beside thE br-s'- fence tht

surrounds a drinking pool. Cow0s claw into the

river bed for a drink of water. r ear Paulo

Affonso Falls.


Photo by
:.H.Rolfs
1933


I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936








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,- nit !Ll:; s.r In;: CT) tLI hores in hiL

't- t-. '1 r'inht r :.i'. o.is ( in: pple fc -ily).


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Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"

Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936








VI :C:


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AXreste (gr'ss country). A silo, an iron

cylinder v:ith openin- at top (front end) thit can

be tightly closed, through nhich it is filled

.:it beans, shelled corn, etc., ntcr t'o e enm of

the dry season. Near the bottom, on the side,

is a small r opening from v ich the food ,ry boe

t.ken, this conserves it from molding and rotting

during the rainy months.

Photo by
r. .Lolfs
1 33


I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936


































entering the valley of the Serido. Enjoying

noon lunch in the 'shade (?) of a leafless

Spondious tuberosa tree. ig.ht degrees South,

an- still wearing coats and felt hats. T\he

largest tree visible as the 4uto lesccnded from

the Uavtinj to the Sert.o. I::i.z tlfs _:as favr*-

ed with the only seat in the shnde.


Photo b] 3
P.1-.6olfs
19 3


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian

Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e

decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"

Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936


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A hillside cr tin ; or- nhe ro' -r:.r rlls

2f FI0 Atffnso u to ,rnnhuns, trte of F r:ouc;.

All_ I e ste ruuts IvE i..ro i t0e Lr 1 vE s. Co

rri.. .ocu1.rir! t CCC Q"' w^vS C hi h t:h^e

rc' Or ctus stc.nd out prominently during the

drr season.


Photo by
?..-olfs
103 3


i





The Cowboy and Pony





The cowboy in the Kordeste (northeast of

rasil) wears a. very different accouterment

from his cousin the gaucho of the southern

states and his second cousin the ga-cho of the

pampas. His suit hUs been developed as a -ro-

tection a -qinst the harsh, thorny and briary

cantinga. Using the material at hand. Leather

hat, leather coat, leather leg covering up to

the hips. His horse has a leather breast plate,

leather plate between the eyes and ears and a

wide leather bend between his nose and eyes.

The horse is a medium sized pony; intelligent,

d ocil; wiry and nimble as a cat. Inherited from

his pre-American ancestors. Uhen the cowboys are

conversing an-ong themselves, he stands quietly;

makes believe that he is listening in. If a steer

is Plotting a break from the bunch, he is all-awake

and after the steer; he don't await orders. The

pony knows all the tricks and moods of a wild steer

He never comes back without his steer. Strikes an

attitude of "I'll teach you". Thoroly enjoys a

steer that is a good racer. Has herded several
generations from calf to oxen or the slaughter
hhuse.


I


Ab: &Ab AL ..-


VI: Cattle


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Accouterments of the cowboy and pony in the

Nordeste (Northeast) of Brasil have been evolved

by the experience of generations. Have reached

the acme of efficiency and durability. Not elegant

but certainly picturesque. Almost entirely of

leather. Even stirrups have leather covering in

front to protect feet of rider an? void entan-

Clement in the interminable brush and cactus of

the region.





Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


I





iodee or sale of cattle Sant'Anna, State ff

Sahi-i, Ere sil. Small bunches showed a prenonder-

ance of Europcan. Ltere hLrds a nreponderance

of SZebA' (Brahman) hybrids.





Photo by

19:33


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VI:C. :8





Rodee or cattle sale at Santanna, State of

Bahia. Four thousand five hundred steers checked

through this Monday. The herds varied from a

dozen to as many as four hundred. Some of the

largest, zebu-european hybrids, weighing about

1500 pounds. A considerable percent were trans-

ported, afoot, to Bahia and other large cities

for beef. In immediate foreground is a bunch

showing zeb6 ancestry.



Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


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VI :C :10


The Feira de Sant'AnnR. Estado de Bahia.

Rodeo or cattle sale, on Mondays. A potential

Will Rogers showing his skill with a long raw-

hide lariat; Neither men nor steers seemed inter-

ested; lHe merited more appreciative spectators.

The men were too busy bargaining for herds.

Some four thousand animals checked thru

that day.


Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936











VTI :C11


Goat skins dried and baled make an important

export article from the ports of the north-east.

