Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria da Minas Gerais and a National System of Agricultural Colleges" 1923, deliv...

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Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria da Minas Gerais and a National System of Agricultural Colleges" 1923, delivered to Sociedade Nacional de Agricultura.
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Ttpie "Esoola Sttperi or dee Agricultura e'Veterinaria.
S "de' Mina's Geraes", ..

and
i'i < ,; *'^::, .:: '* '': .... **s eo'*v -.... .'... S e.. -*.. ..er iOs ?n a: e A'iu ~ ~ eo^: ^' "' ...*c *. ** '*.^.... "ll


A National System of Agricultural College.

by
;*:. ,Dr. V. h.H,-f-Rolfs- Direc'tor,, C"
Esoola Superior de Agricultura. e 'Vaterinaria
do Estado de Minas Geraes, .
Vigosa. ...... .



Index.

The "Escola Superior d.e Agricultura e Veterinaria de Hinas Geraes."
Introduction ... .........r..................... I
My -Tssion in Brasil ............. .. ... ....... 2 '
Obligations ........................... ........ 3
Educati onal N'eeds .................................. 3
The General Pla. ".. ..................... .,. 4
1*rom the Governor's messagee ........ M. .. ...... 6'.
S Present r tatus ....... ........ .... ........ 7
-Departmentnrs. ...................................... 19
*ertments Reviewed ................................12
Conclusions ... ..... .............. ......... 20

A 11ational Syatem of Agricultural Colleges .;-.,. .... -. "
SIntroduction. ........................... ..... 21
The Part of the Federal Govern--nt ........ ..... ..23.
*'The Part of the States ............................. 24 .,
Recapitulation ......................... ...... .. 26












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by

Dr. P. H. Rolfs, Director,
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria
do Estado de Minqw Geraes.


Delivered December 12, 1923

to the
Sodiedade Nacional de Agricultura, im Rio de Janeiro.



In attempting this address I pray your indulgence fr my
barbarous rendering of the Brazilian language, which to me is the most

perfect ald euphonious that I have ever studied. I shall never be able

to speak it as well as I would have had I been born in this magnificent

country. Nor was it expected that I would, in three or four years, ac-

quire that which it takes the best intellects twenty or thirty yeats to

learn. If there is anything in this discourse that appears disrespect-

ful to any person or thing, it does not express my sentiments. I came

to Brazil to see the beautiful and to help in the magnificent develop-

ment that had been so splendidly begun. It is my privilege to help in

the evolution of a more perfect and a more profitable agriculture, to

assist in the moral and intellectual evolution of the young men of Mina*

vhich I consider of far higher value than any amount of wealth that

might be acquired or imagined.

I am here as an expert adviser. When my recommendations

are accepted and adopted, I am very happy. Whan they are not adopted,

I take for granted that there are good reasons for this.

I am greatly indebted to my good frieqrd. Dr Bello

tisboTor his earnest efforts and untiring patience in translating

this into Portuguese.

























Lareeab


such

instr








t it is one that cannot be escaped without great loss, not only in

ney, but also in prestige. Minas Geraes, one of the greatest States

Brazil, and Brasil as a whole cannot afford to forfeit the splendid 3

sitions they hold in the community of nations. We must have a larger

dy of well educated middle caass men from which may be chosen the leaders

t only for the wotk at home, but also for the work abroad. Brasil has

ken a magnificent stand in hie community of nations% and is so well res-

cted that every effort must be made to maintain this position. The rapid

ogress that other nations are making will compell us to make a hard

ght to maintain our supremacy.

The first important step in the development of the Escola

perior de Agricultura e Veterinaria de Minas Geraes was to have frequent

nferences with President Bernardes, in order that the wishes of this

ate might be clearly comprehended. It was also necessary to become

quaknted with the educational system of Minas, as well as to ascertain

mewhat fully the status of the educational development,. To have attempt-

Sto transplant an Agricultural College, without modifications from the Ui

d States to Minas Geraes would have certainly proven disastrous.

THE GENERAL PLAN

The art of agriculture is one of the oldest, but the scieni

agriculture is one of the newest. So new indeed is it, that frequently

Sis believed that anyone who can talk learnedly about chemistry, entomol

r, bacteriology, as iealed to agriculture is a scientific agriculturalis

ren the word "science" itself is popularly misunderstood. Science is mer

r the orderly arrangement of truths proven by experience. People, too, c

only xixtiiuxl make .th mistake of thinking that anything that is not undo

stood nor susceptible of bben being proven by experiment is scientific. Th













































is is especially tru<

of Chemistry, ot Fo:








In the initial stages Ind for the present needs of Minas

Geraes, the course of study in the Escola superior must be extremely

general and the curriculum elementary, especially for those students who

lack the Gymnasio training. For those who have had this training, a course

of study must be arranged to pr0d1ide for four years of diligent wobk,

which in the end will lead to a degree. Even the course which leads to

a degree must be broad and general in the beginning. In the first place,

the present agricultural development of our State does not justify narrow

and greatly attenuated courses, and in the second place, the cost of main-

taining such courses would be too great to be born by the present incDme

of the institution.

As an illustration of this gradual development, we may,take

the Agricultural College of New York, at Cornell. During the first years

it was possible for a man who had a Gymnasio training to complete all the

agricultural studies in the college during four years. Some ten years agq

such had been the development of the agriculture of New York and the cor-

responding development of the Agricultural College, that it would have

taken a man, with a better training than a Gymnasio gives, two hundred and

forty five years to complete all of the Agricultural studies without re-

peating any of them. At the same time the Agricultural College offered

courses that could be completed in six months by anyone with a Gynuasio

training. In Minas, as in New York, the Agricultural College must begin

at the bottom and work up;and not at the top and work dowi.


FROM THE GOVERNORS MESSAGE

At this time I cannot do better than to quote from the

latest Presidential message, of the honored President of Minas, Dr. Raul

Soares,. His words express the aims and objects of the Jlscola Superior




































ella pcdera 6ntroduzir e disseminar valios

mnas e collocar tambem nass maos dos fazend

ides e mesmo castas puras de plants actua

i que possamos obter com ellas maior rendi


por isso, nao ser desarrazoado o vaticinio

perior de Agricultura abrira umaopnase na

tado de Mrinas Geraes. "






-8-

determined that the "Zona da IMatta" was the general region of Minas in

which it would be most profitable to locate such an institution. Some xix

weeks were spent in examining nine different localities, after which time,

on May 9, 1921, I recommended to Piresident Bernardes that Vigosa be chosen.

Its central location, its magnificent climate, and probably most important,

suitable lands located on a railway, and axLxx near to an excellent city

were the factors that determined the choice of the site. Dr. Bernardes

twice warned me that I should not allow the fact that he was born in Vi-

9o5a to prejudice me in this matter.

The difficulties connected with the construction of the edi-

fices far so fine and large an institution are both great and numerous

when attempted in a rural community. The stone had to be quArried, the

logs hauled in and sawed, millions of brick made, to say nothing of bring-

ing in hundreds of workmen and construction habitations for them. All of

this is tedious and time consuming. Fortunately the State has been favored

with men of exceptional executive as well as engineering ability for the

services of the hea engineer/. A i

The main building, a grand structure, 80 nsters long by

30 broad, two stories high, with a basement, is read to have the tile

put on the roof. When completed and equipped it will be the best building

in Brazil, if not in South America,which is devoted to the purpose of

"Acquiring and disseminating useful agricultural knowledge". The. residence

of the director is all but ready for occupancy. Five of the twenty build.-

ings destined for the practical farm work are under roof. Some dozen

others have their walls erected.

More than 200 different experimental plots, varying in extent

from a few meters to one tenth hectare have been planted. Some of these

have already given valuable information. The experiments with wheat and








,ts have given surprisingly good results.
For the last six months'public demonstrations have been

yen weekly in the use of modern agricultural implements, in methods of

'eparing the soil, and methods of conducting fertilizer experiments. The

[nber in attendance on these demonstrations has always been larger than

,s desirable. The influence of the Escola on the agriculture of this

gion is already noticeable.


DEPARTME11T S

On a foregoing page I have already said that the general

.an of the Agricultural College was arrived at after many conferences

th President Bernardes. In these conferences it became clear that at

last the following twelve departments must be established: 1). Veterinary

dience and Medicine; 2). Animal Husbandry; 3). Agronomy; 4). Horticul-

tre; 5). Plant Diseases and Insects; 6). Soils; 7). Farm Mechan&&s

lural Engineering) ; 8). Agricultural Chemistry; 9). Forestry; 10).

Lthematics; 11). Portuguese Language; 12). History of Brasil.

