Trip 2: Vicosa. 1921

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Material Information

Title:
Trip 2: Vicosa. 1921
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Trip 2: Vicosa. 1921

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00097

Full Text

' "" %7.:E4*^ -. ' "
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collegee of Agriculture and Veterinary Science

for the
State of Minas Gernes
Bello Horizonte,

May 10. 1921.
To Hdi Excellency, .
Dr. Arthur da Silvi Bernardes, -
Presidmnt-of the State of Mine s Gerae.
Honorable Sir: i
I have the honor to present to you a brief communication
that has to do with the establishment of the College of Agriculture
and Veterinary Science.
The trip to Hio Novo, Pomba, Cataguazes, Sao Paule de
Muriah6, and Sta. Luzia do Carangola was made as promptly and as
rapidly as possible. Itt was to me a -most profitable experience,
though I returned quite exhausted and more or less debilitated.
The people among whom we visited and, for that matter,
others that I have visited among, have splendid ideals. They are
kindly disposed and very patient. They are willing to labar a-
long and wait patiently to acormplish the ideals they have in mind.
It is a magnificent country, abounding in surprisingly great agri-
cultural wealth. Evorywhero we find .splendid perks, splendid pu-
blic buildings and the cities usually supplied with moderately
good public utilities, such as electric lights, sewerage systems.
water supplies, and in some cases with street cars.
Everywhere one finds an abu*tept supply of agricultural
labor. In fact, the agricultural ltbor seems to be so easil1
obtained that it appears to the newcomer that mich of it i*-wasted.
i-f' '




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The agricultural products do not appear to be as carefully hus-
banded as is the case in countries where agricultural labor is
difficult to obtain.
I wish to compliment my associate, Dr. Alvaro de Silvei-
ra for his uniform good nature and desire to make the arduous trip
as pleasant and es profitable as possible.

Ideals for the College. -
Th& object for the Agricultural college is to educate
the younger generation in better methods ofiagriculture in order
that they may become better citizens of the State. This is a
very serious and difficult undertaking. Especially is that true
in a country where the agricultural operations have become firmly
fixed through generations of practice. Not infrequently serious
crises in the agriculture of a region occurs before new methods
aro adopted. The southeastern Dart of the United States is an
illustration to t.hip. -point. Cotton had been grown for many gen-
erations and had become almost the exclusive money crop for a
Fri
large region. This region of the United States was one that
was best adapted to a diversified agriculture, but the farmers
of the region continued to grow cotton in spite of the fact that
the returns for the crop was less than the exoenee of making it.
The advent of the boll-weevil destroyed the Dossibility of making
this crop ond thus forced the fprmerr into a diversified agricul-
ture. The results are that this region is more prosperous than
ever before in its history rnd is destined in a few years to--be-
come the most prosperous agricultural section in the world.
Another object of the Agricultural College is to acquire
useYul agricultural knowledge and to disseminate it among the coam-




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mon people. Apparently the nation of Brazil has not yet awakened
to the great possibilities in this direction. As It appearnt from
the President's
reading kit message to Congress that the amount of useful knowl-
edge disseminated by the national government is only a fraction
of what is disseminated by the average state government in North
America.
Many people assume that the most important work for an
Agricultural College is to produce scientists of a high degree of
attainment. They usually point to such scientists as Pasteur,
Koch, and Darwin as their ideal products. However desirable such
a goal may be, it is much more important for the welfare of a whole
state, such as Mines Geraes, to educate the common citizens who
have very inadequate opportunities of bettering their conditions
without the aid of the state. 'These great scientists mentioned
arose in spite of the fact that they had little opportunity. They
must be classed in a class by themselves known as graies genius.
The most important nedd of Minas Gerses is to open an
institution that will give the younr- man who, through the neglect
of his forefathers, has not received education enough to make good
use of his time and opportunities. It is not the boy's fault
that he has less than a Gymnasium education. It is not the boy's
fault that his ideals of life are so meagre and that he is satis-
fied with a mere existence. inas Gerees is able, end, I believes
willing, to educate her children. Bverysingle state in the
North American Union has better educational facilities and a high-
er general educational attainment, and yet there is not a single
state that has the agricultural wealth and possibilities equal to
those of Minms Geraes. Higher education in any state can be at-
tained only by Bratuitg z creating a desire for an education among




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those who have not attained it. The development of the Agricul-
tural College during the lest sixty years has been the same, wheth-
er in Australia, South Africa, Canada, or the United States. It
was begun at the bottom and worked upward. Xven England, France
and Germany, had to adopt this method after failing to reach their
objective by beginning at the top and working downward. The
highly privileged upper classes in all nation of the world have
abundant opportunities for advancement but the under privileged
lower classes have for opportunities of riirmg.

-Handicapgede0ounterdd.
Soae delays hrve occurred due to the lack of rapid rail-
way trains and also due to bad connections at junction points.
Several days of the time were lost in this way. Most of the trains
have bee-n comfortable and fairly sanitary, making the travel rea-
sonable comfortable though, of course, somewhat tedious.
The most inexplainable difficulty in our investigations
was the total lack of any transportation facilities, not even sad-
dle horses. This seems altogether incomprehensible in a country
where unused lands are unlimited and where feed and forage is so
Bkhfap cheap. Going afoot is certainly the most primritive and, at
the same time, the most expensive means of locomotion. Yet, in
all the rounds with one single exception, the field investigations
were made by going afoot. During rainy days and immediately af-
ter rainy days, this method was impracticable.
Another handicap in the progress of the work has been
the lack of in interpreter. This has frequently put me in con-
tradictory situations. However, as everybody was good natured
and desiring to do everything possible, nothing of an unpleasant
nature occurred, though the progress in the work was impeded.




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There has been a considerable amount of difficulty in
getting the privilege of seeing a fazenda. So far it has -not been
my privilege to do so. Possibly this would be a serious viola-
tion of some Brazilian custom. Another great disappointment to
me has been that the repeated promises to give me the privilege
of visiting ani examining one of the many coffee warehouses has
so for been denied. '

Essentail points considered in choosing a location.
(1). Helthfulness. This is of first importance in any unt-
dertaking.
(?). Avsilsble lands. There ahoul1 beB an area of about
fifty hectares of level land and an addi tional area of abshout
three hundred hectares of other lands.
(3). Location. The buildings should not be more than
approximately a kilometer from a city and within sight of the
railroad.
( W). Water supply. Contagious hu'm.:r.n nd aninnmal diseases
are frequently sx conveyed by water The supply must be most
carefully safe guarded. The water needed for irrigation must
be available in large quantity.
(5). Centrally located, it is important that the institu-
tion be in the central portion of the region to be served.
(6). Crop production. In addition to the lands needed for

demonstration, experimentation, and instructional pq purposes,
a larger area of considerable size is needed for producing the
staple meats, foods, a=& vegetables, and fruits that will be need-
ed for the support of the students. ,
(7). Power. Sufficient electric power must be available in







'a
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order to have brilliant lights and for power to operate such
heavy machinery as cane crashers and other farm machinery, as well
as for operating pumps to supply the water needed.

