Trip 1: Uba, Vicosa, Rio Branico, Ponte Nova.

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Title:
Trip 1: Uba, Vicosa, Rio Branico, Ponte Nova.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Trip 1: Uba, Vicosa, Rio Branico, Ponte Nova.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00096


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^ ti" to ,.k .- rnoo, Ponte Nova, ande.resa, .is trip.. .;.
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i',; .! a c a b the honorable oatq0
DsSh ro and rrthx Fintev aB ir, who had chart
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0, dI hal.e thind iehonor t o tra me.mit I herewith brief xpressport o my a '
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; ,,; tripl to UbA,,,&&fBrsnnco,'Ponte N~ova, and .flqoea, T. his trip .was- -..










r.'i:eration af ,the purpose of h xa mivning these e gentlemen varou int withme. Their-
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intimate familiarityn with olthe region traveled over and their or ie- ;'
liaited patienee ,Sc oodl of naturlare anh Veterip one Oft e .te









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F' 't iro Sih~eiro" and Arduifto Fontes ,Blivar, who had chargflf the
Iredtirihn ,*prtr for me. I eeihepesm p', .

', esiatia andip'easure of having these gentlemen with me. Teir
intimate familiarity with the region traveled over and their n ,n-





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Limited patience &ntd e good nature mat e the trip one of the most....
.pleasant and profitable that.I have ever made.
.ley lack of familiarity with the Portuguese language ari wi th '



gthe Bra.iian customs must have Smade th trit. ocmewatit .annotynr ...
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fi ryn to myr'hssociates. In spite of these con~ditions, '
;' thing occurred on the entire trip that was hi~ther snnqying at'
I' 4:unpleastt for jie. T i look of fatniliarity= with: the En !Jish:+ ..

l-:ankage and ,.the ,customs; of" .the Un~ited Stt e's occasioal rugl4 ... -'. .-:

: about amusing situations, which were taken Sod natifldly, 4n( .I ;.
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commendation fr their abilit qnd uniform
commendation for their ability and uniform


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I. Itinerary.
February .24", 1921. I received a copy of Contract for my
services frem Dr. AlvareASilveira.
SFebruary 25".', 1921. Sent Gentract and translation to Unl-
ted States Ambassador Morgan at Rio do Janeiro by registered
mail. At 3:50 P. M., the party, consisting fe Dr. Alvar1 da
Silveira, Dr. Arduine Fontes Belivar, and myself left en the
Central da Brazil Railroad for the objective points of Ubi, Rio
Branco, Viqosa, and Pouti Nev.4.
February 26", 1921, 2:00 A. M. We arrived at Juis de Fira.
At 8:00 A. M. we left en the Leopoldian Railway for Ubi. Step-
peod at Furtados de Camps to catch the train for Ubi. Arrived
at UbA at 6:00 P. Z.
February 27", 1921. After breakfast we walked eut to the
suburbs of Ubk in company with Dr. Marie Matchado. Owing te
recent rains the reads were very muddy, making it difficult to
ge afoot and impracticable to go by conveyance. At 2:00 P.M.
we visited the sugar mill and were kindly shown through by the
Suporifindant Antonee Cesar dos Santes.
February 28", 1921. At 6:00 A. M. we took the Leepoldian
Railway to Ligaqie, in company with Benevento Tarquin des Grand-
is and Mr. Adams, to visit the operations in tobacco culture.
We also visited the fruit orchard near the residence of Sr. Tar-
quin. At 10:00 o'clock we took a mixed train back te Ubd. At
4:25 P M. we took the train for Wj Branco, arriving there at
5:20 P. M. In the afternoon and again during the evening we
had an extended conversation with the Mayor, Dr..Eugene Meleo, i
Sof-. _Ro Brance. ..,
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March 1". 1921. We visited the sugar mill at io Branco
anid were shown through the establishment by the Chief Engineeri
Dr. Paulo Lahbmeyer. The mill was not in operation so afforded
an excellent opportunity to examine the machinery in detail.
.At 5:20 P. M. we took the railway, for Pents eovt, which we reach-
ed by 10:00 o'clock. Dr. Marie Machado met us at the station.
March 2", 1921. In thie morning we walked out intpe the coun-
try in a southerly direction, examining the character of the
Ssoil and studying the forage plants eir>oute. -
March-3", 1921. We walkedT out to Palmeras to examine the
.i lotion there, At 2:00, o'clock in the afternoon toieok the
, train to Anna lere na- incompany with Mr. Woolman. 'We arrived

at Anna Florenpa about 3:00 o'clock. After this Mr. Woolman
:m ;and I walked far about five kilometers between the pastures and
sugar cane plantings. At 5:00 P. M. I visited the sugar mill
in company with the Chemist, Mr. 0. T. Teooraen, who explained
fully all the details of the operation. At 9:00 P. M. I rede
back to Ponta. NovK. Mr/ Toeraex kindly furnished me a horse
and a guide for the occasion. I arrived at PontS Nov9 at 10 P.M.
March 4", 1921. We left Penti Nev"at 6:00 o'clock for
Vauassi where we arrived at about 6:30, At the Statioe we
were supplied with three saddle animals upon which we rode to
Fazenda Canada, owned by Dr. JosA Felippe de Freites Castro.
We returned to the railroad station at twelve o'clock, and pro-
c needed to Viqesa. We arrived at Viesa at 2:30 P. M.
March 5", 1921. We visited the tract of land though suit-
able for the Agricultural Ollege.
S*. March 6", 1921. At 8:45 A/ M1 we were furished ani
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automobile to visit the Colona, and had .a long conversation with

the layer, Dr. Lemdoliho Souza Lena.

*1 March 7", 1921. We took the early morning train for Juiz

de flra, arriving there without incident excepting the long de-

lay atlPurtado de Campos, necessary to get connection for Juisz..

de ForA. He arrived at Juiz de Feta about 6:00 P., M.

March 8, 1921. In the morning we visited the Catholic

College and spent the time very profitably in seeing the class

rooms and the laboratories, as well as the useom of this Ito"

titution. There are some two hundred students in attendance.

SAt 12:17 o'clock we took the train for Bello Herizonte, arriv-

ing there at 10:00 P. M.



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Laranja Lanceta


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II. Locations Visited.


Ist. UbA.
We arrived at this station at 6:00 P. M. and transferred
immediately to the hotel, from which we made our trips afield.
During the preceding days more or less rain had fallen, making
the streets and roads very muddy, and in some cases impassable.
Observations from the railway car indicated that the crops in
this section were in good condition. Corn promised a good k-.
yield, sugar cane was making rapid growth and tobacco seed beds
could be seen in large numbers. Some coffee plantations were
in sight, but none of these looked especially promising. Fruit
trees were not seen excepting a few clustered around the homes.
The next morning we took the street car to the end of. the.-
track after which we walked for a kilometer, or a kilometer and
S. ,a half. The crops that had been planted usually
in small areas. From appearenoes it would seem probable that
only hand implements are used.
At 2: o'clock in the afternoon we walked out to the sugar
mill which we had an opportunity of examining in detail. The
season of grinding was over, thus giving us an opportunity to
see and examine the machinery. more minutely than would have
been the case if the mill had been running. The mill is one
that has been for.A i and some of the oper-
ations are carried o at ,a large expenditure of human labor.
Some improvements were being S contemplated.
The care of the mill seemed to be in excellent hands as the gen-

eral outlook around tb# property w*4friendly and inviting.




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The caretaker was very coutteous and obliging taking care te
give full explanations to all questions.
The next day we visited the tobacoo demonstrations at
Ligaqoa. .his was the first opportunity that was afforded me
to see the actual operations in agriculture and horticulture.
It also gave me some intimate knowledge of the. character of the
soils in the region of Ubi. Some considerable. difficulty had
been experienced with the tobacco ocop. Owing to the heavy x
rains during January nearly all the seed beds had been lost.
Taking it as a whole -this region seemed to be prosperous

.and making good creps. No o opportunity was afforded to see
coffee plantations or the establishments in which the coffee was
being prepared for the market.


2nd/ Rio Branoo.

We arrived at Rio Branco at 5:20 P. M. After dinner we
made good use of our time in visiting several parts of the city.
The Mayor was very courteous and showed us much kindly attention.
The streets were very muddy and the roads, we were;told, practi-
cably impassible. No. opportunity was afforded to visit the
country places on account of the difficulties with muddy reads.
The next day we walked to the sugar mill located about three
kilometers out and owned by French capitalists. The mill was
not grinding so afforded me an excellent opportunity to examine
the machinery int detail. The mill is said to be about twenty
five years eold/. The machinery shows that it has been long in
use and much of it is considerable worn. Arrangements were
being made for enlarging the ia-t before the next crop comes in.




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The manager was absent but the engineer volunteered to give us
as much information as he could. During the past season th% mill
was said to have produced seventy-five thousand sacks of sBgarr .and
/.ten thousand liters of aleool o twentyone degrees Cartierj
K/ten. thousand lItersirs
o y : ^
s -ns sucrose content of -thet iuns from six to nine percent,
:raad ir aBight 't t*aelve degrees Bjfoml About one third of the
eane used is grown tfn' ti by the company. ,
No-opportunity was afforded tosee the agricultural operations
excepting in so for as they might be seen from the car window, ana

in the walk from Rio Branoo to the sugar mill.
.- I.

3rd'. Pomntp to.rr
We arrived herelate at night, about 10 o'clock, and put up at
Hotel Alvarenga The next morning we ark. walked out in a southerly
direction along the road and viewed the preparations that are being
made for the construction of the new concrete bridge, across the
Piranga River, then on further into the country, examining the pas-
ture grasses and farming conditions generally as they existed.
The next morning we walked out to Palmera84 to examine the
location there. This'suburb of Pontl Novfis beautifully located
and has many attractive features.
At my special request the party remained at Pont Novianother
day to afford me an opportunity to visit the large sugar mill at
Anna Florensca. The general manager, Mrn Woolmaen was in Pont O
Novr and kindly took out with him. Mr. Woolmsn has had twelve
years experience in Brazil and consequently was able to give me
much valuable information of an agricultural nature. We went
afoot for about I-,jilometers ltxopngh the cane fields and








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S. i ture lands.' I divided the daylight time I had abo'lt evenly
. between seeing the growing of crops and the manufacture of sugar.
This establishment produced less than one-forth of the cane it

fumavf makes ifte into sugar. The mill is :a comparatively
new 0o$ and most excellent in all its appointments, comparing
zt, favorably with thebest mills o-f .-Louisiana and Cuba. In
"' ] .. h *; ,' : *: -
adition to the usual equipment: it oon-tins an hydre-electric
plent, capable, dof developing seventy-five horse power. The oane
is bought from,.the farmers on the basis of the .price. of sugar,
thirty-seven and a half kilos of sugar being given for a ton of
ea"e. Twenty tons' perdore is considered a fair yield. The
., '' '. ; -* .....

company is capitalized t 900:000$000 Last year large improve-
menrts were made in the mill, costing 1l400: 000 $ 000. The
capacity of the mill is five hundred toqns of cane a day, yielding
seven hundred and fifty bags of sugar. In addition to the sugar
.. .- -
an alcohol SAill of 5,000 liters capacity has been installed9
. .igh grade alcohol of forty-two degrees Cartier& ( ninety-seven

percent by-volume) is made.
arom the stand point of understanding the agricultural sit-

uation around Pont Nov.y and the vicinity, the visit to Ama Flar-
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enqa was very important. In addUtion to giving me a fair insight

: into the agricultural operations I got data in connection with
S tha-.production of sugar and alcohol I failed to get at the other
mills. :


4 th. Viposa.
We arrived at gi9ea at 2:30 P. M. The rest of the af-

ternoon was used in visiting points near the i ty. The next


.5. .


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-10-


morning we visited the tract of laad thought to be suited for
the Agricultural College, This lies alone. the route of the
Loepold .1B Rilway for a distance,of about two kilometers.
Forty or fifty hectares is fairly level land most of it can be
farmed by means of farm implements such as are usually employ-
ed on level land and tn operated either by horses or tractors.
We spent the greater part of the morning examining different parts
of the area. We also visited farmers living on near by tracts,
walking.a considerable distance ip one of the side valleyseand
held extended conversations with people living in that region.
YNe' retraced our steps to the city, walking on the t9ttide of
Sthe stream. The tract'of land is said to begin near the edge
-. of the city.
S. The next morning.we were furnished an automobile to make a
visit to the Coloans. We arrived there about 10: o'clock and held
an extended conversation with the h@b Dr. Lemdolphio Souza Le .
On our return trip to the city we stopped at one of the farmers
who showed us the plans of his farm and discussed with us his
., A /plan of operation. We found here some improved fara implements,
A such as a cutaway harrow, a toothed harrow, and some good types
of plows. He ii a Belgian, and has prepared his land well for
the crop.
In the .afternoon we visited the Gymnasium. The Director
and hii subordinates showed us the kindest of consideration aad
both Braziliana,
attention. There ere two instructorsOat the Gymnasium who speak
English quite fluently. After visiting the Gymnasium the instruct-
or i'n French secured the key to the Hospital d'Isolamento and
showed us through the building, which is a fine one story structure


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splendidly located and well adapted to the purposes (or which it

was built,:.

We also visited the Normal School in company with the instruct

or in French. The Sister in charge kindly showed us through the

building. It is well arranged, and kept in a neat and orderly

condition, being a credit to those that are in charge.

SAs a whole the region around Vigosa is prosperous ;and the

city itself well built and has a general air of cleanliness and

prosperity. The people were kindly disposed and very friendly.































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*-12-


III. General Remarks.
In choosing a location for an agricultural college there
are a number of salient factors that must be taken into consid-
eration. If any one of these conditions is wanting it makes
it very difficult, if not quite impossible, to succeed, no mat-
ter how much money, patience and time are expended. In making
this report I have had these factors constantly in mind.
\\\ HEAALTHFULNSS. No matter how favorably a locality may
be situated if the general conditions are such as to cause fre-
quent illness among the students the attendance will be small
and the efforts at instruction unsuccessful. It will also be
difficult, if not impossible to secure the best instructors.
Frequent illness among the instructional fore causes serious
interruptions.
'<_ AVAILABLE LANDS. In establishing an agricultural college
it is imperative to have a large amount of typical land avail-
able. Many failures have resulted which can be traced directly
to locating a college on unsuitable lands. It is frequently
assumed that because an agricultural college is a state insti-
tution it can therefore make use of inferior and undesirable
land. Another serious mistake that has been made frequently
is that of assuming that the agricultural college should have
many different types of soil. This assumption has led to many
disappointments. It has been a very common error in the past.
It is not an unusual thing for even farmers to assume that the
main function of an Agricultural college and experiment station
is to attempt the impossible. The students must be taught the
application of scientific method4on soil at least as good as
that on which they are expected to practise the art.




- -- -- -- ----- 7 ''. -



-13-

.. .ATION. A. considerable number of agricultural colleges
have been located near small towns, or even at a distance of
several kilometers away from a railway station. These colleges
have either been abandoned and moved to new localities or fail- A
ed to prosper until the railway was projected to the college
and a considerable community had developed. It is an untenable
assumption that because farming operations require more or less
isolation that therefore the human nature of a farmer is differ-
.ent ,from that of other people. Farmers are human beings and
,enjoy comfort and the association of people as much as any one
-else does.
An agricultural college requires a large amount of equip-
ment, supplies, and food. Most of these materials have to be
brought in by the railroad and transported from the railroad to
the location of the college. An excellent road between the
railway station and the headquarters of the college is impera-
tive, even though the distance may be only a fraction of a kil-
ometer. Many of the country roads in the regions visited were
practically impassible during and following heavy rCains.
-L PUBLIOITY. A state agricultural college is supported from
moneys derived from taxes. The tax payers have a right to
know that the money is being wisely expended. A location should
therefore be chosen that is within plih sight of a leading
railroad line. This gives the traveling public an opportunity
to get a view of the progress of the work and instills in them
a desire to carry on operations at their own place in an order-
ly way.


The agricultural college should issue printed matter at




a earn


S-14-


short intervals. It is impossible for all of the agricultural
Qmfitns tk population to be in attendance at the institution.
The' next best thing for them is to get reading matter based on
nxXial scientific principles. Bulletins setting forth oper-
ations or giving out specific directions for handle g"fifficu-
Ities have proven to be of tremendous value. As the world
progresses this class of literature will become more important
and voluminous. Those countries and states that have publish-
ed the most of this literature are among the wealthiest and
most progressive.
Another form of publicity that is greatly needed and much
appreciated is that of personal and direct letters. In the
most advanced states in North America tik correspondence of
this kind has become really volunimous. The parent whose son
is in attendance at the agricultural college is always very g
grateful for information from the college his son is attending.
These parents will accept teaching from the agricultural college
at which their son is in attendance when they would net do so
from another institution.
SENTIMENT OF THE COMMUNITY. Where ever the agricul-
tural college is located the sentiment of the community should
be favorable to agricultural education. While this is net
q vital point much time is lost and energy expended in convert-
ing the sentiment of the community to an agricultural attitude.
Where the sentiment is adverse to an agricultural education
the students do not develop an enthusiasm for their work.
The sentiment of the community must also be of a high moral
tone. Immorality is one of the most serious and difficult




"1 '-
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problems to handle in an educational institution. No father
is willing to send his son into a community where the moral
standard is low.
,.. DISTANCE PROM CENTER OF POPULATION.m Nearly all of thw
Students who attend an agricultural college have never before
been away from home for any considerable length of time. The
parent is, therefore, loath to send him to an institution Ahat
is located a long distance from home. The importance of this
point is too frequently overlooked. The nearer the college
can be located to the center of population the larger is its
attendance likely to be. Even in the United States, where
traveling is comfortable and expeditious the larger agricultural
colleges receive most of their students from the area within
three hundred kilometers of the institution.
^ CROP PRODUCTION. In addition to the land needed for
instructional purposes and for experimentation a much larger
area is needed for the production of feed and forage for the
domestic animals .and also to produce food to be consumed by the
student body. Not only should the staple foods be produced
but also the fruits and vegetables. In many institutions it
is profitable to produce all of the meet and poultry that is
needed.
Q1 WATER. Water in great abundance is needed with an iuati-

tutien.of this kind. (a). Much water is needed for use In the
laboratories.
kitchen, tl-e bath, and in the/t&Mta This water must be
clear, pure and free from disease l=tB organisms. (b). Water
is also needed on the farm for watering live stock, watering
plants, and for general purposes. This must also be free from




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-16-

disease producing condition. (c). A goodly water supply for
.dses rdcn codt:s .o) A odywtrpl a

instrietion and experimentation in irrigation must be available.
(d). The college must aw possess its own power producing plant...
With the abundant streams and waterfalls in Minas the 'college
should utilize this form of energy rather than to depend en coa.,
oil, gasoline, er wood. It is impracticable te depend en com-
mercial sources far a supply of electricity.







-17-


, IV. Conclusions.
1st. That it is desired to locate the Agricultural Col-
lag, at one of the four points visited and examined in detail.


2nd. At three of the places saw no location or tract
of land that would make it possible to establish an institution
of the size contemplated. Tracts of land may occur at these
places but the distance from the city would be too great to
make it a practicalhx proposition.


3rd.At Viqosa the tract of land available is sufficient
for a beginning If the institution prospers as it should
additional area of level land will be needed in the course of
from three to five years. I was informed that the level land
lying beside the railroad contained about fifty hectares. Some
of this is lost on account of the railroad and other not avail-
able because of its proximity to small streams.
There is no highway leading directly from the'railway sta-
tion to the adventageous point on the tract. I assume that
now
tils can be established and maintained. The road A leading to
the tract is likely to be impassible during rainy weather and
toeo round abopt to be se6ricable. The time lost ahd difficul-
ties encountered wnMtxpIbIy auwat wnr during the paried of
construction would probably cost more in moneys and delays than
would the construction of a new highway.
On account of the distance from Vi oesa and the size of the
city it would be necessary to establish living quarters for the
professors of the tract of land





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On account of the size of the city and, for that matter,

the size of all the places visited it would be necessary to

bring in from the outside skilled mechanics and wood workers.

0
4th. Taking it from all points ,If view and studying the-

4 question as a whole, there is no doubt that Vinesa is the best
of the four places at which to locate the College of Agriculture

and Veterinary Science.



Thanking you feryeur kindly patience and with highest

personal regards, I am,
Very sincerely your,
























'C. S
'*yours,




--"-.4?-^-^^''.
fr- i--?L ~ '' "^ .. .:'**'' :' *>,.: :: :"" :': : "* "". : :' '. [ ..-;
L .' .'. : !". '-1, / .',.% : ,'. .' ,; -. -. ,. 1. "--'' ., .. ..~'-




.. \ :- ^ w K .'," : .: .' .. ,'. .* ". '."' .* .. ..- .* .: ; -.
S-. .. .
i77 etip Numer 1.
v,4
.-.,t:. ,.-.. .. ., "* .,r I






:" .".^;." : .. ... : ; *' "" .. : : .- : '.
..... 6 O



^ : .t .''',"' :..,;;,. ^ *l ; ~ c o I. ; ,-m fl...- '
I. pety. o.Tsoil on_ the mihtaine si.es. After about three hours
- "" : ', -"-' ; : ": '-\;*'?,'; -. ,* '* ', *,
ride- some coffee pantat s een, but these were t ideal.

4'No.:ihade w'-as us"ed" for t. he cof fee.
..... ... .. ., .. _. -



O1.Qjt.6c-loei. -the ffiottntai4ri flt'tened.out .and some ft'hts,



I-: ie -o Goy ana th e first rice field was seen. The rin ws. ripe. '
r'"I 6: a:'-:Th-e gri: in -'s.-rp,;
..... *'' .... '. ':''". ,- ".' '. .' "- "' "











... Had breakefast- at.Furtados- de Cempos and then Dr. Ardulno an( Dr.

-4'o wlk..wiee to dtho. P-st Office .to writ6 &rd mail l tter.
,aw -ini- .amrant.us spinos us, Sida s-p and te weedy
.-no .that"gee. w ln.othe -pieau patches at Faalnourst. Sa.w also, a



:, !: ,-.^ .' :.< '' ., .< :* *, .. - .. .0,
*'- ,,./ : '.r.l \ -- l''. r "*. '* -: r *'. .. -












pcires' o'. Hypise th b atleand p those old Terusalem nslvia that runs .
| '. *' ' -













wl :inflora my rs w s n o sMats of Paste, Agerta
in o e ,.,
.0%
n i.ia vribilis in yard. Oe s cime of solidao .
X --bloom.- aw some nfi tches of coffee. _The mountains ands hil s






.- av'atll scaeirred with cattle paths e prevailing grdc.s is Mll
nus minutiflora Bermudo grass was on the streets of Furtados do er

Campos aad many other places. Some specimens of epopanax wore

:&a6.ng thewa y.
4 t ukstino Grassi(Stenotaphrum americuin) was in the park in
A: ... ... .










4 fro.n t -of vie city offices. A Variety that had varigated. leaves was
~4'to. make i'ns:e t figures in th.otherwise green border.
'-P.M. M U. Walked o to the western riortio"n of the town

3and looked un valley e t exposurei- -in the rural direction '
an'd ar6 ne in the..urban direct io n-i.i'The bonde line was about a ille
M.* :. .e .:. .: *i .-.








f er a muddy.and slippery -ath.
w in familiar gener ,e. e,
j walk and a rainy ride back we
he b ond going out I picked up
me Oreadoxia, olecndar, Palma
The latter occurs on t.he
ut'of tho trip was sighted at
tLGuarany. hoaus. -. htede fotguava orchard of three or
_- Pomba Biver, swollen and m ddy.

ensive culture. Coffee plants,
with sugar cane. The country is

aspect here, mountai-s are low-
first coffee house.











H*
Bt. Was with Ollson and Adams.
been operated only one year.
_s when practical, sugar Efnl alco-
hol are return qrwhen demanded. see grades of sugar is made &nd

ed ;Athout regard'to economy in
e cars by hand. The bepasse is
sugar is stored for removal a-
fficult to wV.lk. "
t 6100 A. M. on the leopoldina

4-a- acco demonstration field. We'
os Grandos. Arrived at Liga-
.ning was cloudy and rains had
fallen during the night. Sr. Tarquin took us to see the tobacco crop,
the curing house, and the work house for the preparation of tobacco.
Beetle vaquinha was attacking the plants. It is a chrysomelliad.




V
I' *-
-2-

|6 long. Then we walked about a mile over a muddy an'd slippery nath.
Saw lots of familiar plants and a few in familiar genera,e. p,
Cassia Acanthosnum. After a muddy walk and a rainy ride back we
walked over tc th,. sugar mill. On the bonde going out I picked up

1 50$000 belonging to 'Lr. Adams. Palma Oreadoxia, olec-ndar, Palma
- Imperial (Royal Palm) were abundant. The latter occurs on the
*' 7 streets in Belle. The first cocoanut'of the trip was sighted at
Guarany. Just out of auarany I sighted k:.guava orchard of three or
-' four acres. The -rack crossed the Pomba Ri-ver, swollen and muddy.
Near Tocantins I saw some intensive culture. Coffee plants,
ripe corn between and interplanfed with sugar cane. The country is
S;'i taking on a much more agricultural aspect here, mountains are low-
er and less steep. Here I saw the first coffee house.
LFeb. 27, 1921, Sunday, WA. Vas with Ollson and Adams.

The supgar mill here is new, having been operated only one year.
The cane is bought from the farmers when practical, sugar end alco-
hol are returned when demanded. Three grades of sugar is made and
also alcohol. The mill is constructed without regard'to economy in
labor. The cane is unloaded from the cers by hand. The begasse is
wheeled by hand to the boiler. The sugar is stored for removal a-
.: way from the track and the way is difficult to wflh.
Feb. PS, 1921. Leff Ub6 at 6100 A. M. on Ihe Leopoldina
"' Eailway for Liga vo, to visit the tobacco demonstration field. We
Were taken out by Benevento Tarquis dos Grandos. Arrived at Liga-
Q6o in about twenty minutes. The morning was cloudy and rains had
S fallen during the night. Or. Tvrquin took us to see the tobacco crop,
the curing house, and the work house for the preparation of tobacco.
Beetle vaquinha was attacking the plants. It is a chrysomelliad.










2;2
' 1 *










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2
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r
I3,

Flea beetles were present on some large plants. Virginia tobacco
was used.
The citrus was all seedling and none was particularly attractive.
The seedling tangerines showed little affinity excepting in the leav-
es. There were two avocado trees, seedlings, one in fruit. There
were, also, about a dozen mangoes, seedlings, said to be especially
good.
Saw lots of sclerotium fungus on Paspalum. Saw Capin Angola in
bloom and seed. This is Panicum spectabile.
Saw a Loranthus parasite on citrus. It twines about the limbs.
Walked on the railway from UbA after breakfast. Exposed number
four, on".place venerated for death of a little girl by railway. Mr.
...Adams wants print.
Left Ubd on the 4:00 o'clock train at about 4:20. The mountains
were lower and much corn was planted, especially near Pio Pranco. The
sugar mill looked rather old but fairly well kept and clean, from the
car. No cane was being ground, as it is off season.
Met the Mayor of Rio Branco. He speaks "broken English fluently".
He is a mining lawyer by profession. He was a very interesting talker
axid speaks English quite well, also sneaks French and Snanish.
*
Among other things seen in the park was a rose tree. Saw a Free-
sia in bloom. The nark is well kept but the streets very muddy. The
Mayor says it is a dear place to do anything.
March 1, 1921. Cane mill at Rio Branco produces 7000 bags
a year. The capital stock is 2,000 contos de reis. This year it
produced 5,600 contos de reis worth of sugar.
Anmiaria Bresflensis was producing eones near Rio Pranco.
Saw Periskia regia (leaf cactus) in fruit. This grows to be a tree.









e over 10 cm. in diameter.
sugar mill (Us.ina~iRio Branco.
body wore costs and carried um-
-be 25 years old and the machinery
nch capitalists. The machinery
son.Much white wash is used in.
i eotect it against rusting. Some
enlargements are being planned and executed. 75,000 bags of sugar
. were .,produced this year. Approximately 52,000 tons of cane were used.
SThe p6rcantage of sucrose is from 8 to 12 %. About one third was

grown on'the plantation. 1000 liters of alcohol were produced in
addition to the sugar. This was 21 degrees Cartiere, 46' alcohol.
Met Dr. Eugene Mello last night and this noon. He is chief officer
Sof the District, president of the municipality, deputante Estado,
Sand a mining lawyer by profession. He is clean shaven, and a ood

, conversationalist. He snoke of a cult to which he belonged that was
atheistic in making humanity the supreme object. Hw said that Bra-

sil was not anti-Catholic but un-Catholic. He said that only a small
ner cent of the men were church members.
Also met Dr. Enrico Cunha, local or police judge and a photog-




6 ld in about thirty minutes reach-
"om which the railroad rises stead-
tt took the train 45 minutes to
e view down the valley was superb.
nds the peak and repeatedly it

was in sight at places for the
.. . . .


NMMONW-_ .%: .







-4-
eight meters tall. Some fruits were over 10 cm. in diameter.
At 2:30 P. M. we walked to the sugar mill (Usina)Rio Franco.
It was warm in the sunshine but everybody wore coats and carried um-
brellas. The sugar mill is said to be 25 years old and the machinery
inside looks it. It is owned by French capitalists. The machinery
was being laid by for the closed season.Much white wash is used in
S the tanks and on the machinery to protect it against rusting. Some
enlargements are being planned and executed.. 75,000 bags of sugar
O were produced this year. Approximately 52,000 tons of cane were used.
*The percentage of sucrose is from 8 to 12 %. About one third was
grown on the plantation. 1000 liters of alcohol were produced in
addition to the sugar. This was 21 degrees Cartiere, 465 alcohol.
Met Dr. Eugene Mello last night and this noon. He is chief officer
of the District, president of the municipality, deputante Estado,
and a mining lawyer by profession. He is clean shaven, and a good
conversationalist. He spoke of a cult to which he belonged that was
atheistic in making humanity the supreme object. He said that Bra-
sil was not anti-Catholic but un-Catholic. He said that only a small
Der cent of the men were church members.
Also met Dr. Enrico Cunha, local or police judge and a photog-
rapher by profession.
Visited the sugar mill.
Left Rio Branco about 5:20 and in about thirty minutes reach-
ed a small station,SO Geraldo, from which the railroad rises stead-
ily to the summit of the serra. It took the train 45 minutes to
rise the 700 meters elevation. The view down the valley was superb.
At some places the railroad surrounds the peak and repeatedly it
doubles back on itself. The town was in sight at places for the










ii









I' *






/































L, ,
























I -. /









*- e Hotel Alvarenga (man's
stains. The river Piranga,
,The bridge is bUilt'at the
.1 st be a descent of from 3
rs.
Alvaro told me the story as
related on the tablet in the Rio Botanical Gardens ...
___----_ /"_ ".. ..arjngijj is are present. An injured

bracts. A curious specimen
^P ver at oii6 time but showed no








^^^^make automobiles impracticable. The zebii4and their drivers fake'
^^ *;-*things very leisurely. The draft animals vary all the way from
What appear to be full bloods, very few, to what looks like the
S inwh eeled mule drawn Flcarts were pres-but







t walk one ahead and one near the
"'Ii -- ~r -eart of the tree was about

o ofrtation. The roas are cut






a be difficult for ae orse drewn
4. vehicle to pass. :rno- r.reeuo s, .. town are narrow and would






mk automobiles impracticable. he zebiiand their drivers Jake
things very leisurely. The drft nimls vary ll the way from
what appear to be full bloods, very few, to what looks like the
- ... __............... wheeled mule drawn carts were pros-

t walk one ahead and one near the
~rarely get into trouble.
.--" top of the hill and the rows are
specimen of forare, a legurne
a, a sensitive plant, Mori Joeo
core A species of Vitis was bang-
...-- .. the railroad cut. This was in






4( ". ; ) .

Sgreater part f t "way .....
2 Margo, 1921. Put up at the Hotel Alvarenga (man's
name). Ponte Nova is built in the mountains. The river Piranha,
(red river), flows through the town. The bridge is built at the
head of a beautiful cascade. There must be a descent of from 3
to : meters in the course of 100 meters.

r related on the tablet in the Rio Botanical Gardens.

Mangoes and Armicaris brasiliensis are present. An injured

14' branch of poinsettias showed colored bracts. A curious specimen
r

of Boyal Palm was bent as if turned over at one time but showed no
signs of injury. This bending occurs in palmettoes in Florida but
: it is more rounding. The horizontal nart of the tree was about
A: meter long.
The zebhu is the beast of transportation. 'he roads are cut
by the two wheeled carts so it would be difficult for a horse drawn
i vehicle to paps. The streets in this town are narrow and would
^^ make automobiles impracticable. The zebiland their drivers fake
4" things very leisurely. The draft animals vary all the way from


what appear to be full bloods, very few, to what looks like the
ox. A few specimens of the two wheeled mule drawn carts were pres-
ent. The drivers never ride but walk one ahead and one near the
cart. They are good drivers and rarely get into trouble.
Cane patches stretch to the top of the hill and the rows are
planted up and down. Termais, a specimen of forage, a legume,
Swas present, as was Mimosa nudica, a sensitive plant; Mori Joao
(John who died), Cordie prnndiflora, A species of Vitis was bang-
ing over the wall in the city by the railroad cut. This was in

I









































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----Bf--ves were entirely rhomboid and
V ritalis, was abundant or. the cliff.
owing before the hotel showed

Anna Florencia Came to the hotel
'and has been out for the last six
reni,; two end four years old, on the
-~the Louisiana Sugar Station, app-
arently not from Baton t^ouge. e is a typical young American, prob-
_n_ P 1- .- ----- -- He says he is the only chemist in
sugar chemist. At Anna Floren-
gan, and an Englishman named {ag-
out. One can ride it in 1 1/2



0 tons per acre is a fair yield of
caner,
25 % grown, ?5 % bought. CaOnacity of still is 5,000 liters.
Cane is bought on sugar value. 42 Cartiere is equal to 97 % volume.
Pay every two weeks. Business and mill is worth $1,000.,'000.00
37 1/2 kilos of sugar are allowed for I ton of cane, value, no
sugar given.
Company is capitalized at 900 contos de reis under charter.
The renewals in the mill during lasf year cost 1:400,000+000.

During the day we walked in a souther1r direction along the
railway track. and saw many interesting Pilnts. Bryoplyllum PTrows
abundantly elon) a mountain cliff in the city. Dr. tilveira calls


U


(1


II.







-6-


-,.- ---bloom and had ripe fruit. The leaves were entirely rhomboid and
fleshy. A fern, Blechnaum QOcidefitalis, was abundant on T he cliff.
A specimen of Plummeria,sp, growing before the hotel showed
up quite prettily.
Mr. C. T. Torraen, chemist at Anna Florencia came to the hotel
to meet me. He is from Louisiana,'and has been out for the last six

or seven years. He has two children, two and four years old, on the
plantation. He is a graduate of the Louisiana Sugar Station, app-
arently not from Baton Rouge. He is a typical young American, prob-
ably of Scandinavian-i extraction. He says he is the only chemist in
the State, probably means the only sugar chemist. At Anna Floren-
cia are also Mr. Woolman, of Michigan, and an Englishman named {ag-
gard. The plantation is 12 km. out. One can ride it in 1 1/2
hours.
Notes on Fazenda Anna Florencia:
$00 tons of cane per day. 20 tons per acre is a fair yield of
750 bags of sugar per day. cane.
25 % grown, ?5 % bought. Canacity of still is 5,000 liters.
Cane is bought on sugar value. 42 Cartiere is equal to 97 5 volume.
Pay every two weeks. Business and mill is werth $1,000000.00
S 37 1/2 kilos of sugar are allowed for I ton of cane, value, no
f:. ca e ." n.
suga-r given.
Company is capitalized at 900 contos de reis under charter.
The renewals in the mill during last year cost 1:400,000$000.


During the day we walked in a southerlJ direction along the
railway track and saw many interesting plants. Bryoplyllum prows
abundantly alon4 a mountain cliff in the city. Dr. jilveira calls






















b.;WPlW. )qL. -"















ii
I.'













p -7



ojqw
Ak














c-




r -a .. *-

__ rz_----
9-7

lore Brasiliensis. Secured
lwsy bridge.

< ,.14 1 cemetery., Secured a speci-
." Made two exposures, one

town from the cemetery.
Ponte Nova at 6:00 A. M.
-t- I the remaining portion of
,-..', ~ ...u, fr-mining the surroundings. This

is the birthplace of Dr. Arduino.
On the wry to Vigosa we stopped off at a little station
called VauessFi,abot thirty minutes ride from Ponte Nova,to vis-
it Fszenda Canada. At the station we found mules furnished us by
Dr. Arduino's cousin, who owns the Fszenda. We had coffee and
breakfast and at 11:00 o'clock started back to Vauassi without
going out of the house. Visiting a fazenda seems rather a cere-
mony than an opportunity to see the frrm. We were shown some of
the portraits of the family. In the library was a copy of Civil-
wi f'e
isa9o e Democracia by Abelardo Roaes. The owner i's a sister of
the author. The uncle of Dr. Arduino was there, a venerable old
man of about 75 or P.O. His son, the owner of the Fazenda is an
attorney. His library seems rather meagre. he house is well
finished upstairs. The oldest son of the owner seems to be the
manager of the Fazenda. The second son, 19, is studying medicine
at Eio in the College we saw from Sugar Loaf. The brother is a
superior looking lady. She sat at the table, but apparently did
not partake of the meal.
Notes on Fezenda Canada.
The value of the Fazende is about 700,000$000. It possesses 1P,000 trees.
.It has 3Q.L000 coffee trees, and produces 5,6800 sacks of 60 kg.





J, -*,. --7- '

it Kalancoe sp', following Marttius Flora Brasiliensis. Secured
two exposures on the cascades and railway bridge.
men In the P. M. made a trip to the cometary. Secured s speci-
Iamen of Paspalum seed. It looks gobd. Mnde two exposures, one

in the cemetery and the other of the town from the cemetery.
W' Mar. 4", 1921. Friday. Left Ponte Nova at 6:00 A. M.
Arrived at Viqosa at 3:30 P. I. Spent the remaining portion of
the P. 1M. straightening up and examining the surroundings. This
is the birthplace of Dr. Arduino.
On the wsy to Vicosa we stopped off at a little station
called Vauespn,about thirty minutes ride from Ponte Mova,to vis-
it Fazenda Canada. At the station we found mules furnished us by
Dr. Arduino's cousin, who owns the Fazenra. We had coffee and
breakfast and at 11:00 o'clock started back to Vaussis without
going out of the house. Visiting a fazenda seems rather a cere-
mony than an opportunity to see the fprm. We were shown some of
the portraits of the family. In the library was a copy of Civil-
wi fe
isa9o e Democracia by Abelardo Roeas. The ow-nerbsiis a sister of
the author. The uncle of Dr. Arduino was there, a venerable old
man of about 75 or PO. His son, the owner of the Fszenda is an
S attorney. His library seems rather meagre. The house is well
finished upstsirs. The oldest son of the owner seems to be the
manager of the Fazenda. The second son, 19, is studying medicine
at Eio in the College we saw from Sugar Loaf. The other is a
superior looking lady. She sat at the table, but apparently did
not partake of the meal.
Notes on Fzenda Canada.
The value of the Fazenda is about 700,000$000. It possesses 18,000 trees.

It has 3QO00 coffee trees, and produces 5,000 sacks of 60 kp.


















f







4














*i T


-~ -ar -*.


n ,L'.Lo nva taken our lu'ggage to the
is. st&lled..-in our yarious rooms and cl

I' 1
I '" '" -


1- 1
~ I
V

I; I-III
.4


L'


i ng.
s of cane and corn he had.
sugar.

e. An arrabo is 15 kg.' or 3,000
60 k-g.


igosa. We. arrived at 2:30. Dr.
grande Hotel. 7e were soon in-
eaned up.. We had a turn about
Sof new things were seen and
ral varieties of Codeum were
there; also Aruacaria Prasil-


We visited the tract suggested
ro drew a rough sketch of the
at the edge of the city and
-We crossed over and wall-ed uijn
the side valley to a small farm house. He had us stone for coffee.
After that we retraced our way to the main valley and walked to town.
On the way I got some seed of a grass that looks extremely promis-
ing for parts of the south. It grows about 10 inches tall and
makes s heavy felt mat. Cattle had grazed it vigorously, The sne-
dcies is quite generally distributed in the valleys and to some ex-
tent on the mountain sides.
In the evening we met Dr. Augusto Sabhara Lima, Juiz Municipal.
He is a young man about thirtyfive, clean shaven. He understands
English and speaks a few words. He 'had a copy of Water's book on

























...

,o,


-*< '
r--





a


A farm near is level enough for plowing.
The owner did not know how many acres of cane and corn he had.

The Fazenda produced 2,000 sacks of sugar.

There is a sugar mill on the farm.
It produced 12, 000 arrabos of coffee. An arrabo is 15 kg.' or 3,000
sacks of coffee. A sock is equal to 60 k-g.


At 12:00 we got the train for Vigosa. We arrived at ?:30. Dr.

Mello had ta1en our lugvge to the Grende Hotel. We were soon in-
stalled in our various rooms and cleaned up. We. had a turn about

the town and saw the park. A number of new things were seen and

quite a number of common ones. Several varieties of Codeum were

seen. "Palmito',' the edible palm was there,: lso Aruacaria Prasil-

iensis.
March 5, 1921. Saturday. We visited the tract suggested
as a, place for the Escola. Dr. Alvard drew a rough sketch of the

tract while in the field. It begins at the edge of the city and
lies for 2 k1m. along the railway, We crossed over and wal-ed i un

the side valley to a small farm house. He had us stop for coffee.
After that we retraced our way to the main valley and walked to town.

On the way I got some seed of a grass that looks extremely promis-
ing for parts of the south. It grows about 10 inches tall and
makes s heavy felt mat. Cattle had grazed it vigorously, The sne-
cies is quite generally distributed in the valleys and to some ex-
tent on the mountain sides.
In fthe evening we met Dr. Augusto Sabhara Lima, Juiz Municipal.
He is a young man about thirtyfive, clean shaven. He understands

English and speaks a few words. He had a copy of Water's book on




-qu








A,


... ^:

















L








MOWN


gets some help from the Etre.


,hess with Dr. Alvvro.
'trduino made arrangements to
off about P:45. Got stall-
?bout an hour. Took coffee
ernardes, who is Director
in the Colons and 167 people.
d is trying to clear and
7-urLvI.e. iL. ,e Airly ti the colonis s are German. A portion of
the land lies in the bottom but the greater part is on the mountain
d a Brazilian' His two child-

harrow, a plow and a toothed
nions for exportt". This Bel-
erman, a Port of patios. He
of his house and family. We
out stalling the machine.
o the Gymnasia Vigosa. It haq
e study room har 70 seats. One
recitation room nas windows only in the end and the pupils fpce the
windows. I met the DirectorDr. Arnoldo Carneiro Vianne, who is a
special friend of President Bernardes and lives in Pres. P'p house
n-tf- iho ...rl. Sow- ^ ^-^-- "i--"--' h. nd French, who sp~eak s

English, who learned from
aw (to be). He is a young
sime is Jos4 Valladares Poquet-
examined the books and
resented and the selections


rI
r






-9-
Agriculture. After dinner he played chess with Dr. Alvaro.
March 6,1921. Sunday. Dr. arduino made arrangements to
take me by auto to the Colons. We got off about P:45. Got stall-
ed three times and made eight km. in abshout an hour. Took coffee
with the brother-in-law of President Bernardes, who is Director
,. of the Colons. There are 37 families in the Colons and 167 people.
Each family has a tract of 40 acres and is trying to clear and
: cultivate it. Nearly .ll the colonists are German. A portion of
the land lies in the bottom but the greater part is on the mountain
S side. I met a Belgian who had married a Brazilian" His two child-
ren are red headed. I saw a cutaway harrow, a plow and a toothed
harrow. lie was preparing 'ot'plant onions for "export". This Bel-
gian spoke a considerable amount of German, a sort of pati-Pos. He

got back to Vigosa fo2 breakfast without stalling the machine.

SAfter breakfast we went around to the Gymnesia Vigosa. It haa
200 pupils, and is very crowded- One study room hao 70 seats. One
recitation room has windows only in the end and the pupils f1-ce the
windows. I met the Director,Dr. Arnoldo Carneiro Vianna, who is a
special friend of President Bernardes anw lives in Pres. P's house
off the park. Saw the teacher of Math. rnd French, who F-peaks
English, European, and the teacher of English, who learned from
an American, Vivian, his, brother-in-law (to be). He is a young
fellow about 18, quite slight. His name is Jos6 Valladares Poquet-
te. He apologized for his English. I examined the books and
found American literature fairly represented and the selections
good.
The institution is private and gets some hel]> from the 9tWe.









IT"







Ad

AA







a







i ,. '' _*, .. .. : .


-10-
It alsd'6 gets a little help from the city. The teacher of French
took us over to the Hospital d'Isoltmento, a national institution
for the study of tropical diseases. It is small but commodious.
Dr. Alvaro and the French teacher played chess until 2:00 A.1.
At 2:30 I awakened and saw a man standing in my window. He was a
guest at the hotel and had the adjoining room. He had been out
late and had found the hotel locked un. Being unable to rouse any
one he had used this method of getting t his room.
March 7, 19"l. We -ook the early morning train for Tui'z
de Fora, arriving there without incident excepting the long delay
at Furtados de Ca"pos. We arrived at Juiz de Fora ond put up at
the Hotel Rio de Janeiro.
March 8, 1921. Visited the parks in the city on our way
to the Catholic College, where we spent about two hours very nrofit-
ably visiting the classrooms, laboratories, and museum. There are
about two hundred students in attendance. At 12:17 we took the
train for Bello Horizonte, arriving at 10:00 P. M.




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It als6 gets a little help from the city. The teacher of French

took us over to the Hospital d'Isolnmento, a national instihition

for the study of tropical diseases. It is small but commodious.
Dr. Alvaro and the French teacher played chess until 2:00 A.A.
At 2:30 I awakened and saw a man standing in my window. He was a

guest at the hotel and had the adjoining room. He had been out
late and had found the hotel locked up. Being unable to rouse any

one he had used this method of getting tp his room.

SMarch 7, 19"1. We -ook the early morning train for Tuiz
de Fore, arriving there without incident excepting the long delay

at Furtades de Camipos. We arrived at Juiz de Fora .n6 put up at

the Hotel Rio de Janeiro.

March 8, 1921. Visited the parks in the city on our way
to the Catholic College, where we spent about two hours very nrofit-

ably visiting the classrooms, laboratories, nnd museum. There are

about two hundred students in attendance. At 12:17 we took the

train for Fello Horizonto, arriving af 10:00 P. M.







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