On seeing this list of departments, the first thought that

ines to one not familiar with scientific agriculture is that the institu-

.on will be entirely devoid of the elementary sciences upon 'Which the

;ience of agriculture is founded. However, this is erroneous. It only

ppears so at first because we have been so accustomed to the old academic

institutions whose curriculums were so filled with the elementary sciences

iat they were forced to neglect the teaching of the scientific principles

)r the betterment of agriculture. The original Agricultural Colleges

-re scarcely more than assemblages of uncoordinated scientific depart-

ents. Not infrequently &he head of one of these departments would son-





-10-

taujht. In other words, he took the academic attitude of "learning

science for science's sake." That is all well enough for a man who is

sufficiently wealthy to devote his life to a hobby. --t for the State and

for the nation it is i',Lqortant that the scientific discoveries made in an

Agricultural Colles-e, as a-'A as the scientific truths tta _h be clearly

and completely rel.-.ted to the imporvement of agriculture. Does such a

course and such an attitude banish the elementary sciences from the insti-

tution ? Most positively anid vehemently, "1o." It makes of these sci-

ences a "'help mate" to aid in carrying out the fundamental designs of the

institution. It is of little or no importance to the student of agricul.-

ture to know whether a whale is a mammal or not. It is of little service

to him to know in what resP.ects a coral polyp resembles a mullusk and in

what resects they differ. It is, however, of tremendous importance to

the student of agriculture to know the e.-jential characters of the boll

worrrl which is so destructive to cotton. it is also of great im,.ortance

for him to know cochonilhas, serious .'ests oksugar cane, and the most

-,ractical ways of combatting these insects. To require a student to

s-,.e.-l two years on techincal zoology and then one on technical entomolo-y

before he was allowed to study the principles eiiployed to combat insect

pests is one of the absurdities that was committed by the -gricultural

College. of fifty years aPo.

Unquestionably a man iiho has had two years of scientific

training in Zoology, two year. of training in Botany, and two or three

years in Bacteriology will comprehend Veterinary science add medicine much

more quickly and accurately than h6 would have before he had this training.

'It, unfortunately, luring the time he is getting this trai,-iing, some years

have passed over his head and hie has lost many splendid opportunities in

life. Should the student of Veterinary -"iedicine be trained in-Zoology,








Botany and Bacteriology ? Positively, "Yes". But the Zoology, the Botany,

and the Bacteriology should be of such a nature as will aid him directly

in understanding Veterinary Science and Medicine. Agricultural Colleges

frei4ently have need of more extended courses in Bacteriology than that

found in Medical Colleges of corresponding rank, and yet the science of

iuman medicine is one of the oldest. The Medical, Colleges, however, have

Long since learned that it is not essential to spend two or three years

in the study of bacteria in order than one may become a good practising

physician.. If the young man proles to make an expert of himself and

become a high grade investigator, he will need of the sciences to which

E have referred, but for the veterinary practitioner and for the fazendeirg

an extended study in these lines is a waste of time and energy.

The agricultural student must learn the fundamental of many

sciences, ranging from Mathematics, one of t~e oldest, to Plant Pathology,

one of the newest. The extent to which any one of these sciences shall

De taught will be determined by the conditions that occur in the.particular

State. For example, a thorough course in the diseases of wheat is much

nore important in the State of Rio Grande do Sul than in Minas Geraes.

Nor are the conditions fixedT twenty years ago the intensive study of

rice in Minas Geraes would not have been worth while, but todgy it should

receive extensive and intensive consideration.

The basic departments fr t.he Escola Superior de Agricultura

e Veterinaria do Estado de MIinas Geraes have been indicated. It has also
been shown that while none of the elementary sciences are designated as

departments, these fundamental sciencess must be taught. Where, then, shall

they be taught ? Each fundamental science will be taught by the Department

to which it is most helpful and to which it is most closely related.











































+r n r -P r


ai nied in


departments, the relat






-13-

1). Veterinary Science and Medicine. The practical application

of the teachings of this department is evident to all when an animal is

sick. But it is not so apparent that it is much easier and more profit-

able to keep the animal in good health than to cure it after it has become

sick. Every time an animal dies, the individual owner, the community,

the State and the Nation loose thereby. The owner 1boses the value of

the selling price; the community looses the benefit of the circulation

of the money; the state and. n tion loose the taxes and the opportunity

to use these taxes to make needed internal improvements. Everybody, whe-

ther they know it or not, is directly affected by the health of the live-

stock in a community.

Some of the elementary sciences that contribute to a

reasonable understanding of Veterinary Science and medicine are,- Gen-

eral Zoology, General Botany; Bacteriology, General Chemistry; Physics'.

and of course enough of bMathematics to enable the student to male com-

Putations quickly and accurately.
Science
The Department of Veterinary xi-zfx e and Medicine will

lay especial emphasis on the study of the anatomy of dsassxi domestic

animals, parasitology, surgery, medicine, and preventative measures.
a

2). Animal Husbandry. The important features of this department

are: breeding and raising of domestic animals, dairying, pork production,

poultry raising, the study of proper foods and balanced nations, the study

of the laws of heredity and hybridization, the sjlAughter of animals and

the preservation of animal products. Dairying, owing to its great impor-

tance in Minas Geraes, will receive special attention.

The manufacture of condensed milk, of butter and of cheese

are among the greatest wealth producers of vivilized countries.








Zoology, Bacterology, Chemistry, and. Physics are somns of

the elementary sciences which contribute to the understanding of the work

Ln this department.

3). Agronomy. This department beats a similar relation to the

plant kingdom that the Bepartment of Animal Husbandry bears to the ani-

nal kingdom. In Minas Geraes sugar canei coffee, and the grains are the

great rioney producers. As the number of crops /i.4')$A,/ increases and

the labor cost of production is reduced, the wealth of the State will in-

crease.
*A feature of this department that till receive special

attention is that of making it possible to produce more tons of sugar cane,

nore rice, or more of what ever other crop is planted, with the same numv

ber of laborers now used, or with fewer. This will come about by employ-

ing improved implements and by plant breeding and hybridization.
Botany, Bacteriology, Entomology, and Geology are some of

the elementary sciences which are fundamental to this department. Without

an elementary knowledge of Botany, the fazendeiro would not go far in

plant breeding and selection without making serious and costly errors.

4). Horticulture. This department includes Vomiculture, Vegeta-

ble Aev-" and Floriculture. The art of horticulture is one of the old-

est to be practised by the human race. In recent years the underlying

principles have been so well worked out that such products as oranges,

apples, pineapples, grapes and peaches are gvwwn in such quantities that

they are freely exchanged between the northern and southern hemispheres,

and between the eastern and western hemisphere. This exchange adds not
__ .-I +_^ +1- -^In "oIi. ->+ n I r c tn +r%+h,- 'hPa +-I h 1 +1 f th"hp. wnr I d 'Inn i den ta.-nv^








The basic principles of plant breeding and. hybridization

taught in this department are the same as those taught in the department

of Agronomy, but their application., is very different. For example, the

perpetuation of a variety of oranges is very different from the perpetua-

tion of a variety of cotton.

Botany, Chemistry,: Physics,: Entomology, and -1lant Patholo

contribute to this department as adjunct sciences.


5). Plant Diseases and insects. It is frequently remarked by

observant fazendeiros that plant diseases and insects are becoming more

numerous and more troublesomej- this is in accordance with the facts. It

is a never ending warfare between man and these pests, Insects, with the

marvelous power of reproduction, and plant diseases have in nany cases

destroyed man's ability to produce profitably certainn crops in certain

places. Van, with his superior intellect, has applied means to annihilat

insects and plant diseases. There is a battle royal between man and his;

severest enemies,- insects and plant diseases.

In this department special stress will be laid on the prin

ciples employed to combat these diseases alkd pests, as well as the princi

ples Underlyin their prevention. Man has distributed and propagated, unwi
diseases
tingly, more plant dhdeases and insect pests than any other one agency.

Botany, Bacteriology, Zoology, Chemistry, and physics con-

tribute to this department as elementary sciences.

Formerly Plant Pathology consisted'principally in collect-

ing diseased plants, drying parts of them, then labelling the packets. En

tomology consisted in collecting, labelling and preserving a mpscellaneou

lot of insects. The present day students of Plant Pathology and Entomol

ogy consider these only incidental. The important problem is that of
.controlling or destroying plant diseases and insect pets.. .






-16-

6). Soils. This is one of the newer departments to be estab-

lished in Agricultural Colleges. As yet only af ew farmers realize the

value of making maps of the different soil areas on a fazenda. It is not

generally recognized by our fazendeiros that certain types of soils which

are unproductive when planted to certain crops give good harvests when

a different crops is planted in that same field. The fazendeiro

by costly experience that certain of his fields to dot produce well and

abandons them. GFormerly it was thought that a chemical analysis ok Ahe

soil would reveal the cause of the unppoductiveness, but the problem is

more complicated nxx than was at first supposed. Some soils which are

chemically very fertilel are unproductive, and others which from a chen

ical point of view are very "sterile" produce large crops.

