Potatoes, 1924

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Potatoes, 1924
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EXPTERIEITITS IN FERTILIZING POTATOES ,
: v"

by
P. H. Aolfs, Director, *
Esqola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria

do Estado de iMinas Geraes,
Vicosa.



In this artite aLre presented, briefly, the general

outline, procedure, conditions, results, and deductions .drawn from

an exp-eriment conducted on the-grounds of the Escola Superior de

ngricultura e Veterinaria do hstado de Minas Geraes, in an endeavor

to discover what lines of fertilization should be followed in more

advanced research for- the purpose of furthering the development of

the potato growing industry in this-.part.of the State. The fact
^ *** -
that potatoes imported from European countries find ready sale here

at relatively high prices indicates that the problems of their pro-

duction merit careful and extended study. Since the potato is indi-

genous to Minas, the climatic and s.il condi-tions must .be highly

favorable to this species... However, on the average, those planted
U.
in this section give only a very small yield of inferior quality.

OB3JECT. The object of thiA experiment was to discover

what the effect would be of applying a neutralizing agent (fresh ash-

es) ,'of applying potash, of applying phosphate, of applying nitro-

gen, and of applying organic matter in the form of rotted coffee hulls.

SEED. Seed for this experiment was obtained in Aio de

Jtneiro by our chief engineer, Dr. Sell Lisboa. VJhen the plans

for the ex eriment were made, .it was seen that approximately six

hundred kilos of seed would be needed. Unfortunately, it was not

possible to obtain this amount of good seed, so we had to be con-

tented with two hundred kilos. The seed arrived in excellent state,


-a







-2-

and was soon in good germinating condition for planting. Only four

per cent of the seed had to be rejected as unfit for use on account of

being diseased. The good seed was divided into four classes (See pho-

tograph), according to the size of the tubers. Those of the largest

size averaged about S0 gramins per tuber; those of the second size 50

grais per tuber; those of the third grade 4gbout 35 grams per tuber;

and those of the fourth 18 grams per tuber. The last named sj2e cor-

responds quite accurately with the size of tubers usually employed for

seed by the farmers ih M1inas Geraes, b..t smaller ones are frequently

used. Several days before planting, the larger tubers (those of the

first and the larger ones of the second class) were cut into pieces

approximating thirty five grbims. The remainder of the tubers was

planted without being cut.

SOIL. The soil is a sandy clay loamr, and well drained. A

year before the planting was done the field was grubbed and plowed

with a reversible disc plow, to a depth of 25 cms. h.o crop had been

gro,,wn on this plot for many years. Under the circumast.-nces ti-e plot

had several spots in it that were quite sterile (exterminated sauva

nests) and other spots that were productive above the normal. However,

by making the individual lots narrow and long, it equalized the effect

of these inequalities, that would have viciated the results lhad the

plots been made square or rectangular, (see table and compare weights

of production of check rows.)

PLA.! OF THE ExPERIT-L!EllT. The plot is ten meters wide and ap-

proximately 84 meters long. The rows were laid off one meter apart.

The seed was planted 20 cms. apart in the row, ( c5,oOO per hectare).

Fertilizer was applied to alternate rows, and alternate rows were left






-3-

VE checks, as shown by the accompanying diagrams. Rows zero, two, four,

six and eight were left writhiout fertilization, as checks. Row 1.1Q 1

received twvnety liters of fresh a-zhes. :Row li1 3 received three kilos

of potash. Row .IQ $ received five kilos of phosphate. Row No 7 re-

ceived three kilos of dried blood. Row NQ 9 received 60 liters of

rotted coffee hulls.
qvyerJ days
The fertilizers viere applied on Oct. l", l923ybefore

the potatoes were planted, and were scattered upon the surface of the

ground. A toothed cultivator was passed over to mix the fertilizers

more or less evenly with the soil.

Only sound, germinating tubers or piece.- of tubers

were used. The seed was dropped on the surface and catered 'with ap-

proximately five centimeters of earth. A cultivator of the "Planet

Junior" type was used for this purpose.

CULTIVATIONI. Cultivation was continued at intervals of a

veek to ten days, according as the v;eather conditions permitted. At
each passage of the cultivator slightly more soil was thrown onto the

ridge, so that at the end of the peribd the ridges were from twenty

to thirty eentimeters high. NTo M/ hoe was permitted to be used in

the field, excepting to perfect the ridges at the ends of the rows.

The few weeds that occurred in the rows were pulled out by hand.

FERTILIZERS, The potash, phosphate anrd dried blood were

received from the 3ecretaria da "gricultura. The ashes were saved

at our brick kiln. The coffee hulls v.'ere received from a local cof-

fee huller, six or eight weeks before being used.

The coffee hulls were well rotted by placing f a layer

of them about fifty cis. thick, on the ground, then scattering oler







-4-

this a small quantity of fresh horse and cow manure, in a layer less than

half a centimeter thick. After layer of manure was applied, water

was sprinkled over this until all of the coffee hulls were thoroughly

soaked. Then the layer was tramped until quite firm, being compressed

to about 25 cras. thicl:. Then on that another layer of coffee hulls, and

another small quantity of manure was similarly treated. This was contin-

ued until the mound was between 1 1/2 to 2 meters high. In three weeks

time these hulls were sufficiently rotted to make a good manure for the

field. At that time the pile was thoroughly worked over, and the portions

which\ -ere dry were moistened. This aided in preserving the good qual-

ities of the coffee hulls.

VEATIER. The potatoes were planted on Oct. 23 anid 24, 1923.

The weather following the planting-was moist and the temperature warm,

even for this season of the year. Tile potatoes sprouted and grew prompt-

lyand vigorously. On Dec. 29" occurred a very heavy rainfall, 44 mm;.

This wv.s followed by other heavy downpours at short intervals, making it

impossible to do any wor: in the field for a period of over two weeks.

But for the fact that the land on which the potatoes .wviere planted was

well drained, they would have been drowned. This un.-easonably w:et

weatherer caused the production of many mnlformed tubers. However, since

all the plots suffered equally in thib direction, this simply augmented

the number of malformed tubers.

DISASE. Examination of tie field from tir.le to time showed

that the plants were unusually healthy. Practically no disease occurred

up to Dec. 29". Until that date the amount of damage done by both insects

and diseases amounted to less than a lkif of one per cent. The heavy

rains and the unseasonably low temperature greatly augmented the spread






-5-

of Phythphthora infestans. These two factors, moisture and low tempera-

ture, are known to be favorable to the spread of this disease. It was

Doubtless introduced with the seed, as it is known the world over where-

ever Irish potatoes are grown. In three weeks time, from the beginning of

the rain, over ninety percent of the vines were dead and every plant in

the plot was more or less diseased v'ith this blight. The effect of the

disease was to reduce the quantity produced by at least fifty per cent.

A considerable number of the tubers rotted in the ground.

naturally these could not be weighed, but wherever possible, the number

w rotted tubers was counted. All,or nearly all, of this rotting was

evidently due to Phytbphthora infeutans, as was indica-ted by the peculiar

ropiness of the rotted tubers and the characteristic odor produced in

potatoes by this fungus.

All of the plots suffered equally. It is probable, howeve;

that had the plants been able to grow to maturity, the relative standing

of the plots would have been somewhat changed.


HARVEST

Plot' Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot
0 1 2 3 4 6 7 o 9

Large 8.5 19.8 10.2 3.6 10.3 6.9 10.5 30.7 8.3 9.8

Lfalformed 9.6 14.0 10.9 11.8 12.3 11.1 11.6 2'.1 14.0 9.9

Tedium 6.1 .2 5.3 .4 6.2 6.0 0.2 10C.1 4.9 3.8

Small .9 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.5 1.6 2.9

Tmtal 25. i .1 40.4 27.5 21.8 30.0 25.2 30. 1 62.4 28. 8 28.4

Each plot is compared vwith the checks located beside it.

