Trip 8: Lobo Leite-Quro Bronco.

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Trip 8: Lobo Leite-Quro Bronco.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 6
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Trip 8: Lobo Leite-Quro Bronco.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00103


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text



Trino nurimber 8, to Lobo Leite, Ouro Branco.
Fazm''p.a P6 de f. "orro.
October 12-44 inclusive. /j

The object of this trip was to visit a fazenda in active or-
eration. The work is primarily carried on for the raising of sugar cane
and the production of liveA stock. It is located about 1 1/2 leagues
from Ouro Branco, about 1 1/2 leagues from Lafayette and two or three
leagues from Ouro Preto. The outline is more or less of a t; iangular
shape. One line of the triangle follows the peaks of the serra. The
other goes in a right hand direction as one vie,'* it from Ouro "ranco.
The area includes about 18,000 acres of land, or 1,5000 alqueres. This
is -ppro)i.mately 30 square miles.
*k have been done inA rast years in
oe place originally belonged to a
............... During the early days Tuch gold
:dzenga told me that the mountains
ld. c uich of it is only a meter
Probably that anyone knows how much
irobabl 'Fhat any one knows whether
be taken out.
,, .. drifts that has beer worked.
The g1nia P, e^ ---. rater is still or, and plainly
Lding on the b~nL which shows an-
cari-ing o-f the water. A lar.-e
i
he surface, giving a Whate anDear-
,erc was fiom fifteen to eighteen
hearingg stra n ias reached. This

a oodl hosny elnres.
of an old house so-e miles distant






S Trip number 8, to Lobo Leite, Ouro Branco.

Fazenda P6 dle .lorro.
October 12-44 inclusive. / I

The object of this trip was to visit a fazenda in active on-
eration. The work is primarily carried on for the raising of sugar cane
and the production of liveA stock. It is located about 1 1/2 leagues
from Ouro Branco, about 1 1/2 leagues from Lafayette and two or three
leagues from Ouro Preto. The outline is more or less of a tviangulpr
shane. One line of the triangle follows the peaks of the serra. The
other goes in a right hand direction as one views it from Ouro nranco.
The area includes about 18,000 acres of land, or 1,5000 alqueres. This
is approximately 30 square miles.
Many thousands of day's ",ork have been done inm past years in
the way of placer gold washing. The place originally belonged to a
grandfather of Dr. E. von ,perling. During the early days much gold
was taken out. The foreman at the fazenda told me that the mountains
still contained vast quantities of gold. :uch of it is only a meter
under the over burden. It is not nrobnbly that anyone knows how much
gold was taken out nor is it at all nrobably that any one knows whether
any considerable quantity remains to be taken out.
Fig f 1 shows one oF these drifts that has been worked.
The sluice way for carrying out the water is still onen Pnd plainly
visible- Arthur Vianna Filho is standing on the brnL which shows ap-
proximat ly the depth of the rega for carrying off tha water. A larae-
quantity of quartz rock are lying on the surface, giving a hate anDenr-
ence to the soil. At some psalces there was fiom fift-en to eighteen
Teet bf over burden before the Pold bearing .stratum 'as reached. This
particular washing or placer contains a Pood -mny acres.
Fpg. f 2 shows the remnant of an old house some miles distant





Ali







.... ...




- -f


-2-
from fig. 1. In this region a pood 'leal of washing also occurred.
Near this washing is a large book wift the outlines of it may be seen




Central headquarters as it
each side of the houiqe are
ot fourty years old. 'he eucal-
years old. Th- house in 4he
oter power. The mill runs
%J .jL V L A &.. L.A J .X X. ... p 1los of corn a da A little
work would greatly improve th: output and the quality of the 'rindin,.
The oldest part of the house is not in viw. This was built
IAA re '-P to 30 inches tbichk,tather

-ilngs are covered with estairo,


omnoun] and a peral view of
rd side of the compound and
ng vas a similar structure for
rice, mandioca endy others.
,en or twenty large rooms. One
ning room oreiie6 on the narrow
piazza, with communicating doors. On the fourth side of the coinound
tha graden was located and gates for obtaining access to the back fields.


Campo. (aC-a )
Great deal of the land is too rough and rugged for ordinary
agricultural purposes. A large part of if should be -nlnted'to forest.




/ 7 ***. *
,''


-2-
from Fig. 1. In this region a good deal of washing also occurred.
Near this washing is a lprge bioek wift the outlines of it may be seen
in the photop-ranh.

The Headquarters.
Fig. 3 shows a view 6f the central headquarters as it
faces the steep serra. The two trees on each side of the house are
Araecaria braziliencis, probably thirty ot fourty years old. The eucal-

yptus at the left are about twenty five years old. Th house in 'he
fore ground is a corn meal mill run by water power. The mill runs
continuously and grinds about a hundred 'kilos of corn a day. A little

work would greatly improve the output vnd the quality of the rindinp.
S..... The oldest part of the house is not in viiw. This was built
some 140 or 150 years ago. The walls are 28 to 30 inches thichk,tather
low ceilings, but large rooms. The ceilings are covered with estairo,
matting made from taquars.
big. # 4 shows a view in the comnound nnd a general view of
the structure of the house. On the third side of the compound and
in the direction in which Vianna is facing was a similar structure for
the protection of farm products. Corn, rice, mandioca andVthers.
The house contained some fifteen or twenty large rooms. One
room opened oi the compound a-d the adjr.Tning room oneied on the narrow
piazza, with communicating doors. On the fourth side of the compound
tha graden was located and gates for obtaining access to the back fields.