The province of this department is to teach what types of

soiaare productive and which are not productive, and also to teach the

student how to choose the crops which are best suited to particular soil

types.
Geology, Chemistry, Physics, and -acteriology are elements

sciences that contribute to this department. Rural engineering will helr

much in the matter of making soil surveys.


7). Rural Engineering. The fundamental sciences for thit- depax

ment are Iathematics and Physics. Undoubtedly, it is most closely allied

to Physics from a general standpoint, but In such work as land surveying

the location of roads, the calculation of cuts and fills, as well as in

the construction cf fari bridges, it is quite closely allied to the sub-

ject of Mathematics. So properly locate and construct drainage and irri

nation systems, one must have a knowledge of Physics and of Soils, as wc

as of Mathematics. However, when it comes to the study of farm machines

th&basic principles of their construction, and the power required for







-17-.
t heir operation, the laws ot Physics are uppermost. In the preparation

of concrete floors, concr ete farm appliances, and. similar necessidtibeg

a' knowledge of Chemistry is more important.

The study of the electric motor requires more or less funda-

mental information regarding the nature and behavior of electricity. The

study of the gasoline motor, and especially of the automobile engine, re-

quires a knowledge of Chemistry and -hysics in order that the student may

comprehend the use of different combustion materials. A study of the hy-

'draulic ram and windmills will bring in a necessity of knowing more or

less about meteDrology, especially about the forces and directions of the

wind.

8). Agricultural Chemistry, Chemistry is one of the oldest sci-

ences to be applied to agricultural use. It would be impossible for an

ordinary man to learn all that is taught in Chemistry in a life time. A

course of study to fit the average man to be an investigator in Agricultura

:,^:^ Chemistry will take at least eight years, after he shall have finished the

G,: ymnasio. But a brief course in General Chemistry, followed by a brie. one

in Organic Chemistry, considering especially those subjects allied to

farm practises, will enable the student to comprehend what otherwise would
* ~be as a closed book to him. For Minas, the Chemistry of sugar production,

of alcoholic fermentationythe action of enzyme in the curing of coffee

will be of great importance. A brief study of tfhe poisonous and toxic
plants and the effects of the toxin chemicals is another of the attenuated

subjects that we can study to advantage. Naturally the physiological

Effects of these toxic materials will be taught in the Department of Vet-

erinary Science, while the Chemistry of these same products more properly
belongs to the Department of Chemistry. "






































rage fazendeiro has no rearns of knowing the

Shis logs and lumber, nor how to prevent thE

1.


)). Mathematics. There is probably no other

;o important to the comprehension of the oth

)r accurate and careful work as M1athematics.

branches of this subject are of little or n

-ideiro, but Arithmetic, Algebra, Plain Geome
---.4-- ; 4 + 1in n ^"A n l ayn P R rn hnnook kee-ni






-19-

animals has or have been profitable and which unprofitable, and how

much he has profited or lost from each.


11). The Biasilian Language. In the present state of our

educational advancement there are only a few young men who have had the

advantages of a well rounded course in the brfilian language. It is of

graat importance to the Brasilian fazendeiro that he shall be able to

understand the workx on agriLulture in this country. To be able to

quote extensively from the world's masters of literature is very nice,

indeed, but this would be of very little service to a fazendeiro when

a disease or an insect threatened to destroy his crops or his herds. He

must either know immediately wh t to do, or be able to read understand-

ingly in his books on agricultural subjects until he shall find a reme-

dy for his trouble, if there be a known remedy.

Of only secondary importance to the fazendeiro but of

very nxa great importance for the rapid development of agriculture in

our country is it that the fazendeiro can write in his native language

so clearly that his readers mayd comprehend his experiments and their

results beyond the question of a doubt. The new fazendeiro will have

many experiences with seed selection, animal breeding, the combatting

of insects, and the prevention of diseases, which if published will

be 4 of great value to his fellow faxendeiro.


12). History of -rasil. Brafll, with her unspotted past, her

brilliant and illuminating present and her weal th of promises for fu-

ture greatness, makes the best among the great nations 6f the world

for the youth to stydy. The splendid idealism which has ever held up

the beautiful has rounded into the character of her people. Whenever

she has drawn her sword it has been in the cause of liberty and peace.







-20-

Never has she placed. it back In the sheath again without honor to herself

iNo better example among the great nations of the world can be selected

as the ideal for the young man to study. No better study can be proposed

for inculcatiLg patriotism than the history of ]Brasil. No one can be

a well :rounded man unless he is a loyal patriot. :o he a loyal patriot

requires more than lip service. For the establishment of the sentiment

of love of country there is necessary a firm foundation bf the knowledge

of the past glories and present worth of one's country. It is the duty

of the State and of the Nation to give the opportunity to each youth to

make of himself the most perfect man possible.: It is clear, then, that

we shall not have fulfilled our duty unlesss we establish a strong depart-
ment of "Brasilian Hisory" in the Escola SupErior dd Agricultura e

Veterinaria.

CONC1LUS IONS
1). The primary object of the Agricultural College is to make

better m$Ln and better citizens. Morality, honesty, sincerity and sim-

plicity are qualities whih lay the. foundation for good citizenship and

for patriotism.

2). An Agricultural College established and conducted on the

plans adopted by Minas is one of the most valuable, if .not the most val-

uable, assets which a State can have.

3). This Agricultural College lays special emphasis on those
studies which contribute directly to the augmentation of farm crops and

to the raising of better domestic animals.
4). The elementary sciences will be taught only to the .extent

necessary to a clear comprehension of the sciences which augment crop






-21-

f The course of study will be altered from year to year

to adapt it to the educational development of the young men and to the

agricultural needs jof the State.



A NATIONAL SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES


S..... Herewith is presented a vexy brief outline of my opinions

resulting from over thirty years of personal experience in Agricultural

Colleges in the United States of north America, and nearly three years

of earnest struggle for the establishnMiina- of a practical Agricultural

College AnMinas Geraes. It has been my fortunate fate, to have taken

every step in an Agricultural College, from that of a prospective stu-

dent desiring to matriculate, to a graduAte, post graduate, assistant

professor, head of a department, scientific investigator, to the direc-;

torship (in that country termed "Dean".)

No more glorious chapter has been written in the annals

of the United States of America than that of the establishment and dev-

elopment of the modern agricultural schools, or colleges. Justin Morrij

Federal Senator (United States of America) had the vision of a prophet

when in 1862 he secured the passage of the Agricultural College Act,

which established federal funds foxthe aid of Agricultural ,olleges. He

did not appreciate the fact that he was erecting for himself forty eight

grand monuments, more enduring than any of granite. If there is someone

here present today who is so fortunate as to be the leader in this grand

enterprise in the United States of brasil, the rest of us will each do

.his share in promoting this most worthy cause .

Time does not permit us to consider the history and the

development of these Agricultural Colleges.' We shall have to content


















































































































U U I LU






-23-

THE PART OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

To secure a system of Agricultural Golleges will require the

cooperation of the nation and of the various Dtates, liaturally the national

statesmen will take the initiative in this matter. MIy recommendation is that

Federal Government establish certain definite annual sums, equal for all

the States. This favors the weather States, but is not unjust, because

these need aid very much more than do the stronger States. Also it is

much more democratic to have the States share equally. Eventually the

States will repay the nation many hundred fold on this investment. The

amounts of money contributed by the -ederal Government should be sufficient

to make the proposition so attractive that every State will establish a

real Agricultural College. If five hundred contos were decided upon as

azzmmnmta a reasonable annual amount for a school more than five years old,

it would be wise for the law to kaxgrxWbr be so framed that the first

year the school would receive only two hundred and fifty contos. Each

following year the amount received the year before would be increased by

fifty contos. Thus, by the sixth year, the amount wt.udd be five hundred

contos annually, and this would constitute the statutory annual appro-

priation Lnereafter. In this way the money would be spent much more

judiciously, and the Escolas would be much better institutions than if

appropriations worthy of schools well established were paid from the

beginning.

As the Agricultural College is an institution for the bet-

terment of agriculture, it would seem to be most logical to entrust the

Minister of Agriculture with the administration of the laws governing this

system of schools. In the United States the act establishing federal funds
their
for the aid of agricultural colleges placed the responsibility of flft








iscalization under the Department of the Interior, presumably bedauae

t ithe time the law was passed there was no Department of Agriculture.

subsequent Acts, known as the Hatch Act, establishing Federal funds for

he state Agricultural Experiment Stations, and the Agricultural Extention

:tb, empower the Department of Agriculture with the fiscalization oC their

unds. The funds are administered bhy the Agricultural Colleges. There is

o doubt' in my mind .that if there had bee!i a Department of Agriculturd,

he fiscalization of the Agricultural Colleges would have been entrusted

o that Department.