'2h11s, iQ 1,. the plo-t vhich received ashes, is compared with the two

checks 0 nd 2. 1,1 7, the plot which received dried blood, is com-
pared






-6-

with checks I!Qs 6 and 8. Plot 1- 9Q has only one check with which to

be comila red.

TOTAL LOSSES ATD GAII.B. The plot fe-rtilized with ashed, com-

pared with the adjoining checks, shows a gain in tmtal potatoes of over

53 The plot receiving potash shows a loss of more than 25 ;u. The

plot which received phosphate shows a lobs of more than 27 ,o. The one

uhich received dried blood 0howvs a gain of over 113 ,.. The plot which

received the coffee hulls showed an apparent loss of less than 2 i. The

loss ,,:as only apparent, however, since the amount of merchantable pota-

toes produced in plot 9 exceeds that produced in plot 0.

LOSSES AIMD GAI1TS III I .5RCANLTABLE POTATOES. The real story,
*
however, is told in the loss or gain in merchantable product. Plot

i 1, ferti lized with ashes, showd-a gain of over 111 % of merchantable

tubers. Plot hQ 3, fertilized with potash, show a loss of nearly 45 %.
Plot I1Q 5, fertilized with phosphate, showg#a loss, of nearly 34 .. Plot

`1Q 7, fertilized with dried blood, showed a gain in merchlLntable tubers

of over 21 j. Plot L 9, fertilizedwith coffee hulls, showed a gain

of .18 ;., although the total yield of this plot showed a loss.

ILJLFO'1.iED TUBERS. The malformed tubers included all of ZIxm

the large and medium sized ones that budded and made secondary growth.

,-oJiietimes these are found'on the local market, but they -re never con-

sidered coriunercial potatoes.

Table ]J_ 1 shows a remarkable uniformity .in the weights

of commercial tubers and the minalformed ones produced by the check plots.

In every case the check plots yielded a greater amount of iialfoniied

tubers than of merchantable ones.

The plot fertilized with ashes sihowved 64'% by weight







-7-


of malformed tubers than did the adjoining checks, but this plot .-Aiso

produced a larger amount of iaerchanta.ble tubers than iialformed ones.

The plot fertilized wit'h i juuaii sriov.,ed 2 n-iore ,alformed

tubers, by weigit, than did the adjoining checks, while the weight of

malformed ones produced in this plot was about double that of the rmer-

chant.able ones. In other words, the cLL.se that dej,.ressed production

also served to increase the ratio of ltalforiat ion.

The plot fertilized with phosphate produced only 7 %

less of malformed potattoes than did the adjoining checks. The amount of

mierchantable potatoes produced in this plbt was less than tia*-produced

in .:.ny of the checks.

The polot fertilized with dr&ed blood gave 57 % more mal-

formed potatoes, by weight, than did the adjoining checks .-cXn.mt In

this plot there were, lovever, 5O %1 more commercial tubers than mal-

formed ones, while in the adjoining checks the conditions were almost

exactly reversed.

Thie plot fertilized with coffee hulls produced nearly

29 ;J less of i lforumed potatoes than did the adjoining unferttlized plot.

Fresh ashes, dried blood, and coffee hulls had the power

not only of augmenting the quantity of feierchantable potatoes, but also

c.f producing relatively fewer milfor-Lied ones.

LEEDIUM.: SIZZD TUBERS. The weights of .,edium sized tubers show

nothing remarkable, excepting 'that they are relatively large in nearly

off of the check rows. It is to be expected that vhen a l.rge amount of

col.,Lnercial tube.-s are produced a smaller imkzx proportion of medium

and small sized ones will occur.






-8-


UO1.'LTAL PRODUCTION;. By referring to Table 1 it will be seen that

there was some variation in the productions of the check rows. The weights

of their productions rLnges from 25.1 kgs. to 31c'.1 kgs. By adding the

weights of tubers produced in all of the check rows anda finding the aver-

age, we arrive at a normal production for the field. Then by comparing

the least productive check row with the normal, and the most productive
check row with the normal, we arrive at the percentage variation of the

checks. By these computations we find that the average or normal pro-

duction of the field is 28.3 kilos per row. The least productive one

yielded 88.7 % of the normal, aiLd the imiost productive 106.3 ;J. Any fer-

tilized plot showing a production o more than 106.3 ;o or less than 88.7 o

must be regarded as having been affected by the fertilizer applied. From
~/
this it is clear that the potash and phosphate d. -iressed the yield; that

ashes and dried blood greatly augmented the yield: wh-ile coffee hulls

gave a total yield within the range of variation for the field. Or, in

other words, the total yiejl. was.not materially affected by the applica-

tion of the coffee hulls.


Size of Tubers Used for Seed

As mentioned in an earlier portion of this discussion, the

tubers v;ere divided into four classes according to their sizes. One tenth

of each of the four classes of seed wias planted in each of the check rows

and the fertilized rows. accurate weights -.,ere taken of the potatoes

produced by the seed of different sizes, but no moine variation could be

seen in the different sec Lions 'of the plots than might easily have been

due to the variation in the soil. This experiment gave a negative

reply to thle inquiry.





*
-9-

hite versus Purple Tubers.

It wa3 mentioned above that these potatoes were bought in

2io de Janeiro from a commercial house. '.Then the work of carefVl1y reject-

ing all diseased and otherwise unfit tubers was being done by .-r. Hen-

rique .chxnid, he noticed that a considerable number of the tubers showed

iaore or less purple coloring. `.Ye therefore decided to make a division

between the white and the colored tubers. Every one showing the slight-

est trace of purple in the'epidermis was placed in the colored group,

amounting to about 31 % of the total.

'alien the potatoes were dug it was found that between five

and ten per cent of white tubers occurred in the sections nvhere only

tubers showing purple were planted. In the sections where only 1,hite

tubers were planted, lest than one per cent showed purple color ,..tion.

The cause of this apparent change in color cannot be stated at this time.

Each of the sections wanteded to tubers showing purple

coloration, as well as each of those planted to white tubers, was dug

and weighed separately. There was a marked difference in their product-

iveness. In the case of the sections planted to purple tubers, the

yield was at the rate of ore thousand one hundred and fifty (110) kilos

per hectare, while in the case of the sections planted to white tubers

the yield was at the rate of four thousand five hundred and eighty (4580)

kilos per hectare. The yieldSper hectare represented by these figures
were
wa computed from the combined weights of all of the sections of the

fertilized, as well as the check plots and show that the white tubers

gave a yield xg about four times as great as did the purple ones.

In the sections planted to purple tubers, as in thoie

planted with white tubers, there was no m:..rked difference in the quan-

tity produced due to the difference in th e size of the tubers used for seed.







-10- *

There was a great tendency on the part of the plants

from purple tubers to produce malformed ones. In these sections there

were about twelve times (by weight) as many -malformied tubers as there

were commercial ones. In the case of the sections planted to white

tubers, the weight of commercial tubers exceeded that of the malformed

ones. These figures show quite ztmx-y positively that under the con-

ditions if this experiment, and with this variety of, potatoes, the

purple tubers are quite worthless for seed pur-poses.











SUMMARY



I. The results of this experiment should be of great value

to Minas Geraes, especially in the "Zona da 1Iatta", as they show

the great importance of nitrogeni for producing pota-toes.

II. The plots fertilized with dried blood, ashes, and coffee

hulls showed marked gains in the weights of commercial potatoes

produced, in the order named.

III. Those plots fertilizedwith potash and phosphate'.\re-

corded a decided loss in the order named.

IV. At this time it is not possible to say why the potash ,

and phosphate should havd depressed the yield. Ioriially they
.F.
mlay be applied in much greater quantities without doing the least

injury. These chemLicals probably contained sotie foreign material,

such as borax.

V. Tubers of this variety showiing ,purple color of the epi-

dermis, produced only about one fourth as much as did the whiite

ones.

VI. Late blight (Phytoiphthera infestaris) killed ninety

percent of the vires a month before they would have died mor-

mlally,- greatly reducing the yield.