Campo. C^~~^
A great dea2 of the land ls too rough and rugged for ordinary
agricultural purposes. A lIrge part of it should be planted'to forest.







le I sob,"








-3-
Fire wood is already very high priced and difficult to obtain. Yearly
all the forest has been cut off of the fazenda. It has practically
all been used for making charcoal, which is taken by pack trains to
obo Leite. I+ is used orincinally for iron smelting. The wood
chppper receive one milreis a cubic meter for cutting the wood. 6ne
strong German who is the principal wood choppr>r told me that he could
cut any where fom three to five cubic meters a day.
The wood is then piled into banks ,nd fired for charcoal.,
loaded on pack animals and taken to Lobo Leite. LarPe tauuara baskets
are used for holding the charcoal. Vionna told me that one basket
would hold just a little short of a meter. I/think, however, what

te meant was that one pack animal would carry just aX little less than
a mubic meter. it seemed to me that the baskets would not hold more
than a little less than ax halla cubic leter* A rack train consists
of eight ot ten animals. They sell for about four hundred milreis.
It requires one carregador to eight or ten risck r animals. the most
usual number I saw was eight. Frequently the carregador had with him
a boy. The carrega-ois receive three milreis a day for their services.


Cultivation.
Clearing is done by hann. The trees are cut off near the ground,
at a convenient height for the laborers. All the larger stuff is cut in
this w;aq and allowed to fall. After the leaves ad smll 'ranches are

dry the field is fir.ed- The heat ivis sufficient to burn un all s-all
stuff, but the larger peices, ;-i-Mch are still green and sapny are not
materially injured. This stuff is then cut into suitable lengths
for burXning into charcoal. After the charcoal has been ia0en off the
remaining trash is gathered into small windows, four oi- ive meters
apart. This is then again fired and leaves the ground very clean and
bare/. Luch of the area from which the timl)er w as tfken is too





-4-
steep for ordinary agricultural implements. A large num ,er of
steubs and stumps would make it impossible to use these even on the
more level lands.
After the crop has been planted a gret many of the stuins
send up sprouts. These have to be rut off by h.nd, otherwise they
would produce too much shade and reduce the crown production. It is
also quite possible that iS the mountain sides were cultivared with
ordinary implements that they would wash badly during the rain*r season.


Grass.
Some of the fields had been sown to Gordura immediately

after having been fired without having &ny intermediate crop. In one
case this resulted in a splendid nasture of gordura. At the time of
our visit this was as dry as straw, Another field had been sown to
Provosiro' or Jagnuara. This also had resulted in a good catch. 7he
grass, however, stood high rnd was so dry that live stock could get
very little feed from it. Another field of Provosoro bad been burned
ober and the young grass stood three of felyrinches tall, making a good
pasture at the tiie. There -as no Capin Angola or other introduced
grass on the fazenda that I saw.

Potatoes.
Irish notrftes were planted on nearly all the clearings
that had been. made. For seed, very small tubers were used. I saw
none that would be more than a hlaf an Inch in diameter. Some of the
potatoes had sprouted and were jsut about above the ground. "he rows
were four, five, or six motors apart. Annarently the potatoes had been
dropped along the line where the smell windows of trash bad been burned,
referred to above. The trash from these wo--.drows had benn raked up with
a hoc and the potatoed covered. I could see no evidence of the ground







having been stirred. The tubers were dropped six to ten inches apart
in the row. This bei ng a single row system, the tubers night be
f any, cultivation is necessary to
g c te cf n without any nartieullar regu clarity
o straightnes-s of rows.
ted to potatoes. These were just
just in front of nir. Vianna was
In other fields old cow"' horns
st of the horn upwdtd. this iT

Op. the background o the Fwig.
S5 shows the wcod such As is used for mal-ting charcoal, in the medium
ground between the cultivated field and the woods the ground is Covered
with bracken fern This prows to immense size in this region. Some of

the petioles are eight and ten feet long.

Corn.
"tt After the potatoes have been nlanted, laborers go into the
filed and by the use of a hoe cut siall nItces with one, tow or three ...
strokes of the hoe at short distrnceF, enart. The iPta-rce along the
imaginary row is about three fourths of a meter. The dis.t anco between
the rows about a meter. A s no definite rows Pre visible, there is a
great deal of variation ns to the nu- ber of hills that woula be planted
per acre. The potatoeA rows are followed to a greater or les-s extent,
but ]he corn hills are usu.,lly kep.* about a hl af 'a meter awqy fro-'o the
potato row., lany acres ofland had been chopned out in thisw'-s ready for
planting the corn as sonn -as sufficient moisture shuuld occur A little
rain had occurred before we arrived. During our stay they were nianting
the corn with might and main, the-wmmen and children dropping the corn
and the men covering it with hoes.