The IMinister of agriculturee should be empowered tfo send

fiscal agent to each Agricultural College toward the end of each fiscal

ear to determine wether the spirit and the intent of the law were being

carried out, and also to determine if the money were being properly and

honestly spent for the purposes designated IfX the funds had npt been

ixurxidX properly expended, the Minister of Agriculture would notify the

:61lege, and if proper restitution were not made, he would notify the De-

artment of Finances, & would withhold future allowances.

THE PART. OF THE SUTE.

Land. The State x mk should be required to furnish not

ess than 200 hectares of arable lands, 50 of which should be used for

experiments and demonstrations under the direct control of the various

.eads of the Depa rtments mentioned below.

Location. The site for the College should be central to the

arming population of the State, and not more than two kilometers from a

ity sufficiently large to supply the students and professors with food

and clothing. (A site near a large commercial center is undesirable, but

.s bkxx better than one distant from a railway or more than twe kilometers






-25-

from a city).

Buildings. Suitable buildings for laboratories and class/ room.

should be constructed by the 6tate. There should be not less than 2,000

square meters of floor space in the laboratories. The less populous Sta-

tes will content themselves with commodious one-story laboratory buildingE

while the wealthier States will vie with one another in putting up magni-

ficent edifices.

Course of Study. The Federal Government should make no attempt

to prescribe & definite course of study. There is probably nothing more

deadening than to attempt to introduce a prison lock step gait into a

system of educational institutions. There are no two States in the Union

alike and the Agricultural Colleges should be as different as their phy-

sical surroundings and the4 educational development of their respective

States. The institutions of the States in the extreme south should give

much attention to the growth of corn and the cereals; -3ahia to cacao,

Amazonas to the production of rubber, and in others the production of

coffee shoudaL receive much attention. The courses of study should vary

to suit the agricultural needs of each particular ktate.

The Federal Government, through its fisc-al agents, Bhould

require that the Federal monies of the original appropriations be spent

only for the payment of salaries, the buying of equipment and supplies,

and for paying the expenses of conducting the following Departments: 1).

Veterinary Science and IvMedicine; 2). Animal Husbandry; 3). Agronomy; 4).

Horticulture; 5). Plant Diseases and insects; 6). Agricultural Chemistrj

7).Soils; 8). Rural Engineering: 9). Silviculture. All of these depart-

ments need not be established at t he beginning, but when a department

has once been established it should not be possible to abolish it without

the consent of the Federal GXovernment. The wealthier statess will






-26-

vc=. appropriate additional funds to supplement those of the Federal

Government for the enlargement of these departments. Another impor-

'tant Mvision that should be made is that the heads of the departments

must give all of their time to the work of that department, and teach

in no other, nor hold any other remunerative office, whether private

or public. This will obligate the State to pay salaries sufficiently

large to attract able men.

The cost of tie construction of the buildingsand their

repaf|s shouMd be born by the State,qas should the expenses far the

construction and repairs of roads, fences, and the beautification of the

premises. In fact, all expenditures not directly connected with the

above mentioned departments should be born by the State.

... Naturally the Escola will need other departments, such

as that of the Braalian language, Mathematics, History of 'rasil,

Physics, Military Science and others. The expenses of these departments,

ijhether paid by the Federal Government or by the State Government,

should come from other sources than from this original act.


TO BRECAPITULATE

1). The Federal Government would furnish the basic fund

to maintain and conduct those Departments that add directly to the nat-

ional wealth. The National Government would fiscalize rigidly and

honestly to make sure that these i'unds were expended for the purposes

des ignated.
Bach
2). k- State Government would be entirely free to arrange

a course of study that would be best adapted to its particular needs,

and to modify this course of study to meet the changing conditions of

the agricultural industry of the -tate.







-27-

3). The fiscal agents sent out b~y the Mdinisterio da Agricul-
tura would be men well versed in the ideals oef the modern Agricultural

College. They would also be well versed in the best and simplest form

of book keeping and accounting for an Agricultural College. These

agents would come to the institutions as friendly advisors, helping

them by advice and council to keep them from going wrong. The Minister

of Agriculture would use 1J executive power only when the authorities

of an institution, through neglect or by apparent intention, misapply
the funds of the school.

4). This cooperative arrangement between the nation and the

state will have a splendid effect in leaguing each state to the nation,

as a whole, especially will this be true of the more distant and less
populous States. ..
5). The effects of this system of Agricultural Colleges on the

welfare and the wealth of the nation will be far beyond the most Euto-

plan dreams of those who are now struggling so manfully and earnestly

for a more glorious Brasil.
6). Finally, I want to thank you, Mr. President and Gentelmen,

for your patience and your sympathetic attention to my discourse. I

have never found a more sympathetic audience. My rendering of this

discourse has been very cuude. I give you my sincere thanks for your

kind indulgence, and hope' that I may be of some small service, not

only to Yinas Geraes, but to Brqsil as a -whole. If I can serve you,

you have only to command me. There is no greater pleasure to me than

to honestly and faithfully help in the development of a more perfect
civilization in this glorious nation.












The "IEscola 6up)erior de 'gricultura e Voterinaxia
de inas Geraes"

and

A National SyBtem of Agricultural Colleges.


by

Dr. '. H-. I -clfs, director,
Escola superior de A-gricultura e Veterinaria
do Estadc de 'inas feracu,
Vigosa.

*


Index.

The "2scor)L. Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria de Uinas Teraes.

Introduction ... ..................... i.
My mission fn Bras ............. ............ 2'
nblig-,tions ... .................................... 3
Educational ]Leeds... .. ......................... 3
The ctcra.l Pr la ........................ ....... .. 4
Krom the Governor's Xkessagr ............. ......... 6
Present -t tus ..................................... 7
Departments ........................................ 9
Dler-artmenta '.Levieve'.e. ....................... .12
Conclusions.............. ................. 20


A National iyatera (f A;rioultuirl Colleges.

Introduction.......................... .......... 21
The Part of the Oederal Uovernre nt............ 23
The Part of the Ltotes ........................... 24
flec.-.pitulation............... ............ ...... 26







~4
*I.






I1

/
I


/


bD
I Dr. V. U. 1olfs7\Jarct 1
E cor. upeti r d rl Iulv t:aq e/ter (a i
ed iE stal dt/W ri v Geri

Delivered Deceruber 12, 1923
to the
Sotiedade .1acional de Agricultura, in Rio de Janeiro.


In a.tte.!iptirng thi2 address I pray your indulgence f ry !
barbarous rendering of the Brazilian language, which to me i.r the most
perfect abd euphonious that I have ever Qtudied. I shall neve-x be able
to speak it as well as I would have had I been born in this magnificent
country. Nor was it expected that I vuould, in three or four years, ac-
quire that which it takes the beHt intellects twenty or thirty yeats to
learn. If there is anything in this discourse Wiat appears disrespect- :
ful to any person or thing, it does not express Liy sentiments. I came
to Brazil to see the beautiful .nd to help in the rna.gnificent develop-
meont that had been so splendidly begun. It is my privilege to help in
thn evolution of a .ore .,erfect and a more profitable agriculture, to
assist in thu moral and intellectual evolution of the young men of Tlinaf
"l'ich I consider of far hither value than any -naount of wealth that
might be acquir.ed or imagined.
I an here as an expert adviser. Then my recommendations
are accepted and adopted, I i very happy. han titcy are not adopted,
I take for granted that there- are good reasons for this.
I mm greatly indebted to imy good frieiri. Dr .ello -
Lisb iftor his darnet efforts and untiring atience in translaing .
this into i'ortuguese.
I aI, very much indebted to you Uir. President, for tkje


I
I

Ii


/






.-P-

-2 ,-
kinr4I invitation t4 present to this Society the ideals that are gov- \

Oling ,i-y line of/i'o: in ".ina. s


TY MTSSICN IN B3RAVIL

The G'verrnnent of "inas Ceraes, through the Brai lian

Ambassador in '.'.shington, 1Ton. -.uiitpto Cochrane de Alencar, requested

the ioepJ.rt t.'t of 'itjte of the TJni td .t--,tes of 'Li.erica Lo indicate

someone vh wa,:i competent to uzidArt'f,.e the ettablisiient of an Agricul-

tural College. The Couirni.miion read: "Loc.-.te, urangise and conduct an

Ae.-ricultural College." Tn the United St:'.tes of America there are forty

eight scolas Cuperiores de '.-ricultura, one in each Ztate in the Union.

'Tley vnry in age from seventy ye-irs, in i"ichigani to thirty-nine yeats,

in Florida. ',ifth so rnany agriculturall Colleges, and of so rr.:iny years

standing, it was thought to be _an easy matter to designate so.nieone for

this position. However, it proved more difficult than at iirst supposed.