VII. Thiis experiment sha1ould have been carried cut in

triplicate to have made the results conclusive.




w .- --


FJ4IERDENTAgAO COlI ADUBOS 19A CULTURA DA BATATA INGLESA.


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VIOSA






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C l. do i: _.. y o 3 fileiras alii .. .a a l:.... v..i tri.nf,,v

c en tx~L '.,r ...;, : -, ....... i ntat; :. tti . 1a
a 'i .. i r ...L ,,.' ..: 5 file ,.'. . -. ', ,i--, : u ca s

h'e.:..7. .f .-.,I.j ..,'';^ ; r ,- L',. l! f il''. -i.' ,.3 f [c "i "' *"-.*r 'ti-:;'" '-, *! cnr, a$ IB O .

'. ,A ,,a .jsa, o .h tc. i.to e o .. 'i... .. ....

i .. .. t., La A.1' .,.' :.lt -..'. (' _'...t- .' As c .-... r .n J i.
do. '. f os A ,. i"~..~.~jAo -. w c-- c ,e ,,i .- .o3 iiuia er.,cnho de

ueneficiax' o .'e,descaa Ocl.de, oexca da. oiuo --ei.a:j.i-s aites ae ser c.ra.-rada








1-- -X
' ,: _. .. ., d c.".. 'Z i.4i br.;1 cuL. i,-L'.. 'ui-o 'ni n te L : U."Un t.LAo

L -i. 1'.1 c-. L-S. d C L. SC.Th. C C'?1 G ^.. Ci de e2L'C>i$:.;.3 <; :tlrh"!. 0 1%'Ui-i
C,'_, --'-".-5A 'aJ4-I. '0,.' XC,'". 0 -c&. M1-': L.3 L- .
cite..T L_, L.;r...'I quz.. t a.' ,.-,da do ei.': .or0c d'.' c,.. mz.. 2' F'2'. ,j~ r.. .T7.0 L'-"-;'- ..m,,-*-1K
dkI; 1 .-j


2,. .. ,LC. i: L -._C D:2it, C f-A .IL-!- ,
ac u vL. :I a ,: '. . il L r c ;
c o-T'~ i~;!!.'.- a I'-"- f ; c i.'iO .I'j r'" h e .' '"; .l -.*'-;'ll'.t-:.' ",_*. f .- "

CL 22 :-. .. i ].(.' ii. ...c 0":i .. .. i.',.,':i c :;.- :', : .'. e o t 't

.. 1 .; i : t 0 '.*" '" t ": ,- ? a '
'.t .'L Lr . K .C d o




rX' c. lv .- e c.:,.': .. .ra e :o foi : :... . c "T ; .

0a t,.:s *. *.*.. :: I - 0 2* 0

:-. "I, '' ]-'tio " : ', foi '*e ',, ,

OIULnJ.O ... I...1 h '- -. ". "r "t ,i s 00 pi

hu,-.t.i ao e a c . sa '. ..o t.

b .L .-.L..:'':-;L*.. .e > s e a c i is r

iic.'. .. -.> '* '.:: ; / to rs c al s *' c .s. ". 11*j


Co Cl i,_ .. LU ''... .. C


:.", 20i i ;_ j c1.o ,ut "i ,


Sunt ::


,. ... ,' n.a 3 c. ,-... O

:!':';ur L. ?? S- ..'r'C ,

r'0. .' ;O. . .jin

; 0e r io '.oi.:


,. a.fol .


tdlX ev i; 'j tdnou


S ') ll 23 e 4 tOii

*;lio tort ouT;3Q

t0 i '1 -

', "' '" .' do

-, i &t'. o t .- o

'. '. It' 1$~s ''


"}, ..7..- s. .' .i2 t ;i 0 sdio da: .; .. ri ,,..-. ',-." t ," ,'.* fo'sse na;i ]''. .' .**enad~o,
.LUJA .... J..... A

-.23. pi. .. 00 rn t. ': .&. teo .i :u-t w.t.... s -e'i. ../ t .-. 1 ....

iv'...IUK- '- "on ...,. o .e 'to i -I. 'o m'.: ."


Iv . .. 1.1. .o , .. o t l-. , o : ,
c'. ,.. 0 J,. ii ..M '..., ,,.-'. i .' O i,. .-., v- . ..... -,. '

." ... ,.. ... ... .. z,:tj- C L I' '. 0 i .;,.'j -..-n is it .rr 1' : a n10 : ,
.1^1<, ; ,lu *-. Ze ."i'.,'/-'O. ,!.i L .'&.'.AI '' ''.ij ,,^ ,'1 ti'"'., :', e-. ,l 'r j; t o s ; i-l!

de: ;.c. ., .1'..t.L. iiL e. iL e.:. des L. t--, v> w >:.. K:: ,.e lol>sv :. .. 9 i,.le- 'Los

jtukit *i: tib ,,.: .- .'.) ..w', }'\ .,i ",ui.,. :u' c'.. tc -. ,3 .-u; cn,." ; iO.C.vri'., wi.SS 0

ten -.Ir.,:_-' tLt';-i ,, .i:'.(- 'ri, : ; ri. .'!"0.; 'J :..L "'p;wn.i.. L'".x"':: m l L.. aC .a,'-'^".,AS; 0







da Phton1ithora infestnMs, Esses dooi. Lfctors aao beni conheoidos conio

send favcraveis patra erPtJI. ,ole:-tiLa se esplhiar. .i deu.vida foi intro-
duzida corn as sementes, sendo coinhecida em t oda parte do .mundo onde ha

culture de b. ta.t.. inleza. e..oirna Oc tres peauaas de cliuvas, observou-

se que ,,ais de nsovent. poroenta dot L .. nor.,.erai, fLi cando cadn umrn in fe-

tado u1ais ou ienoF serianente con es-a irw ;., s cffei [tos da rnole:tia
forsa-. rvduzir 2 r,.'oduc,-.o, total de :-ilo rinos c)%ncoetnca ,r.rce'to

2." nui:'M'r cuisider.-vel Uo.n. tunberculos apoclre-_rrt a

terrma. r 0.ra. e.-te nao jr.udo'an sear irndos, -(&is er que foi Jossl-

vel, os 0 tberculos s,.Tpo1r',cid';s for.-2 ronta-d s. Tudo, ou Lu.si tordo,

z,,)dreci'::;Lto f'oi duvido *L :' iytbohthora ift'ostanr, ue foi recorhocida
r, ,r ua Viscoocid.-ila e mao cihuiro caratc.tri.sticosu
')&,^s ,jj filoiras .oFfera. if-.gli,--'te, _as 6 muito .,rova-

vol uo :. t- .'-n -r," vlt...: ..k; t4" li....' "i.: i 2 l 'c.,k'_,ii2-dO 0o3 re- ul tLadoB
Oc-t"O.C 0 tel-jasr'. Side, i:_l;L !,' ... .oor_,a :.lt.c-r dut,;. .

^ I 6I I"C 'T3i T'I . 8
.aris, i I. .I i 3 ," ,4 2 12 .. 7"' :.; ' 9,
2 4
Gratds[ ) .. T, 1 .9 3 ,.7 83 3.8


Medips 6.l >.2 J 3 3." 6,2 .0 6.2 X- 4. .8

Peq 9 I ,4 II. I 0 : l j ',, 1

Total .I'. I.r *7j 21 38 o 2 3 6t .24.4 ,...

"ez.se com-.',,r.roo de adcli. ftl-.ir coc. on c_ -i-Wie7 ':Lze 1he

soo cc. o ilocados 'ro r vroi snuir r'-ll;i-"' 1, fc' L'L i '.]iA c ,i o '0.1 '1 ,
ccu .. "r:"-..e coin Of che'ho ieu '1 s 0 ce 2. I 7, fie ,ira : t' .i.i:'.'.la c .';I

SFAJLu.. S. cCO CO f'l:t-.-X' a-.:e 0oI0 0'.- C' U' ,1e I"I 6 Vt l.. I'I ..<, 1) 9 l 1-CI
;~ e -7 f, J '
fm; f'~ H U ',,Ii~ ,.".p
so urn cheoue orm q:ue -.ode or oo",LIp .'do. (COo ,u.1isse "o'.n..e" ,.

filoiran sem nenwhum ri dubo.)