-5-


having been stirred. The tubers were dropped six to ten inches anart
in the row. This bei ng a single row system, the tubers might be
planted even closer. Very little, if any, cultivation is necessPry to
produce a crop. The rows soem to run without any particular regularity
or without any particulrFr attention to straightness of rows.
Fig. f 5 shows a field planted to potatoes. "'here were jusf
coming through the s&l. The cross just in front of 11r. Vianna was
for good lucklgainst wwinds ,nd storms. In other fields old cow, horns
had been stuck on stakes with the point of the horn upnwizd. This id
for good luck in producing a large crop. The background of the 'ig.
# 5 shows the woods such as is used for making charcoal. In the -nedium
ground between the cultivated field and the woods the ground is covered
with bracken fern. This grows to immense size in this region. Some of

the petioles are eight and ten feet long.

Corn.
After the potatoes have been plantedd, laborers go into the
filed and by the use of a hoe cut siall places with one, tow or three.-.
strokes of the hoe at short dist nce1Fnart. "he distance along the
imaginary row is about three fourths of a meter. The dist anco between
the rows about a meter. A s no definite rows Pre visible, there is a
great deal of variation as to the nu-ber of hills that would be planted
per acre. The potatoe$ rows are followed to a greater or le5s extent,
but the corn hills are usually ken. about a hl af a meter away fromn the
potato row. -1any acres ofland had been chopped out in thiswas ready for
planting the corn as sonn as sufficient moisture shDuld occur A little
rain had occurred before we arrived. During our stay they were planting
the corn with might snd main, the wmmen and children dropring the corn
and the men covering it with hoes.









-6-

The variety of corn used was of the hard, flinty type, con-
siderably mixed some of the snecimens in the cribs showed starchy dent
characters. A few ears were found with eighteen and tewnty rown, all
of the ears were small and very inferior, the cob large, and bard. It
was tie usual tropical type or beer, wast 6f type.
It takes fifty liters of seed corn to plant one alquere of
land. A liter of corn weighs eight hundred grams. A bag of corn is
supposed to contain seventy five liters. This makes Fixty kilograms
or approximately one hundred and twenty nounds. One liter of seed
corn is expected to produce about funr hundred liters of shelled corn.
The women and children drop four, five and six grains of
corn in each hill.

reens, feijao`.
"hen the corn is well started,about ten inches tall, white
beans are planted a-ong it., These come up and mal-e the cro-O for
the rain~ y season and are usually nore or lespihite or speckled or of
a yellowish color.
WVhen the corn is about to tassel a 'second crop of beans is
planted. This is the feijao preta and ripens at *'he beginning of Mbd

dry season.
Citrus.
A considerable number od citrus trees were found planted
.at various places on the fazendsa. The only ones in fruit were the
laranja aceda or sour orange as it is known in X'orida. I got wsome
specimens which had become somewhat dry, 1'ut had a very pleasnat acid
flavor containing almost no sweet 'he skin was thick and rough.
Signs of rust mite were wanting. The fruits were badlu affected with
mellinose so did not show a bright golden color. However where not







affected with mellinove the color was good. "he trees seemed to be
seedlings about thirty or forty years ol1T. Un sub fqzends Malado
there were some trees of the seedling rangnur limes. Some tines these
are called laranja bravo and also limoeiro rosa. This fruit was a
very loose thick skinned, the skin coming off practically as easily as
from tanFerines, juicy and good but very sour. The trees seemed to 1P
twenty or thirty years old. Ta king it altogether the region seemed
to be -oo d for sittus.
armeleiro.
quince trees were found at one of the residences, they Tvere
of a bushy bnrushy type. Th'-.y were sting a little fruit and had
been planted about four meters anart each way. 'hey were about twenty
five yet rs old. _






.... .. A- -. I"o
_0o?5 the nIanta tn at headquarters.
y Canas straw type. o One showed the
I" iens here were also a few of
fazenda we arrived at the foreman's
'have charge of operations some two


.ig. shows a sow about a year old. She would weigh from
150 to 175 pounds, large boned and more or less of the _anastra character.
In the back ground of the same -icture is the store house for corn. She
had a brood of eight pigs two or three days old. 'he boar is standing near
the foreman, who is on horse bnck.
Fig' 7 shows a bettor view of the boar, together with the
view of the foreman's residence. W0 stomped for rest ft this house rnd
ha3 a cur of coffee. There was a dog and three children. The stove was

pract&ially a concrete structure and the fire was built on top.