Conclusion.
There is probably no place in the whole state of linas
Geraes that would have superior advantages on all of these points.
The most frequent defect of locations examined has been the lack
of available lands sufficiently near the city. Without a suffi-
cient area of good agricultural lands ant Agricultural college is
doomed to failure far from the start.
Of the nine places visited and examined in detail
Viqosa has decidedly the largest number of points in her favor.
Thanking you for your kindly consideration and with
highest personal regards, I am,
Very res-pectfully yours,








College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science
for the
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State of Minas Geraes.
SBello Horizonte.
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To His Excellency4 : 3-,
Dr. Arthur da Silva Bernardes,
P.esgdent of the State of rinas Geraes.
Honorable Sir:
I have the honor to submit herewith-a reshe of the
visits to different cities in Minas Qeraes and recommendation
as to the location of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary
SScience.
In selecting a site for an Agricultural College there
are certain salient factors that must be taken into consideration.
'If any one of these is wanting, it will be difficult, if not im-

possible, to succeed. These factors are,-
(1), Healthiness. This is of first importance in any busi-
ness undertaking.
(2). Available lands. There mst be sufficient lands that
can be readily used -by the students for the study, demonstration,
and experimentation of all crops grown in the region. This land
must be of uniform quality and at least as good as the average
that is used for agricultural purposes. The student must be taught
the application of scientific methods on soils at least as good as
those on which he expects to operate after completing his course.
."ilL





There should be not lesrethan thirty five or forty bhea-
tares of level land for buildings and surroundings, for demonstra-
tion, for crop production, and for experimentation. In addition








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to this there should be three hundred or more hectares of other
land suitable for pasture, for silviculture work, for cane grow-
ing, for coffee growing, and for demonstrations in fruit growing.
All of these should be on a large enough scale to make it a real
service to the students.
(3). Location. If the buildings are located more than
a kilometer from a city many serious difficulties are experienced
in establishing the institution. Many hardships have to be en-
dured by the students until a large community has developed near
the College.
(4). Location and the center of population. The in-
stitution should be located on a main line of railway and if pos-
sible in view of the passing trains. It should also be located
as nearly as possible in the center of the district it is to serve.
(5). Water supply. There are a number of malignant
human and animal diseases that aro carried by water. It is, there-
fore, of highest importance that the water supply be so safe-guard-
ed that it cannot be contaminated to avoid disease and loss of life
that have arisen from time to time in Agricultural Colleges. A
much larger supply of water is needed for instruction in irriga-
tion and for crop production. Water from a large stream will
serve for this purpose.
(6). Crop production. In addition to the lands needed
for demonstration, experimentation, and instructional purposes, a
larger area.of considerable size. is needed for producing the staple
meats, foods, vegetables, and fruits that will be needed for the
support of the students.
(7). Power. Sufficient electric power must be available




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in order to have brilliant lights and for power to operate such
heavy machinery as cane crushers and other farm machinery as well
as for operating pumps to supply the water needed.


In conformity with your instructions, Dr. Alvaro da Sil-
veira, Dr. Arduino Fontes Bolivar, and myself visited four leading
points, as follows,-
UbA, February 26", to February 28", 1921.
Rio Branco, February 28", to %arch 1", 1921.
Ponte Nova, March 1", to March 4", 1921.
Viqosa, March 4", to March 7", 1921.
Later, in conformity with your instructions, Dr. Alvaro
da Silveira and myself visited five other points as follows,-
Bio Novo, April 27", to April 28", l21.
Pomba, April 28", to April 29", 19?1.
Cataguazes, April 30" to 7ay 1", 1921.
Sao Paulo de Muriah6, May I': to May 3", 1921.
Sta. Luzia do Carangola, May 3" to May 4", 1921.


All of these places were visited and carefully examined
with the view of determining which would be the most suitable for
the location of the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science,
constantly keeping in mind the seven salient points necessari.for
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the success of the institution.
In your verbal instructions to me you twice cautioned
me against my being prejudiced in favor of Vi;osa because that
happened to be your home city. I have been mindful of this pre-
caution and if I have erred in any respect it is rather against








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Vipsa than in her favor.

ECOMMENDATION After viewing the Question from all

possible standpoints and taking time enough to get a clear concep-

tion of the situation, and having had thirty years experience di-
rectly with Agricultural Colleges, I can recommend Viqosa without

hesitation as the most suitable point at which to locate the Col-
lege of Agriculture and Veterinary Science.
Thanking you for your kindly consideration, and with
highest personal regards, I am,
Very respectfully yours,









*- -" Trip Number 2.
*' TO VIQOSA TO ,WS PRELIMINARY SURPVTY OF TRACT OF LATP

S- ELECTED FOR THE LOCATION OF TH7 AGFICULTTJAL COLI7FG.
*'* .' '. .

; March 30f 1921. I left Bello Horizonte on Larch 30,1921
*I.,
in company with Engineer Dr. Benedicto Antonio dos S'Entos at 3:50 P.M..
on the Central do Brazil..rilway. Took dinner on the trein in the
dining car in company with Dr. Theophilo Ribeiro, who was on his way,
.- to. io de Janeiro. Oengbed to wider gauge Railway at Ta.fi te. The

S sleeper on this train was the one built for the King of Belguim on
his..vivit here two years ago. Arrived at Juiz de Fora about 2:00
A. M. and put up at the Palacio Hotel. '
March 31, 1921. Left at 7:00 A. on the Leoplodian Fail-
way for Viosa. Stopped off at Furtafbs do Campo to make connections
with the main line from Rib. Got breakfast about 11:30. Met Mr.
'M0 Afee after breakfast. Left Furtedos do Campos about 2:30 P. M'.
Took dinner at Eio Branco at about 5:00 P. M. It was too late in
Sthe day to get full benefit of the rise to the summit of the Serra.
We arrived at Viqosa at about 7:00 P. M. Prof. Roquette met me
at the hotel with the compliments of the Director of the Gymnasium.
The lights were abomnible. Could not read or write. The lights in

the dining room were little more than.glims.
-April 1, 1921. Started out afoot to go over the-tract
with Dr. Benodicto. Prof. Roquette went along for "interrupter" and
did well. We got back about 12:00 M., too late for breakfast, but
were favored with breakfast .at the request of Prof. Roquette. At 2rOo-
P. ,M. Dr. B. and myself started out on' horseback -to make retter -re-
conisance. Left the horses at n. Christians and about 4:O. 9 P. .
started work with the transit. Slow work. Got back about{6:30.
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r ,..4. .t was over but finally got a kind


Went out about 8.00 A; ". for

1 tract. About 10:00 A. M. made
nsi.t work. Thoy had gotten only
ound it very difficult going up
or.e to ride to breakfast. 7e sent
to town for his. When I got to my room after breakfast I found my
notes, map, Saturday Evenihng Post, and.O P'iaV missing. Started out-.2-
immediately on horseback to recover them. Hunled 1ll tbe way but
Sdid not find them. Reported it to Dr. Benedicto. Continued to hunt
in the' cornfield and alpng the stream. 'Finally found them on the
steep bank in a thick lot: of weeds. Walked back to the hotel for
.. dinner, at 5:00 P. 2A.' At about 7:00 Prof. Roquette and a friend-call -
ed. He said 1exdia not go.-out in the P. 2. because his head ached
too badly. He does not look very robust. Went over to the Gy'na-
slum with him and met a number of the other teachers but learned
"' nobody's name.
April 3, 191. Dressed for the field and got coffee. On
the street it appeared to me that it was Sunday, so I went back and
Changed suits. Was very -lad it was Sunday. Took a stroll down
'town -fter writing a letter home. Found Prof. Eoquette at r barber
shop. There seem to be more barber shops then are needed. All are
rather trivial looking, but ready for business on Sunday morning.
After breakfast at 10:30 Eoquette took me to the Cathedral. It was
gorgeously fitted up inside. 'The priest went on with the ceremony.
People came and went, talked some, the women smiled a good deal and
were cordial with each other. We stayed about an hour when most of
the worshippers got up and left. I had standing room in the back of

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Drelses for dinner and was told it was over but finally got a kind
of left over.
Abril 2, 1921. Sabbado. Went out about 8:00 A. for