-6- K: ,
AUGIENTOS E PERDAS TOTAES. A fileira adubap:t.'q oint.... '"

moYa Irou un augancrito ;i. -Li-utntid:ule to.al ij'oduzida de 'Trais da 53 4 quaSo

uomnrparada corn os cheques. A fillira fertilizada cor, ,ota,:.-; LijLc.rui

*perd?. de T:-r)13 da '2 ,. uA -iG'-ili-zz.lla 0oo)i .io ha I. C)oa.trou .j erda l -iLidS

de 27 c \ que reosbou o s.-.n ue 8ecco ,l. trou :Mc.7f2u0nto le r,;:. e" ue 113 ,.

A fileI ra quo rcaebeu c.0a 3 dc c.-ifa parcci-a o .J Lraz-r ic iad de mienos de 2 .

Esta percha 1a*o rol al, m-'r'i;ue a 1uantid ede t *t.-At...S c c.ia@Vtrc i.2,e2

i."2aoduzidlas L..: iie.i.'a_ exoe au a de .i":lira kx
"ni -. / .. [' 7 ," -h;,...r \ :. DUC<' Lr A .; x','" '. .,co:w .:.... A qr es-u

-3 A
t?.. c a.)l,'.l, e i.-6e -,,!i d ,v, reococu:,; ar 6 e 0.2-Qracnto du Ca.i;i .i.;i o na

*.trorlucCo a3 J ,;:. coI o-rciaci,.e-;, A filoira c 1, t.r'atada con cinzas,

teve o t^u uto i I do ;..ta:: 0.. r,-., -r'ci 'est; a 3, :_-..d.bada

,. .L.id4 ut-u pIrt i. o .le iiC i -l& ., ;d 4 a ri 5 '. r ucc'itt o
*" u s aoho-u, tl iIL "u :.O.Ui. 34 o 7, eri'. ': a Ic UCi

,* i '. ""' s ..c Ji.''t'.U .iJ liYL i. r j 2 a 21 re ace-

*beu. a casc dt. c0.:Le, ..-ve a v :'. c... :- CiL:..,,.rt':..: ; 18 i: b-'.tatd.s.-

*.co~iFE.zL 1,e:-.;i1n :a.rmz.jjr C," ter .=Ijr, .T t';tzrl l1l.Liiiifl~ 1.G *I
IT '.. .,';: ..; -'.... \L'. 1..: c1,2 ^ le-tb urc.ULo," ;:' ',',":. dos .

iric'}ni.rw.*:---.e tvcu-s as 1, V. L,.a. >-L3 t-".z:nhc.>[ t.-[ a.0iir e :oiL'olo ;_ t 0 .t'At ..1 bj;'r tadot o

e feifto cr) -ci:,01.nte sQcun *,'io titee Ot.t. cul toita.','. r'$r 6 !.rJ:! taos
b tatan eS'.o o t:- -iaRl "*.',- ...."c.'',' oo il, a:-_s w..... d remm ..:er c... ''.C:r2.d.......
. .. 'j fc" L". cO._ !: Z'Lc:i'. ..f *-H

o n. dr.,. o di c-.lSi tS. ) -J ra UtI:ic. u.vi 'e ;ldrdo v t.vel.. l dos

e fei r. 2 C.'-i .-i -j.tt -t,.2 O no .' C r ,pnrnu sidas nUs E

fi1 ir r O Se"'- odt' r'.. o c die ." -,. .:9 W 'N .... ClCr .:.i, a h .A,,-l lu i.. n'r- t ,

C.-lcle, ri. ,rio b-'. ~tc.. maaU ..m -'ra 3 (o 'ue cr,-5,cl(;rci,!.e!,*
dt-de fTlti0 ,do b,. ta~t~a ThL'
Viileira ,c l.'-.'(Ia c.. cinzas !url"eser!,ta 64 e 'a '.e so .p.-is

d. "bttas ;.lforr.ada-3 do pQe oa cheques e.tnti,.uos, nas lan Y,,.e131,iI hemn0o

produzi- maior quantidade dcle b.-tatas co,;wierciaes do que de malformadlas.






-7- 111/
Afilelra fertilizada orn potassa mo.AOld Z;fmleV
-, T I 'I
de mIalfornadas do que os ciienuos contiguos, CriqUu7loAfi9gP iirSb obsetaS

I.Iforrdas produzid,,.s neasa filtira fol mis ou :uonos tAi00o9iv do que

o >ia-, ,0ro;:LmarCi.-.3S, "rn outras pniavr.- 3 causa que dirminuiu a 'rco(1itc%,aO

tUnZibe.n! accresceu a or.,JOre ..0 d ;.r s.als.%'," (
l'i r a -'U 3:; t: I 1 a r.. --n- nr. u, I -'r c
41, iWeir ., ta.st.u.i..a L o,. fnoSyhato ,.odu- i ,_'i, .mtonLe 7',

d7.13 nA s .: .- ,t:.tas iL:J o .x1da., o k& 3 a i chequ:ie's. A q :t-L id.i de ctsi

cu..L.iJrciaes acdS-9 fiLR i ffi ioi ;7 n1cr ,n [u.e LA .L6 ;.iu-l,.ucr cli que.

C-. I' 1i3',i7. 0. 3 .i si' S o usou o a.-,v gue ^eCc cor"o :cd!!,io dlu
1 ~ .Us c-re dati
JAr-! .7^ c- 1 'L l *lf 0.CtC.~i (,it L5C>,.) d-l.- C Le & O U: 0i-i2(.'ei. ^.~r ;, d

"*:ru. : 3. -, :..,. .' i :"J. G E.. L do nue dC,:t...: if:. ...,..o,d s e, iari, to nos
ie Sg c ntijirisfJ-i c ti;- Cc i::Qo's r""ic:,"io e c;taic i -':"ererer.a.
..- -fl.erues con)~ ~~rr ,0-.:-: i.. -r.

A filu.ir'a .ub .La..'. co-, a cal.ca -.e c.r,-fe i.:rodu-Fi- qu-i; 29 %

,c 'oIs Uc b:...' .L:;, -.i'_ l f f" o .. o 0 Oa 2 02 LI E
.... ; cinzas f E C,-l c-,S ,.1 e e C

t:.-'-SP. rtm:u!L..G; citIZ.E. fC' /oc.;-, :z U1U. 5i000, e a : L-L ix. ,e
c-i'6 i.v-^iifszt~..r-i. a ..C^ r nao .3w : :t' 00 ^u.IJJ t' t2r & 'V.1 !'iri.tl, b r .? t ;.3 t&

,ts,- tc ir ^ i ^ '. :. !-** t'?e r .f- ^-,- u..r s~ft o:..;- ^ **r':l* ,*! d .
Ga. n '. I;*-,.' fl Y. .-t t..l'! ,
' (j '7;j *' i j,^ '(2" W S:t 5; ...'5 qflafltirt-de? deo bot.itt^z <3.