affected with mellinove the color was good. -he-teees seemed to be
seedlings about thirty or forty years olo. On sub fazenda ,elado
there were some trees of the seedling rangpur limes. Some times these
are called laranja bravo and also limoeiro rosa. This fruit was a
very loose thick skinned, the skin coming off practically as easily as
from tangerines, juicy and good but very sour. The trees seemed to be
twenty or thirty years old. Taking it altogether the region seemed
to be good for sittus.
:."rmeleiro.
Quince trees were found at one of the residences, they 7ere
of a bushy brushy type. They were sting a little fruit and had
been planted about four meters apart each way. 'hey were about twenty

five ye rs oh. ol / y
Ho

A number of hogs were kept on the -,iantation at headquarters.
They were a mongrel mixture, principally Canastra type. "one showed the
distinctive conformation of typical snecimens. -here were also a few of
the tattoo tyen. On the trip over the fazenda we arrived at the foreman's
house or that of the man who seemed to have charge of operations some two
or three miles away fron headquarters.
Fig. 9 6 shows a sow about a year old. She would weigh from
150 to 175 pounds, large boned and more or less of the .'anastra character.
In the back ground of the same picture is the store house for corn. She
had a brood of eight pigs two or three days old. 'he boar is standing near
the foreman, who is on horse back.
Fig. 7 shows a better view of the boar, together with the
view of the foreman's residence. Ie stopped for rest st this house rnd
had a cur of coffee. There was a dog and three children. 'he stove was

practically a concrete structure and the fire was built on top.




--I







"/ **-8 -

It was practically an outdoor fire excepting that it was raised about thirty
inches above the ground.
Practically all the hogs that I saw on the fazenda were affected
with sarna, which affects them mainly around their hooves, causes the skin
to become very thick and warty. It does not seem to affect them very much
but it is not lil-ely that they would be accepted for nar value in places
of sales.
Cattle.
In the compound hear the work house there were about forty cows
and calves. These were milked once a day, about eight or nine o'clock and
then turned out to praze. Zt is not Probably that more t' an half a dozen
were in milk at the time. ... "'he milking operation vwas performed by

tethering the calf to the front legs of the cow, or some other convenient
place. The hungry calf in its anxiety to get- the milk gets its head as
near the teats awv pussible and bunts the cow a great deal. here is no
doubt but that third dids in the milk flow. After the milker had takenas
much milk s he desired, the calf is untied and allowed t finish the milk-
ing. The cowF were of no particular breed, two or three showing a Caracou
tendency. ?hose thai were milked were r...ASly c- the C1inez type. This is
a rather f in bonedtype and corresponds somewhat to the Fla. and Va. piney

woods cows. Tho from general appearence you would think certain that they
are better milkers than the wire grass cows. It seems quite nrobabaly that
milk is taken only for kitchen and table use as butter w as not in evidence.
In the field there were sone beef cattle seen at a distance. They
had more or less of the zebu blood. This semms to be the Predominating
Train in this region. There was still much good nasture alonp the streaks
that was not being utilized bu the battle for grazing miuroses.


Deep Trails.





"*/ ;' : ** ; Q

Deep Trails.
On the morning of the thirteenth we were somewhat delayed in
getting out over the fazenda due to the rain tiat fallen in the late night
and early morning. 'he weather conditions remained cloudy and very moist
so 'hat we did not start until after nine o'clock. The afternoon of the
12" we had taken some foot trips to near by clearings 'his morning we
made a long trip down the valley and over mountains" In crossing sone of
thee mountains we passed along trails frat must be a hundred or more yoesrs
old. Two or three of. these have been worn vwry deep, one in-nartivular
must be fifteen feet deep. It is very rarrow, so that or dinary -ack ani-
mals would be unable to pass through. Trees stretched acorss it, bracken
ferns leaned over in it and other vegetation practically covered it so
that the trail itself would not bhe visible for any distance,. After
passing through this deep trail and passing on for a considerable distance
we came to the old ruins shown in Fig. # 2.

Jaboticabal.
-robably a dozen lrare trees some of them thirty or forty
years old occurred near the residence. Only two of the trees were rinening
fruit at the time of the visit. A-nnprently this was due to the water hav-
ing been run in the direction of these trees. It looks as if the water
had been running here for a year or m-nore. One would expect th'- ground to
be thoroly saturated, but it did not seem to be so. We visited the trees
on e ach of the three days and ate as much of the fruit as we -oleaoed.
On the 12" tVe tree at the e-'d of the row, which bore much the larger fruit
had a few ripe fruits on it but nearly all of it wsa too green. .The second
day this ttee had a considerable quantity of ripe fruit tnd the third day
it had a large quantity of ripe fruit. "uch of it was destroyed by the bx
birds. /he tree next to it seemed to be about a t its best thr first day,
sbout hall of the fruit showed color. The second day nearly all of the





S. -10-
fruit showed color, and on the thirs (ay nearly all the fruit showed color/
this day the tree contained only a small quantity of good ripe fruit.
On some of the branches the birds had destroyed more then half of the fruit
that had been bore.
Apparently the ripening period of jaboticabas for one narti-
culr tree is of only short duration. -ven mueh shorter than that of
cherries. ipnairently all of the trees were seedlings. A1he one at the
end of the row produced much the best rruit being much Irrper and better
tasting than the others. Some of the larges t fruits apProximated an
inch in diameter. It i quite certain, that this fruit could be very Freatly
iminroved by selection r,1n by using some form of sexual reproduction.

amDPa. uro Iranco.
The fazenda runs to within about a kilometer of 0uro `ranco.
The little town shows up very prettily from the road as one rides toward it.
,It is an old town! probably over one hundred and fifty yenrs old, and
seems to hove ver little business of its own. It i probably that it is
kept up by the trade f om the fazen,-as nroiind it. There i s a o'ood deal
of evidence that the town at one time sPw better conditions. All the
residences are in fair condition of rep; ir and the streets nassably food.
The most conspicuous thing in the town is the little chapel.