A rimr4i ;ho would undert1ake the task would automatically forfeit his posi-

tion in the United Jt:ites, -is well m.-; th-. possibility of promotion in the

future. The '''3P-..'te't of ..t:.e was i3n Io,',r bound to secure soiteone

wihosn aiiity as a-'n organiser ?.nr.d c ,.'.velo'ur }-:h been proven. It is a
A,
gr-c;:.t compliricnt to the ria,7iitudc of the enterpriAe that at le.m-L two

men, considered by the United bates Govern ent, thought that the task

was too gaoat -c .,- rsr--that gigt.-, -w-^4.

To chooLe th:-. architecture and carry out the work cf plac-

ing the brick and mortar aB important irndi difficult works, but these

are comparatively unimipLrtant and siruiple comrriared vwih the ta-k of

breathing into the intitution rural spirit 33nd eithuslasm. It is no

easy task to inculcate in the mindss of the students tir correct attitude

toward the greatest industry of Brazil, agriculture. moralityy, honesty,








aw$.'iy and aicity are qualities of the highest order and take

precedence over all else. An educated rogue is a far greater ~enac a

soieety and to the State than an ign(Drant rascal.

0, BL I GAT I (ONS

Coming t Mi' Dlns Geraes by invitation of' her Government,

a id bing designated by the Gcveriuuent of the United States, places upon

me unusual and agree.ble rusonsab.ilities. I za the ue t of ina and

am in honor bound to deliver to her the best that ie in me.. scessariy
many tings are in the pioneer state and the work is difficult bocus.e of

its new character, due to the fact that it io not well understood. If it

were ll understood, there would be no need of y being here. In .spite .

of forfeiting comfort and breaking the ties of friendship formed during

more than thirty years of struggle for an ideal Agricultural College in

the sta o f -'lorida (.3,<.N.A..), I musit press on and give to se

bes; Lhat I caiable of, denyi myself my opportniies for leisaure I

and for study.


In Eias Goraes there Pre Yuy th ands of young men whc

did not have the opportunity to get an elementary education at the time

ien they should have received it. I dre say that the s orie or similar

ini 3dI s exist in all the otr tates of rail. The a1ck of an edu-

catien by these young men is not their fault, but the fault of the State,

(that i,3 of their forefajers. 0owequently it Is the duty of the tate

of mae ends as co pletely and as soon a: possible, nd above all she

should give these young men oldr tha siteen years, a chnce to e6 e4

the best that i possible for them in the wiay of a training. To ins'trut

such young men is much more difficult and requires more patience than to

instrut tkose tht have had a c The task: i*s diffTlts





















.d that every effort :,ust be made to maintain this posil

*ess that other nations are kingg will co':psll us to ms

to tiiaintain our SUL.'re.a.cy.

The filxst i:-po:' nt step in the development c

rior do 'ricultura e VeLerinaria de liinas Geraes was tc

3rcncos with Presidernt '3ernardes, in orer that the visl'

e ..iJit be clearly comn-rehended. It ,as also necessary

.Anted vith the educationzql system of ':inas, as well as

,i.it fully the status of ttie educational cevelopmPnt ,

t transplant an agricultural College, v.ithoLkt mrodificati

statess to ILinas .'eraes wouldL certainlyprovei disa
\dssaI


'- G f2.yI.ILAL !PLAL?
i i-^ Lr J i i~iL .^

The :art of agriculture i;; ornu of Whu 4alust

riculre i onz o te newest. o e: i deed is i
Believed ta aone lho c.an l %k learnedly about c


7 I"N







.Sentifio aiulture, or the science of agriculture, ig
the applica,tion of science (trnths proven experim ent ally)I to the prou
tion of crops and anrXs. The business of t 'griculral College Il

to provide for te young man intruction in the bsic 1rinciples under-
lying the -production of larger crops and better antils. As. a coxrolaX3
to to d main prpajosti'on, the Agrietultural College must teach the'ou
-men in s simple langua e that they can ndertand. The curr lum ust
be so arranged that all the basic truths have a direct relation teo th
production of larger crops nd better ials. The retionship of t
trtho to the min proposition must be so clear tlhat the verge
cannot misunderstand or misinterpret them,.
A vaey comnn and altogether erroneous idea xxx held for-
mrly in ny centers, that an Aricultural College was fl instit
tion in which were assembled a lare number of scientific d-epartentia.s
which gave instu- tion in these sciences without rgard to the direct
or indrat ppication to agriculture. This form of crricull hos p3

duced som-e 4 scientists and professional mn, but it has failed I
produce atgriculturalists. likewise many separate in titutions have Ix
established for the perfection of certain separate lines of itudy or
science This is especially tru in Lurope, where we &technical
igh schools of Cheistry AForestry, or plPnt Latholo, gyOr Entomol
or of some other branch. But a of these are professionaschoos, i

vLich min are trained to fill government pOsitions or for profess onal
reers true Aricultural College trains me;n especially for serv
on the frm and for leadrhip in rural enterprizes. / It differs fro

the tApprndizado in that the latter instituion trains men in the AT
farming, and only inientally gives soen instuction in the






-6-

In the initial -tages Lnd for the preu.ent needs of K':inas ,

Geraes, the course of study in the 'coJa .Lkperior must be extremely

general an: the curriculum elementary, especially fr tihoie students who

lcck the CSy.nasio training. For those who i-L-ve had this training, a course

of study must be arranged to protlide fcr four years of diligent -wotk, ,

which in thle c..d will leocL to a. deree, Tveen the courd-.c vAitich le0-si to

A duggree must ba broad -knd general in the beginning. Iut the first place,

the preEent aGricultural rievelopment of our :tate does not justify narrow

and greatly attenuated courses, and in the second *I-.ce, tile cost of main-

taining sudch courses would d ];e too great to be born. by the prewont inaom

of tlie institution.

As an illustration of this griadual d -velop-nnt, wve nay take

the Agricultural 'ollege of 1.ew Y.rk, at C*ornell. During the first years

it v/as ..ossibl,: for ;,tan ho had .y. iynmsio training to calllte all the

agricultural ..,tudies in thte Oillege .uLringp four J*...s. :;Coac ten ye:rs agq

such h?.l.a been t-.he development of the -,,riculture o-' ev. York aji6. the cor-

responding develop:ient, of the Agricultural College, that it would }].-ve

Lak'en a *ian, witi a better training than a 5yi.u'mazio ivey;s, tvro jlu'OJred and

forty-five years to couablete al1 of the ';;ricultw.-l studies u.ithout re-

peating any oj tue'1i. At the .&.'ie time the Agicultu ril Cc.lle[e o, f ored

courses that could be c-roleted in six rnonths by anyone >itEh a .:Nr7.n-,sio

trainiain. In f:iinas, ,.x; in c;Tcw 'Jrrkc, the agriculturall college must begin

at the bottom and v.,rk upland not at the to1; '-. work down.


Fr *1 *i'H 'Goj^.wi'Odi .in~jAG2

At this ti.ie I c:.,inot do '.,ettc-r than to quote froii the

latest Presidential message, of the honored ireside!IL of dinas, Dr. Raul

3Scares, His words express the aims -mnd objects of the scola '-uperior

de Agriculture e Veterlnaria so fully that'-A-ittle need be added.







"VLari e complea segl m &UIM a,3 O# 4ug es doeta-
couao t j _a'a a



A Escola Superio de Algrultura n.o so d4 tauag aos

estudantes rarane matr ulads, ma8 t mbem a mziThare de

e qu a pro m co o fm de a entar os seue conhieci-
etos em asumpto arioe* peciaes. Esta fe'igo da -

tzma das ma 15 attr~hente 4, deedo produzir resuItados dieio

s abre s fazendw.
Em Mnsella e. eapcame prvits, vitro cm
hl de rapazs q na pdem fia mut te o lon& d

susfazendas.
Outo papl resrvao s la se o de eoordena e iri-

gir o servio de exeriencias agrkcols, em outras -2,s as, Hortoo,
e App radi a *e.
A*sim, ella pode* dntr ir e isseminar valsas

plaitas alienigeoas e collocar tanbem nas m,-os dos fazadeiras

elhore variedades e memno casta. puras de planxta atctualment
nova




cult, paa que possamos obter c .m eLlas maio rendinento


Peneo por isso, nao *er desa ado o vaticinio de


que a Kcola tupe
.eoromica do Esti


,ri ox de Agricultura abiA xawisen fli4a
g37t< de I'l'na Ge a






-tU
determined that the "Zona da Matta" was the general region of TFinas in

which it would be most profitable to locate such an institution. Some .x

weeks were spent in examining nine different localities, after which time,

on May 9, 1921, I recommended to President Bernardes that Vigosa be choser

Its central location, its magnificent climate, and probably most important

suitable lands located on a railway, and arsx near to an excellent city

were the factors that determined the choice of the site. Dr. Bernardes

twice warned ne that I shoul.. not allow the fact that he was born in Vi-

9o0a to prejudice me in thi8 matter.