*ttr eaL-i;s :io ; trEx. rd.d.. Ae 0jot-.vel, t mo ;cr quo7 21 *?9r-tiva-

.r ceriL _.' .'.r ides e '.j w v.' i -dn .a' ue- 'c .. tti l "' : i;r' o jo o.t i9n

, t't'- cV ,_ c.'c .=o tL. Lt *rcv,.:.:"mo d6 b t:ltc3S vY e.!3,'8 de-eJ i -. ce pa ifes-

t ar tib,3rn. ,
L_ '.-'-,"", :. ...... ;e r -'...%"O, '."c *r i a c-:... -i .dro ... coliheita, nodle se .
n- 2 2 I .. ., ., ,." O (L
'ir que i-.ouvo fl a i:t '.ri. '-, n:: rnduc1, L 1.' v2. '-'a.l Ot :. .o de

.'a' E,'duc:' L es variam de 2Jl '1 s n.t4 3 1 -c3. A',dicic. nndo- seos

pesc-s daB produce -ces d todus c:., c.,':; A L ira.ndo- osu a e ia, obt e.i-se
c; "t~.,~nr.rOrduc- que lr-:c -.O .-0... norisL .-ic: c .1 -. Pazendo--.e cr; nm.araga(
C, or quo3: Jpr'ct'- a0 aa





-8-


entire os cheques de menor e maior produogao corn o numero que represent

a producaao normal, obtem-nse -a vartaQ-ao do percentageomr dose cheques. Por

essas compute. oes, acha se quo a produca.o media do oam apo foi de 28-3 kgs.

por fileira. A que produziu menos deu 88,7 da producLao media, e q que

produziu maaior quantidade deu 106,3 e. rualquer fileira que produziu mais

de 196,3 ou mienos de 88,7 / da p-roducjao mredia, deve ser considerada

como tendo aide affectad'.- r.elo a.dubo applicado. Desta form, 4 claro que

a potassa, a eo phosphato causararm diminuigao na producoao; que as cinzas

e o sangue secco a augmentaram; eriquanto a fileira adubada corn casca de

cafe deu produca.To entire os Aitites da variaao normal do carimo. Eira outras

palav na, a produccao total nao fol alterada pela applicacao da casca

de Co,e,

Influe na producqao o tawanho da sefiiente's?

Come dissezos e."; outra* part dlest;. tr.abalho, antaIs de fazer

0 jl.Lntio, forau os tubercu.los seoarpdo.3 amn qoitro classes conforme os seus

tarMinhos. thr.; decimda parte de cada iu di; clas.T;es fot pl-lntada em cada

cheque e %ileira adibada. De_,ois de arrancad-,s as bfpt.tas, for.an cuidado-

sa.nente _jesadas, e cs pesos obtidos ce cad',. 'ocr.ao, per ta. aaho de se-nente,

nao !aaii'c;cLtrarafi laihuia.- vaaria:o 0 'K or !.a d e e;:-:pIerar p'A,- di'fer-

ena da qu..ll,.Q do s dd 1 c'lo a I.d m.'-1 Cecr :C.o, Deu a e*:).--rienoia resposta

negL.Iva a 1est 03rgu11Ca.

Tabarculu Dr. ncoB versus oxMas,

Jd: dijse&Aos ':ue foram as sdtiLentes .-ax Lo Qio de Jan-

eiro, nL aa- L cau'. ec:iuercial. ua.ndo o Sr, lenreoue $c'midt eLtava vzendo

o traba.Lho da esoo0lhia doe tubrculJos, rejeitzrsdo cuidado:ye-,; te t.'dos corn

raolo-.stiar ou inutilizados po. ouz'a ra"z.-..c equal uier, elle observou que um

numero cornisideravel doe tuba'culos tinin. r'L.is ou menos colora:.-'.o ds- roxa,

Per iBso decidimos fazer divisao paila cor, TodoB os tubercul.os que tinham





-9-


o manor vestiglo da cor roxa na epiderme foram separados, e attingiram

a 31 % do peso total.
Feita a colheita, nas secgges plantadas com.rn sementes rep

xas de cinco a dez porcento da batata ;. brancae foram encontradas. Nas

seccoes onde se plantaram a6mente as branoas, foi encontrado menos

dum porcento comn colorido roxo.
A-si colheitas dae .aecqoes ylantadas corn seraentes roxas

e brancas foram eeparadainente pesadas. notavel a differenga de pro-
..Djlatatdas ~
duogao. As aeagoe dY bi senientes oxas derara uma produccao na razao

de 1150 kgs. por hectare, emquanto as sementea brancas produsiram 4580

kgs, por heotare,/Essesa algarismos representam a colhelta por hectare

computada dos pesos combinadas de todas a7 seccges, quer adubaclas ou

nao, e moatrarn qua os tuberculos brancad ddrwn collieita quasi ciuatro

veyes maior do que os roxos.

-m todas as secgoes plmntadas corn Leraentes rosas, bemrn.

assim corn semnentes brancas, ngao houve differenga nctavel na producono

das seonces devida aos taainhos diversoa das seinentes.
''s peu nasoidos de senentes roxas mostrarram grande ten-

dencia para a pnducao de tubarculos malfo r nados. essays. L,ecJcc 0c

pezo dos malformrados ft. de doze vezes o dos c,.umerciaesa Nacs 6cgoes

onde se usaraz as. sementes brancas, o peso da., b-' &ita., coi.nerciaes

excedeu uram nouco o das malformadas. Deduz-:-e oa~ttivamenrite desoes

numerog que, sob as condi :e-, da experienci.1, e coiu :m varied-sde cda

bptat s usadani os tuberculos que so moutra;- caioridos de roxo nao tern

nenhum valor co-ro senientes,
M.SUIIO .

I. Os resultados dessa exoarlroentaga. devemn ser doe

grande valor para Minas Geraes# e eslecialmente pars a Zonri da Matta,

porque ficou clara a grand importancia do asoto na produc9ao da










batata inglesa.

II. As fileiras qua recebeca o s'.-ngu- secco, cinzas, e

casca de cafe miiostr-.ra,, au. *g.:kitcui ;a ;,roduc-asa de briattae coi:-aerciaes

n', orden ixtcsx d-a cita..:..o.

[I1. "u filoiras adubcidaa cori pot:ssa e pLb.o.-.thato mostra.ra4

diminuiq"n de 'rcJduc, t-o u1a ur-e Qi cita.,a..

xV. -;'!--L ..,. 4 *: iida ,'or.. ue ,- p..otass.. e Aihos-

phato dimirtuii-.i c.. cheLi. a. .orwmalin, nte o0'era er .p licr-.dri. d .r".

LIuai.id:.tdo.S 'A itQ ....iores !elr.i O:W1 a .euor aa io, rovnvel.'.-te
c o n Ji ) ': e t~ e s e" rl, ; ., 1! 'CI:= L e i .! L r ,. C O M IO Q 'FJ O I : L .
contiuiq(rxa cLUes ,i..in t ervz lie -tan.ur ur.:i, o no o bordxo

V. Tubu;.'culios dcss. -,;uinlidacle -que tinhar. colorido ro:;o na

ep.it erom.e derarn X.Io;..ozi," l .Ltt.r r.nte UIM, qLaarto' dia celhe-its L:.: tub.'.-c c los

b i.'"'C1 0 O.
1. u iL I.-. E
tV-.. 0* t Li al a % 1.,61tJ! 20:-3a. ).:P Sj ttj.t^ i; tv E.0 t.1 a1f. !:.. ... L ClO' d LL

..'orurn.c,.. ci aud. aitc (ie aiLn.(rm, ve..'e.; ul:v'.:O T".C)r,'toLtr -.

uauateldu a1as Lli gr'airide diraiuitL':0.o ni:. colht.ita.

VII, i-tn.. haver 'cu- teza obx.i Us '.st ,.;.'dun oliKiEb a

.-ex,)i'Y..:nlrl L't.,,,o ,.Uver'ia V,.sido iuia e t:,ipliu ,0 t'a.





