,"ides from the fszenda. In riding
;,nassed wiXthout noticing it.
an"n rep-sted as well -s treat-
ib ha, been nhonere in, but which

.ri zont
lv located n a m 9'eI a snle-nid
a kilometer away and the tidy

Bite imposing.
sig. 8 shows a picture of it with Arthur Virnna 6n horse back





-10-
fruit showed color, and on the thirs day nearly all the fruit showed color/
this day the tree contained anly a small quantity of good ripe fruit.
On some of the branches the birds had destroyed more than half of the fruit
that had been born.
Apparently th. ripening period of jaboticabas for one narti-
cular tree is of only short duration. -ven mush shorter than that of
cherries. Apparently all of the trees were seedlings. The one at the
end of the row produced much the best fruit being much larger and better
tasting than the others. Some of the lorpes t fruits approximated an
inch in diameter. It i quite certain, that this fruit could be very greatly
improved by selection Frln by ,using some form of asexual reprodrluction.

gump..Ouro Pranco.
The fazenda runs to within about a kilometer of Ouro 'ranco.
The little town shows up very prettily from the road as one rides toward it.
UIt is Pn old town! probably over one hundred and fifty years old, and
seems to have ver little business of its own. It i probably that it is
kept up by the trade f om 'he fazendas Pround it. There is a good deal
of evidence that the town at one time spw better cohditiond. All the
residences are in fair condition of rep ir and the Ftreets nassably good.
Te most conspicuous thinp in the town is the little chapel.
This stnds out very prominently af one rides from the ffzenda. In riding
out from Lobo Lefte on the day before, I passed without noticing it.
On our way in we stoDnped at Sr. -- n' rested as well as treat-
ed to coffee. I paid for a telegram that had been nhonerl in, but which
appreas never to have arrived at Bello tori zont'.
The little church is beetUfuNlly located and maIes a snlendid
anpearence with the seen mountains about a kilometer away and the tidy

clean appearance of the building it is quite imposing.

Fig. 8 shows a picture of it with Arthur Vienna 6n horse back









in the fore ground. Ansnarently the church has not always been well to do/.
3no of the steenles it without a bell so the resourceful Parishon'-rs -nut
painted a bell in thus at least helping the onnearence


s hows a nesrer view of the church but fails to give
carvinqp on the doors and minor details in architecture.
e rdate of 1779. I expressed my nelv.ure at seeing
asked me if' I would care to see the interior,
the key and we walked over the the church. very thing
owed that it Fhad neen constructed many years apo.
cture by a side door tbroungh a room in which the ves-

st were kent. This desk like affair has in it very
of them have ponderous key holes indicating hafid
f the doors and the latches were all hanered out by
sed about teh building were also of the hand m-ade type.
e main church we found the alter and sacristy lavishly
decorated. Many figures of various kinds were used. Chem,s, saints
and the Christ. Many qaiare yerds of gold leaf had been used. "'uch of
this was as bright as if it lad been recently burnished. -Arnarently
the church is in vp -r ,','nr. V-1M es at the present time. "ery vs.yx
odd crins in the floor near tha
asB. iwo had drtes on the slab
in front of the altar was a marble
as 18,0 In the main nart of the
-nro trudn, from the curtainsOn
of the Christ fellng riown und~er the
o be a wax figure strc a rather faith-
general apnearences. Just in front
of the church and to the right on the side of the street was the priests
house. Fig. 10// Above the door it bore the date of 1759.





.., ^-11-. .

in the fore ground. A-nnarently the church has not always been well to do/.
Ono of the steeples it without a bell so the resourceful narishoners n-ut
up some boards and painted a bell in thus at least hel-ning the anneaorence
of things.
Zig. f 9 shows a nesrer view of the church but fails to give
the outlines of the carvinp-gs on the doors and minor details in architecture.
The church bears the date of 1V779. I expressed my pelasure at seeing
the church and Sr. ---- asked me if I would care to see the interior,
he kindly 'sent for the key and we walked over the the church. `very thing
about the church showed that it thad neen constructed many years ago.
Vi'e entered the structure by a side door through a room in which the ves-