In New York, Paris and Rio, manufactured into

kid shoes, gloves and purses, they will have lost

their plebian aspect. Port of Recife, State of Per-

n ambuco.
Photo by
P H.ol fs
1936


I


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the Equ~tor. The r:ordeste has'millions of acres of-
treeless, uncultiv~ted lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enou~ to poduce more cotton than is grown east of the
n~ississippi. f'ot next year; possibl~v not in ten years.
American seeds, fins and farm implements make intensive
rthnd extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
pnrtina cott~n for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. ,9merican educators have been teachfng in Brasilian
Agricultural Colle~es and in the field for more th~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~E~ thr~e
decades. That is t~e ~'No~~deste"
Photo courteslgr of
Dr. ~osk ~u~usto Trinidade
1936





Spineless Cactus Station at Rajada. Has supplied many

thousands of slabs to cattlemen for planting. Such a field con-

serves many hundreds of tons of drink and food for time of

stress.

In 1930 the government purchased four million spineless

cactus Plabs which were distributed to twelve permanent sta-

tions and to 122 spineless cactus propagating farms. In the

Nordeste (Northeast) there are millions of people whose lives

depend on livestock,-cattle, packmules and goat skins.

Photo courtesy of

Dr.Jose Augusto Trinidade

1936.


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VI :C:ll -r


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A purebred herd of Holsteins, at the

Agricultural College of the State of Rio Grande

do Sul (Southernmost State of Brasil). The

early German settlers are fond of this breed.



Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933.


VI C :12








VI). The Big C's, Coffee, Corn, Cattle. Cotton


D). Cotton.



VI :D:13


Prof. A.S.Muller (left), a Cornell graduate,

giving the Cotton Extension Agents an intensive

field course on cotton diseases. The following

week the Agents will go to hundreds of farmers

growing cotton. Agricultural College of Minas

Geraes, Vigosa.


Photo by
P.IT.Rolfs
April, 1937


I .. __ ~_~ I _..


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AA


Cotton Cooperative Demonstration at Lima Campos, nearly
under the EQuator. The INordeste has millions of acres of
treeless, uncultivated lands; millions of inhabitants; water
enough to produce more cotton than is grown east of the
Mississippi. fot next year; possibly not in ten years.
American seeds, gins and farm implements make intensive
and extensive planting possible. American trucks are trans-
porting cotton for hundreds of miles to railhead or sea-
board. American educators have been teaching in Brasilian
Agricultural Colleges and in the field for more than three
decades. That is the "Nordeste".
Photo courtesy of
Dr. Jose Augusto Trinidade
1936


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VI: D: 14


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-Apir





Tree Cotton; Variety Lloco (pronounced Mo-ka'), at Cruzeta.
In the Nordeste (northeast), region of scant rainfall. Pruned and
cultivated. Profuse blooming occurs simultaneously with the rains.
At the same time vigorous suckers are produced to bear the bloom.
of the following yenr.
Bolls ripen during the dry season; which being of long dura-
tinn gives plenty of time for gathering. Eighty percent of the
export from Rio Grande do Norte is of this variety. (See "0 Jor-
nal", Apr. '7,1938, p.4.)

The Northeasteners grew cotton before Columbus learned to
sail a ship. They developed varieties adapted to their needs


h-I

H


and climate. Spinning and weaving were well advanced before
the Europeans came to Brasil. Suits of homespun are still worn
by some.
Th.e Central Brasilian is coffee-minded; He grows it whether
it pas or not. The Northeastern Brasilian is cotton-minded;
He persisted for over four hundred years against world competi-
tion. In the last forty years he has nearly suffocated the
sea-island export from South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. The
European thread spinners find his fiber cheaper and just as
satisfactory. Thanks to the American truck, gins and corn-
presses.
Photo by courtesy of
Dr. Jos& Augusto Trinidade
1936










VT :D:1I'
tjtL* J -^


Campina Grande. State of Parahyba.

Perennial cotton arriving by truck at rail-

head from distant interior. Formerly the

European thread spinners bought American

sea-island cotton.



Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933





VI:2:


The Little C's.
Cocoa, Cane, Citrus, Cassava, Carnadba


VI:2:A


Cacao Orchard on banks of the Rio Doce River,
State of Espirito Santo. The tall leafless trees
are leguminous; produce shade during summer
months. Bemvindo Novaes and Miss Rolfs in
the roadway.


Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


__ I_~ _.__ ___~._. _____ _. .. ____~__I


*~


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Floor of Cacao Orchard after gathering the
fruit and husking the berries. Shells to right
of Dr. Bondar, director of the Cacao Experiment
Station at Agua Preta, near Ilh4os, State of
Bahia. IJost of the trees grew natively, as
under-brush in dense jungle; Others were
planted in the vacancies. Tall forest trees
were left for shade.
Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


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Cacao fruit nearly tipe; largest one eight

inches long. The blooms spring in a cluster

from adventitious buds along the trunk and

larger limbs. Taken at Cacao Experiment Station

at G-ytacazes, State of Espirito Santo.

Photo by
P.II.Rof s
1933


I ---- - -- -- -- -~-- - -- - --


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VI:20


A Cacao retting, drying and storage house,

on the Rio Doce (State of Espirito Santo). The

upper floor serves for drying the berries after

being polished. The two roofs can be quickly

rolled into place when showers threaten or the.

sun gets too hot. Cacao grows natively and pro-

duces best in a rain forest region.

The lower floor serves for husking, retting

off the mucilaginous pulp, and polishing the

berries. Also for grading, sacking and storage.

The dried berries may be exported or they may

be shipped to a chocolate factory.


Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


_ _,_ I ____~. _____.









VI:2

The Little C's, Cocoa, Cane, Citrus, Cassava,

Carnaiba.


C). Citrus


Delicious oranges are produced in every part

of Brasil, from the Amazon to Rio Grande do Sul,q

the southernmost and coldest state. Ripe oranges

are picked every day in the year in some part of

this marvelous country.

Export is limited by the European prices. In

1937, it is said, the export was five million

boxes, would have been more if crate material had

been available. (Arthur Vianna, Rio).

The export is prepared in packinghouses with

the most modern American equipment. Cold storage

at docks and on ships in transit have adopted the

American system.
The citrus industry has employed many skilled

technical men from America, South Africa end Austr-

lia.

Brasilian citrus scientists have studied in:

Washington, Florida and California. American scien-

tists from these same nlpces have cooperated in

scientific investigations in Brasil. There is no

technical discovery of importance but what is

equally well known in Brasil and in America.


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C). Citrus (con't)




Brasil has good orange land enough to

duplicate the present foreign export from Europe,

Africa and America, in quantity and quality. The*

new Brasilian Pera orange is crowding the American

Washington Navel for first place on European

markets.


f





_ __ __


VI:21





























In foreground, citrus grove on grounds of

Agricultural College of State of Para, in

suburbs of citv of Belem, capital of state .*

In rainforest region citrus trees grow amazingly.

The State of Para is crossed by the Equator

and borders on the Guianas.

Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
Oct. ,1933.




VI:22


Southern Brasil. A ten year old orange
orchard at Guayra, on the banks of the Parana
River. The man in white,Zf an Indian, is
superintendent. The State of Parand borders
Paraguay and the panhandle of Argentine.
Photo by
F.TH.Rolfs
1933


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Ponderous and grotesque Navel Oranges,

picked from the tree whose limbs are shovm.

Lichens luxuriate, do no harm, live on air

and water. Near Porto Alegre, dapitol of

Rio Grande do Sul, southernmost state.


Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


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VI 23





The Little C's, Cocoa, Cane, Citrus,
Cassava, Carnauba.
E). Carnahuba


A hammock of Carnauiba palms near the
coast at Fortaleza, State of Ceara. The trees
in the interior produce more and better wax.
Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1936


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VI2:;E.


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A transplanted Carnafiba palm fifteen years

old.


Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


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VI:E:




VI:E:lb


A Carnaiba Oasis in the Sertio. After the
crop of leaves has been gathered. Recovering the
wax is as simple as beating dust out of a carpet.
The leaves must be handled gently as the wax
shells off readily. Most productive trees occur
in the dry interior.
Photo by
P.H.Rolfs
1933


__


U


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U


Home Industry. Fifty or more spinners of
cordage exhibiting their product, spread out on
the street of Joazeiro, State of Ceara, hundreds
of miles from the sea. Buyers bargain for the
product. Only the young, pliable leaves are
employed.
Photo by
P.H.Rolf s
1933


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1 7'





X. Education
All It Involves.

X:1


Distinctive architecture persists among the
Ethiopians imported three hundred years ago.


Photo by
P.~. 3olfs
1933


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CCApVFe IoZ


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