S -further reconnainsance of the level tract. About 10:00 A. M. made
my way over to Dr. Benedicto's transit work. They had gotten only'
-'.* little past the first ford and found it very difficult going up
trA; stream. Had Dr. Benedicto's horse to ride to breakfast. 7e sent
to town for his. When I got to my room after breakfast I found my
notes, map, Saturday Evening Post, and 0 Piea missing* Started outt -

Simmediately on horseback to recover them. Hunted ll the way but
# r did not find them. Reported it to Dr. Benedicto. Continued to hunt
in the cornfield and al8ng the stream. 'Finally found them on the
steep bank in a thick lot' of weeds. Walked back to the hotel for
dinner, at 5:00 P. a. At about 7:00 Prof. Roquetfte and a friend-call-
ed. He said h'difl not gp:-.out in the P. MI. because his head ached
too badly. He does not look very robust. Went over to the Gympna-
sium with him and met a number of the other teachers but learned
"- nobody's name.
April 3, 1951. Pressed for the field and got coffee. On
S the street it appeared to me that it was Sunday, so I went back and
changed suits. Was very dlad it was Sunday. Took a stroll down
town Effter writing a letter home. Found Prof. Eoquette at P barber
shop. There seem to be more barber shops than are needed. All are
rather trivial looking, but ready for business on Sunday morning.
After breakfast at 10:30 Eoquette took me to the Cathedral. It was
gorgeously fitted up inside. The priest went on with the ceremony. ,
People came and went, talked some, the women smiled a good deal and
were cordial with each other. We stayed about an hour when most of
the worshippers got up and left. I had standing room in the back.of










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:-the Cathedral.,, o onne seemed to notice me excepting the man with
" "":"the collectiof- box,' be missed no one. Occasionally he would stop

S taking the collbctionto kneel during particular-parts of the ser-
vice. The service was very impressive. The priest's voice was
rarely audible t'o mO, s tend ing in the rear of the Cathedral. About
n 2:30 Foquette came to my room to revd his English lessons to his

class in english We tried to find'as place in the open. The park
was not suitable on account of the large number of people present.
The hospital grounds were also being.used by people loitering and
enjoying Sunday P. We finally returned to the cubby hole and

read until ,bout 4:00 P. M. In the evening, after dinner, I went
around to Dr. Benedicto's hotel. He had not been out surveying on
account of feeling the need of rest '-but had taken a bicycle and
gone out to the Colo0nia. :,
Abril 4, 19.1. be.u.do. Made an early morning trin to
the top of a mountain north of the. Leopoldian Railway traclr, and
one that lies in the tract or adjoining it. Near the top I found
what appears to be a Panicum like Paspalum affected with 'clerotium.
The disease was very abundant on this species of grass. The grass
is grazed a great deal by the animals in the pasture. Some horses
were in the pasture, also some cattle,-Zebu grades.
After breakfast-I rode out to *he ChachAs where I found Pr. 'Ben-
edicto taking the measurements of fhe stream to ascertain the volume
of water. He used bottles for floats. Afterwards he ren the level
from the dam to the neg on the Leopoldian Railway.
I walked into the valley and found the sugar mill cn one of the
side streams. On the high lands, past, I found Sclorotium on sev-,-
er 'iof Paspalum Collected three Up the valley
eral'S^Be_^of Paspalura. Collected three *.fS.^ Up the valley







4....-^ -- .
.' .' '

there seems to be more farming th.n along the railway. Sugar cane
seems to .be the main feature. Corn is abundant, all of the hard,
flinty type used in Cubs and Mexico.
S5 de Abril.,.1921. Came out about 7:45 and found a heavy
fog that cleared up by -:00 A. M. Everything was covered with dew,
fine condition for Sclerotium on Paspalum. Also :found many fungi.
Fleshy fungus were rare, even in the woods .they Were not at all com-
mon. The leguminous tree with the bright yellow flowers is very
abundant and full of bloom. A composite it in full bloom along the
streams. :It is a vine like herb running over smell trees, witM.,
very showy yellow flowers. Found "'atte'. Pasto" (Ageratum Conysoi-
des) affected with Cysto-pus (Albugo). Collected a snecimen. Went
to breakfast at 9:-.O, got back o stion-at 11:30. Hot in the sun.
.. Decided' "that the north road out of town was impracticable. That
Passes the main and ovm onnthe south side of the Eailway. There
is still one Tlrge tree standing not far 'rpm the best crossing lace.
SMade a brief scout into the brush. It may have been used once
fqr coffee, as I found one old bush. In the sun it was unbearably
warm but "in theo-shade comfortable even in coats.
About 1:00 o'clock we went.t to the .Christain's for water and
stayed. for coffee. The rest was refreshing as well an the coffee.
Then took up the survey of the right angles to the leonoldian
railway on the north side running un fbhe stream bank. I followed
the water "canal" -and got-a drink from it. The water wa. clear and
tasted good. I walked un the stream about 30 meters and'-ound a
monster myrapod dead in the water. I tried to get it out but aft-r
lifting it from the water it broke. The pollywogs in my stomach .
flapped their tails against the sides of it for the rest of the-af-
ternoon, but quieted down after a hearty dinner.


A6





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erty on the embankment 1114,Ak the division. Ditches or trenches*.

(called vallas) are used for .division marking and for turn ing cattle.
tt came AFnd we read s english a ond

S the Central Hotel antd found Dr.
Came outoabout 7i15 and found a






S"Arrived mn the field about
South- 'line, of -Christian's prop-





erty on the embankment the division. Ditches or t wrenches.,
(called valles) are used for division mark ing and for turning cattle.




A. 3. A feter breakfast we looked









io
Ku ihe proposed road to the n scoly .
ty and along the mountains seems,

most econom'ipal one6. It will re-

t3400 cu meters of earth. The-
-ubic meter.
On the, Florida Canal the cost


Into the hammock. I counted 39
spiders in one community colony. There are-various sizes in a col-

ony, some smell individuals look like males. The spiders were quite
sluggish and made no serious effort to bite when I captured one.

They move rapidly enough on their tough silken web but on vegetation

they move very slowly.
Abril 6, 1.21. Quarta feira. The black boy cut down a

hornets' nist. and got stung on the un-er right eyelid. Re did not

mind it much. He gathered up some of the yellow spider, 'webh-, and

put git tin his eye. Gat some tobacco of me and apparently put it
in his eye. In a few minutes he was bEick on the job. Saw a butter-

fly being devoured by a spider in a, colony. heree was only one sni-

der at the butterfly. Each snider has her own center at which she





*. ** ," -5z
S After dinner, about 7:00 Roquet.te came and we read English and
. talked. At 2:30 we stepped over to the Central Hotel and found Dr.

Benedicto.


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$1
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S.