tements of the priest were kept. This desk like affair has in it very
large drawers. All of them have ponderous key holes indicating haid
work. The hinges of the doors and the latches were all banered out by
hand. The nails used about teh building were also of the hand made type.
Inside the main church we found the alter a-d sacristy lavishly
decorated. Xany figures of various 'kinds were used. Cherubs, saints
and the Christ. .ny square yards of gold leaf had been used. 77uch of
this was as bright as if it liad been recently burnished. Ap-narently
the church is in very poor circumstances at the present time. Tery vtxx
benches reamin. There are some twnety odd crins in the floor near tha
altar, two or three of these bearing dates. wo had drtes on the slab
above the sepulcher. One immediately in front of the altar was a marble
slab. The oldest date seen on these was P1820 In the mIin nart of the
church woF a litter with a huge cuoss nrotrudung from the curtainsOn
parting the curtains we found an imppe of the Christ falling fown under the

weight of the cross. This enmeared to be a wax figure ard' a' rather faith-
ful reproduction as to hair and other generall anpearences. Just in front
of the church and to the right on the side of the street was the priests
house. Fig. # 10// Above the door it bore the date of 1-9.





A ,,A A




(i)




V
-12'

The exterior of the house is in fair repair. The doors and windows
indicare that they were made many years ago. he wood shows ri ny ears
of weathering. The tile on the roof amnear to "e old' and probablyy
were used when the building ,-,as constructed. "n ine-restingI in connection

with the priests house was the two booths that had been constructed in the
street near his house. The walls of these were of esteira matting mede
from taquara. "he roof was of tile. Annsrently these had hceen used on
several occasions during festivities in the town.

Campo.
All of the intervening region that we traveled between Ouro
Branco and Lobo Leite is designated a s campo. Very littel prass occurs
excepting in a few sheltered places. The fires sweep over it erom time
to time probably annually. The tr es and vegetation is all of a Xerophy-
tic type. The hills are rather steep ,na wash badly. Special washouts
seem to occur in regions where kaolin has formed. Very little rock is
exposed. Some deep gullies have been cut into woil forty to sixty
feet deep without e posing any stones in sitio.
11 of the herbaceous vegetation along the road trav&&ed was well
adapted against fires and long continued drought. A few Ipomeas were in
bloom. Oehtrosema grass was practically absent. Less than one ordinar-
ily finds in woods and pine barrens. A-nnarently no one %as attemnting
to put this ]snd into cltivation. Just outside of Ouro Pranco was some
stretvhes of land that apncared to have been originally the sane as the
oampo but -as now supporting good -nastures, tho of course dry at this
time of the year?
Probably the most noticeable and peculiar thing of the camo iv.s
the species of tees. These producAed as a rule very >cavy corky ')ark.

iost of them are deidious. A large number like the coms bloom before
,-Lost of them are decidious. A ~large number l1ike the 'acomfis bloom before







.-13-

producing leaves. The tree vegetation is snarce none attaining to the

real dignity of trees and apparently hird a severe struggle for existence.
.Fig. II shows ont of the tymiccl treeson the cmpo. he
limbs are bent and gnarled in all sorts of directions. It soons to be
imnncssible to produce a Irue tnim-. Arthur .ianna on the horse in the
fore ground is in o cut with some of the branches of tfe tree over him.

Lobo Leite.
t'ie arrivedd at Lobo Leite about 4 oIlo eic Finr had diirmnr at the
hotel. L. L. is a sm-'Ill pelce of probably a thousmiad in habitants.
The landlord also conducts a general -nerchanidlisinF store. Te was very
affable and greeted us -nosl good naturedly. "IF wife *nre-no-red a sum-ntubus
S repast of very nluin diet. T': left L. L. at six ten for elio Horizonte.







013-
producing leaves. The tree vegetation is snarce, none attaining to the
real dignity of trees and apparently hid a severe struggle for existence.
Fig. # 11 shows on4 of the typical trees on the campo. The
limbs are bent and gnarled in all sorts of directions. It sO-',s to be
imrnnssible to ".roduce a true trnk. Arthur "ianna on the horse in the
fore ground is in a cut with some of the branches of the tree over him.

Lobo Leite.
We arrived at Lobo Leite about 4 o'clock and hbEd dinner at the
hotel. L. L. is a s'iall pace of probably a thousand in habitants.
The landlord also conducts a general -nerchandisinp"-store. 7e was very
affable and. greeted us m-ost good naturedly. Tis wife nrenared a s urntu6us
repast of ve.ry naiin diet. W,, left L. L. at six ten for 'ello Horizonte.