The difficulties connected with the construction of the edi-

fices fc so fine and large an institution are both great and numerous

when attempted in a rural community. The stone had to be qurried, the

--logs hauled in and sawed, millions of brpek -ae,-t say nothing -of bring-

ing in hLundreds of workmren and conatructi' habitations for them. All of

this is tedious and time consuming. Fortunately the -jtate has been favor

with men of exceptional executive as well as engineering ability for the

services of the head engineer). 3 r4 c ,

The main building, a grand structure, 80 -,,ters long by

30 broad, tvwo stories high, with a basement, is read; to k.ve the tile

put on the roof. '.Then completed and equipped it will be the best building

in Brazil, if not in 0outh merica,which is devoted to the purpose of

"Acquiring and disseminating useful agricultural knowledge". The residence

of the director is all but ready for occupancy. Five of the twenty build:

wings destinedf or the practical farm work are under roof. Some dozen

others have their walls erected.

More than 200 different experimental plots, varying in exter

From a few meters to one tenth hectare have been planted. Some of these
have already given valuable /nfoaton. The experiments with wheat and
have already given valuable information. The experiments with wheat and













the soil, and methods of conducting fertilizer experiments. I

attendance on these dem.onstratons has always been larger than

ble. The influence of the Escola on the agriculture of this

already noticeable.


DEPART! WNT S

On a foregoing page T have already said that the general

a Agricultural College was arrived at after many conferences

:!en;. Bernardes. In these conferences it became clear that at

following twelve departments must be established: l). Veterin

i Medicine; 2). ,nirml Husbandry; 3). gronomy; 4). IHortic

Plant Diseases -nd Insects; 6). Soils; 7). Farm "Techantks

ineeoing) ; 8). Agricultural Chemistry; 9). Forestry; 10).

a; 11). Portuguese Language; 12). History of rasil.

On seeking this list of departments, the first thought t

ne not familiar with scientific r-,sriculture is that the insti

be entirely devoid of the elementary sciences upon vhich the

agriculture is founded. However, this is erroneous. It on]

at first because we have been so accustomed to the old adade

ns those curriculums were so filled with the elementary scier

were forced to neglect the teaching of the scientific princir

tterment of agriculture. The original Agricultural Colleges


inat







t In o nhe took the acdemi attitude of daring
science for sinessk. hAis .all well enough for a mnwois,
sufficienty wealtht y to devote Ais life to a hobby. 't for thee -
for the nation it is mportant that th Isientific dsc~overies mad in an
Agroicutural College, as we&i a the /scientific truth taWa beclay
and4 caompletely related. to the im mnt of agriculture. Does such a

course and such an attitudebais the eliemetary sciences front the inL~i-
ntutn M Iost positively and vtly, ". It make of these i....
en. s 'a"help mtel to. aid in carrying 'out the f ental designs of the
ititi It i of little or no imported to the student of ariul.-

tkoWeelis a mo t. It is of little service
to him to know in What repels a aoral poyp re es a mllusk n in
hat reet they iffer. It is, ow r, of o important to

the atudant of agriculture to know the essential charactrs of the boll
worm., 'whii e otton It is also of- geat .rtanc

for him to know ee nilhas, sertous pests u ane, and the most
praticsal ways of combatting these in~eoets To require a students to
ape'd two years on techineal zoology and the one on thnical ent1oraolog
for ,he was lled to tudy the priniples employed to comat inet
pete is one of the absurdt ts that waxs omdtted by the Agrial

Colleges of fift years a.
Unquestionably a man nho has had two yeas of scentific

training in Zoology two years of training in Botany, and two or thre
e in cterioogy Wl hend Veterina cence d dine much

e quickly an auratly than h would havbfore he had this training

But, uufrtunstely, during the tim he i, getting tis training, some
ayve passed over his head and he has lost ma plendid oppo tunities in
if. hould th tdent of Veterinary edine be trained in Zology









A the Bacriology should be Di suc'h a ture as wlll aid him directly
understanding Veterinary fSience and Tledjcjne. Agriultural C~ollge
e4ptly 11a7@ need of more extended courses in Bacter~iology thzan th2at


mnedicine is one of the odt. The Medical, 1ovever,. have
z' ? s ;, .. p-. .. *. *. !; *





n e learned that i i not esentil to se two or three y

the study of bacteria in or6&er than one become a good jractisin
yiian.f If he young man pie to an eert of hief and

a hi gae investigator, he w need L of the scienoes to wit
Sreferre, buet for the veteriry pratitioner fo the faze iri
extended tud in thee line i a aste of time and enef y.
The agricultural student must lean t ea -tal of m'any
ioneee, rLmging from 7iathexnties, one Of tee oldest, to Plant T 1a.ttl
e of the n v. The extent to 'Tliih any one of these sciences shall
taught -will be determined by the c ondlit ions that occur in the part icula:
ate. o exmple, a thorough course in the diseases of what is auch
re Iotant in the State of Rio Grande do Sul than in inas Geraes.
r ar the knditiens fixe ty years ago the intensive study of
ce in W s Geraes id not ve been worth while, but tody it shol4
cive etensive and int>mie conideraton.
The basic departments z %the Eseola z$upezior de 1Azioldtur.
Veterinaria do I2stado de -tinas Geraes have been indicated. It ha also
e shown that ie none of the ele tary sciences are desi ted as
par these fundamental inces mut be taught. hre then sh

ye taugt? ch fundantl science wiU be ta t by the De t nt
it is most helfu and to e&ich it is most closely related.












)apatmn of Agrcutua they istry.a The head of that deparmn must.
t ima ~bve had ar en through tranin in &gnc n -ognc swl si



Penrathemi try Then ~e prfsob fV terinryScene an f ln
latplgywil av hd ratica tranin and exene c~~ourse i Bc
Lolog. Th professors~ bof Agonmy ofr lctiul4 1 r G~and ofee~ 4.vc




e arred urter.bt themso tha th4ef heads~e of th iaiu deatet
be menwho have hadbroadan te the sine









elikted~~ to~ tei *1= speciaieies
0 Later, when '4 ia s oheraesiso abl too mit in a grnd
ired weaalhv xe.v eatet fBtnto olg*o looy












0X o hav mayYe.wo ae thoouhl trined in the sene of practice
grfully we.
*, *".* .' '*.*- i I.*ii "^, i ; i*^ .i .:* "' ;: *,, ,-i. "-I ', ** -, *^ l ::' ;' '' '-" '. *' .' **: ; ;' .' *;. '- ^- 1.'i :

l s./. i te '..', '* ,* : ; *- ',-* .*... I '/ : ; / .!. .. ":* .";' .. *.. ". '. ** .i. .. "*: ':- '- .!.I
. ,. .<, ,, | ., ., ,, ; -; '*. .- *-*** ; ,I ,- ,., .... -,,/ 'o .'*r

..... : 1| ,








reaure oftesvrldiaietti eaino hs ;prmnst
.... | o 9
... scs t
iece,isryto ttemt't mae te dicusioncomleteao~' t 4oint
Dxtededdetil...,As o th'Apuntof ny f te el~ena vsclnce whchf









1). ~I veeinr Scinc and Meiie.Teprcialapicto




sic. ver t me anaia4is t~he idvidua owner th om ity,

theSttendth Ntion los teby. The relbs tevueo

the sailing price; the eniunity 1oo-es thze benefit -o the circlation

of th myn the state and n tin ooo he~ taxes an h ppoxtunity


thrthe know itont ie directly a~ffete by the helho h ie




reasonable tmesanigo Veterinary Scecead aedcn are-Gn

erlZooy G~enea Botany; Bacteriology, Generali Ceitry; Phy~i




The Department of Veteriax tb leand, Medici ne will

lay espca.epa on the study of' the anzatomy ofi~~~xdmsi

animlsW paraitoloy surery medicine, and preventative measures,

2) Anima THusbandy. The important features oi' this department~



poulry am~isig h s tudy of prpe r foods and balanced Vaiom h study

of the law of~ heredity anld hybridization th oro ail n

the presevation of animal proucts. Darying owinS to its great impor-

tac in Minas #eras will reev specilatnin




































teary sciences thich are fundamental to this depart
try knowledge of Botany, the fazendeiro would not d

ling arnd selection without making serious and co.-t1


-). Horticulture. This department includes j3omicull

ald FloricuLture. The art jf horticulture is on(

?ractised by the human race. In scent years the t

have been so well worked out that such products aF





















"*''*''4 f1a.i' *'0*.* 'vft in
Th basl eeoirincipo fplat, breein pUwand hyriiato

Augt n hi pepart 4 t aree these as~ those taugh bt In the4 dep dRi
,lnn of ae.artment vre oi^'fl coftton.











Botany,,1~et Cemistryu aPhsc, d$4butomloy and -pln Pt~o



otrbueto thi depa~rtment as adjunc sciences.