6 Abril, 19?1, Terst.. Came out about 7il5 and found a
: .letter from home at the Post Office. Arrived in the field about
7:30 and found the surveyors at the south line, of Christian's pron-
m o rkin7
erty on the embankment .bAg the division. Ditches or trenches*
(called vallas) are used for division marking and for turning cattle.
Went for breakfast at 10:00 A. M. After breakfast, we looked
over the general directions for the proposed road to the Escola.
The turn at the bamboos in the city end along the mountains seems,
=- _- ,
the only.:practicbb'le way and the most economical one. It will re-
S quire a culvert and fill of about 3400 cu-. meters of earth. The
per cubic meter.
cost is estimated at about-i10k O On the, Florida canal the cost
for stone was 8 cents a cubic yard.
A At 2:00 r. IM. began cutting into the hammock. I counted 39
spiders in one community colony. There are various sizes in a col-
ony, some small individuals look like males. The spiders were quite
tT
sluggish and made no serious effort to bite when I captured one.
They move rapidly enough on their tough si.lktn web but on vegetation
they move very slowly.
Abril 6, 1921. Quarta feira. The black boy cut down a
hornets' n-st. and got stung on the urv'er right eyelid. He did not
mind it much. He gathered up some of the yellow spider7'wb" and
put it dan his eye. att some tobacco of me and apparently put it
in his eye. In a few minutes he was baick on the job. Saw a butter-
fly being devoured by a spider in n colony. There was only one sni-
der at the butterfly. Each spider has her own center at which she




















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waits for her prey. As no trt;sh hangs in ihe net, they doubtless i..'
discard the 'remains. 'The webs are &11 high, five feet or more.
The lower ones are doubtless destroyed by passing cattle. The
butterflies all fly low unless excited. The "high fliers" have
doubtless been caught in the spider webs. About four chains into
bo
the hammock the black made an exclamation of surprise and a dartat
A
something and a bird flew. The bird was about the size of a North
American partridge. It was a N'hambi. The old hen had just hatched
five eggs and the boys caught three chicks. The old hen was not
seen or heard gain. The brown boy then built a pen of split limbs
for the chicks to keep them until quitting time.
After dinner I walked to the Central Hotel and back to my room
* -by 9:00. The work through the brush and briars w&s rather fatigu-
ing and I got thorned and bruised a great many times.
ABJil-71 1921. 'Dr. Benedicto informs me that a medium
Good ox for work is sold at 400$000. That the driver of the team
e 'gets 3$500 per day for day work and that the lead boy g-ets 16500
per day. A loaded.ox cart makes 2 1/2 to 3 km. per hour and hauls
about 15 sacks of sugar of 60 kg each. An ox cart containing ?0
sacks usually has 8 oxen. The value of a cart may be 240$000, but
is probably less.
At 10:10 went to breakfast with who has been friend-
ly for some days. He walks out about 3 km after coffee, comes in
for breakfast, and alse for suriper. He stays in the hotel at night.
At 11:15 went out to the field. Four engineers acconnpained Dr.
Benedicto. Finished running lines on the souf.h side of the railway.
Continued working on the' side of the railway. There are two
large trees in the valla (division trench), one to the south, a gam-
ellaita and the larger one to the south a Pineiro. The transit line
H number 9.






I -
At 2:30 transferred t.-& the capoeira to continue the line. On
my way directly through the brush I found the most showy Passiflora
I have ever seen. The sepals and petals have a spread of fully five
inches and were of rose pink. The corona was purple, the sepals
;strap shaped, about 5/8 inch broad, the petals were 1/2 inch. The
leaves were deeply lobed, apiculate. The stipules were broadly ran-.
iform, foliaceous, 1 inch broad. The vine was weak for its length.
Staminadia 1 1/2 inch tall. Petioles were 1 inch long, peduncles
7 inches long. The Brazilian name is Maracujb, general for Passi-
florium, especially for the edible ones. Remained at the hotel af-
ter dinner. Dr. Benodicto came around about 7:30 and Roquette a lit-
tle later. Dr. Benedicto stayed until about 8:30 and then Poquette
tried English until about 9:3Q. Studied a little, then went to bed.
Abril 8, 1921, Seista-feira. Got a letter from the Post
Office written Tuesday. Awakened before sunrise but went back to
sleep. Examined the road leading out to the bamboos.. At the end
of the broad street the way is blocked by a house. To follow the
road toward the cometary and then to the left requires two right
angle turns. The bamboos are on an easy grade to the crossing:' of
the stream. 8:30 found Dr. Benedicto running the line past the small
cottage. Cut way vup the hollow toward the end of line left last
night.
'At 10:00 went to breakfast. It was late. Wrote a note home.
Arrived back in field about 11:1F. In P. ,.I. finished running line
around hammock on north side and ran a line down caminho to the
bamboo clumps or thereabouts. At 8:30 went to movie with 'r. Bene-
dicto and Roquette.
9 Abril, 1921. Got into the field about 8:00 A. M. Got a
letter from home,... Found Dr. Benecdicto taking levels on Christains'







it o breakfast at 10:30. Return-


1 servations on mountain peaks to
. oudy all A. M. and FP !I'. '. Rain up

t. reach main, valley., The rain last
t enough to meke the roadf sticky.
Grass remained wet until, noon,
"o of c s wn : aiboouht 324 ah a or a little more
w o-. While writing a big elateriad
on dinal strips &f whitish

tee- teaCrait:.isrface. The head
o be the authority for everything
Hncle".- (Voca'bulary gi .ve. s vaga-


STbok the train at 20:30 with Dr.
S.___Benedicto for Silvestre, the seat of the hydro-electric power. It
.... sd is capable of double that amount.
Explained the lack of illumina-
-< "" equipment. As nearly as I could

et the proper sized transformer.
To use this power plant would
a nd make it most exasperating,
or, not delivering-the current. Pow-
- --::er wOuxf u'raun -u Y -n d and a telephone would always be
4 out of commission when most inconvenient. The cost of conduction
wires would be quite great. In ten. years time the scheme would be
abandoned. Then the College would have to install its own power
olant or be moved to. a place where power could be obtained. Exper-
ience has shown in thousands of incidents that privately owned






"' -- -- "^ -8-

place to all points in sight. Went to breakfast at 10:3Q. Feturn-
'' ead.at 11:30, :Dr. Benodicto took observations on mountain peaks to
detrm i.Ane height. More -or'"lT0s cloudy all A. ,M. and F. '., Rain up
^ii- ,,.r ', '" ... .. "j,.
sou,/valley in 1A. M. but it did rot reach main: Valley. The rain last
* ," .' . '.i ... '" ;' *. :
,night was', good for the beans. Just enough to mpke the roads sticky.
Grass remained wet until noon.
The combined properties foot up about 324 h a or a little more
than' half the minirhun set by myself,., While writing a big elateriad
beetle' walked up on my knee. He hMs 'longitidi-nal strips 6,f'whit.ish
color and some iridiscent.green on:thl-tOHenrisiterface. The head'
man on the "chain gang" who seems to be the authority for everything
in the woods calls it "vagalume grande". (Vocabulary gives vaga-

..,* : lume for glow worm and, fire.fly.
S10 Abril, 1921, Domingo.' Tbok the train at 10:30 with Dr.
Benedicto for Silves'tre, the seat of the hydro-electric power. It
l is now producing about 1S0 h. p. and is capable of double that amount.
*? There is no day current st present. Explained the lack of illumina-
tion at Vigosa to be due to lack of equipment. As nearly as I could
make out it was due to failure to get the proper sized transformer.
SMaybe it is due to some other fault. To use this power plant would
greatly simplify the power question nnd make it most exasperating,
as there would always be reason for. not delivering "the current. Pow-
er would usually be off when wanted and a telephone would always be
S out of commission when most inconvenient. The cost of conduction
wires would be quite great. In ten years time the scheme would be
abandoned. Then the Collegewould have to install its own power
,-,." plant or be moved to a place whore power could be obtained. Exper-
ience hes shown in thousands of incidents that privately owned







U
q-.~ ~'ii~ -
*uj
N U

















I r



-- i_. .: "
/ "* ,/ .' ,





1Pkil











The stock owners of the Silvestre






Lu muo L0 L6lit; I .Lur, pu Ling ne m: 11 out of commission. Come Ten







There ere several site atl unccp ed ohpporuldibe tc bettier
Sizing cheap cotton fabrics. None
was a pood opportunity to examine

were of 1an ol English type,
labor standpoint.