\\ u










'.o -









~t **

**_,.,


*Veterin
*' Ve terinpi


October ?f, l2a.
Arthur Vianna came for me at 11:30 with a car furnished by
Lr. Lisboas -acteriologist at the Vetei-niary Post and professor of Bac-
terinLno-r vi a+ i A^.. College in Dello Horizonte.
i n Mfive or stx minutes and were taken

Ik Bof rr. tis b o8
7j i? .,.- i g i f.......^*r r '


.. | o material that looks like a thisk
-.--- -- ... ~-translucent, some-vihOt tickyy to the

ticky. -he conposition of the 'riat-
: ':' HH- )ut the formula for the material will
--1e principal value of the material is
th,- t it furnishes a medium for carrying live foot ,nd mouth disease,
p- ... .- ... .... .. laboratory. It is divided into small
about or.c {m of mucus from the

are t aTen. It iA mixed more or less
(rled up rind mailed t( the maobratory.
~pt for a period of ten clays an still



let is: to be uped E sntll quantity
ortor, The -neFtle is then an1lied and
uiL water mixed intimatel.tvith the medium.As the medium t'e.s un the
..._ ....... .irAi .nntj the whole nass is diluted to .l-out 'ifty cen -
IE
1 is of an opaque whitis'.& iionearnoce.
oryv we wVent out into the yar.d and
Z n.. r we had visited with Dr. Chagas.
z- -hd two car-.viras in : -ens but that.
-: -^-;:.-- -- -- ..-. ... -'" ,w hd two can ,viras in ren.p but that


"M i ai


Hme of the buildings at the post.
nd hog house. To. 4 is the front


ry Post.





',,
.1'.

I


S
*'


October 21" 1926.
Arthur Vianna came for me at 11:30 with a car furnished by
Lr. Lisboa, ?acteriologist at the Veteiniary Post and professor of Bac-

teriology xi at the Agricultural College in aello Horizonte.
We arrived at the host in five or six minutes and were taken
to the office and to the laboratory of Dr. tisboa.
Dr. L'sboa showed us some material that looks like a thiak

gelatine or starchy material, semi-translucent, somwcvhat sticky to the
touch, bit on drying becomes less sticky. 7he composition of the mater-
ial was still held in confidence but the formula for the material will
be published in a -nonth or so. The principal value of the material is
that it furnishes a medium for carrying live foot and mouth disease,
(afthosa) from the field to the laboratory. It is divided into small
particles of about thn grans, then about ore U-.m of mucus from the
afflicted mouth arts of an animal are taken. It id mixed more or less
intimately wit" the medium, then sealed up nnd mailed to the maobratory.
In this was the material may be kept for a period of ten days and still
be virulent*
'Then the small ball or pelet is to be used a swill quantity

of water is nlaced beside it in a mortar. The neFtle is then anllied and
the water mixed intimatelwith the medium.As the medium ,a'es un the
water more is added,.until the whole mass is diluted to about fifty cen -
timeters. In t'is state the material is of an opaque whitish ao-near,6ce.
After visiting the laboratory we went out into the yard and
revisited some nf the buildings that we had visited with Dr. Chagas.
The attendant told me that they had had two cannviras in nens but that

both of them had died.
r ^ Made some exposures on some of tbe buildings at the -ost. 0
Number 3'is a view of the hog pens and hog house. To. 4 is the front


Veterinary Post.












. AI.AN,


,77




I











S..- .. .
,J. I 111 VII i




I


-2-
of the Post with Dr. Lisboa and Arthur Vianna in tkh field. 'o 5
-... \paratus for handling the animals in




on Satu1921. Dr. lisboa invited me

s the injection of foot and mouth

i \ in .making a protective serum.
S.automobile 'nd went tothe Post.

The assistt ant of Dr. -'isboa spid that he h d not arrived. Later,

about 9;00 o'clock Dr. Lisboa arrived. He explained to me that .e
had over splet and consequently was little late. The apsistart to
Dr. -Lisboa was instructed to nnaenare a pellet of tle foot and mouth

disease virus, (aphtosa). it took probably fifteen or t c'nty minVies
to get this material in good shane for use. Considerably -ore than
half of the ti-9c was r.-eeded for m'xinp. it with water. After working it
up in a mortar with a pestle the material seemdd to be pretty thoroly
mixed with the water. At hss an onaoue whitish qpnefrence and a necu-
liar half fetid odor, rather characteristic and it -e,-id different from
anything I had smelled before. Dr. 4isboa explained that the causative
agent pr an ultra microscopic orp-riisn that kad not been cultivated on
media and probably could not be. Under the high power of a -iicroscnoe,
by the use of indirect li,-!ht 4rom an Abbie.-condenser the infecting agent
appeared as minute, luminous dots. The articles were too smrll to
make out any outline.
The assistant after making an emulsion of t.jis -noterial
placed it in a graduate and diluted it to 50 cc. after having strained
/ it through a fine cloth to re&ve oiv large articles.






-2-

of the Post with Dr. Lisboa and Arthur Vianna in t1h field. ro- 5
shows the horse stalls with the apparatus for handling the animals in
the house seen beyond.