Toclv as Uimontes Ui C dlvid1~as e
quattre classes de aoordo corn rea tarnaahUs,
aoI iiied~iA*s de So, 50 35*, e 15 tmmus, r
pel.tI, amsto. b0am. *1
p Aol-ioit R&t lejaro~~ a ei
_*' ptp A1.l

. .. . .. . .. .. ... .. ...... ... . ... ... ... .. . .. .. .. ... .... ll ll- ----- . .. ... r1. .. .. .. -.. '.. . ... l l l - Ir r ... ,'- : I' '"















04 01












..... .....
All
te
































































tj '-*







IHB* " ..-- c... '

r v T o-
B 'Y owA




,

Ia priyne.trs fila ve-se a colheith duima seoczo i..cdia
E 7 a que i'oi .dub:-cla coi'i PrLoue ZCCOC T1i%. ra-
zac tie 3C0 kgs. ,pcr hec aria. ',a s a-;.Lt:da, ve.-ae a
co-liei.a dumpn, Gec,"- o a..udimi ,Ie s]Lee. e Q ,. i.'c:. ,-
do ao I.'.do esquerdo da photoLr.',X.phis, v 3-.:. e,,l ..-
Fu.ida ou oonrle ,io S a.s ai. re'3s, c'... ; Ii.. r;;:c-.,
das, (ts comii eso r.edio de 18 ,'nu,'is ,or 1u7,;.',iculo,
e d.-s ,iu:bio pe nuenas,








Campo da experimentagao, photographia tirada n* dia
21 de Dezembro de 1923. V8-ee no centro Fileira Ea
7, adubada corn sangue secoo, e aos eeus lados os
Cheques Ngs 6 e 8. ?.'-otra cL-ranente na photogra-
phia o maior vigor da Fileira 7, quo d devido ao
aangue secco.




i :i ...

EXPERIMENTS IN FERTILIZING POTATOES .

by
P. H. Rolfs, Director,
Escola Superior de Agricultura-e Veterinaria

do Estado de Minas Geraes,



Ti this article -.re prowerited, briefly,, tL;ie tenaral

outline, procedure, Conditions, results, and deductions drawn from

an experiienut conducted ,n the grounds of the Zscola iJuperior de

agriculture e Vd, ,i z:i r:. o .. o tLdo d3- ii-.-. 'er:tC-0, in 'in. ernde.avor

to discover w..hat Linea; or fertilization ahi-ould be followed in nore

advmced re-e roch fi.- thc purpose of furthering the dcvolop'ti'nt of
the ,utato ro',.izg in iustry ii .,zisL partZoof the .':,.te. 2he fact

tho..t Qottatoc .3 i.o-ted from 2uruje' cnudtrias fin., re..ady ::c.Ie here

at relat-'ively hitih priceses indicaLtes that the ,rouloiems o.f' t.ile r pro.-

duo iona mierit ca.:eful i-d ex.tarinded tuily.. iiie '..ho nntato if". inrd.-

genous to :;in.s, the clitix. ic and i Wl u.iiditior; iM.U; t! >. hi;;".ly

favorable to tiLi. species. :-io'avsr, on thlu avcra.je, those pl-.nTried

in this secticl! .,ive o.illy a very ii:a-all .yield of iutfeior qLiuality.
4':""J''". The object of Lhi.3 e:werirjmK ilL ',e; to discover

what tim effect %,oipld be ui'f Lapplin a ueubY1'r.i;-.sn auct (irebb]. ath-

es) of a-j)lying 2otash, of ajjl']-i.i uhoep]-ir-.te, o" axplying- nitro-

gen, ind of alyiria-ic ir-tte. .e ful.m of rotted coffee hulls.

-iZ ..-ed for Llhis ex-eriiaent v,'.. obtai,-,ed in -.,io de

i.jneiro by our chi.-f engineer, 'r. 'tlilo jisoor. .btu tlia ux

far the ax eriment ,.ere ir-'de, io .'.'as seen twiat a1proxiiiately six"

hund.ced lkilos of seed would be needed. Unfortunately, it was nriot

possible to obtain thi:: o,-iou.nit of. good seed, so we iiad to be con-

tented with two hundred kLilos. The seed arrived in excellent state,






-2-

and& was soon in good germinating condition for planting. Only four

per cent of the seed had to be rejected as unfit for use on account of

being diseased. The good seed was divided into four classes (See pho-

tograph), according to the size of the tubers. Those of the largest

size averaged about 80 grams per tuber; those (.f the second size 50

graiiis .er tuber; those of the third g.ade auout 3)JZL" _er tuber;

and tho.;je of the fourth 13 cr.'rms '2.r tube-r. The- L.:-t iaried siZe nor-

rec-ondo cmitc :'. ;, Ate'tly w 'ith the :3izo of tubers uuowlly e?101o7ed for

seed by the f'.LnImer in ..Vina..' Ceries, *),'t 3i;-,.'ler on.i.-3 .ire .o re ,Luently

used. Several (,Vyr before ,-lantins, the l'-.rger tubers (those of the

first -.Ido the laxrer ones of the Becc.nd cL-,s) "Uc 'e L'i in:,- ,icss-

approxiL.LiLig t.'-iirty five gra.s. The remainder of LtL wu.t.iu .s. vs:.

p1-. n ted ,,,iti ut bI 1.1-n,?g cut,

GJIL. 'he.i scil is :- sandy clay lc'idi, .nd ',ell Cr-i.. rcd. A

yea..r before the d'lnti"tT ".:. cone t.le field was grubbt-d. r-C. lox.ed

with a. revwrs.siblk .Ji.c plor, to a deptL o' 2, cr:uo. 1 cro1 ) '..._L. 'el

gro.;tn on thi; ".lot for nc-ny years. Under thie circuiij L.atnces t .', lot

had :evoral z.pot, in it thaVt :-l'er. quitee sterile (exter.iin. Led 3a'va

nests) .u'd ot..er epots t'f.at. 'ore'- productive above tit- ne..ial. O.c'.:sevor,

by ,.A.icing the iniividuul .'lots n-arrow nd long, it equali-red the effect

of these ine.quo.,liti.es, tih-at vould Ir..ve viciated the results hb-d the

plots been rrmide siu.re ,-;r "'otangul?.r, (see table and cotu;i..re v.eigl.-ts

of production of check rowvs.)

VLAi OS' T0 L -,I'P:mIIT. The plot is ten meters wv.ide and ap-

proxim-ately 84 meters long. The rowvs oere laid off one :..-eter aiart.

The seed was planted 20 cmrs. aa.., rt in the ro, (5s,,00 per hectare).

Fertilizer was applied to ai.ternate rows, I.nd alternate rovs were left






-3-

*.cheoks", as shown by the accompanying ciagraa. Rows zero, two, four,

Aix and eight were left without fertilization, as checks. Row N? 1

received tvmety liters of fresh ashea. 'ow 'Q 3 received three kilos

of potash. i'o-I tQ- 5 received five kilos of phosphate. 'ow 7To 7 re-

ceivcd W".ree Lile.. cf dried bl-od. Row -Q 9 received 60 liters of

rotted coffee hull .

Th e fe-tilizerZs *.:re applied on -ct. 1Ci", 1923, YToF-re-

t'iot nat-e cL-t.. I ..tod, :'.nd v;ere ;c-v-ttered wcr.ori Uisurf3.ce of the

groundr. *, toothed cult ivaLor wa,.3 paz'ed ov.r to mix the fertilizers

more o.r Iloes evenly xrAth tha soil.

rily sound, germinating tubers or piece,- or tubers

lvori used. Thc LieAcZ, uios aropj.med on the suri-'a.ce *artd ofter-ed with a-p-

pDrc, i.k .itely five centimeiters of earth. '\ cultivator of tlhe "'"l.-m.net

Junior" tyle ,::_ u&ea for this purpo'je.
"LT1''P::' Try-- Uu itivatitn c,a, cmtinird at intervals" of a

to.-onkc to Len &ayti *c c ccadiuriz ask thze \:eatLer c. .J-; L'iuui;.; pi'cr.rtitted. At

Ich ip:-u:s .e of tUh' Ci"ttiv;t,, sBl.i.-itly Ln,.re soil '1as throva onto the

rid se, s.o tliat z?,i t e end of the ,eriod ti-.c -'id:;ea ':o're fro.i t'-enty

to thirty c,.ti we, tt"e hi ,7: :" ) h 0 oe '.7's S G'' i tte' to 'he jused in

the field 0 e>xc-Ki.;1 to ..erfect the ridges at thle ends of the ro's.

Thr few vTeeds tbiat ouocurradd in Lhle row s v/-ere t:.utlied cut by hand.

F l:.T._,2ItL .... The jo ta.i t, .nho:3o-hate n-:d dried blood ".:-ere

receive.., *Crom t'-1e -ecreLtaria da -yeTicultura. The -Ishes wore .r.tved

at our brick kiln. 2he coffee hulls v:ere received from a lornal cf'-

fee huller, aix or Gight weeks before being u;ed.

"he coffee hulls were well rotted by .l:ciinn M/ a layer

of them &uut fifty cas thick, on the roundcn, then sc,-ttering over






-4-

th.s a small quantity of fresh horse and cow manure, in a layer less than

half a centimeter thicX. -fter sG layer of raftnure wvas applied, water

was sprinkled over thiu. until all of the coffee hulls were thoroughly

uoakod. Then the layer ;,as traaped until quite firm, being compressed

to bout 2 ciris. thick. Then on that another layer of coffee hulls, and

another all qu'-mtity of manure vats similarly treated. This was contin-

ued uniit the mouticl vas between 1 1/2 to 2 meters high. In tree weeks

time theru hull... ic dui'icici ntly ro.0teed to iukle c go.o ;ru-nure for the

fiic. -'.t Lt.t ti-ne the .ilu was thoroughly worked over, 2id the portions

,whichi%- ere dry .e.'ae mointejed. .Lhib aiY(ded in preserving the good qual-

ities of the coffee hulls.

J*.'.E.2--J;.. The noLatoes wVere ,li.nted on rot. 23 and 24, 1923.

The '..eCather t''".lw.r rig the -.l-ntiu rig x:Bs mois:.t an d. the te.a,'eratt-e wara,
even for this ec.seon I' ther yoar_. T- to.-toe-s sprouted and gix-ew promipt-

lyail vigorously. Un I.JAc. 29' ocatnrr-'ed a very heavy rariiaUl-, 44 ii=a.
Th}is W,. B u oil d ... ohLQ-I liCX..v] ,u wn iuur a.ut short intervals, aLkingr it

ir!L1osLoibl-n tu .iu any vioil in the field Cor a teij.-ioa of over tno weeks.
lut for the. f;..uL tiat tl,. 1._r. Con .1ich t'1e potatoess ,er t.lanted was

':ell drained, they \.Li...d k.Lie beC: 'tj..:o"..ed. !'his no ea=onably t. t

.:ea.,T'!-r cau t.ed _h1 I,'OOdC Lciou f j' _uany ,ui-.Iforaed zubera. However, since

,-.II the pi'ts ;?ui'?T-t. r aquaLly ,n tn-iLs direction, this simply augmented

the. -nuriJLbur 0 rl. .I 'l o..ri eQ tubU rs.

DI$. ASL. .,x-i nination of t a field frAom time to time showed

that the plant-- ,.'were unusually healthy. Practically no disease occurred

up to Dec. 29". Until that date the amount of damage done by both insects

and diseases aiiiountbed to less than a hOLf of one per cent. The heIvy

rains and the unzaasona-,ly low temperat.ture greatly augmented the spread








of fhytbphthora infestzns1 These tr'o factors, mnoisture anid low tempera-

ture, are !mown to be favorable to the spread of this disease. It vrms

*oubtless introduced 'ith the seed, as it is known thq world over where-

ever Irish potatoes are grown. In three weeks time, frXm tWe beginning of

the rain, over ninety percent of the vines were dead and every plEant in

the plot .wa-' mi.e or le-,3 diseased with this blight, 'ihe effeaut of the

disease rin.s to reduce the qpu-rntity produced by ..it least fifuy per cunt,

A c-"I :i-cr-'lee nimubelr of tho tulibers rotted in -the gIround.

Natiw'ally these could no- be n'r(igied, but wTherever pocuible, the number

w& rotted tubers x u-.r, (onuned. ..ll,or n13ar'iy all, of thiB rotting was

evidently duc to 'hytb.phtl.ora infe'-:tans, o; wvas indic.tad by the p.jeculiar
....... .in,...If Lt .-Iztic odor p,"l~ in
rop~inost ut" tl,.e rttod tubers .J-l tjv oh;."rarct-.." tic odor Qodicd in

potatoes by Ujirs iugs.

A11 :1 ,-ie ,..o1I SLI..feref3 equ,.1ly. It iz -,robAoLe, 1iOWeveB

that had the pl',nrs !)oexi able to grow to ar turity, Ui. ruieLtive dlaiiding

of ths 1,.-cLs ::oi'-l h e b-i'en uorjnethatt ci:.'nged..




rw - w W W W
SSldi, of Tubers Used for seed

'.s ir.onitoned in an earlier portion of thiz discussion, the

tu.teru' T"ere di''icded into four clessco according to their size;.. 'ne tenth

of eachi of the four cla-ses of' seed was planted in each of the ct.eck. rows

and the fertilized rovs. accurate e weights -.ere taken of the potatoes

produced by the seed of different sizes, but io more variation could be

seen in the different sections of the b.lots th-an might ueaily have been

due to the variation in the soil. This experiment gave a negative

reply to the inquiry.






-9-

White versus Purple Tubers.

It was mentioned above that these potatoes were bought in

Rio de Janeiro from a commercial house. When the work of carefjJ.ly reject-

ing all diseased and otherwise unfit tubers wae being done by Sr. Hen-

rique .-chmid, he noticed that a considerable number of the tubers showed

more or less purple coloring. We therefore decided to make a division

between the white and the colored tubers. Every one showing the slight-

est trace of purple in the epidermis was placed in the colored group,

amounting to about 31 % of the total.
T.hen the potatoes were dug it was found that between five

and ten per cent of white tubers occurred in the sections where only

tubers showing purple were plvjlnted. In the sections where only white

tubers were planted, less than one per cent showed purple color:.,.tion.

The cause of this apparent change in color cannot be stated at this time.

Each of the sections planted to tubers showing purple

coloration, as well as each of those planted to white tubers, was dug

and weighed separately. There was a marked difference in their product-

iveness. In the ca-e of the sections planted to purple tubers, the

yield wau at the rate if one thousand one hundred md fifty (1150) kilos

per hectare, while in the case of the sections planted to white tubers

the yield was at tie rate of four thousand five hundred and eighty (4580)

kilos per hectare. The yieldsper hectare represented by these figures
were
m computed from thie combined weights of ail of 8he sections of the

fertilized, as well as the check plots and show that the white tubers

gave a yield z9 about four times as great as did the purple ones.

In the sections planted to purple tubers, as in those

pl-nted with white tubers, there was no m-rked difference in the quan-

tity produced due to the difference in th e size of the tubers used for seed.







10-O
It
There was a great tendency on t he part of the plants

from purple tubers to produce malformed ones. In these sections there

were about twelve times (by weight) as many malformed tubers as there

were commercial ones. In the case of the sections planted to white

tubers, the weight of commercial tubers exceeded that of the malformed

ones. These figures show quite uomrfl positively that under the con-

ditions if this e.rperiment, and with this variety ofp potatoes, the

purple tubers are quite worthless for seed purposes.









V


SUTShL\IW



I. The results of this e;:perimcnt should be of great value

to .-inas Geraa-, especiL.lly in thic '.na .a I &.tta", as they show

the great imh)oG-tJitUe of nitrogoG. for reducingg pCt.Lt- eS.

i.. fhc .-lotsi fertilized vwith diled olood, e.ahe3, ...rid ucffee

hulls ,hoe. ,Ii. fied aiuns in the w'oigItg ol' ccnnexcial p6otu.ces

produced, in the order -i aied.

III. Those ,lot1 feertilized ,'ith poiaah and pQ.hOzKhnte i-e-

corded a decided loss in tihe order : r iu:ied.
.(7. .t hi.-L time it i.; not pos iile Lo {. j why the potaeh

and .hoi-)hn.te should h..ve depressed the jicld. I:orially thiey

?nmy be a.,plied in mnuchli gire:. ter ;uwifti ties ',iL;iJt.it 1C. iLi t tlIL liabt

injur.y. U Ti'tae che,ic.ls prob&,iy contained uwo.- !crei6n i.u-LLLeri&l,

such as borax.

V. i'ubers of this variety shorveing uIrle color of the epi-

derrmis, produced only aoout one fourtji a.s iuch -s Eiid t.e xh-ite

axless

Vi. L-tO blight (I-hytophthera infe bans) killed nilxe y

percent of the vine u a rionth before they would }aivu died moir-

mally,- greatly reducing the yield.

VII. This experiment should ha-ve :.)een c,,.'Lied uu.t in

triplicate to have made the results conclusive.












La r; e
i'al.

Sadl

ilall


I-


,RESULTS


I 0 1'1 2
J__0- --1 2__.L- ___L
6.5.' 19. V 1C.2 7.6 10.3 V 6.

9.6, 14.0 "('.9 11.3,/12.3 : 11.

6.1. ).2 V ',3 3.4 ;'.2,/1 6.

.9 1.4 v 1.1. / 1.0" 1.2v, 1.


ii

.1)

2 ,


6 7 8
I I V
lC,.2 30." C i, ,'
11.6 ::0.I!" 14.0J' :.9J/1
..,.2 S c,. i.y' 4.95' 2..,: 3 J
i-..! 5 1. ,5 i /i 2. t.v


I Iq- // I
I'ct t a 4e-r _21.3, / 2,.2" 4 1 2 ./
... -7.g -. i : ,, .,, 2 ,'*"- -


iiach -.lot is com i.recl. :ith the chec..s located beside it.
@ ,-lo c.c ied thA .... __ .
'.Lhtis,3, h 1 L.e lot v'hi ch received ashes, 1 co- .n red .'i th the tr.o

c.'ieque. 0 .-rid 2. 1i 7, the _,-lot '.vhich received dried blood, i4 co,.-

pared '.iith cheaues I's C and S. -.lot . 9 hG-.. only one chieque qith

which to co;:li.are it.
Sfi The plot fertilized ,,i th ashes sh,.'ed raini in to total p-
he ot recoini ash showed a loss of 'tl l tc ano -
tatoes of over^ !A"te I.IL receivip n pliosij~hate s;-o-,;ect &. ioss-a .f2 /s^ .
The -l.ot receiving dried blood showed a .:.in ff over .. i,,e plot A.
I
tI ,eei .I1 1 ,-e 1- i f i l


receiving coffee hulls :'-.ho./ed an .i.-..re!t loss o' less than 2 .- The
lot- S is only ..p rent, sine1 the aCLIount of me rchan table po ta toes in

plot 91 exceeds t0. ose in J.lot 8.
The rel. story, h, C ever, is told in the- loss or gain in

-iercliaiita'l.e ;-rodluct. Psot T0 1, fertilized vi th ashe-s, ..hov.ed 2 gain
0of over Il o0 1erbh.lantal.,le tubers riot ,11 3, iertilizeld ',,ith po-.
Stash, Lshowed a. loss of tr 45 .o. lot .0 3, fertilized x/ith nhoSpliatq
Ia
Ssio", ed 1 l loss do early 34 *. -lct 1, 7, fertilizedd vth dried blood,
i lej,/TO fe 11
:i..hwed a gain of over p2 h a.le plot 1o C. ertili.ed ..i tli cof ee

hulls, i showed a real ai.n of i'' tihouhi tl-,e tetal yield showed a loss.






- *--.......-$-4-lm-_ -- ..-.. -/e?__ estt_.a-_r%-t -___ f j4,-
S0 1 2 3 14 b 6 7 8 9
Large 8.5 19.8 lu.2 5:6 ,10.3 6.9. 10.5 30.7 8.3 9.8

Mal. 9.6 14.0 10.9 11.8 12.3 11.1 11.6 20.1 14.0 9.9

?.Ied. 6.1 5.2 5.3 3.4 6.2 6.0 6.2 10.1 4.9 5.8

Small .9 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.5 1.6 2.9

Total 25.1 40.4 27.5 21.8 30.0 25.2 30.1 62.4 28.3 28.4
I I L

Each plot is comp-xred with the checks locAted beside it.

Thus, NQ 1, the plot which received ashes, is comp.-red with the two

chechs 0 and 2. Iro 7, the plot w;ich received dried blood, is compared

v: ith checks IjQs 6 and 8. Plot i1Q 9 has only one check with- which to -A

cotnparebe. a

The plot fertilized with ashes showed a gain in total

potatoes of over 53 j. The plot receiving potash showed a loss of more

thanl25 o. The plot receiving phosphate showed a loss of rmo.e than
t
27 "t. The plot receiving dried blood showed a gain of over 113 ,o. The

plot receiving coffee hulls shoved an-apparent loss of less than 2 ;.

The loss was only parent, since the amounL of merchantable -poL-2toes

in plot 9 exceeds those in plot 8.

Ie real story, however, is told in the loss or g-In in

rmerhcantabLe product. Plot hoQ 1, fertilized v.ith ashes, showed a gain

of over 111 % of merchantable tubers. Plot 1J1 3, fertilized with potash

shaved a loss of r=s# tl= 5 lot iT_ 5, fertilized wv.ith phosphate,

showed a lmss of neari.y 34 .. Plot I19 7, fertilized with dried blood,

showjed a gain of over 215 Z. While i$)t i-Q 9, fertilized vii h coffee

hulls, showed a z gain of 1': %, althoughi the total yield showed

a lo;s.









I.l









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19





GRANDE HOTEL Iwlz
^ ^ ^ = == = = =.== = = = = Q A/e o ( ,,t ,o n ............ -ae..................................... ........ 2 -........
PROPRIETIIRIO
Arcangelo Malgitta e'//, c,,..,
R ua da B ahia, 1136 T el. C ent. 107 .................. ....... . ...............................
BELLO HORIZONTE
S---- ---- --- -._ .. -,-_--..-."47841












?:ZA
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A /^ y yA f-

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^e~e^-t~cl ^ta -^ --e Lf^ /aee / ^^^ ~e ^c^ A^O '- ^ *





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/ 13

E do domino desla secgao ensinar que typos de solo aao

productivos e quaes aao improductivos, ensinar tambem aos estudantes

como escolher as cultures que melhor se adaptem ass differences typQ4,k

do solo. /
I p
SGeooLogia, chimic, physi e bacteriologia sao 7 encias

elementares qner-ne i4m'esta secgao. ngenharia rural,4/auxili ra

muito corn leoantamento das ifferentes g abas de soleas.

7). Engenh ria rural. As siencias 9 fumndame takes para
esa secao sao as math aticas e a physmia. Indubitavelme e, ella 4
00
mats relacionada intima enter corn a physic sob ta.ponto d vista geral.

Mas, tratando se do "lew antamento de terr locagao de es radas, calcu~o

do movimentoi d' te'% assim como constr I Ucao dponte 1, ell6a e muito

mais intimamente liga a a secgao daa mathpmaticas. Lo ar propriantnt

e constrtir systems e drenagem e irriga4ao depended conhecimentos

d/physica e dos s6ol.s assim como consideravelment das mathematics.

1ntretanto, quando s precisaf do estudo das machine agricolas dos
-- & 4w,\'[ J ^-
principios basicos e sua conbtruccao e da forya 'n cessari9 para sia

funccionamento as leis da physical sao irip'ortantismas. Ha preparagao

de pavimentos de c ncreto d das varias applicaqoes o concrete aimples

ou armado, os.conhlcimentos da chimica sao fmais importantes.

S0 es udo dos motors electricos 'req erem mais ou menos

conhecmW e fu damenteis seoaxoa-da electricidade e suas applicagoes.
0 estudo dos moto es a gasolina,especialmente dos dfiautomoveis requerA

conhecimentos de physica e chimica a fim de que o estudante possa coriprehendt"

o uso das different conbustoes de materials. 0 estiudo dos careaI

hydmaulicos e dt'moinhos de vento nao dispenda conhecimentos de meterd'ologia

espeiialmente das forqas e direcqoes do vented.
'





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