j s obomnible, 'low roof and only
ese rather dirty. they were
rination where it was net.need-
.. .d the railroad cut off much light.
There Ere several-sites still unoccupied that wouldA be much better
than the one. ieosen. The approach for fuel supply is very awkward


f a uniform staple, length or
f hit or miss conglomerate of


coarse End lacking in uniformily.
y expensive pro.posiion to the
finally has to pay for all the waste

While at Silvestre a mran approached Dr. Benedicto and told a-
bout a place he owned containing 303 h a of level land 3 km from
Silvestre. This is an impossible proposition but I promised to
go out and see it tomorrow. Just a chance to see tbe country away








utilities are the most expensive. The stock owners of the Silvestre
plant will undoubtedly use every means to induce the use of their
power.
SWe visited the small cotton mill. It was badly located in a
deep valley and during high water the water backs up to some deci-
meters on the floor, putting the mill out of commission. Some men
and boys were working in the mill, sizing cheap cotton fabrics. 'lono
S of the looms wolre working, so here was a reod opportunity to examine
., the machinery in detail. The looms were of an old English type,
rather simple but ,expensive from the labor standpoint.
T'e illumistion of tne vniill was abomnible, low roof and only
a few inadequate side windows, and these rather dirty. They were
located for symetry and not for illumination where it wa mest need-
ed. The high bank on the side toward the railroad cut off much light.
SThere ere several sites still unoccupied that would be much better

than the one. chosen. The approach for fuel supply is very awkward
v.@
,. and expensive of labor.
A' The cotton supplied was nol of a uniform staple, length or

quality. It seemed"to be a sort of hit or miss conglomerate of
poor and good staple mixed.
The quality of the fabric was coarse and lacking in uniformly.
SApparently the mill was a very ox-nensive proposition to the
citizens of Mines. The consumer finally has to pay for all the waste
of labor and poor management.
While at Silvestre a man approached Dr. Benedicto and told a-
bout a place he owned containing 300 h a of level land 3 km from
Silvestre. This is an im-nosible proposition but I Promised to
go out and see it tomorrow. Just a chance to see the country away


"-.a..,


















0























"1-I















/ '










' i


-10-
from the Railroad.
11 Abril, 1921, segunda-feira. Dr. Benedicto started out
early for transit work to run the line for a road to the seat of the
Esdola Agricola. I found him in the street near the cemetery and
running over the hill. This is a steep rise and always in bad repair.
We turned to the right in caminho (I) on the pencil map, for about-
75 m., then across to the right. This makes an easy grade or nearly
level up to the crossing of the Corrego Bartholomew. Went to break-
fast anid had to wait some time for it. Got back to work at about
11:30. The transit line across the Gorrego Bartholomew was very
difficult and tedious. At 3:.00 we had nearly "tied up" with the
Leopoldian Railway when a rain drove us in. VWe had to run for it at
the end. In helping the transit over the Leopoldian Railway fence
I lost my watch chain, but saved the ring. After 20 minutes of very
heavy rain it slackened- We looked for the chain. Dr. Penedicto
found it. At 4:30 I went in to dinner,- it was still raining but I
was wet anyhow. Dr. Benedicto went back and finished the line to
the Lailway.
1? Abril, 19?1, tera-feira. Went out about P:00 this
morning to take a general look at the grounds, a sort of bird's-eye-
view. The Director's residence and office should be placed iust
after the crossing of the Corrego Eartholomew. The main. buildings
and the laboratories should be to the'shtqhwabmd from the two trees
and the Veterinaria about where Christain's house stands. Agronomy
should stand about where the delta in the caminho occurs, Animal
Husbandry to the west and un fhe Corrego [araizo, Silviculture to
the west of the Corrego Paraizo, Horticulture, Plst diseases and
insects, to the north of Animal Husbandry and east of the Leopoldian
Railway.






-11-
The road from Viqosa should be projected at right angles to
the Leopoldian Railway, thenparallel to the Eailway on each side.
There are several vallas on the plain that will hove to be filled
in but that can be done with machinery and dynamite. Residences
should be distributed somewhat near the department grounds but not
in the foreground.
One of three species should be used to border the roads,(l),
Gamelleira, (?), Urostigma salzmanianum, or, (3), Pineiro (Auri-
caria braziliencis). The last is sentimentally the best but casts
practically no shade. Gamelldira or Ficus Benjaminea would need
annual or biennial'trimming. All the small hovels should be remov-
ed from near the Bailway and from prominent places. Many of these
should be constructed so as to have an abundance of labor. They
should be of a neutral color to be less conspicuous. Each cabin
should have considerable grounds for gardens and for flowers.
There should be a milk cow for about every five of the students
and others in the College. Butter and cheese making is important
and should be taught the young men. Putfer and cheese should be
more generally used and of a better quality. Eggs are not as corm-
monly used as is desirable from a health standpoint.
An ample garden for vegetables for the s-fudents should be es-
tablished to get away from the monotony of rice and beans, and also
to teach the students proper methods of handling and shipping vege-
tables. .
Extensive fruit orchards should be planted out to sunnlement
the ordinary diet as well as to teach proper methods of handling
and shipping fruit.
A small sugar mill should be established to teach the young
men the art of sugar making. Under present methods the sugar is






-1?'-
made at too great an expense in humcin labor. If the methods are
not improved sugat production in the mountains of "lines Geraes will
fail to give a reasonable return.
At 3:30 P. M. Dr. Benedicto came to the door and announced that
he had secured two horses to take us over to the valley where the
Leopoldian Railway formerly ren. It was about 8 km over. In going
we saw some most splendid mountain scenery. It was superb. The
flora along the way was quite different from that around Viqosa. A
lot of new things were seen. Must take the ride'out again for bo-
tanizing. We went in an easterly direction out of-town. About a
kilometer out we took the left hand road through a porte past a cane
mill. We struck the valley and went along the old Failway embank-
ment. It is a fine 'valley but impossible for an Agricultural Col-
lege,-too far from the Railway. Most of the way back was directly
in the face of the setting sun. The first part of the road was the
best I hr-ve traveled in Brazil, excepting the one to the summer pa-
lace. Expect to leave on the 7:06 rain in the morning.
13 Abril 1921. Left Vicosa on The 7:06 trainfi for Juiz 9e
Fora, in company with Dr. Benedicto. Stooped for breakfast at UbA.
Saw Adams at the Hotel and Dr. Mario Marchado, engineer, at the Ho-
tel in Vicosa yesterday. He was on his way to Ubt and doubled back
Sto Ponte Nova. At UbA raw Dr. Rocha Lagoa at the train, he said- he
would be in Bello Zorizonte by the time I get there. Changed trains
at Furtados dos Campos. Walked about some and studied Portuguese.
A conFiderable number waited for the train. The train was two hours
late. Left about 4:00 P. M. for Juiz de Fora. Arrived about 8:00
P. M. and nut uD al the Hotel Pio de Janeiro.
14 Abril, 1921. Called at the Singer Sewing Machine Co.






-13-

Met two Juiz de Fora men. Telephoned 0 cranberry College for "'oore.
He would lie free at .12 noon. Called on him at noon. Had a light
lunch with him at his home across the street. They have a new heir
at their home so did rot me't Mrs. Moore. Walked back to -he, main
street and examined motors and generators. The company handles
General Electric material. Also had a Belguim and some Italian

motors. The motors for 1/2 to 1 1/2 horse nower range in price
S from 400$000 to 900$000.
Afterwards I went to the lop of the mountain and took 8 expos-
ures on the way :to the top. The view is magnificent but would re-
S quire a telescopic lens. to bring it out. Tried several views but
the distant mountains all faded out.
At dinner the proprietor introduced me to a relative, whose
,name he failed to give; this relative introduced me.tr his cousin
Whose name he did not give. We had the meal pleasantly together.
The first man speaks English sufficiently to get along, his cousin
a few words. The former studied 7 years at 0 Granberry and was ask-
ed to take the position of teacher in Mathematics.
After dinner dr. F. C. Keaney picked me out on the street and -
told me that his brother had brought in some specimens of rife ly-
chee at Christmas time. Mr. Keaney promised to find out where the
tree is located. I told him I would wi-ite to.remein him of it. Took
coffee at the Club.
Walked out to 0 Granberry College at'7:10 and found r %oore
in his study. We waited for Mrs. Lee (Leigh, etc.) to return. Her
home is at Sao Paulo, the Uethedist center of Brazil. She asked me
to stop there on my trip. '
Afterwards we went over to see Mr. Long, President ef tb&ol-
lege. He appears to be, about the same age as Mr. Moore, about 40.





-14
I I.
" v' '"' -14- 1

Mr. Mioore indicated the space secured f",r The College. They will
put up a $100,000.00 maim building. They have eight or ten acres
of land additional. Mr. Long spends about 1/3 to 1/2 of his time
in traveling to various parts of the country.
15 Abril, 1921. Left Juiz de Fora on the 1:40 train for
Belle Horizonte. Secured an upper berth on the much talked of slooeep-
er, constructed for the King of Belguim. All space was taken ex-
cepting two uppers. The sleeper is fine but the berths small and
uncomfortable. The washing room is fine. As a whole it. is not
as good as one of the old time Pullmans. Came to Bello Horizente
on the wider guage, arriving about 12:00 noon.


u-IJ


*1 4. -*


L41










41 f

AwlBP




I Mi
m If

"O
i"I


lRl
I 3I
lay






** i 4k V
Trip Number 2

TO VICOSA TO MAKE PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF "TACT OF LAND
SELECTED FOR THE LOCATION OF T91 AGRICULTURAL COITVGF.


March 30' L921. I left Bello Horizonte on March 30,1921
in company with Engineer Dr. Benedicto Antonio dos Santos' at 3:50 P.M.
on the Central do Brazil Railway. Took dinner on the train in the
dining car in company with Dr. Theophiilo Ribeiro, who was on his way
-
to Rio de Janeiro. Changed to wider gauge Railway at Layfette. The
sleeper on this train was the one built for the King of Belguim on
his visit here two years ago. Arrived at Juiz de For"about 2:00
A. M. and put up at the Palacio Hotel.
March 31, 1921. Left at 7:00 A. M. on the Leopoldian Rail-
way for Viposa Stopned off at Furtados do OCam-no to make connections
with the main line from Rio. Got breakfast about 11:30. Met Mr.
Mc Affee after breakfast. Left Furtados do Campos about ?:30 P.M.
Took dinner at Rio Branco at about 5: P. !M. It was too late in the
day to get full benefit of the rise to the summit of the Serra.
We arrived at Vigosa at about 7:00 P. M. Prof. Roquette met inme
at the hotel with the comTliments of the Director of the Gynmasium. '
The lights were abomnible. Cou'l not read or write. The lights in
the dining room were little more than glims.
April V/,1921. Started out afoot *o go over the tract with
Dr. Benedicto. Prof. Roquette went along for '"interrupter" and did -
well. We got. back about 12, M/ too late for breakfast but were fav-
ored with brealffast at the request of Prof. Roquette.- At?:P .M. N '.
Dr. B. and myself started out on horseback to vls-ahfurther ieconisance..
Left the horses at ,the Christians and abouji:-00 P. M. starxted'work 'w
w .th.- t .* Go t- b k 6 D r es L
with the transit. Slow work. Got back about '6:30. Dress e for :
* '** .. ., .. ., . .. ...
-:. f ,- .. *. - .




. *' I.-


dinner and was told that it was over but finally got a kind of left
over.
April 2, Sabbado. Went out abopt 8: A. M_. for further
reconisance of the level tract About 10: A. M. made my way over
to Dr. Benedicto's transit/ mark- They had gotten only a little
past the first ford and found it very difficult going up the stream.
Had Dr. B 's horse to ride to breakfast. He sent to town for his.
When I got to -my room after breakfast I found my notes, map, Sat.
E'vg Post, and 0 Paiz missing. Statted out immediately on horseback
to recover them. Hunted all the way but did not find them. IReported
it to Dr. P. $ Continued to hunt in the cornfield and along-the
stream. Finally found them on the steep bank in thick lot of weeds.
Walked back to the hotel for dinner at 5:P. M. At about 7:00 Prof.
Boquetts and a friend called. He said he did not go out in the P.M.
because his head ached too badly. He does not look very robust. Went
over to the Gynmasium with hin and met a number if the other.- teachers
but learned nobody's name.
April 3, 1921. Dressed for the field and got coffee. On
the street it appeared to me that it was Sunday, so I went back and
changed suits. Was very glad it was Sunday. Took a stroll down town
aftc.r writing a letter home. Found Prof Roquette at a barber shop.
There seem to be more barber shops than are' needed. All rather tri-
vial looking, but all ready for business on Sun. morning. After
breakfast at 10:30 Roquefte took me to the Cathedral. It was gorge-
ously fitted up inside. The priest went on with the ceremony. Peo-
ple came and went, talked some, the women smiled a good deal and were
cordial with each other. We staid about ab hour when most of the
worshippers got up and left. I had standing room in the back of the
Cathedral. No one seemed to notice me excepting the man with the






-3-
collection box, he missed no one. Occasionally he would stop taking
the collection to kneel during particular parts of the service. The
service is very impressive- The priest's voice was rarely audible
#o me, standing in the rear of the Cathddral. About 2:30 Poquette
came to my room to read his English lessons lo his class in English.
We tried to find a place in the open. The park was not suitable on
account of the large number of people present. The hospital grounds
were also beiig used by people loitering and enjoying Sunday P.'118
We finally returned to the cubby hole and read till about 4: P. 7.
In the evening, after dinner, I went around to Dr. B's hotel. Hie had
not been iut surveying on account of feeling the need of rest but had
taken a btccla and gone out to the Colonia.
Abril4, Segundo. Made an early morning trip to the top
of a mountain north of the I. R. track and one that lies in the tract
or adjoining it. Near the top I found what appears to be a Panicum
like Paspalum affected with sclerotium. The disease was very abun-
dant on this species of grass. The grass is grazed a great deal by
the animals in the pasture. Some horses were in the nasture,also
some cattle, Zebu grades.
After breakfast I rode out to the Rach6s whwew I found 7r. B.
taking the measurements of the stream to ascertain the volume of
writer. He used bottles for floats. Afterwards he ran the level
from the dam to the peg on the L. B.
I walked into the valley end found the sugar mill on one of the
side streams. On the high lands, nasto, I found Sclerotium on sev-
eral spears of Psspalum. Collected three spears. Up the valley
there seems to be more farming than along the railway. Sugar cane
seems to be the main feature. Corn abundant, all of the hard, flinty ->
type used in Cuba and Mexico.




.6


-4-
Abril 5, 1971. Came out about 7L45 anf found a heavy
fog that cleared up by 9: A. M. Everything was covered with dew,
fine conditions for sclerotium on Paspalum. Also found many fungi.
Fleshy fungus were rare, even in the woods they were not al all com-
mon. The leguminous tree with the brilliant yellow flowers is
very abundant and full of bloom. A composite is in full bloom along
the streams It is a vine like herb running over small trees, ,very
showy yellow flowers- Found "Matto Pasto" (Ageratum Comoites)
affected with Cystopus (Albu/go). Collected a specimen. Went to break-
fast at 9:30, got back to station at 11:30. Hot in the sun. Decided
that the north road out of town was impracticable. That passes the
main and down on the south side of the Railway. There is still
one large tree standing not far from the best crossing nlace.
Made a brief scout into the brush. It may hove been used once
for coffee, as I found one old bush. In the sun if was unbearably
warm but in the shade comfortable eben in coats.
About 1:00 o'clock we went to Christains for water and staid
for coffee.. The rest was refreshing op well as the coffee.
Then took up the survey$ of the right angles to the L. Railway
on the north side running up the stream bank.I followed the water
"canal" and got a drink from it. The water was clear and tasted
good. I walked up the canal about 30 meters and found v monster
myrapod dead in the water. I tried to get it out but after lifting
it from the water it broke. The pollywogs in my stomach flapped
their tails against the Wides of it -1fot the rest of the afternoon
but quieted down after a hearty dinner. At 4:30 went back for din-
ner. After dinner, about 7:00 Roquette cami and we read English and
talked. At'8:30 stepped over to the Central Hotel and found D1. B.






F


6 Abril, 1921, Quarta. Came out about 7:15 and found a
letter at the Post Office from home. Arrived in the field about
7:30 and found the surveyors at the south line of Christain's prop-
erty on the embankment making the division. Ditches or trenches(CeeZC
are used for division marking and for turning cattle. .-'
Wont for breakfast et 10:00 A. %. After breakfast we looked over.
the general directions for the proPosed road to the Escola. The turn
at the bamboos in the city and along the mountains seems the only
practicable, and the most economical. It will require a culvert and
Sfill of about 3400 cu. M of earth. The cost is estimated at about
1$200. On Fla. crnal the cost for stone was $ff 8 cts for a cu. yd.
At 2L P. M. began MHIAA cutting into fhe hammock. Counted 39 spi-
ders in one community colony. There are various sizes in a/!A col-
ony, some small individuals look like males- The spiders were quite
sluggish and made no serious effort to bite when I captured one.They
move rapidly enough on their tough sliken stickey web Fut on vegeta-
tion they move very slowly.
Abril 6, 1921, Quarta feira. The black boy cut down a
hornets nest and got stung on he unper right eyelid. HIe did not
mind it much. Gotheres un some of the yellow spiders web and put
it on his eye and got some tobacco of me ,nd apparently rut it in
his eye. In a few minutes he was back on the jok. Saw a butterfly
being devoured by a spicier in a caony. There was only one spider
at the butterfly. Each spider has her own center at which she waits

for her prey. As no trash hangs in the net, tbey doubtless discard
the s-nmf The webs are all high, five feet or more. The lower
ones are doubtless distroyed by passing cattle. The butterflies all
fly low unless excited. The"bhih fliers" have doubtless been caught

in the spider webs. About 4 chains into the hammock the black made







-6-
an exclamation of surprise and a dart at something end E bird flew.
The bird was about the size of a North IAmerican partridge. It was
J/ a N'hambt\ The old hen had just hatched five eggs and tie boys
caught three chicks. The old hen was not seen or heard Pgain. 'The
brown boy then built a pen of split limbs for the chick s to keen
them until quitting lime.
After dinner I walked o the Cenritral Hotel and beck to my room
by 9:00. The work through the brush and briars wF rather fatiguing
and I got thorned and bruised a great many times.
Abril 7, 1921. Dr. Benedicto informs me that a medium
good ox for work is sold at 4004O'. That the driver of the team
gets 3$500 perday for d/ay work and the lead boy g'ets l.00 ner day.
A loaded ox cart makes 2 1/2 to 3 km per hour and hauls about 15
sacks of( 60 kg of sugar. An ox crrt containing 20 sacks usually
has S oxen. The value of the cart may be 240$000, probably less.
At 10:10 went to breakfast with ______ who haF been friend-
ly for some days. Be walks out 3 km after coffee, comes in for $
breakfast and also for supper and stays in the hotel at night.
At 11:15 went out to !he field. Four engineers accompanied
Dr. B. Finished running lines on the south side of the railway. Con-
tinued working on the west side of the railway. There are two large f)
/ trees ir. the talla (division tree ), one to the south, a game latia
(Ficus-see Silveiro's list) and the larger one to the south a Pineiro.
The transit line H no. 9.
At 2:30 transferred to the capoeira to continue the line. On my
way directly through the brush I found the most showey Passiflora I
heve ever seen. The sepals and petals have a spread of fully five
inches and were of rose pink.The corona was purple, the sepals strap
shaped about 5/8 inch broad, the petals were I/2 inch The leaves







were deeply lobed4 apiculate. The stipules were broadly reniform,
foliaceous, 1 in. broad, the vOne was weak- for its length. Stamina-
dia 1 1/2 in. tall. Petioles were 1 in. long, peduncles 7 in. long.
Brazilian name is Maracuji: general for Passiflorium, especially the
edible ones. Remained at the hotel after dinner. Br. B. came around
aboj[t 7:30 and Eoquette a little later.Dr. B. stayed until about 8:30
and then Roquefte tried English until about 9:30. Studied a little,
then went to bed.
Abril 8, 1921, Seista feira. Got letter from the Post Of-
fice written Tuesday. Awakened before sunrise but went back to sleep.
Examined the road leading out to the bamboos. At the end of the broad
street the way is blocked by a house. To follow the road toward the
cemetery and then to the left requires two right angle turns. The
bambbos are on an easy grade to the crossing of the stream. 8:30
found Dr. B. running line past the small cottage. Cut way up the
hollow toward the end of line left last night.
At 10.00 went to breakfast. It was late. Wrote a note home.
Arrived back in field about 11:15. In P . i'iri e"-running
line around hammock on North side and ran a line down caminho to the
bamboo clumps or thereabouts. At 8:30 went to movie with Dr. B.
and Eoquette.
9 Abril. 19?1. Got into field about 8:00 A. M. Got a let-
ten from home. Found Dr. B. taking levels on ClOristain's place to
all the points in sight. Went to breakfast at 10:30. Returned at
1.1:30 Dr. B. took observations on mountain neaks to aefermine height
More or less cloudy all A. M and P. F. Rain up south valley in A.Y.
but did not reach main valley. The rein last night was good for the

beans. Just enough to make the roads sticky. Grass remained wet
till noon .
he conbimed properties foot up about 324 h a or a little more








than half the minimun set by myself. While writing a big elateriad
beetle walked up on my knee. He has longitudiani strips of whitish
color and some iridiscent green on the ventral surface. The head
man on the "chain gang" who seems to be authority for everything in
the woods calls it vagalume grande. (D "*.y gives vagalume 4 for
glow worm and firefly.
10 Abril, 1921. Domingo. Took the train at 10:30 with Dr.
Benedicto for Silvestre, the seat of the hydroelectric power. It
is now producing about 120 h.p. and capable of double that amount.
There is no day current at present. Explained the lack of illuminn-
ticn at V19osa to be due to lack of equipment. As nearly as I could
make out it was due to failure to get the proper sized transformer.
Maybe it is due to some other fault. To use this power plant it
would greatlt simplify the power question and make it most exasper-
ating, as there would always be reasons for not delivering the jhxx)
current. Power would usually be off when wanted and a telephone would
always be out of commission When most inconvenient. The cost of
conduction wires would be quite great. In ten years time the A
sbheme would be abandoned. Then the College would have to install
its own Power plant or be moved to a place where power could be ob-
tained. Experience has shown in thousands of incidents that nrivate-
ly owned utilities are the most expensive. The sock owners of the
Silvestre plaht will undoubtedly use every JA means to induce the
use of their power.
While at Silvestre a man approached Dr. B. and told about a nlace
he owned containing 300 h d of level land 3-k m from Silvestre. This
is an impossible proposition but I promised to go out and see it to-
morrow. Just a chance to see the country away from the Railroad.







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11 AbrilJ, segunda feira. Dr. B. started out early for tran-
sit work to run the line for a rpSd to the seat of the Tscola Agricola.
I found him in the street rear the cometary and running over the hill.
This is a steep rise and always in bad repair. We turned to the right
in caminho (i) on pencil map, for about 75., then across to the right.
This makes an easy grade or nearly level un to the crossing of the Cor-
rego Bartholomew. Went to breakfast at 10:00 and had to wait some time
:c4r it. Got back to work at about 11:30. The transit line across, the

Corrego Bartholomew was very difficult and tedious. At 3:00 we had
nearly "tied up" with the L. R. when a rain drove us in. We had to run
for it at the end. In helping the transit over the Leopoldian Railway
fence I lost my watch chain, but saved the ring. After 20 minutes of
very heavy rain it slackened. We looked for the chain. Tr. B. found
it. At 4:30 I went in to dinner,- it wnp still training but T was wet
anyhow. Dr. B. wont back and finished the line to the Railway.
12 de Abril, terga feira. Went out about. 8:00 this morn-
ing to take a general look a- the grounds, a sort of bird's eye view.
The Directir's residende and office should be placed just after the
crossing of the Corrego Bartholomew. The main buildings and the lab-
oratories should be fto the eastward from the two trees and the Vet-
erinaria about where Christainss house stands. Agronomy should stand
about where the delta in the caminho occurs, Animal HTusbandry to the
west and up the Corrego Paraizo, Silviculture to the west of the Car-
rego Paraizo, Horticulture, Plant diseases and insects, to the north
of Animal Husbandry and east of the Leopoldian Railway.
The road from Vigosa should be projected at right angles to the
L. E., then parallel to the Railway on each side. There are several
vallas on the nlain that will have to be filed in but that can be
done with machinery and dynamite" Residences should be distributed




'7 W~'9. -- --


somewhat near the department grounds but not in the foregrbunds.
Oe of three species should be used to border the roads, (I),
Game;,pria, (2), Urostigma salzmaniai,or (3), Pineiro (Auricaria
braziliencis). The last is sentimentally the best blyt casts practi-
cally no shade. Gammelaria or would need Pnnual or biennial
trim,'-ing. All the small hovela should be removed from near the Rail-'
way and from prominent places* Many 6U these should be constructed
so as to have an abundance of labor. They should be of- neutral
color to be less conspicuous. Each cabin should have a considerable
grounds for gardens and for flowers.
There should be a milk cow for about every five of the students
and others in the College. Butter and cheese making is important
and should be taught the young men. Putter and cheese should be
more generally used and .be odf a better quality. Eggs are not as
commonly used as is desirable from a health standpoint.
An ample garden for vegetables for the students should be esta-
blished to get away from the mopotony of rice and 'beans. (. 4tt^
A5c 4flLA-/LL4, ff'-.*- -me ImL-L t4^-Ltt/a ^<* (...t~.) -flt& 1/ .e'we^ #t/tA~ti 7y-e 4CA'^.
Extensive fruit orchards should 'be picntes out to supplement
IQ V.. et % VM-

S.A sall sugar'mill should be established to teach the young men
the art of sugar making. Under the present methods the sugar is,, made.'
at too great an expense in human labor. .If the methods are not im-.
proved sugar production in the mountains of Mins' Geraes will fail to
give a reasonable return-
3:00 P. M. Dr. B. came to the door and announced thet he had
secured two horses to take us over to the valley where the L.. .
formerly ran. It was about S km. over. In going we saw some most
splendid mountainscenery. It was superb. The flora along the waylt
;* a lot of new things were seen, Must take the ride out again/r/.^].>i
6,/


I I




S


*-" o '

"'. ; '* **. '*- 1
.... Abu a km.oIIe oo
We went in a easterly direction out of town. About a km.out we took

the left hand road .through ap& past a cane mill. We struck the
valley and went along the old Ry! embankment. It is a fine valley but
impossible for an Agricultural Collc-re, lost of the way back was
directly in the face of the- setting sun. -6', -' /
Expect to leave on the 7:06 train in the morning.
S13 Abril 19V1. Left Viqosa on the 7:07 train for Juiz de

Fora, in com-pany with Dr. B. Sto-ned for break kfest at UbLA. Saw
Adams at the Hotel and Dr. -ario Marchado, engineer at the Hot 1,
in Viqosa yesterday. He was on his way to Uba and doubled back to
Ponte -ova. At Lb1 saw Dr. Rocha Lagoa at the train, he Said he would
be in Eello Horizonte by the time i get there. SPO d changesf
of trains at Furtados doe Camnos. Walked about some and studied Port-
uguese. a considerable number waited for the train. The train as
was 2 hours late. Left about 4:00 P. '!. for Jiiz de Pora. Arrivel-
about 8:00 P. .. and put up at the Hotel Rio de Janeiro.
14 Abril 19IP1. Called at the Singer Sewing Machine Co.

and met two Juiz de Fora men. Phoned to 0 Granberry College for
-oore. 1e would be free a I12 M. Called on him at 12. !fad a light

lunch with Moore at his home across the street. They have a new heir
at their home so did not meet Mrs. Moore.-. Walked back to main street
and examined motors and generators. The company handles General El-
ectiic material. Also had a Belguim and some Italian motors. The
motors for 1/2 to 1 1/2 h.P. range from 400$000 to 900$000.
Afterwards I wont to the ton of the mountain and took 8 exnosu-
res on the way to the top. The view is magnificent but would require
a telescopic lens to bring it out. Tried several vfiws but the dis-
tant mountains all faded oul.
At dinner the proprietor introduced me to a relative, whoPse
.






.1 -.
". '. '" "" -,o
Same he failed to give ; this relative introduced me to his cousin
.,: whose name he did not give., Wd had'the me01 pleasantly together.
' : *. ,,: ,..
.' The first man speaks English sufficiently,, to get along, his cousin
a few words.' The former studied 7 years at 0 Oranberry and' was -
asked to take the position of teacher in Mathematics.
''' *'" !. " ,'
After dinner Mr. F. C. Keaney nicked me E. out en the main street-'
and told me that his brother had brought in specimens of ripe.lychee
at Christmas time. Mt. Koeaney promised to find out where the tree
is located. I told him I would write to remind him of it... Took...
coffee at the Club. -, .
Walked out to 0 Granberry College at 7:10: and- f6uhd Mr- 'Moore, .
in his study. We Waited f:or-Mrs. Lee, (Leigh 6te) to return Her
home is at Sao Paulo, the methodist centre of Brazil. She asked me
to stop there em my trip.
SAfterwards we wemt over to see Mr. Lo? g, President of the, Col-
lege. He appears to be about the mamne age as Mr. Moore, about 40.
Mr. Moore indicated the additional space secured for'the College, !
They will put up a $100,000.00 main building for the College. They
have eight or ton acres of land additional. Mr. Long spends about
1/3 to 1/2 of his time in traveling to various parts of tbliecountry.
15 Abril, 1921. Left Juiz de Fora on l:4Q9iraln for, %R
Secured an upper berth on the much talked of sleeper, constructed
for the King of Bolguim. All s-nae was taken excepting two u-pers.
The sleeper is fine but "-he berths small and uncomfortable. T he
washing room is fine. As a whole it is not as good as' one of the
old time sinparzax Pullmans. Came to Bello Horizonte on the wide
guage, arrived about 12:00 noon.




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