Ln1eou p~ed rt,4i of rerdctoan ln dise~ases Lleing trane pau
Lstoyd ans~e aiity ~ eto n produce prftal c ert in g crp n eti
S Man, with his pinelec to annihilate

.::i1-, aTln
eveestenemes,. isect an plnnt iseses


In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ thsdeatmn peil tes rllb li rLte rn





.oay Bstrilg Zoloy Chm\:-y


Lng~'' dieae -pans drin part of: them,; the laeltn the p .:. -,. En-^

;oolg consisted:' in-;*: :.'::**"'-:, laeln and prsrvn a *cla

O ofiscs h*reetdy suet o ,ln ahloyad.'tml


gyenie ths onyicdna. Th imoran prole ista i
















i l

g bni t t sil ii ric



Lbandos them it~ was through Wt that -aceiclaayss1 0
soilwoud rvea th cas of th un~datvn, but thepoblem is
mor cmpictedt than was h at first supposd. tom soiswhchare~

cheicalyver "ertle ~arey uproducive, and Baothe vfc from aehm


Spaoint t of vieware vr "ile pderc







Thea provinc ofys tis Udotpartm is t t c ut types of
80 eproduc e an a not, ad as t t






Geuol C s Ph ys ic ol##el*,a B t io e el ethr .u



7) ua nineig h fnaana scene Sfor dpr





ject of thti. pr y lcate and tt drain and I
gaio syseas onemut haeakolde f Physics and of Soils, as wel






/


their operation, the laws o( Physics are uppermost. In the preparation

of concrete floors, concrete farm applVanoes, and similar neceas1*4

a knowledge of Chemistry is more important.

The :study of the electric motor requires more or less funda-.

mental information regarding the nature and behavior of electricity. The

study of the gasoline motor, and especially of the automobile engine, re-

quires a knowledge of Chemistry and hybics in order that the student may

comprehend the use of different combustion materials. A study of the hj-

draulic ram and windmills will bring in a necessity of knowing more or

less about meteorology, especially about the forces and directions of the

wind.

8). Agricultural Chemistry, Chemistry is one of the oldest sci-

ences to be applied to agricultural use. It would be impossible for an

ordinary man to learn all that is taught in Chemistry in a life times A

cour,.se of study to fit the average man to be an investigator in Agricultur&

Chemistry will take at least eight years, after he shall have finished the

C-rnrasio. But a brief course in Ueneral Chemistry, followed by a brie one

in Organic Chemistry, considering especially those subjects allied to

frtrm practises, will enable the student to comprehend vhat otherwise would

be as a closed book to h.iV. For .Tinas, the Chemistry of sugar production,

of alcoholic fernentati action of enzymes in the curing of coffee

will be of great inportnnce. A brief study of the poisonous and toxic

plants and the effects of the toxin chemicals is another of the attenuated

subj' cts that rre can : tudy to advantage. Naturally the physiological

effects of thea toxic materials will be taught in the Department of Vet-

erin-ry science, while the Chemistry of these same products more properly

belongs to the Depa.rtiment of Chemistry.












9).t~vvulure Brail like o$the great ciilzecunris


tha notapreiate the vau ofg he r forests uni'h eeben e



pletedto he anihin pit*e PtTwosiene hc otrbtote

prpe bn raadn f Siviulture tre Geoog an Ltn.Teei
co i'i between what is a gootd agrcutur h"At and -watA.'.ha


















gvs The Dep of ,o is muth ti bute l e y
to hepoprunertndn o iliclur.Phscswilcotibt ;:,|'












the director of iom--;ehendiV the strength ~ te~~eent
uei,-xy f r "-.^ ',.t ad oi w'k, au ert | the cmati












vales f iffren wods for fuel. Pant Pahoog will contiba

something iznd the way o ar fudatean&4 unerstaning .. thet fung-i which


teach thet bes~t mthd of cotrlln th e&. ce of insect which~ d

toeithern the grown tree4 or the1 out lo.r Atpeetteteedu



tha detro hA logs andk loumbr, nor1 how to~ pent~ thp ie fi from




necessaryte1 1~tefor acuat and caetl noka TIafay tes. Thehghr
Sy ," .'h e i o" v, "h to h .s; ', ., : .' t :" 1. 3 o "" ; '"' ": i 2 '
f:azendeio A fi;, wek cors wil enable him ... :; to keep his accounts
vit. ccmpa :. i ." ajtivl litl efot and in mc a.. way as:. to enabl hi to













say wi t c e1 if -tainty ,i f ied -which ] crop, or w h animal or. :'group o
!: ,' ) .. .. ... .. .. ....





-19-

animals has or have been profitable and thich unprofitable, ;-and how

much he has profited or lost fivm each.


11). The 3rasillan Language. In the present state of our

educational advancertant there are only a few young men who have had the

advantages of a well rounded course in the Aru'ilian language. It is of

graat importance to the Brasilian fazendeiro that he shall be able to

understand the works on agriculture in this country. To be able to

quote extensively from the world'u masters of literature is very nice,

indeed, but this would be of very little service to a fazendeiro when

a. disease or an insect threatened. to destroy his crops or his herds. He

must either know' immediately ;h t to do, or be able to read understand-

ingly in his books on agricultural subjects until he shall find a reme-

dy for his trouble, if there be a known remedy.

Of only secondary importance to the fazendeiro but of

vory zna great importance for the rapid development of agriculture in

our country is it that the fazendeiro can write in his native language

so clearly that his readers 'mayg comprehend his experiments and their

results beyond the question of a doubt. The new fazendeiro will have

many experiences r-ith seed electiono, animal breeding, the combatting

of insect, a d the preventionn of diseases, which if published will

be 74 of great value to his fellow fazen-:.eiro.


12). History of -rail. Luk)with her unspotted past, her

brilliant and illuminating present and her weal th of promises for fu-

ture greatness, makes the best among the great nations 6f the world

for the youth to sturd. The splendid idealism which Ias ever held up

the beautiful has rounded into the character of her people. Whenever

she has drumn her sword it has been In the cause of liberty and peace.









..


as th idea fo th youn ma t. v y No bete stud can be proposed" ::





rst p seric. -Fo the establisent of ,e:t

tot love of conr hre ib eesr a firbfundmation 6f tiakoweg

of he astglories and present w,,orth of~ onets country. It is thdt
of heState an~d of tki- Nation to tJ~e the opportiaity to e~aa youthi to

mkofh-.e th: 'a : :* p erf5ect -ma pssible. It is c t h |a



i4
we shll hv or dty unless -vi estali a stron









better m tn better itzens. 1"oralitys 1 esty, s^incerity a sim !
plicity are Q'A iti. Which lay tlie fowidation or good cit nship and


2). An g icult l College established d the

P s dopted bi 4 one of the most valuable, i, not t most val-
uabl, aetW tcb a it can have.

3). -is Agricu tural' College laYs sPeci emphas on those
stdiswhi contribute rectly to the aumnat4uon 01 a rp n

to the ?ai 4in of better do, ztic a1im3A1

4). The elementary 8 ienoes will tuh only to tletn

necessi toacercmrehens on of the cences wihaget o
M..t








e course of study wi bea red from year to year

Sadapt it the educational developed f the young men and to .h

agriculture ned of the State./ \



A NATIONAL SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES


Herewith is presented a very brief outline of my opinions

resulting from over thirty years of personal experience in Agricultural

Colleges in the United States of lAorth 4merica, and nearly three years

of earnest struggle for the establisblutB of a practical Agricultural
e
College An Minas Geraes. It has been my fortunate fate to have taken

every step in an Agricultural College, from that of a prospective stu-

dent desiring to matriculate, to a g-radu&Ate, post graduate, assistant

professor, head of a department, scientific investigator, to the direc-

torship (in that country termed "Dean".)

No more glorious chapter has been written in the annals

of the United States of America than that of the establishment and dev-

elopment of the modern agricultural schools, or colleges. Justin Morril

Federal Senator (United States of -merica) had the vision of a prophet

when in 1862 he secured the passage of the Agricultural College A\ct,

which established federal funds for/the aid of Agricultural Colleges. He

did not appreciate the fact that he was erecting for himself forty-eight

grand monuments, more enduring than any of granite. If there is someone

here present today who is so fortunate as to be the leader in this grand

enterprise in the United States of brasil, the rest of us will each do

his share in promoting this most worthy cause.
a r m i t ......u ...s.. .. ........
-. ------"-.... *' doe e o, o "
___--- -"""" Time does tto~eermit us to consider thkhitory and the











by givin ay siplbre fn of the fundamental
for~~ a naioa sytmo &4rtr, giutrlClee. Th




laoAio of such aeo s1 -voi some of the otferv md

in- the United bete Dfte


ijrt IAqureflc, by nowrPoh~ o
as'Wllprvens. fk, duliatin then. eu~oa~sa
sn4~~~lwy ha- ve~ ti nisi~ 3t
the systemowof m' who att4a tb Ia; soo in
the Unied Statsit 6~ f ~ th~n* ~at agiuturle~ s*ee;tia& con
diin varyi =Oe g the by o bu\s
ns~ as< wellr ast. among t wee $tttu oa. nain
110evrthredi a~ wondrfl paallism betee thenI deelopenty of
thettwo greates~t.,nat tst apf., the Amaicas.
A -e of go al i o
il ^ ^''''^ ^^ ^'^ *'^*^l' l,-^^.m'.!' '^.-';' '.j' .^.,'': ^_- ;; ;^ ^^ c- ;"."'{,"- .."1.* .,:?5""" :" 6 o f t he:i"*^'V^ "i"?5*l >:?'"^ ^ .

|rae~ ed ftenwBai.AanIrra h od fD.fcu

|"-; oa'r"e'"s. in.'"'. ^ ":" : '"L, / ; .,"-?" his Prez idential*^ -- '*.'""'''- ":.* -'.' :':"*' '" Yls ag ,. wh c he 3t te so', forcefully' *"-** ** -' ,*:".;- ..",; """
an er e y b, f nti n t e _'r clptu,.a Col ege "T a qu re an
fi,,; 1-1y







predecs^ors hav :******:. by reading" wha our ^ cneprarie ar pubish
ln~g an bymakig ivesigatonsint theunkown



P i st by t e c i g t e y u g m n h t e d t l s o l ; s c n b t a

in h ldrmnethro herfznaso tth olg; hrb
ditrbuin iflutin hruh heprssorb leai~ o uletns fu

by asweinginqirie mae b letegrsWhtknof"frminf
"Usful olyandsoclerlysttedtha woevr rcevesit anundra



.ad AP l t. "n Agr ^icu turall~l Cl lege^ wh srichisf unct-^ ^'i on- i ng^ per*fec*^^y ^'. il^.^ t~ly^i j^^istji







s23-

THE PART OF THE F2 DERAL GOVIU8ENT

To secure a system of Agricultural Bollegee will require the

cooperation of the nation and of the various -tates. Naturally the national

statesmen will tale the initiative in this matter. l y recommendation is that

Federal Government establish certain definite annual sums, equal for all

the States. This favors the weather States, but is not unjust, because

these need aid very much more than do the stronger States. Also it is

much more democratic to have the States share equally. Eventually the

States will repay the nation many hundred fold on this investment. The

amounts of money contributed by the federall Government should be sufficient

to make the proposition so attractive that every State will establish a

real Agricultural College. If five hundred contos were decided upon as

auzzman a reasonable annual amount for a school more than five years old,

it would be wise for the law to waxaiaf be so framed that the first

year the school would receive only two hundred and fifty contos. Each

following year the amount received the year before would be increased by

fifty ccntos. Thus, by the si,th year, the !mount w. uld be five hundred

contos annually, and this would constitute the statutory annual appro-

priation thereafter. In this way the money would be spent much more

judiciously, and the Escolas would be much better institutions than if

appropriations worthy of schools well estaUlished were paid from the

beginning.

As the Agricultural College is an institution for the bet-

terment of agriculture, it would seem to be most logical to entrust the

Minister of Agriculture with the administration of the laws governing this

system of schools. In the United States the act establishing federflefnnds
3XXXr
for the aid of agricultural colleges placed the responsibility of thier






*

"24-

fiscalization under the Department of the Interior, presumably bedannaae

at the time the law was passed there was no Department of Agriculture.

Subsequent Acts, known as the Hatch Act, establishing Federal funds for

the state Agricultural iExperiment stations, and the Agricultural Extention

Act, empower the Department of Agriculture with the fiscalization &f their

funds. The funds are administered by the Agricultural Colleges. There is

no doubt in my mind that if there had been a Department of iAgriculturd,

the fiscalization of the Agricultural Colleges would have been entrusted

to that Department.

The Minister of agriculture should be empowered to send

a fiscal agent to each Agricultural College toward the end of each fiscal

year to detenarmine ,itether the spirit and the intent of the law were being

carried out, and also to determine if the money were being properly and

honestly spent for the purposes designated. If% the funds had npt been

U-0 s properly expended, the Llinister of agriculture would notify the

Uillege, and if proper restitution were not made, he woulu notify the De-

partflment of Finances, wkwould withhold future allowances.


THE PART OF THE SSTE.

Land. The State vbxkx should be required to furnish not

less than 200 hectares of arable lands, 50 of which should be used for

experiments and demonstrations under the direct control of the various

heads of tne Depa rtments mentioned below.

Location. The site for the College should be central to the

farming population of the State, and not more than two kilometers from a

city sufficiently large to supply the students and professors with food

and clothing. (A site near a large commercial center is undesirable, but

is fux better than one distant from a railwaq or more than two kilometers






-25-

rro a city).
Buildings. Suitable buildings for laboratories and clasai rooms

should be constructed by the State. There should be not lees than 2,000

square meters of floor space in the laboratories. The less populous Sta-

tes will content themselves with commodious one-story laboratory buildings,

ihile the wealthier states will vie with one another in putting up magni-

ficent edifices.

Cougae of Study. The Federal Government should make no attempt

to prescribe A definite course of study. There is probably nothing more

fteadening than to attempt to introduce a prison lock step gait into a

system of Olucational institutions. There are no two States in the Union

alike and the Agricultural Colleges should be as different as their phy-

sical surroundings and the4 educational development of their respective

States. The institutions of the States in the extreme south should give

nuch attention to the growth of corn and the cereals; Jahia to cacao,

Amazonas to the production of ru,.ber, and in others the production of

coffee should receive much attention. The courses of study should vary

to suit the agricultural needs of each particular 't-ate.
The Federal Gcvernment, through its fiscal agents, should

require tUat the Federal monies of the original appropriations be spent

=nl for the payment of salaries the buying of equipment and supplies.
and for paying the expenses of conducting the following Departments: 1).

Veterinary Science and Medicine; 2). Animal Husbandry; 3). Agronomy; 4).

Hertlculture; 5). Plant Diseases and insects; 6). Agricultural ChemlstrJ

7).Soils; 8). Rural Engineering: 9). Silviculture. All of these depart-

ments need not be established att he beginning, but when a department

has once been established it should not be possible to abolish it without
...... *- ^ I ?am nvl Government. The wealthier states will











G-vr tfo h enaremn of these deparmns Another mpor.
tn'n P1~3M~$#.o that shold ~bede is tha the heads~ ofheepatmnts~

mast ~ he give al of4 tbi im ote roko that depatmn, nd4o
in o thrno hol any other retuner *ivl offie, wheter privte

orpulc ~e~~Thet wil oblntue te Stat tor-gay saaissfiinl
Tecsto construction the t





reas hud ebonb ~ the Sttg shulhe e xp~ ensesc the
prr**ss In fact all,::* exedtrs o ietlloncedwt h

ab-e metoe department 4shpul be bor by the State.-' **:^,^:v:f










v~hthr ai by the Federal Governmet or by the State G-vrnet
It ..--i'









SThe 'ea S govern wouJ fans te4Anfn
d s n e / E
i ^iS ^:'.',**' ','" .:;*?.:;* '.S ta te ;':: .' :* v*",'' ;. '''- ... wo uld .' *: "''e*'':*'' *, ** ** ,*'*' free to.''' '* ,. c a;'''*r ang* e*. .'*f "
a oreqsuyta oudb etaatt t part uar needs^-^-';:.^
and ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "' to/i this*,.'*;, course ofsut ettecmigo toso

the ag---4 ^ 3ultura industry of th -t *; 'e^ ^ ^ >^ ^^






-27-
8 3). The fiscal agents sent out by the Ministerio do Agri -

tira wou lbe men well versed in the ideals of the modern Agr itur
College# Thy, would also be well versed in the best and si lest form \
of book keeping'and accounting for an Agricultural Col ge. These
agents would come tp the in titutions as friendly ad aore, helping
them by advice and council to keep them from goi rong. The Minister
of Agriculture would us\hf" executive power c y vwhien the authorities
of an institution, through\neglect or by ap ent intention, misapply
the mfunds of the school.

4)..This cooperative range nt between the nation and the
state will have a splendid effect leaguing each state to the nation,
as a whole, especially will this e uie of the more distant and less
populous States. ./ K
). The effects o this system af Agricultural Colleges on th

welfare and the wealth of he nation will b&far beyond the mosft Euto-
pian dreams of those w are now struggling so'manfully and earnestly
for a more glorious rasil.
6). Fit. ly, I want to thank you, Mr. President and Gentelmeni
for your patient and your sympathetic attention to 'oy discourse. I
have never fond a more sympathetic audience. 1y rend ring of this
discourse s been very crude. I give you my sincere thdaks for your
kind indulgence, and hope that I my be of some small serce, not
/''
only to/?cTinas Geraes, but to Erqsil as a whole. If I can seove you,
you hve only to cormnand me. There is no greater pleasure to "e than
todthonestly and faithfully help in the development of a more per ect
civilization in this glorious nation.