October 24, 121.
7When I visited the Post on Saturday Dr. Lisboa invited me
to come out thia morning and witness the injection of foot and mouth
disease into the animal t- be used in making a protective serum.
Soon after 8:30 I took an automobile rind went tothe Post.
The assist ant of Dr. Lisboa srid that he hFd not arrived. Later,
about 9;00 o'clock Ir. Lisboa ariived. He explained to me that 'e
had over splet and consequently was a little lpte. The aspsista"n to
Dr. Lisboa was instructed to pae-nare a pellet of t7,e foot and mouth
disease virus, (aphtosa). it took probably fifteen or twenty minutes
to get thfi material in good shcne for lise. Considerably nore t'-an
half of the ti-e was needed for tnxing it with water. After working it
up in a mortar with a pestle the material seemndd to be pretty thoroly
mixed with the water. 't has an oneosue -,,-itish appeprc'nece and a necu-
liar half fetid odor, rather characteristic -nid it -,^c'd different From
anything I hd smelled before. Dr. Lisboa explained that the causf-tive
agent wc an ultra microscopic orpcrism that rad not Tieen culivated on
media and probably could not be. Under the high power of a microscpoe,
by the use of indirect liht from an Abbie-ccndenser the infecting agent
appeared as minute, luminous dots. The articles were too sm-ll to
wnko out any outline.
The assistant after ma'cing an emulsion of th1is material
placed it in a graduate and diluted it to 50 co. After having strained
-it through a fine cloth to remove any large -nrticlem.



































































.... .. ., .







A ~-3- .
Injection Instrunent.
The instrument used for injecting the material into the
animal was of ra"he.iinple construction, consisting of a glass bulb
capable of holding the dosage connected, with a hypodermic needle by
mneand of a one ot two millimeter rubber tube. For corve nience sake a
small glass tube kidJ been iiaroduced near fhe needle. This pave a
place on which to rest the pinch cock and also enabled the attendant to
tell when the air had all -,ecn expelled 'Yo' the tube. The instru-
ments v,-wre not sterilized but -.*.ere si-inly washed in distilled water to
clean them of adhering material.
The hypodermic needle placed at th-, end of the rubber tube
was of a heavy cannula type, probably bout ler centi -iters long.

'he O-neration.
A zebu -ostiso weighing Nabout eight ot nine hurndred -oounds
was used. He had been placed in a pen and cast on the floor before we
arrived. His feet had been tied together so that bie could not arise
and his head bent over onto his body to keen him from struggling.
The needle was then -.reroved [icir the apparatus and by searchinr ith

the finger the juguli.r vein was discovered. is haed had been bent over
in such a way as to rplc.e the vein in a firn lDcatiorn. 'The needle was
rustt into the vein adi only o small snurt of blood came out. The rubber
w-s then attached to tih- needle C-n-' Fe bulb cofitaining the liquid raised
about fifty centimeters above th,, point of the insertion o- the ,:,le.
The liquid flowed rapidly into the rvein and the -rc'x-ecrroir of the instru-
ment lower ed to introduce the6 liquid more slowly. I tVr-in that Dr. Lisboa
told me they used normal slt solution for dissolving the fui'iy mass.
It was less t}an six -ninues fr-a the time of the insertion of the needle
until the injection had been completed. "!-he injection c-ss-..i ,-ore or






-4-


less interference in the breathing of the animal. This was probably due
ti affecting the heart by the introduction of the salt solution.

Anh to, a.
If I understoos Dr. -isboa's explankkion correctly at the
preventive
end to ten days 'his animal would be given a 2 cc. injection of1se-
rum fxzm, end on the twelfth day he will be given 5 cc, on the fourteenth
day 10 cc, on the sixteenth day 20 c6s and on the eighteenth day 50 cc's.
Then the animal will be considered a '"hvyerirniune. :flnd his blood produce
serum for curative and preventative treatment in other Tm~is.
7he amount of serum needed ranges from 2 cc's for recently
burn calves to proportionately larger quantities fro larger animals.
To make certain tat the material is virulent t wo or thew
calves are injected with the same material. If the material is viru-
lent, aphtosa will of course occur.


,Poultry disease.
While we were waiting for the aphtosa mrterisl to be oreanred
Dr. Lisboa explained to me some work they were doing on poultry. Little

chicks at the pin feather stage are frequently affected with sore head
a very different disease f .om the sore head in the U. S., at least it
appeared to me to be different. On Sat. Di. Lisboa explained that it
was diphtheria, altho he said it had not been positively connected um -ith
diphtheria. The serum method 6f investigation was also being used here.
The chicks that had been innocula ted but not treated with serum showed
the disease as progressing. 'hose that had been trfteed vith the -erum
made from other chickens showed the lesions r drying up. A rull 7rorir
rooster wvas kill-'d and his blood rcved. About thirty or forty cc. hen
the rooster was cut open his liver showed more or less affectation.
The connective tissue between the skin and rnuscles murder the wings showed







* F

a considerable nu-ber of white c'C. The connective tissue o^ portions

of the liver and the spleen (?) we're sqve-'1 for further micropcopie iexfP-
ination. fhl -Ict of thE roster looI:ed g'ooC ,-O1 the other org- ns so

far as I could see showed no sffectation.
Dr. Lisboa's car brought me back to the rarril Totel a9'out

10: o'clock.




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EJFP7OP9J_YK74R0 INGEST_TIME 2014-04-09T23:16:37Z PACKAGE AA00000207_00103
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EHNGU3F0X_XEPU7F INGEST_TIME 2014-04-01T21:56:43Z PACKAGE AA00000207_00103
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES