Report: A Technical Study of Fazenda Retiro de Volta Redonda.

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Material Information

Title:
Report: A Technical Study of Fazenda Retiro de Volta Redonda.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Report: A Technical Study of Fazenda Retiro de Volta Redonda.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00095

Full Text
I .9


I. Introduce{ n
The Human Element

II. Generalities
1). Latitude
2). Countries
3). Altitude
4). Soil
a). adbbe
b). sand
c). swamp
d). limestone
e). ilesl soil
f). failures

). hi.uman elinment


III). Volta Redonda
A). Climatic Z-lements
a). Temperature
b). infall
c). Drainage system
d). Run-off system
e). H-umidity
f). Ventilation


3). Propagation
a). Seedbed 9
b). Nursery 10
c). :ud1in ., 11
d). .&wlrrn4 12

C). Orchard 14
a). Planting 14
b)). Tutors 1G
,,w^, Cultivation 16
'-2ovnr Crop 16
e). Pruning 17
f). Isolated Trees 17
I, Tn Lrpl noting 1
). The Hoe 19
,il). Cheap Lto or Costly20


D). Illustrations in "A
l.iuda de Citrus"

E). The Coffee Orchard

F). Packing House

G). EIachineryr and Implement
House


Contents
page
1 IV. dill vs River Shore Planting
2 4
A) Hill Grove
4 ) Rivershore Grove
4 bSimilarly Located Groves
4 1). Placamine Parrish
5 2). .Atwsod.
6 3). Preston
6 4); i'.ons rch
6 5). 3go Sebastiao
7
7
7 V. Conclusions


. VI.. Photogrpphs
1. Pitangueiras
2. 3ao Seeastlo

3 4. 3vtEz, crop, C.Seb.
8 3. iney -iv:ods orchard
8 . "(.-.Stevens
8 i7. Camo os
9 33. Para.uay River
9 7>ggei or-ng-:
1.ucuman, i"rjentina


A. ..... .


22

22
23
23
23
24
24
24
25


26


27
27


r. C
27
27

29
29
20

30
31


rwt),










R E P0 R T


Ai Bx-ert Study of Fazenda Retiro de Volta Redonda


FART I, TiTR.iDUCTIOIT


Your citrus property is in most excellent condition. It would tae


many pages to describe the excellent work that has been done. Sut

ej-tog-es while they might be very areeable, would in no wise augment


r prits. What I nm writing in this report is confidential; that is,


none of it is to be used for printing nor used for circulation without


my special permission.


The Citrus Exports


Immediately on arriving in Florida in 13C1, I began a scientific


and practical study -f ie' Citrus diseases and insects (See Cnrvalho


Earbosa page 15, line 7) (See also American Men of Science or

Who's !Vho in A-merica). During the last half century there has been the


______ most stupenduous development of citrus production


that the world has ever seen. The greatest have been made north


of the Equator in the Western Hemisphere.

During the mid-eighties, Vlorida.^ a2 by planting citrus exten-

sively for shipping (export) purposes. Followed closely by Lousianna.





a .. . .- ..^ i.- : ., ..t ... .. ..




S



California also entered the field but her most extensive plantings were
A

after 12,;5. At the opening of 1200r Jamaica planLed extensively. Said


"to hove the largest citrus orchard in the world BEy 105 Cuba w's-e -


pJLantang most extensively. Bahia Honda, west of Hevana, had an orchard
A

rof more than 1500 hectares, which I visited and reDorted on in 1906.


Codumbia, in the eastern part of Cuba, had an orchard of 2000 to 2500


hectares. Co-incidentally, Texas had pl nLed extensively. "Palestine


-.iso supplies lerge quantities to Europe. Argentine has been exporting


for five "'eErs. In 1933 we visited a psckinghouse that was exporting


grapjefr'uit t- :'nTland. The orang.-es produced al:,nZ the -rsranuay and


Faran,4 'ivers g to th:e u_--ien-os Aires nm-ar. et, mainly. In the province


of 'iKissiones we saw sxaie splendid citrus orcligrds. (In 1933, my daughter


and I spent 9 1/2 months visLting 17 StteE of -rasil, also Ar:entine,


F-'ra-uay --n.l i.Iruguay. After our twelve years of service to the State of


Liinas '.,e v"anted to knovw tl1e agricultural institutions and how the people


vere employing the teachings of these institutionss)


The Human Elenent


As I said before, during the last fifty years, there has been a


most marvelous development in citrus culture. The proress has been


greater than during the preceding iive centuries. Today the educated

man need not repeat the errors of his predecessors.








R E P 0 R T


PART I, IFTRODUCTIOTT






-3-

There are dozens of excellent and accurate books written in hIlf


a dozen lanx--u.es,- 7rasilian, Eng-lish, French, GermI-ian, Dutch (HollandishX
L

and Japanese. There are hundreds of pamphlets (dozens in Portuguese). In


addition there are many magazines that devote much space to citrus culture.


It finally summs itself up to the ability of the man who is directing


the enterprize. In the first place, he must be an able executive, other-


wise he will employ inefficient associated. He must be able to see


clearly how to produce a commercial un-it, (the bo) at the minimum cost,

but at a profit. It would take .;any pa-'es t: eludydate this topic fully


and for this report it is unnecessary. The very fact that you employed


me assures me that you v.want constructive advise. Had I been merely a


friendly juest- at :.mur h:use, I v;wuld have been oblire.ted to write you


a laud.Atory letter, all true, but containing fevw constructive suggestions.


yr e.jmiplnying me, y-"u h.ve shomn confidence in me. li, experience in citrus


culture of neEarly a half century, on twD continents, enables me to give

-ou infor: .:.tion thzt I could not .a.e gEiven y:Du tv:enty y:/l'ars ago.


You .-re t: be envied for never having hed any experience in c mmer-


cial citrus culture. The osler citrus culturists are seriDusly handicap-


ped 3v the erroneous methods that have acquired






-4-


PART TI, CrE" WALTT _S.

I). L.titude. From about 5 .-:rees Torth (not far south-of the


city of San Francisco, California), to 35 degrees South (south of _?uenos


Aires). Brasil alone has more lenr3 suitable to orange culture ti-ian is at

present e ..plo'ed in the whole world f~r that our.ose. 'zver" state in


this oreet c ounta., pro-luces oranges.

2). Countries. The orangee knows neither rece, langua.e nor country.

Erasil is likely to suffer co-nEtition from renting s read
u -, co~oettio frxom _r--entinpe ta hrs iee.

ilit", oiore a
!k... hcr ..' s, '.-ches and olirs in --'asil ( Lio). The

citrus groves vwe visited during -- :ts in l'.33, in the 9ro-


.ine of Missioner vwere as order> and vell kept as the best in Trasil.

Citrus grov.ing being a ne,' industry in the province, the n-wet varieties

and latest methods o: culture, packing and shipping were employed.


The finest 9shia -oranres I have ever seen were served us for sinner

by Dr. Cross, Director of the Estauion experimental Awric:.la at Tucuman.

The,; were California varieties belonging to the --ahianinha group. They


were so perfect and so beautiful that I hestita.ted to touch them. Like


a delicate orchid it seemes grossness to handle them. Dr. Cross insisted

^4t
that I eat them.

The finest Satsumas I have ever seen or eaten were imported from

Jap.n LO the Pacific Co-st of North America in 1909p -The Oira!e t-e Igsez






/ 2^-5--






). ~ltitude. In 1925 I imported 13 varieties of citrus from Florida.

There were ten trees in each v-riety. AuI the trees of each variety were

of exactly the same size; bud-ied on the same root-stock; the buds taken

from the same It-,pe-trees"j, etc. This impor t-tion I divided into two

equal parts o entieal trees. One half ,.assent to Felisberto Crma-rgZo,

then Director of the Deodoro Txioerinent Sttion. C.amar) had studied


pomocuiLure for a y-ear at the Florida .gricultural College of vfhid I T

was D
may know that my deductions from the experiment have a scientific ee.

Sior station hasfor its fnd.tion a oire to i....rov Ui4 F'-


-9ucticn in -rcil.

T zesE f this experiment bas demors tried clearly that SECt-

sum- halI a higher aror.ma anl v',ere s'.eeter when ripened at Vis-oa ws

J hat grapefruit ripened at Deodoro vere markedly superior to those pro-

duced at vi-osa. Th. re i$ approximately six hundred: meters difference in


altitude. This is the only technically correct experiment in Brasil, to


test the influence of altitude, that has come to my attentIon.






-5-

n)o co1or or urce limitation; -^e'cor white, y.ll.w, or- lack, IL is


thi an tnat counts.


3). .Ptitude. Tn 1925 I imported 13 varieties of citrus from Florida.


There were ten trees in each v-riety. AUi the trees of each variety were

of exactly the sa'mne size; buried on the same root-stock; the buds taken

from the same "Itype-trees"I, etc. This importation I divided into two


equal parts of entical trees. One half was sent to Felisberto CamLErgo,

then Director of the Deodoro fxreriment Stetion. Camar3) had studied


pomoculture for a -,ear at the Florida .-.ricultural College of whid-i I


wvas D.an. He had visited us in Viosa. I mention these details so you


may know that my deductions from the experiment have a scientific B.




Aucj.'tion in Brag1.


T zr P-e t z93 this experiment b demonstrated clearl:,r that Set-


sum- had a higher arorma an'3 were swev.'eter when ripened at .Viosa ad
,tLO* rVr4'A- ,CLt-AJ 4" Ai^t J(hat grapefruit ripened at Deodoro were markedly superior to those pro-


duced at Vi.-osa. Thbre i$ approximately six hundred meters difference in


altitude. This is the only technically correct experiment in Brasil, to


test the influence of altitude, that has come to my attention.


'V(







4). Soil. I.luch has been Aritten about soil!; mostly for propaganda


purposes.. Chemists have spent years making analyses. Physicists have


spent almost as much time classifying soils. The results of all :f this


work has yielded a very lrzge dividend on the investment but in unex-


pected directions. The question, as to what are the chemical components


and the physical constitution of the ideal citrus soil, has not yet been


answered in a language that enables the practical grower to pre-determine


what is a good and what is an inferior citrus soil. Let me illustrqte;-

a). Equally excellent citrus fruits ar ripened every year at


Vinosa on sticky ndobe (massa-p6) and the greatly variable alluvi-n


(va rg. ens).


b). Forty years ego, when chemical analysis of soils w:as much


in vogue, and physical analyses was highly praised, in ITorth America, we


had the sand-dunei soil at Eldred, Plorida, analysed. It showed 97 %


of "sand and insOlgable matter", considered absolutely worthless for

citrus culture. At that time, C. T. I.cCqrty, a lawyer by profession,


moved in from the rich corn-bel of Iowa, planted citrus on the sand-


dunes and made a small fortune from shipping (exporting) grapefruit.


The Flori5a Iorticultural Society honored him by electing him President.


His name is commemorated by a variety of grapefruit planted not only in

Florida but also in Binas and in Argentine.





w7-
I-Tear
c)Wyvie, Florida, some two hundred kilometers south of

Eldred, there are thousands of hectares of citrus f.-uiting, and making


a handsome profit for their owners. These are -rov.ing on drained Ever-


glades (swamp lon-ids) v;:hich analized 90 5 of organic matter.


d). In Dade County (M:unictpality) Florida, th-je ere mnny

thousands of hectares of land of pure coraline limestone, analizing over


95 p- calcium carbonate. To plant citrus trees, this stone had to


be dynamited, to secure a location for the "muias".


e). I could take you to scores (vintenas) of proves in Florida,

planted on sites selec-Led by exerts as hmvinv the ideal soil from a


chemical -nJ physical cOnsideration, but the owmers are unable to payr the


interEst on morto:-es; in other ';:rds, f-i1jres. ('


f). In 19,00, my friend i.obinson of Sanford, Florida, began

buying un citrus -TO'e held on fornlosures by ba!n :n-] finnaciers, for

failure tD oav inrlerest. :-e Lana.ed t.ese "failures" Bli made handsome


profits. Me c:ied some tvelve :.-rs l-ter, lea.-inZ his fq& ily 9 handsome


fortune .


5). _.n otier intir ae friend of .-ine, F.* .'iaite, P-l-n tto lorii,)


nF.de a s-..-"litv nf bu:,.-i: ruined" rnr "obsilte" 1.oves .tn-' rehabili-


t.ating them. Ye vas Iible to judge beforei-iand h)v h nmch profit such a grove

:uiuld jiela him in five ,rcc-s.






). Once a--in. OIt fin7l1,- suns itself up to th- bilitr of

the man v.Lo is directing th.e enEer.,rize.t-

PA2T III, VOLTA R-D TO A


A).T'1E CLTiLTTC TLLEi.TTS. .). Temoerture. At Volts :edonm.j, this need

not concern us. I-, citrus sections .' Osli 'rnia, t:-e t- e.-r-ure ,rises

as hi, h ;s 10 d'--priTees F. Fna irDops to as lovw' as 24 degrees F. (A r;,, .i-

^ -H
,-telr m.)rn" ,e_'es C. t) -\ --rees C.)

"''; .. .. --inC-f 11 i v1 .... i'Lrvp:. ntt t ) ," *ii" ."-, r c'."lti'/.-. ion s,,h a .i 1

L rest Ltt t: J L]. dr-,- sson th. ry sells Tiuring the r, iny

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FA2T III, CLTA (?)O'T'A

A) .T-3 CTLAi r oEL. T. L TS. ). Temoer.ture. At Vits e.eionrs, tris n-e1


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in -;/'-Ei l .1-. 1"- .. .- ir ," "-,-- : "" % '- 'i t'_:. ^^.., -; 'i.', s on e

S '.:.l '- "_-'t ,'t ._-.i-':-' ,a, t^ "_ &d ui' tz. n.'...- z n ,


T' :o '.int T vrn. t t" D i .t r' ii r'. -'_ ess is '=. ii. ,5.e in the

uvd.j.:ction 1 _,ooi ruc.i's fr'om on 9-;; I-f -s'sil t:, tU, : otb-,-r. T'- cheep


'99 Ris P curse On our .itr'Us inlj :tr:i. "S il-Airinhents'" is C Eta,.J il-


price I v:oui] nIL ,e'r ail m reis fxo quinhhntOs of them. It is /


f3lse economy to plDnt su..ch v.orttless r:.u._s. T"- rineirEn -".f _z '.' iro


h!.S ':fli" tim.s oCbeen m-,cue_ Ofi feing InuriOrus. Th-t i. contrr .,r to H!,r


e, :... i:nc : ''"ill _-' r. .- -: -"Ce, even'- '.ge .-,icc, E D, a .Lrst


d]is. article. in" 1227 vwe he 2 tPusndi l-ivre -'un'red first ,clss citrus


r-_-.s. t -?t 'I, if r:ed to sell fo.r C',O, 1i:.itin.- t.e ei? t fift- hnulas


to s oErvon. The r.u-s to bep dest.tc':ed in rott.ti on v.'ith the receipt of


the wioney. .o:'; ;:,oneC- 'taS eposited to -pay fo:r three t:jusanel in-e&s.

.;"e returned thie excess r-ioner. At the s-me time many mules '.erE -fered


for sale t,.t ...... ;titutonc, for !il e quinhentos. .e had similar


expcDriences ',;i-, othr rocbts. (See "A ':u.'a Ce Citrs", pa-es 2 : 3.





w -14-

C). The Crchnrdr Betfore plnting on level J-1n-s suchL as ,yours,


amnle fMrainage should be p.rovie-Led for. A study ,-of photogrnhs 1,2,5 3


illustr-tes this. TiLes :&rc ,tard are loc ted in a region p'uout as


euall.y rain' ,s yours. Tm c &-rocter :2s soil a1l:: belnt qui.4te sLnilar.


It will be economics.l to e[ioiloyr e surveyor vith either a transit or a


surveyors level. On an extensive undertPking guGh as :murs, this will


make e savin" of consid-rable Tone,,.


a); The Planting. A-ll of your next orchard '..as planted to 5th


grade mr-udas on th-e Flori-le classification (See Hume, Tntlish edition,


p. 246.) This .,rsde includes mudas 60 to :0 crs. taLl, re.g?.rdless of


diameter of stem above the bud. A fourth grade muda ust h.ve diame-

ter of
06 one _nd a fourth centimeter and over %0 crrs. tall. The gredes change


successively x1ith the diameter of the bud. In first class mudas the bud-


stem is two and a h:.lf centimeters or more in diameter. California,


Australia, South Airica, :alestine and other citrus countries follow a


verr similar grading of mudas. A portionn of Photo-graph jTi 1 shows a


portion of a pomar planted to six thousand five hundred mudas purchased


in California. (Trust a Pritisher to practise sound economy.)


When the mudas aa "ad which you purchased were received, it


would have been wise economy to plant them in a e6 proving porm-r. Using





-15-
perfectly prepared land in an ideal location. Setting the mudas in rows

tv.'o meters part a'nid one meter de pe em pe. A hectare would hold five

thousand rnu.a.s. TIn a re'rr' tiLe probabl- 30 % v.ulo. be vi--,rous enuf

to vwithsLe.nd the vicissitudes oI the c~mpo, The second ear 50 more

would be re.iC- f:'r the canmpo. 7y the third --ear some 25 : more could

be ready to be grubbed out q id burned. (Dolnot present them to anyone


unless :,,:u v.ant to do him an injur,r.)

SThis. represents in q general. wvay v.hat I practised -t the Tscola5

When -.e were 'a 3 a ponar. To appease the "for.as maiores", I

justified the "test orch-rd" of, r:-n: hunim'eis of trecsj,--_ prevent t.he

d isseminatin of insects "ri-ni diseases. The iraportsnt dessiietatum wvas


thnt it enabled rie t- elimriinate thl-e ,v'eak and '.-orthless. The results hyve
A

iDre than justified the ef ort.

,hhen the 0,C'O mul ,.ere being -'gceived one- hured .est ones



4 t' 4
,/,_I

--

A -- tL -c *,'
,^ -L J/1 /-f c2 y

--,- h E -,,,.- ... j _,_,, y ,, .,c, ^ .
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G/u-" o 'L. ,z ^/'J-.^ ^ "J / # ^ / l l A _#,_ I -.
f ^ _a J / 2d 4 .-.:., ^ L..^ ^ -- .A .. l -/, ' ,.. -< -, (- :,
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_- 4 -15-

perfectly prepared land in an ideal location. Setting the mudas in rows


tv.o meters apart and one meter de pe em pe. A hectare vould hold five


thousn- nu-s. In a year' tine prob..bl:,- 10 would. be vi-:-rous enuf


to v'ithsLand the vicissitudes o ,.the campo,. The second year 50 %c more


would be rei'vr for the campo. .y the third -.rear some 25 more coulli


be ready to be .,rubbed out a;;d burned. (Dolnot present them to Pnyone


unless y:'u j.nant to do him an injury.)


This repre.-.ents in a gentr?1 way .what I practised nt the Tscola>


jhen ,'e were -u4ILg & a pomar. To appease the "f~ras msiores", I


-Iustified the "test orch.''rd" of mn h-unf'eds -f trees, -a prevent the


dissemination of insects cnd diseases. The impor-tant iessidetatum was


that it enabled me to eliminate tl-e weak and v'orthless. The resulLs -have
A

r--re- than justified thle i ef:. ort.
/
*-hen the 5000 nuza, '.ere being reo.eived one hildred best ones
/

stouli be l-r,,ed in pLr:nanent loc-.tions on the hLectpre. Th.:se 're to


re.... in as .. slhov: cr.; t .o e ..onstrte t-c : .erul fertility of
& /
s~ill t.- c.:.- '-"_: ..iz. :.i .. t : t" ir-.w/iyti--vi.-.it. (Tn reali t ) ;q ,-





::: count in best '-7rt of .oujr new .)omar y,-ielied ei-iht per cent

excellent m'.u-,s, ten percent ,'.'orthless, and sone ?0 ranging between

t m e~ extrem-2es. kttt 2" ,..a41 tatn' 4t-w ^ t.e sa.
p t*nA. / < A 4 '-1A~ cJ4 Ma^t1 <-Y~ ^ui^w *^7<^-^ l
V\ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ,^ ^









-15-


e ). 7'utors s'd.ul be .r vi.-]ed f 'r th'e 'es udr :iuias.



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n:>' -.- : mits -:,.: i'i'.-,:_. ,Crees,. V :;:';-; I s.'crat i.ve


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is --our 'i-.n,' crop, so t,--W t an.r--tins th .t :','eferrs t'- t '-.te s..l -' b e


S"l"-n T' \'-st citr_" '. grow'rs- ,'3 -_; 7 r t no:proii v itr -rrop


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r': 7' -:; :! -: -f .. t -t i c " c ",





S ". .. .






...... En J .e r
.c2-A,-:. ".t B- :. .--.I :t'-, "in: :,I "--ttlt;'1 e.




I"- '" 2. ., 'a L


S -. "I t :'' tC. iYi'ing t7 1E 7 f- . tPJ 1 tpen
.U'. ..-i : .m:_ n *'. rn :. ::' i ,:-Li* \ t;. ,.' Lt c ^






,. 7 .- .. f t -- .- "". -- f :s- Dn. :i-i t n l- t- is


."-" _I"-i .e. &:' . -*. e s3. ,i H E .: ,.c E th 'I 'I-. ,,. s D '-n. 1t.. e
.--".4S . ~ *J t ~ ... l~1 .-n- ~, -. -A i . 5r ..'2 ._ ,.'Z 'A t e
1'.. I-r .' in 3f *cr- te1'!~ lee-c'-E OF] U''z: WOl.'- It. x. t:es6 VhS to)


\..:e- : ..3- L) tj ... .... cut 7 ,': 2- .i ",f'.:,:. tc: ,::c: arK L ":-: .- t "tes


that- the- "..4ere .^.tind for Turpe.


It l-, s occurred t 3 nie t -,c-t P*E rc is K ._..j:d,. if -- fir "_n.. t I--velbp.


During .,ro.r first t..ree :,r f:'u'i.. -r..r's, the. fruit on a citr';s tree is


ouersize f-i' the variety, so th.e:r -4 be a p' -ctical loss on the zurO2pean


!nar.. et. These sizes are eag.rly ,ccentedi by the Trasilin c' t -:'i-.


r n,-sili.n 're t>.- 1ect cstrer: !-n). *f f:,r ;io .- rticle tha is


at the s.-:. tiLe :.:..tiful. I cmuil cite you d ien-s -.r even a iun-,ed


iilLustr-.ti ons to pI'rove that it is not the Lr'silian consumer, butt the


Brasilian producer that is at fault for the small internal market. Now


is the time for ,ryou to step in and make a profitt from what others re_-ard


as a wastet" product.






-31-
Florida has developed the trade of bagged oranges to a high degree.


She sells more tons of bag"e.-d citrus fruit than ?rasil's total export.


She ships oran-esf in bsgs for more than a thousand five hundred kilome-


ters. This could not be done in the type of bag used on the Farajuay


Riv-r, the Dranges would rot on the way. The bags used in txx/ Florida

/AtL. ey 4v ^^<^
have oeen manufactured .- L6i. L_,- =V-e. They are light and so woven


that the fr-,jit is clearly visible. One or the 3rasilian consuls in the


United Stat-s c:'uld easily obtain samples of these bags for you; why


n --t let him be of service to you ?


Photo 9 Citrus species being tested for grovrth caoacity. These


same species are being tested at tv:o other pLhaces on the Experiment


Station grounds. The average of each species in t'-ese three tests will


give accurate information.

The point I vwant to make i- that you h ve more to fear from Argentina


for competition in European markets than from Cslifornia, South Africa


and Falestine. One will have to hunt in Brasil to find groves equal to


those we visiLted in M.issiones province. The groves were laid out and


planted by young Americans. I have never seen &as beautiful oranges, neither
A

in ITorth or South America, as those 2ahianinhas which M.Irs. Cross served us

at Tucumari, Argentina.

There is an English saying that is apropos to our citrus situation:
,iForewarned is Xf5AM./W forearmed"
G..A.. ..


I;






.CO T UDO
C 0XT^UDO


I
1- Thtaoduegfo

GeCt 9neralidad6
S 1) Latitude
S 2). Palise
3). Altitude -
4). S61o
a). Maaaa-p6
b). Ar eia
a). Breo
* d). Pedn calcarea
e) FraceSosO
f). Fracasaso
) 0 EleenFracasso Hno
).0 Slemento Humano


p~ia

3
3
4
6
6
5
6
6
6
6
6


III. Volta Besoda 7
A). 0s Elementos do Cima 7
a). Teperaturs 7
b). Preaipitago 7
o). Sistemas deCe Drenagen 7
d). Drenagea da Siupltrficie 7
e). Fumid l&ae 8
), -, ViwatiLnfic a


D). Pvpagag&o 8
a). -Seminteira 8
b),Viveiro
c. Enxsrtia 10
d). raeileios Progreas-
mivos 10

C). 0 POsr 12
a). 0 Plantio 12
b). A.rvorea Tipioas 13
oa). Tutore 14
d). Cultivos 14
e). 0 "Plow olai" 16
f). Adubagfio Verde 16
)A Poda 16
). PIs !soladoa 16
i). Plantios Infurosala-
don 17
j.A 13xs^a L2
NU do Obm Sarata 18


.4*


patinaa,
D). Illuatra6eoa en "A Muda
do Citrus" 19
E). 0 Cafesal 19
F). 0 Paokingbouse 19
0) Abrigo Para Maquinas 20

TV. Morro vs Lado do Rio 20

A). Ladeir; do MoPro 20
B). Ao Longo do Rio 21
C). Po'wres 5emelihante 21
1). Plaoaianoa Panish 21
2). Atwood Pomar 21
3). Preston Pomar 21
4). iMonaroh Pomar 22
5). SAo Sebastieo 22

V. ConaCluS6e 23

VI. Fhotographiss 23
1). Pitangueiras 24
2). Sio Sebastilo 24
3). S9 Sebastiio 28
4), SAo Sebs tLIo 26
5). Pouar Os Pinheiral 26
6). H. B. Stevens 87
7), Caepooa I, de Rio 26
3). Laranjas em saacoa,
Rio Peranuy 29
9) Tuae m"a, Argetina 30
10) .Fsanda Retiro 31.


Treadauegao per C. Rollf e F. wauoisentr"







R E LAT OR 1O

":Btu(Qo Teontao Cie CitricItwua na. Zaazeada Rtire, VOILa odnuada

pop
P. H. .Holfa
PJIT1 1 .





PAP2Wr; I, Tntr.-xuc9I&o.

Tenho riuito prazer sem c ongratuir-rno corn V S. pDlo xaC; lante
*ataa g-ral apresentado pelo iaicio da oitricultura na Fa-tenda Re-

tire. Podia esaorver m-uitaa paiinaa em laudar o .que a se tern reali-

sodo ali. 4&O sd9.1a aMii .rr.tavatl pa:' uiu .o 4UOe LprcE'fetAar-lhe

*sat ri.utaorio ooan critic&; ctca-oiar-activea. Todavia d.e anodo aigum

podU noalcn"r a producgiip orn tsaw JLovuraes

QLsaro lAinar LUU 1a n6 iaU.ca-io Jcsvc Zs** aoj.ytrdo oonflderaosaat,
into 6, Lue a nenhbuma parte d4ve se entrag# a impre m ou outre
forma ae divul2.a;o, sei ulha iiounue ios.ticitl.

lxportr o ,Cc Citrus.

'-wzA cIIQjuid A l 'r2&a, n.o ano 2 l, .~itracet inewta&ncnto ur

est-udo 3c5-.ati'icv a ux-r~t~co &s jijolt stias c pro6sB do Citrus. (Vuja
"Carval.,iL:;arbon, p,,':.n:Am 1.7, lifna 7) '?'Vja taem M '"Aeric'Ln iUem of

Solno" oau 'I "6 i;u jji!ii'iut" )* 1I al havido4, UxU1-&itnt a 14*o de
Seculo pro::iaLuo .inLado, ui .esLrnvcolvimento weravllhoso na industrial citriL-

oola. 0 raior pro&yeaso ta4-C ado realZ8ado ino no-te do T"uiia(3dor e no
HEslapherio ds O ate.
ica rca de 1895, o 7stado da Florida Zaioiou eats deseivolvimento,

plsantando o citrus extenOiv('siffite, pura finu ;ie .psrteaao. Sejuiu-se

o Estado do Louisiana. Pasesdo alis algune anos, na California, tambs
se realizou plantio axteno, aendo que o a sou deseonvolvimrento mait viV-.

roe9 fot depoits do 186. Ea prinalpiom d4o 1900, no Juaaiea, platatouvf


6 f




S


em 6-rande shala Diaserm que q lli 'itin. 4 I aor pomar de a I c.rus

do mundo". Antea de 1205, a I1ha de Cua oonquiataou o titulo da poa-

suidor doe mwnioris pe.a-L.-s Ale citus no un-o*o, Na .'3lia Honda, no
oeste de !Iavani, Q ncOutrav(i-se ula pcraar cra mai do 15,l hlctars
cultivados am oitrus, quO viaitet w n u 2Q 0 i' o equal prepare
Oxtenso relatorio, iE. ColudLa, no est-a da Cubap, sn ueirava-sae um

pOrI c- m 2003 a 25YO tstfoir oult -vadaa. APo zaiiao tezwo, no t.stado de
Te:s (- .:..:q....), houve pnr.ntito em Lranmle c&aoia.

j Palestina export uciatid.ades con.idaravoia ^ citrus para a
Europa. '.po-ts de uns ainco ou maie anos paS'a cis tL id1o tamboe ia
Arbentlna r.e:essas oonsi.di;aveie. i i s;33, visitamos u"xi "paccinihousaJ

us Argentinr, quc e&tLrivsi ea dioiov-ndo yrap1i.'rLuit pqrim Yngratertra
0 citrus produzldo ao longo do .,lo- Pi v rcJia- e .z-rah6 vAo pr'inoilpal-

monete pmra o melraado de :%-.eno 'ires. Va ;.'rrvincia de .aiesiorne visita-
moo ponsres de citrus *3X:CLA'rntca.
(7 4i s, au a sunhr i'i1a,i &urnmt& no,% m.z&e. e iimelow visLteam
deuasete dos Eitadbs do lratil3 al,5 ma Argantinas, srsguay e Uriuguay.
Depois de doze emos de setrvi-o polo ::t,. *'insa J ;tna.s ,eC'rces1 dsejavamoi
ofhecer os outros estabelt imontos le an.sino suppt..ior lc agriculL'-ra
bern aes ii, com Co p ovo 3proveitaw, o 1aa2o 1 rTini..*treo pelos nefsmoa)

0 l'-eEinnto TH^.1aa4
CoUo1 j6 diesel, durante oS uitimios cinco ltta anoc proxiiaos firidos
toni havido desenvolvimento prodigioso ns citricult."ra. 0 procGssao

tma sic$ *a;lor qua a v-alizaado durcnte os oineo aoeulos antoriors.,
Hoje i dlieneocesario ao homaen in et ido repetir os emros doe eSus matm-

pasea~dos. aOwra-aB uais dusias da Jlvryo exsiblente saobre a aitti-
cultur, ea liguam diveras, tas oamo a Erasileira, Inglema, Franoen,
Alleuiao, lollandesas Japoneaa. Alia destee, enoontram-as em di rose
revistas concoLtuadaes, parts bea e=te s"e dedioadas g em aaa&Uto.




-3-

Ma fimi todo s reaume ne htab ilidaclde do homen que iri^e o ompr-
hendimonto. Pxrineirwiaizte, deve der ele b.na iadminizu-trador (%,xcutiva),
de outra forma, *piZear& auxiltl'B a Ltmbabldaores8 pouao hlabeis. Dove
*nitender GII q'ue 0 oau calvo I o de proxiuzir uni a uniade oomaerial (uaS
ottixa pad'rfo) dir. JCnj.ia, er Laetio rain-o, puolo pro4o ra^rimo a quo
trra-Jlha-io adlua luezuo N; X, vaoSS UIf-tIrr aqudi na philosophia a& citri-
cultural, pcts oonstit.i t1siXtO irayto tna1Mo, i2. t'.') nectasiirio a
eawa.s pwainaa couio outros dc nuatur6n anis pratia.'', 0 -ato *ui me t r
cbamado, serve pero oonvenceur-aW d cut V. c.. e;tenaa is.O, i; Au4j0 eri-
tica fratwa. CaSo ttvs sjido apenas umra vi:itt social, Z:-u 8 0atS
ficariac km j'irijae.;o d6 tecr&vir uma amrta nontre tulhto-a -; cr'dadeira,
mass son crlrioas constnaliltivas. Lai chah r-Tne, V.%;. cdtr.enntrou ura aorta
co fle.U&^a &no meus e.naelhoas. As rzhmbs expiE.rifnciait e ab.ervr950
&u-snts qusci m^o seulo acotst lb-ir 1 saior_ a v. .. oo audia tsr- el-too b lt. z aad"a-
aeiiua'ate ' "A ao tLa tod a3a4UM". p'Qt ica Sa n ; 1"'-.'f,&;na .C.ner
aia iar:--injas. Os u.jl 'Llviwwu tr-l spe-'tencia eoffrer' p"ials iLetAs
antlqusdos e mnethodos erronocs uutz ji ndquirIrra,



A) ) ntni'u>d *e rL..us piriuzom bent eta lstiLude -e --.aiS ou
iinuZ0 35 &raos aeo 7aor7tt Cr;c. ueLor .uai pouco wais perto do 0Clquador
do quo a aidad" e F San F-prncisco, COiJiornia), at6 males cu uenoa 35
grios ao ul (28is so eul. yie a "&dIe C*. 3lueOS ALres), desde qIA

sejau favoraveia as outrage ci,'cwataiicaa. No 18-asii snauantra-ae
Masl toera aproprisda s vuitura de oltrue qu. a aree emprelada atualmente

em toe rmsdo&. 7t tc s ca L.o kLow do Braai&. p'ovdueae iareanas*
). Paizee. Au epscies de a -lrus rnia canheoo 2aaitea cdo rag ,
lingwa e pals. Dwo-s e sprar compstglo do todos o* poises cj o
ella adaptaa-es a ua wlua. Da Argatln,% o fU".a pods prevs uM






onourrnoeis saria, pols aquelle pase j6 4osmonsztrou plenammnte a sao

abilidade na poaicultura, pondo ro aira&C-460 co :'o fs iJsrzitsro, uvaa,
pecegos e ameixas de alta iuallade, SI 1I933s viaitaoos diversos
pomars de citrus ns Provinogla do Hissaioaest .uo Loram tao bna plantsa-
dos e ciltivsiloa aomo os melhorea eonontraz.oo no B--asil. 5enbo nova

a induetri nls ?rovincit&, lauarMa nao -';! Caelnoz'cs qp&s ,og
ueais recantes mathoidos do c;ltux'a ra de McOiaLcLoneuaerY>>
=a .r7rjua Thias lti>. ptIrVa& ta qu3 Cr.cGia ta nho vI stT nno forum
o 'fac.teii.,a. xa ce-^a ij~o rD1. O^us, DL'wGcta' cla ^:-ta itn fl.:p &rnen~atsle
A jricala e, '-"'ucuian, Xrgtntiut. Uwx.o de QUE.i-$&de ',a "alifornia, do
gx-upo das Eisfrnihaa. Tho pbj''fsi. a e ts o liTis que tive penn de

tocal-as. ) JDr. rasb rvs de L-notle. p- r-: nrvs
.Ge rnclhoro CPf.xtgjMaErz u'c.. 40n5r'.rovado fcraui tmpo.0-t s do Japaot
am 1909, ; U'b tS-LiL' lk '" iata.t Pr 1 flea.

3). 1itt.de. Tzi i-2j, nportai pa-Lra o ?izp-6l, tmete vnriedadee
de ai'wus da Flori'da, aeidno d-sA p$s l-: cada urLa. ?ore&ii o& pj8 ex&ota-

msaae 4o .aiaalo *awn;-o;.mvo% gLxarrio t .- op.vr-lQSavs mlaiaszrincl.&S
* posaivisi; JG, xbauflna tlradieii 3qrau esevuas "arvores-'aieas" ma mrillvere*M

tiploas", A metads pletou-ae = Vigoia, meta4o *a 'IOoQioro, Uz Eategto
LxpirimzntaI eu~id. entgo se'i direotQor, a "r. Ysliabi-rto S&ets. Be

stecniao &studou a porniculLura ,uraate wsi uiol na 78aeolc du'o o -
Agricultura da iiorid6, zei'wc &U a dirco3tor aesta 0o0aasigo0 0 CmaLrgo
tinha nos visitado u:- Viposa. .efiro-mwe a eases detaihes para quo
V. S. possc vw que es minhai Qovclusoes tira3as isa'La uxperiauola

thi base 4 aientifica justifioavel.
Demsonotrou a referlda experiencia que as Satsumas produzidas ass
altitudes maima elvmdasl tase cao Vigosat tmE& aelhoa aroma, .alhr 0

s6r a sio Eais does qua e6 produaid" ea ri'iao wais baiza- ecmo no
Deodoro, Voerifiaogsa so contsreio oo a o grapeuit s 3a ppri.s da*f
m~an





seiscentos metros de ditferanoa na altitude dos daols loVares. C6nstitue
essa a unica exptriemois taonioa certa .e jLU6 t&nho titdo noticia& Gcon-
diazida no -draail parea conatrar o oTffeito d* .it*,. tude.

;). Ait :Z-ito se gla so esoaeve a espi.ito Ios a6los para

c -Ltrus, garaiiaente visaado os fins de kropa(anda (CupaaliwnL na
Azner'ca d jrstO: .':s -.iiaicos passwa-. la, ataliEi'an.n anatlees *
os jjiyziczis ....fla"s *3 tae&IIo ternp;- 3ILzat~iricarxlo 04 0010oa tX aaoor3do
a 0:04 &aia. z Pwxpwl.edaCeiie 'ThySicaS. 2 reaUzLti!tO d 4ieso -u.k LsIzi Sido
&eefla;'4i.Ij hporZ,'1a.,e, .uaa coIa fias pt.'--via.aLoh, ro St. p;d, aeXligar

Qld2&a ''ct 'Vis ; "rSi. ,Luupl-J paa q.. o 6i.r-iui'L i*a geral m
agov:2.te;L S1^ ttstnxvk, n;t .dt colIattituft MWan ttsrra ide-11l. ou uV.a terra
o1 '^-ra a c U'iuu.ixuxl Von eznborsrax- &t6 poli-o:




t u;-ra muiulo vi-,'iavalit ',)a ni6ram aLe.uviai.
< .0 U iu n L .i Fnos p wEscr. o E 4..;JU ) Q..;,t&vjo; a ... Lto nt malda
08a C-xsnes tanto- -i.-uimiuos cumso Liuioos o30 rb'taoa Aiz21c0 do
Ucxte, miandamo& analizar ei terra dueni duriu.yt di Li.,- texistiaem porto
d^ Z'-rt.1, Pla:aa. Oe!;.onativOU--eo ca-3.listir o tec-rnni J.B 4"; 4. antei
C ,n'ia..t.s iuaJxtvtlV', 5 voto-.' pam .1 ^ iucsio c. ciruis. Ia s uci-h epc inic,-'e sete
tor.-'no, o plztio ,ee eii'usi.I &'eThor alv.-t&do qac hi pouco iagrP

no eatsdOp vindo ia nvvTn, a W ijgi&o dci canudo X& Froa.Acsdo de milho.
i7oroLi-se baet-atk ab'1as-.'to *Q9 a S:v'I O a'CfAit nr" Sam
*e n*i., A '!k iozia h.-LutlouAui' a. :iJby" h u o .. Mc Carty*
*lger2do-o Preaai:aoL. Foi tUbSaem. laabrado c c. rOu 1o0es Sc2lo a& 12

C'1aDxoid ura varieoads Ca ga& prui plguttia no o wanm"rstea, hojo amf dia,
na Florida, CQOZLQ t*flenbEUem <; ^ana~ a us Argcnt~ina.




~4-

*). Perto de Davia, Floridata umn duisiitea kilomotros aSo MuI 4e
Eldci.-, encoritraL-s,. mliahares de hecteres de terra, pr-.dusindo citrm

oam muito lucro, oa .unis fors; pl32.taioSe am breJoa drenaldo, prtee

dom "'verladsas. Ersees terrenris enor ntrarmm iafis ou ieinos 0 S do

luatLlrie o.atan le ic>~ emniizZcioc.

d'. No MAunicipio cia I'4^, F.or.;a, c'IatlIz2-SL :.'~rX t: utos
milhrres cde hecttrys pIct.lod c *Slt.,& '-c r'.:,zm >ucr,1 8 0

t ezreno 6 ca2.caroo d.e orL '.ro coA'^3.inei. *^u& *-.itkZi.Q, r?N'ii~Iala-9&4

apI-ettatA 9L % 2* t.AltC&n' Cit 0;tCiCi Itrr $ '.6c DrSx, nea6S

/terrtno, expregar o .ir~a:~ite ;'T. &'rir ^un ,ay:.s ae oolloceaon
asa aisJa.s

e)D 31 om*.a rai Pirwia, p7ie#i: 1tv;r 'T'. v...;Itar vlnteonb
d.eoiareB, CU.J6B cu 1 t4tiif'aO65 ilrai Ju.ghiSiaa pbrteCiit&a;S palos pirltne
no a2sun'o, (.3It)nfa) Qoo;stit'ltAilo quimica. s ZieC& *A s6Lo. Al-aa aoS

idoa,. d3os a6oa nrko .I, sL.-io ,coasia'l pu.jar' os jU'os ois hipoteGSo

Sill U au.":1.- )(t'avt4Sr- otJ p-ur:-tz-'cs Fo-a;';i .ci"..sM;os. (A OC'iiair. ,ao tifttYS
oeFtla ;:uin 0 16-- 404 er:d?.)

V) :7.M 1900, umS seU *iaigo, %u' Tcobinasoni 7.-sJsnty doit T-i.rd,
Fldri'Sa, iaiciou a cnf.et--s de "vrie i'"es Ati'-c p ti ."y, ; IVrt o
aoG 'fanlOs28 pelts hlpotec;-s. .lle *1:lu '.,. .i>l aoQ& Ct-.3 i*''taasgo.

q'ti torou-se abastado e qnan'. .JQ reu, unt. ;oIo arns dlepoias, deixou
famAilia ura fortuna b r rej-i&'-.

,t^0rod aaigo meu, :'.D.vd;!e, 3 T'alietto, taom uocpou poomare
"cantoas" ou ebanridonodose cor. *o flti de .) rse.2liter. PAIi o Sir.

-Wait calcular dc anteamo, juLifnto 'odtn ba-,rr nu!:r Laei :Q'jiladddG,

Sdep))i3 de n'nerttido nella neu c'pit2i, llur'nte oinc-' r.n.3.


aji. :ats =a6 ve* rapiLo: M2 fn, 6 a hAiiLidaGd& do quoa dirife o

wlmfimdtmnto oltpirnlsa qiuotu& vale.,
/
i' !




'p7-


PARTE III, Volti Reordoa
A). T3IE CIZY3..TIC l tTS. a). Teaktura. I': Baendu Rftirog
neo preoiB&saB nos preocoupa, oom c a o Leuipaurutui'a. "as regilea da Calil-
for i.e cndta se produa&i o clitrio, a tsmperatura varia entre 120 pr6as
Far Mehkit it 24 -6o2. (Cris ou aienrio 4.8 gr&os CentisraCo at4 -4
gripe ccr-tricredzm)

,,),'I .', Oc ci'. "po.. -c a O c'L"lVvo udVam so

r'eat~riu^:io catrict""iutc 0*1 4t.t.Qpo sticvO 2 a;.; .rin:os scCccovS durante
a 42,L.?-. '-JuVO-&. : A"SLo a ;- ViL n.) t 4recpi-Aptno 6 zauito vrILavelj
ZCaQw aiusa uo diu.z d u4wuiro, vc-iflaata aim iaredia de aito an*&* Este
ano (i3S3), *.'u'antc raofi;-3 met, nao rSiiqic.rou-se siuer urn Milli-
rletro de ,!huva.

c). 2Iste^2. Jro6 iaui "n' DJvr B er t,>.. bei&c3io quar&u ant-e, SIa I
c I THt2 e L '- BJh l.. -. je 6e %a, a juae a~prr ant-soa
todns a 2> :)ra sch'rcwr amu'-X'Wun.,ato
piuviL-e3a 0: rcucz-jiwtz.6; crazois ccca c ic.if.ladoa do
tcil. C-rf i2's .'1 s :3S *. ;4.2 CLO rulveria-'..o. ,in tii .wt;%cs, c1a. ,ro.as
o02 c.tatflnhbo s car :.-a'.' :;.:;i.-e,' .tj-,Grr.vu;Q^e.-O4 C,.DL :/?.' .,-. a.xe" (t'-ja

foto^r^Mhl 1 ?: 2.)

d). 3goa^&gjg ,^m1 4A %upu4Aqjq. Jo-va Sw providsriQiada ent"
t:odvB aew tiliefraa, d,6 4aoco ju a ajua ie desaarregue rapid agents no

eipteuua lie JLreaan1 i'og'iaulente dito. f0odoe o oultivoa devem seV
realiza'.oa de Modo quz a t rira aGja jojada na dirtoajo dos piS
deixanu,'lo no c.tnLio wua suluo alerto, entire duasa filsiras.
Quasi oea porctno0 do eeu pomar at asia em aelhores Qiwdig6e eom
o esta.btilcimsin'LO, 2 sisteis siAmples de dreragem rapi, da sauperfiole
do terra. Todas &s arvora d;e oitruas -i'ntie. ou puqcflnas, soffrtm

damasiadnnents oa terr-a enabhareada. Demonstrn-se olaramente polo
viveiro a saeBteira do V. 3., S a effeitoea.d afiXLda partial, devido

ftlte do reftrida drenoga suprfleialo. !S part*& do P w tinBea ji





^odf-&nAurt& &sv& aaurjc~iolfa, 'pl0 ex'tltoo unoepa

e4), jUpjl3ado. NTAo sr Ldvu cv.i,,ndir a amii..ate ctm a p:recipita&gio

5,un V1';oan, a umidede relattivat na m@fdl de Ito &-b1s, Jurante o amo
intairo, t .l mats ou meauoa oitent-a. Yjm-rante a eoca chuvosea, sleva-se
lig1iirCn.sr:;t e f PAu-PntQ accocn, ti-Ub.-r' tatEic 1iiLitrxnr-tS. A umidtad

alo.':dhi fe-iverunee tivzracs c ?rJSC*;&Q .x '12trracnzflc. n^.:ithbsta "Stem-
ed,-x'ot;'} t ":.ta. 7..i", ? a.iz l'.-.-,'i .c u;r..i. .X.. t.. ao to:.na-.se indespen-

sevafl r..Iz nior pSo; ve !?trS parrvo3-sa, pIara a prcducgao do
fruta eX.o-'I:.'Vi. a.---,r-sl-ae,- :m 'I-i1'rnia, na wrin citrieolsO
e.it 2s r .wo-. rQS oncA & unidti. rs-'z.tl-vn ,. cUiit leVc.,-& et.quanto

qiUe 7 prraclpi-Uxitoo U-cuziAa. H!in8 s* ga* 8 (.10 DoeaSO 6*tst&
onxde se oniprern a 8I-.rr epno n-t citriu.'L.tLwa a uuaiCOe z'&Lztiva eoti
red~azid: s-.rnd., ,*ja .essas ra-tcug 4o 53-o.-ld 's c-a lar-jnjaa Maio
red.z.. EY-Jd ,a- .- 0-2 r t--a
bonnts cia -T'Lr -ac Nazr,.... o T"ui, -.eia'.. condigQe@
G-;.e3hrn,;'t~e, in'iAss1o **.ae c-fltu.irs, on usi U aieia~ rciuzidas

,- U.Li.jj.' .,L U ."3ao .L.i ...uo ;.:oh,.-" VK ."..Sp ena
*stagnasb o ael uoz Qevn.da waidaJe dbntw\j c.r'. ccjv-s ;;tz v'iryr

avoxacniuro wobi'esan-..irs 2--.^vse A^os, rc^-.su~itgA n radualda
porcantr-t:E ah iirutias uC.:tt;,L3Vuis r^ uxp,:JrtC.f. if. sr -ji..t1'.t;ac perfolta

pro'.tzlc-ia A'jl-uto coCn m0.Lct, gcm. ,; igwA.s tcdrs u? outras oontit5-n
0 ba0a b vt-attlado -. *,a,,isi, ..p.oc, p,.c;c+.;;;L.e ta 'rutos apropria.-
doos para cxpo;a-r.

?fl)Pf.,4AgO, a)) ente4. oi.oi ,;-,:l colioc-.2a a 6ua
SIrentLeirl, tend:o o ,eiIto Uasico de eer am terreno dIsigual e aida

rsais8 .' te so ff*id pryparo inadequado. As ww.uihas num lado derek-
atraram raquitlieao devio & affxia partial. Conatitua um iadio multe

oar do produzir audinhas para aerem- lvadaa para o vive iro. (Veja
"A iuda do Citrus", pagiuaa 13 1. Nota-sis qua as palavresg "i'a SeolA





Superior de Agriultura a Vttcrinarla"ft, a agIna 165, so err adas

for--ai introcduzidas na imprc-nsow. Aliune2 r'*dh t3ou prefermm Ler pwf"6lo

pa'flrotaa nl eeren exactos.)

b) Vltkan. 0 eeu p-Aparo toaabna ;'oi iniiw~yio. -% L-hUVe
facalc..nade aijia para drenagaem. &t.f>C & CrcL~cm !.F. zu&riicio nrso

foi provitenci.da. P,-Uve -Lecoltha r tC" ""L.. ta .ec .:i3, I

aInLfwtftr- (E S-".2'. r' tv c o. '. -u"' .i. cor,-s..i. 0.-o n' reitos
,ut .,r'nw.,.e extue f iVo UItLn: S li-cre
>i ni eant.c y-'c-- w \ivdr3, : l'b Lmi z '.a-i c efl V r kJ

oOrn trizn-.tLr te5 Ciecoeitc OaIVLitfJL iuifl:Cs^ frLt.. .o;. ^ roncdo tal-

litosndc o 0 t21 ;uflc- a& Qa i<.sCiv6. .LZ a u2c6 a s f',)e n'Xi da sam

dez zaL-os. (V\ ja L, t-.:. r' 0 , 1 ;2

fora'u aradoc de tsl so)3ao cue .-ocni: .4is sr;o t :orrre w'ri 5. doe

Jsitos; i o ereaiu bastante lalin-An .:.rc-a. =-.'- da
SupErficis.

A c 'loc n 1so de nossz :r,'o rmdo vtvuco d .d cPeno de floab I& do

tijola pDa onse, tinlhs 3-rndo f nbrio:doas ;ir2e 'M ". i-iiloA -I tijoloas

pea a oost.:?ucg1o d1o Zradia priocaia. r4.LSr(. F: b 'ri .AT -,izua,
Figs. 7, 10, 11, 20, 22, 24 & 25.-) ans -ao -as.-saoa pouca entendida
do asuaLo, o viv(iro Lczbis 3iao Min f:.'crissa la)-n:rknvel
0o aflz 4b12lnte c rLoszo viveinr f,1 ziaic, eo mdc este,

ondut a tcL rr fict Liaic ThcAiey^, ccnc-tituida Ate Lerriq trazida doe

maoo-vos ?PCl >i'os&o. Un* brU-ro iilan- 'kx Jai LtZr. (Totn-ze os inrrceb
no *itiiztlro LUnio, a ra 'otcgrrpha 19 ptngii:n 5 de "A
IL &a e L. V U Fai sufiiuitriene noate o jlnsa a terra, onde nrla

as tor-nou w-es3raio a fozr-ri5Ao do. sulcos de drienaru. Darenite a
epocr? chlvorSt, ILp suino funQs antre as fileiras failitou tanto a dGrn-

gem supke4Cal coma toabsrn a raii nSiad.prounda. PFig. 1 reprementa
o Dr. Bruno (atna. da prircira filsirza de eavallosa) ainietrando na
laboratorio m oa carte dob maxtar altrue




-10-
c), Ruze.-tia. Qun.ntaio ficarema m udce em, boa ocaakao para a

adizirtia, coQvaI oOs&ar s!n3 deZ ou quinae Qmoqos, v:.riando ia idade dto

ziz ~u vinte anos. Os a..is velhos raramacnte aprendem acrtadamwt*.

cies jloveus quc essA iLAQuQ, rAprefl ctda ;n zt'43iClidadc niao, nao auguentm
,:, svi.o. Dcntro dct vinte diaB, poderd fager a oontuaem dat borbulihas

& cid tj.Jg~~lc- aw ~4.rJa, c4gdo, nuaiz a U .Ziu &lise.
(l .1!^. l;C', ^i& '.'. ...x. wia Ul*.au" na!tru Un rupaz qoir b A tiaeiObde pOuaO




16.* iiulhox'es Liuiuiinta K..Ui p'Xraeflec terama ne eaiatncair&..i de \i V..5. ierecenf
4a I %. -6






l.Eui, -', .. -K Uc-Cricil L :.-peni.ioeo transpl.n.tcl-as ao pomars podendol

tie'i eSL=uLC0iao C LPeafspianitio. Ae suS- rFnC2ee ,iacstruu uo poidpee beri

a air'.-i ,-; t c ..".. -ea sss, to,-a ...aV OQ o. exito do

Lr,',L-.i-..Lo* ^:1111Z.K(l&*s zr v c r af ^o aa n r Zer~a F20 ^L U L! l
a... i':..- .c ...E. - a, ;.d -:-. r1.LC::'. i-3.Zn-. t.o 'e; oLC : ,ULaZ O 'oL ... pode o
C~~f !'V. ccL' C;f~ aACZ o1C~ at rLCCo ip2er
ofa cr j~r -.-L':.^-tC~i *^ *-'lir..-*_., z.zr--c^-cL'ccan Et;'v..Xc ,o ..- lA2.YLLCBaZorOS


irdesp'.kham.sr.cij rcj,;ai-=s.

). 2vilj1pos rote_6tvg _. r&1.iieir.te, encc.nLi.,:t-:-. Ji no

Brazil -Lrcun; rio.qos rjue ??b'O bcEi 'P ?rt .-e pr'oZui-iir exocientee cavalo.
d4a Z.Ltrusa. T'ivaroz occaeiM.o dI cfnbcer urm .:.efteg ;uaiao no ?io Wandp

dz i". ei 1933, om vai!ta a uma eAe ;,L.o -dp rim- -a ntal do .Es :tcdo. NO

viviro zvo os osv- -los uterle.;, recebido um, ju lar:4cnto f,4ui perfhito

nuL Ci L clso dha onitraidlo i;rand"r.e r1 h rr.Lu ta usuix's o vu1%hco viveirs.
N'o T"Ltnado "de a ie, PricottrE:.os o Z)r. De nw- iL.ue LTSon rri r zFac coathee

,l. ns -,,, ,'s :n.. l. ,Es, p,.rt .'., b T-asut D-ionn.Lou o Sira Leomrdst

o tispliiito iuatligste da nova gtr'amo na a4:icuiu'%ura%. 0 eu hefste d

saarvigo wAodu que tllgg as muudihias da sement ras fosmem aproveitados.

0 Snr. Leonardi aiulmi fea tommaao. todavla, o cuidado pouco ,emmx, (t




-11-

Bepara' r-i^-0rosi-aiwsj.te e&. rucias as t': 'Eih' ^i-..ic, .ac1io fe ;;atJ'nno3

pLt c- s eni ;-u-'da6* im aAnr~c', a seu chfto, podia

saber-ao coS "Laibh.reo" dc c:Avu.LoB ecxister,.tt[ no vivti;i-o, C ipoiI
fl12$LV6A:",' aj)b Vi$-LC&It.'i4& Da~ta.iu .3 ac^^ .laB wi-ad'a y2l~.'aBi.'. l jriZ* Zawuna

a:ldi poUdia cr-n :.'tar c o-,v- tr."J 0 ..*v".!o.'. n.::n;,l'S :..:'.-,;.F' por
tri2~p f GLn ~atAiu i h fl6. cm ir ..j .I.....A -* S ,r.Li L'TLCe flM
oul,.2 c -- s+c, .--"JJ. ..1 ^22 C-.2 ,r rn'".;i.n. ., - . - '- "[ L., .
imp n -aIE

C-:..!. t: S I .aS C.'E. Z& - -.C.ks C-2 .-.u-S4 'it. V t "l Q tio

bow % np0 f ,u t : ls^' Ar o utC ro '-as l t, LJ36 "-l: 2... .....h.. Q* "1 ..L :'... -JS

de sxc Ll itu ......ML4 'i d^"^ r, "e ..'.',.r *: '.l ...cV J'"* -- ..,
B+4git' i viL.,j.u 3ti:-.J o :';i lee.A zonr .

L".u.iC'j .'rizair i~c. &i2 we r'-r.H -'p-rmt :z**'.:j *t'0cs EL '>' 74;iAo 1.8

pro~uc/ +o .-U: Li-, nuci2 C.( citrus. Utnto 2.uv,.- c+.::t'c:.iLW.. d' T-:'.nail

co.o Lzutl'.V. -- -e ...U ta. io u;,dL .: i :GaloreS



Pznara -.- ~ ~ atLA ecr-nY n -m79i- :x -t~
boa &Ifl pAZ.& ?ara m tO

rA%;,i% o .*..: 31a : fl3Z ai3 c.p "lQ..Ai OX! CtC )ovr., o .r'*t r 'o. 12-i ':

boa j4'i'fo1 tao preYo c&-;i'O, para urn nrtt;;s/.' t S" a t :2*,,rt: 'J L.'a.

Em IL27 tCivt.ou. L.Z s c;i ,.r. taz r,.i 2. ,. p1>-. ::"n .- .:.2 n.,''m

O0fa-* o: .... f- Ve&tcuf poT-. M, c w a; mu:., c'.-] lr:Ltc -i _. ct'rI.-" ta laulaa

p&aL ccL-. t"guc~. a. deipcroso forp.T. 1 Z -C 0 3.o-eL.AJaryto

do dijhe,,iI'o. .t.....i .- , ifI.uc nL. m <"? j-or ifr s bCetC -* n'.t-". de

flut2ift iis aZ&lSsit&&d cOsTnoeO(, LL*dL2 .-LWL) 1V C. exeusFyob .%s:** .caCwLjo

ttu pot .;iuiL3a u .3 .ru .-i b.v. t:L s.: f,:,-m of "-,Of eoi' 3 S v-.2- e:- ;:-

Oouprador. Qofl outroc pnoorlutos igric:'i3 r :-coin to.,: til-2 cea-lhantq

*xperienoia. (VWa "A i3uui Ctrus", p8iinas C I 3.,




w WT"


E-
C . C ) ti. & l -, e f l *
C -'-' e'pla.- tar citrus em orrernos tuis aS.m*






ii
on *c V. >, t've-ze -Ci3 Zis-Cz-a dciC,5o .R Cf&.
fltt 2r c r.i U-
,(isV o *.'.' t..Ljl _so iaaa r .,ogr, i.:.,' ,. ... 2 cL'zreccera ijeaeie

tit-,,'t'2 ,i,.s ,'. L .1., tL. ,tu.- e.,.. J ji. o ,,. Q.-'3 prt cipit,.ag Ia. LL ou wn'u0 s igua

do 0 9'0"o itqikVo ssat!ie Lha-se t..nbun. muito a.. 1C. e Vi. S. S.Ma

radii)a '-o ^:fa.)7r tm sJi~rAnens~r Cora umn tlaowiolito ru transito

(sacwyaj/r'c* iL-.vtiyl?'Tuw u~ipi'.'bonc.uel~ae'o v''- cor Kenso esn-o a to,








! Ei cc ,j j-.. ij ."*, '.. ../. -ii . L-..'. ... . .. ..e "
cia cutntr alasse, c2 .ccir&t ^2OL o etcters dc cC,: 'ii'icR;&c' ;.: 4:lorida.



60 ate cO c i. s. cAac.'s'.'* c ;i *c.-is ,CI







S;- a 1,
d :i i. :i ti aZ 12 -..-- .6 .. .*i. Ca.. 6s :.3


Paloas ina e oul.rEts :eZi.ep. c.t_.'..1 'A. S, 5.,jucr.-". ?'-.Jt -- -, :--. e..'+-"te
d a a i : a,& s i a sa o o .' ^ ,,i.. o +. : ,'- :. 'l f .: r ; .c1, ". i e '': ' *.= ., .- +n t a

uM po;.:%.- CC. 5; 71 -., r: ( :r.. .,L.r;. *txiLc C i.pj :;sc'pc .: :;::.LiA..--f' .R.. (0

In la,- a..L: prri. [Corr rtt,!.;c:. :.w. : : -:_ ',> 2
orA, r C2 L', J
.ua-Js,, d^s u-udr..i ?l: *,,>'e....,' Lu:, "*. .. CL"-,-.Qeii nc i .-L' n Lcria


s ...v. .' ajpw.'ov .a,- 41,aL ..i$ apt 4U tr, .cn., c.. ..


nuaa calocB30o du' i- ?l 1:Ite.-L&. cs L'M"aC er Uic. rub itex-ciai de
dois
an:;:-: critre 'S t? t2-IEr -'z t -;--L.-D Ic ;4 rn piu cE&t'rl6 nuS

hbectare, m.a nudaas. De..t-'o dui. arno, c,:', taia c3nciU3--s maitLo favoravta

*o dsenvolvimento maxino, mai ou menos d pwoe to attingirim urn




1* --.


poru bastsnate nbusto para ogaar be as eoondileos do Oampe.
At6 o fin do sguSdo anop mata ua 60 teAria port robust. 0 restaata

no fia do teroilso ano, deam trariam tanta fraquaa quo VyS. farta
grand oconoaia an quemial-as. (Mudae requitleas nao constitute aqulsi-
gao eooaoaioa.)

g Zr&l, o asa indias o quo prat quel na 3saola, quando roebfea

audas, para a formagio do poawr permanent. Para aoalmar as autoridades,

qua nae polUa eatodar as r sit a&el ltadae, Justifiquot a mod*o do

agi plantaade eatenas de nadu so "t et orehar t", di mdo quo pr-
oisavamos plantal-as amsts, pars podar eoabater ofloeaents qualquep
praa ou mlestla iu per asesas ftes ntrofeduida son as midas novaa.

0 fta principalmaoDnte visado foi a sliiansg&o de mudas raquiticaas om
valor, bor asaia caoW o fortaleoimaento das melhoes, Os resultadas

Juestifioaram plonamaete o trabalbs quo tivems.o
hua mdas m horea parts do poar doe V.S., fia un oaloulo cuidadoso3

verifiaando &won sais ou seaon 8 % doa aeus p6s de citrus exaoelentee,
masA ou aaxou does por aento ame valor sigu, a os outraes entro eases
At.
doia. As do m4i podia& ter sido fortalecidas nun posar do prova,

aoform aeia eaplioa eam rand see nonois pra V. S.
Oa p4a que tow plantado, na aloreia, areecerlo e fario u bnom
power, seB duvida. 0 grande problema que V.S, tea a rnsolver0 soluciona-

soe ollecando a fruta ao lado do vapor, gSanhando ainda dinheiro. Os
frutos eportadoe per VS. terfo de cospetir cor em produiidos pot
outros Brasiltlroe, bean asis ow as de outraa proaedenacias kM

moner grio, terdo do eopatir coop frutos norte americanos.

b) ArvprKa T-DinM o.AyMArvrs-4 s. Tat a qualidade de PAra

Com a a 3 Daimni b 6o sauito verlaveis quante a produegAo e a qualidade
da fruta. Alguas 4" p6a no pmar de V*S. vao momer, devendo oar

*ubsuisLdos per pVs do qualti*e superior* Outros p6s produsir*


*.


?. -*




Pr 2 v -- t n- .
-14- -

colhottas rodusidaa ou do frutas aom valor eCmaroial. liso so dart
esqUanto quo V.. dpal or da QaOGr dao wdas 4" proood ola comet-
Sli*s 0 unto remedole 6 produsir as judas asne propria fazenda. m oaso

do uaa poroentages mais ou memoos grand, digaoss de vinteoinoo por-

oentoe doe p6i prover= ni6a day luoroai doven m6fther o corte dam suas
Gopae, para depots otartar oas rebentos quo surgs ooam borbulhas do
arvors do qualidades superiors provadas.
Wa qualquer eventualidadog noessiGta V.Se ostabeleaor quanto antate
us pequeno pomar do "Arvores tiptoas" ou Arvores siem", de oinooenta

mu6 oam pies da qualidades supororst o das quata no future pode-se
obter todas as borbulhas do quo tie r nuosesidade. getem p" Bergo

tratado0 is easoeXnosomsete en formsa dwn pequeno pomar, quo reoebe e
Soehor Ooloeamge, selhores trat4w outlturan poastveloa (A produeglo
do laranjas vutapdo luoroa, oonstitue uan espeaialidado boe diffi tl.)

o)j TuUr Dovem oar postoo o lado do todae as mudas mais
fraocss Alguns dos pis no pomar de V.S. sao bastante dalifitadoe pot
felts dos tutoro. Aproaisadosnte 807tos p6s quo inspeonioneL seriau
suffleienteenmte selhorado eoa om tutor-o A Justifiteasdo a despesa
No pomar das Baianinhas mais ou mno 285 % demonetraras a necessidade

pelom tutored* Todos asses pia nooessit4m do pods a formagle. Am

podas devem ser realisadas apenam quando os pis apremantarn todaa as

folbas aim u means eadureoidac.
/

d). ,ult-Ina. Em area tie axtonsa aon c621o tAo variaveig OOme
na Fazaeda Retirop oultivoas aprosetam problema beB oompltcado. it

polo ionos date logaers, oude indiquaL a VT 5.. o pomer tints sotfrido

dannon oonsid ravels poloe oultiv quanto demsaosaemente Solhada a

terra. Urnsa regra als ou moanos segura 6 de uea prattir passer o
arado ou a cultivador do dioeses 'a nal en quo a s6lo dosmanche depois

do passado a maquinas. Sempro que barro apraesenta ampeoto bribannto
.





reluweunt depnoa do aStO po4ses sber quo o terraso set per teats
molha e. A terra mms Ost6 m oma deae para oe oultivos. Est f*e-
quantwinte molbeda datLe.

*)* O"Plow Sole", HNa Florida ta havido grandos prOjuLtsos
lavoura pola anglo quardo o terreno s aohas dem tadamente molbado.
A rasto para im 6 sLqplnt auae o arado eu oitvaLt lW psaat 0s
terra a proe2o para balme 6 igual ou aaior do quo a peno da smaqula
ajuntado so paeso dae terra viradas Esta presilp serve par cosmpriar o
asubsolos ternando-o auto menoa permavel so ar i aegua. Quando oahi
a oahuva nusa area quo foi asseia tratada, a agua penctra diftoilmento
no subsolo. A asda ds Wsuperior ao suboole, torns-se eno a sqafts 0 i
raisls faltam o oxlgenio, produsando fstixla pareial.

f). Adubag s VerdsA. (Veja fotographia 4.) EMn todos os paises
Sumidos onads a prooipitagleo al prinoeipalaente no verlo us plautio
pars adubaglo verode e pars a protegfiao do solo, torna-eS do maxio
i ayOetaiU as oUt rioutura. Eats platIo oaive psa prot r o a6o10
do supnreaq miaento polo oel; forneoe materia organic 6 terrain apro-
veite, uns partle proeipitaglo eaxossalvs; ovita a lavaga'da mastoria
quo alimenta as plantas9 protojndo emntra eroe&*. Evita tamobes que o
States de drongew so entupe *om a terra levada pelas aguass uando
aaoosm rapida sente.
Oom o eimprogio ajuadso da se*gadeira para oortar sass oultura,
evitari quo ella rouba a fertilidade doasaaaidament do ponies, tam-
born forneaori de modoe soonomiLo, a atOria organic =a asOaDl ameo
frwtois. hunea .ve-ase cortar feno ou paslba para aniLuaoest da oultura
pars ddubt&o verds, plant*a no poasr de oltrua.

g) A Poda. A muda dew sa pedals so tiral-a do vvieft. (Veja-
as "A Muds do Citrus", pagirs 76.) 0s Mineiroa mogS que OnalSneL,
apronderma Mais fabtlentot a pods, quande fol relisiata no vivAiro





/
do que quamndo felt Mais tart, depois o earranoada a muda. (Veja "A
Muda d Citru s", pagbam 81. pare ver u- ma da do sgunda clase. Tea
eits muds, depois do podadae ui mIetro atms date raises, o 1a 1 /4 m e.
do dianetro aeim da borbulb a* Milhea do audaa podadas nesta fonrma
So voadides todas o ases no rasil. (Voja tmabo fotograeAaes N's
1, 2, 3 *4.)
UMe wida ou arvore da citrua nunoa dove offroer una podas omr para
o transplantio acr para a foragfio, quando presenter folhaa novas o
tonras.

ii). B Mill hNlSai ZMauikL.M SiEo A t=o *
fiaanoeiroe do ernroaellimento do V. S. dopaead da qualitaedo das frutas
Indviduafb o aou Gusto do produoaglo. Frutas inferior oonstitu refug.
0 sata codo quo so pode ollatar asa futes inforioreo, tanto male cedo
o emprnndltanto .demostrarA lucreo. boo 6 vordade taete daes arvorea
oemo das frtas. A avore eoonstitue usa unldaO oem a qual 6 faecil
do ase ldar. Logo quo oa deoobre quoe ua arvorae, qualquer quo seja a
raelso produs u oolhbits quo nuale dA luno, dove seo eliminada tal
arvo reo. Sbomes anti Ipeada mnto quo um arvore eolocada edo tal mode
quo a maquinas do oultivar o do pulvorisar nao poda pasar -m todas
oa quatro lJados npo prodwiri usa oolh ita luwastiva do laraujaso M
divonoa loegaos aoos plantios do V. Se noteAl p6e woe quakes todo a tra-
balbo teri do ser fafelto a mio, pola ozade, oom o alfaug, a aOm pulveri-
adores alevadae ne eotao do operarlos. Pot eo toe s6tes produs-eo
grande qustldea4edo frut Infoeior6 qua n$t aloanga pregeo oopnsapadO
para oas eltriultor?#* Pwque pro usir asai le la ab ifelewsO ?
A prodafio 4da la prAp era exports oastitue -sa apoeiaUldado
brn dfiflqiv Oa luoreo d fruta quo 6 oxportada ttea d aenor bastantoe
elevatsO #rd pfa^ras deepeas ea a produfogo do quantidedo grand -
do larnJ4s i fl s., Sweo e osprondusoato oeoassarii. (A phrasi
notto rt6. as", 40a440arac".) Todt esforgo dove sor dodiedo




?17-


no sentilo de produstr a mior poroontage possivel do laranjase pro-
prisa pars o exporta, e pare rodusir as deosposes na ue proda.o
4o so deve esqueoer, todavia, quo as primeiras dues ou trw iolholi-
tas S.oo goalmnete oonstituidas de laranjas grandaes do oases grosel,
bistants ta.prlores6'6 laranjas quo esri am o nos maoesuivos produsiL-
doe poles nmos p6s.

I). PlaUio Inta l4oa* 0 fin visado em plantar o seu pour, 6 o
do produsir economiaamente laranjas mportavevis no maim breve epago
4e tenpo possivel. Sendo is a oonsideregio principal, Alo se dove
admittir quslAer consideragAioe a prejudloar as laranjeiras. Todoas as
se iboros eitrioultors que ooahego prohtbem terminantmente o plMtiLo
do outra eultur q.ualuer no laranjal. A experiencia do deozenas de ahoas
to. provae sor i.mao tbhdo atls aertado. 0 plantlo de usa culture
pars amibaae verd (Veja Fotographde 4) 6 radiealment difference,
pots visa addieionar ao *613# a vexa do terz-he a fertllidade.
No Srail podao mooonatraw proves da raslo deooa affiraglo posi-
tival ontra o plantio intercsalado. Em BEllo Horzounte1 o Dr. Gouvea,
nts muas eWperiencias cn adubaglUas milbo, provou que as raise desto
etrel, tiraram nutrimento do solo, na distencis doe dois stros malo
at6 trae r tros de p6. TaM umda do itrut tranoplandada he U= ano do
vivel, teri la ngado suas raisn 6 distanoia do maisl de um metro.
AaSi, o mllbho io dove mc plantadso om menos do que quatro metrxo duma
muds, do citrus oo"a u m. Isso logo so torna imposaiveol no pow e.*
Plantolo lsteroalado 6 seapre fito demasmdamente perto is mudas
do oitrus. Prejudloa o pi novo, tirando-lbhe a lux do eol, e a fertill-
dad4 do sS6ol as epoa m qu naeoes6 ta mal, iato* 64 no inicio do
ou de esevolvienate.
Os p6s do citrus tire uutrirnento a uito maior dietancia do que
so acredits geralsnte Uma p6 do t o sanoas tori raises distentes do




ejSa I --
pole usos tin.o aetoos do sou treoM* UM n n emLoao GuMec a-
VigaOs ti.ha lanGado raises I diataniaa do mail do soete Metro.s
0 milho 6 ma plant mite vorasa a raises aliaentielfi do Litrus
ml. pod. s owttir earn as do alit..

J), A Ae teo log r a.gm nos viveixs ou poares quo vies
produsir lucre aol o operario con a curad, quo entrgmu a Ludustria
de assueaar lo Brashl, para on paases do Java a Cubas Notel no pomar do
V.S. quo as enadfl rasparm a euperficle da terra am rador das udaelst
daeizando usa orobts duae a lia, qu faoilmaente asquoeria ao luxs do
sol. Uta superfioiLs ania 6 doesa6vel as& bairatn dac stsda ams
nunea favereos o desunvolvJent do e plaa as. A gserago paasMaa soba
be mauejar a nadat was urn ells podiaa oorpetir em produsir lucroo
OQ oa oultivadorcs puadooas por aniuLs ou per tratores.

k). ALah anr BRSna i ASa-iSanoul. Em 1922 tve ocasailko do
*laborer um estudo sobre a ceononia doe emprogr trabslbadorse matle
oarea Foi pruparad esmo esttudo oam o fi do d eonatrar aso entft&o
Seorstaris de Agrioultura do inaae, qkuoe seria economioo pagarmos na Es-
cola, ordenados um peuoo Mai olavados do que na regps so pagear neOSsa
regiio. Descobri qua AiZWtt/trailho am Bello Horisounte oustou male
des porcarto, quo qm Chicago, abort o ffeS-naao pare us dia do trabaleo
mn Mlac ftos a doolm part dawq*UA m IllinoLs. 0 alho oustou ds
percento misai opregaxio d o oea VSUI M baratae do quo oearn operarios
do progqe elovade. In losn, o eutro udisl da produoglo de milio, o
trabealho doe uan dia heboe dia, predus tanto m Lio quantao o trabalho
do vinte disac a quarenta anoe pascadeo




el9-
D). GRAVUBAS INM "A ELDA DE CITRUS". Figs. 13, 14 & 19 re-
pr6fisntmn sa omn blocks do trra Form tirads ow 1997 e 1989.
AntOrw Oaaat, b o tinba vieWto =mad& plantadas do mooat cartada. PMa
*IehoPVO 08 athodos dO piatilo gJrmlmatfe WmwregaPdos tornou-n noe0c-
arle venAder as mudas aom fbleoos, e polo prego de 4$000 cada Uda.
SoAo ansm olevado peWge, o eoprad4or fot aina eapae de prestar attsn-
g 6is lnstruog6en para o plantlo. Ao contrarilo, a smuidaas toerlsma sido
plautadas dmaiasdamente tndas.
Figure s 13, 314 16, 16, 17 & 19 demoustram haas ainds oom folaes.
poo Naturalmente, detixar as folhas permansoer ass mudae, durente o
tranaplantlop nio 6 6 inutil, conso tasbe prejudicial. Naquelfls, pooas
todavias a grand* maioria dos ossos frequeses teorium achado quo urns
am=x son folhas estives ou mauito ruia ou uorta.
Nequall3a poaa a Eoeel aiLad preoisav aonquiastar a eonfianga
dos tfrqepo eas. HoJo a dia e fasendero Mirneiro tean counfianga nalla.

X). 0 dAFEZAL. Si nlo produmir luoros o cafteal, outlo oomo
aedae preventiva, soonselhariu arratoar os pis de oaf6. Camo airia pro-
dur lueros a kiafesal, otaole dove V.*S. proouraer a entomologo masi
entenUdide so assuapto. NMo possea lhb aoonselhar.

F)* 0 PACKINGHOUSE* DOev ser ooloeada nas proxiaidades
imfaediatas a estaglo da estrada do ferro Toma-se o cuidado de provi-
denoiaas ospago mas do que ampleo dostinad so reoebimento da fruta do
pmer. Constitue a falts do opaoge para oto fla, o daofeito Maia oMouu-
mente nottdo mo paokitghoues, no Brasil* Dev-mt lebrar tasubom um
quafto par* reafriamento a outro pare a a oolorago dab fruttis
EB gral, as estaga asas *etrad& do fn to eapecialmenuatO nas
pequenass idsdes pelo interior, Sie pesslameuts, planojadas, sem a
minim idols do oonforto do paseajeiro. Oa paekinghouses reflodtam
*eta felt de opageo, tanto dentro dollae, oamo no teorreno no redo.






0). ABRIGO PARA MAQUIMS S UTUSILIOS DIVIRSOT PERRAJNTABSO MCI'
Us abrigo dove rw coustruido pars eouseorvagSio dos tratopre, maqutuas
para oe cultivone mqulsa do pulvnrlaih6, ferammontaa diver as Uteuan-
sillot ia asaul ooso para oa reoorde. 0 eapage para a maquise
utadwn doe or owp)eUamte aborts, no ldo que d6 pars a eetrada.
QuAquer paredo eou grade saua grand neouvoniveniola a perd e mo ffl-
e lonoiti por oonusguinte, do dinheiro* Todos oa utonsilo., ;OQO oejent
peSqunoR arade5s eomcdas p6# *toe, dove, or diqpostoa de maneir
or airas* As poquenBs ferramentas parpa conortos be oomo as pequeaan
parts oEbreeaotal otes dae m lnBas, deve sor oonseorvdes m quatro
ouidaftoeamente foehade ooa obav. Dove bayer um qudi e Garado para.
a oonservsga do reoordos do servigeo
Tai alsigso o centre par as aquinamsa devw seor colosdo us estrads
principal quo lg a ees de reosiden ea so packianghouse. doe impor-
tuB.lA ae V.S. Owam pe e*e tolaos om dies, para reolamr imaedieta-
moenfa quas er falta xn ouldad daes asquinas oa erramante.

PAIU IV. LADBIBA DE LflBRO VS LADO DO RIO.
fsmoto V.S- morn podeor r solvr o problema do quo sor mati
luocraiveo planter no mnow and* J6 ostave preperando o terrenoe ou ao
long do Rio. Si toseS ou o don 4da fasenda, 6olete so loangO do Rio.
A)* A LeLotra do Morn. Vantagemo Enboatrse-oe ailmnutae outroa
pom ae oa s moassO quo paes lhe servir do guiaa* FPa ura vista suiteo
bonita. A ventilaglo 6 maie fecil. Ha .aeas lua de eol para ads p6,
aaendo igual espaamen'to. As frutas @er&e mais bonitaee, e o flgrm
geral, de tamako manor.
Deosvantagaa. A eroeO e la.vag da trfa (losehiOg) rodusler-o
rapidamente a fortilidade. 0 561. sor6 eupraimdo polas shuveao* Prou-
gio dlainuird# depoi. de paemado un ansa0. Provavlaentate asa oooehenllhas
eauear o amolagio. Ha sepfl a despeas do elevawr a aquinas 0 o00
haeaus ao nivel do servo; He seqrwe tuito tubaelb. q



*le
tm de e~w feito pow bragis, nas ladeira.

B). POCAR AO M0 DO RIO. Vantagrwus Pomais #a terrenos Smal.e
baits eto produaide $Mruta us Florida durants misai de quarents anos,
aom demonatrar diuainugio na produoego. Na ha despens am sliver as
mqplusa, trabalhadores e ferramentas. xige maulto pouao trabalho
bragal. Aleaogasa todas as pefla do plautt eom traotoreas, oatlah6e
Spulveraoidwe moontade a rodas.
IDavantagena Nlo s snooantra3 no rasil l nenham poeamr (de quo sa
e*L), do qual poder v.s. tUrar ensinamento. Muitoes oitricultoroes
aoharo auita graga nests pomar, isto 6, ati quo elle as demonsatrS
ooonosiso. Depot s diaso suite aproveitarAo polosa sou example.
Oa p6s deve &or muito bea espagadoa aeo se encoatram ama parts
do pomar jai plantadas, pars providensiar ventilasgo a lus solar.

C). POWRF.RES COLOCAQOSS S LERu T'3S.
1)o Plaosaiim Parrish, Lous iasa.* Aerea do 1902, viL*ted
e*ss I&arajas .yeolino peaqulseL aisLtlfiteas. Foram p]latadae on
trrone eso tre a sinco metras abaixez do nivel dgUaS o Rio Missaio-
ippi. Quando trabalhol moa pomaoe" podia vr, miais do tree metros
aetma de lha bs abegaf o alogio pa"sand -n vaperes deseendo rio
sbairo. Mae *s laranjas estavan produtaldo oolheitas lurativas.
2). Atwood Pomar. In IS, a Sur. Atwood, Presidents dGan
ospahbia do seguroa, plantou um laranjal em esoala grande, em Manes.-
vista, ao lado do Rio Manatee. Na eator part do terreno tornoueso
neoeesarlo a froavngae d ant s pars elevaer oas p6a aesia das aga
durante a pooa obhuvesa.* Duded quo attigirLm tree anos de edade,
eats pomar At, p roduaina lureso para oas "u doane. As arvoresa estfio
p "es mentfea enotre as maolnw e asai preodautivas que se encontra
na Florida.
3). Proton. E prinipios deat sBoeaule o Bar. Preston fol.
l,





-22-


us inportedor do frutas itrisoas ouutras frutas tropioaes. Plantrou
us pomar, em Terra C1a Sabhia, tombs& pnrto de Manatee, N quasi todo
* pomer fol neeessarito construir monte pars elevar as arvores aoala
do nivoi do agua na Bahbla. guns desaes monL esrB B8ais alias que
minha cabega. Durante as twpoatadas saits violentesa, no Golfo do
Mlesoo, a. aguas salgadas penetram em grande part do pomar, que memo
asals 4 ainde rendoeo,
4). onarch Grove. Poi oolooado aim brojo, part de Oford,
Florida. Q1uando a agu ficars miai baixa no brejo, a terra foi amontoa-
de* a aiudae foram levadas aso monte por meilo do coanos, as colheitas
taebm roiesaae-a-e-om trasidas ao packinghouse por canoes. Una s aos
depois1 oonetruiw-e ua canal, do aodo quo o exceeso de agua fot drenada
do brejo. 0 pos aitndas continue lucrative.
5). Slo SebastAo. As Fotographias 2 & 3 foram tiradas noe
pcaares em Sao Sebastlao, ?-stado de Sio Paulo, maies ou menom oem kilo-
metro* so sate do Santos. Sergo pars V.S. intoressente8 o iustrutivas.
Auho doeasee inco exemplares, V.S. ficarS oonvencido de minha
affirmnag o quo 6 o elsasrnto mUils :Wportante, ua cltricultura, 0
HOHS quo irigo o aprcadledimto.
Muito ouvimoas a napeito do sear o s6lo adequado ou nie para a
citri eultura. Sob a disaussiao do s6l, referi so ou a io, o C.T. MI-
Carty quo easing aoa Floridanae quo podiam produzir citrus nuas dune
do areia; w. J, Kromea, qua gsnhou dinheiro plantando citrus a terra
do 95 S do carboonato do caleio; a de grande areas, bea lucrativas,
plantadas em terreno doe "Evergladea" ("sempre-brejoa"), constituidas
de mais d( 90 S de material organuoa. Depois de demaonstrado o method
do deeonvolver a aitricultura eoan luroe nooses toie diversos ai6os,
mllharea do outroa seguirm on exemploa desaos "leaders".




.23-l

CONCLUSOES
1). Taom V.8. am prepare urea dar mulhores propriedades do

citrus que toenho visto no Brasll.
2). Julgo quo V.6. me samou para indicar os dcefeitos do
plantio nfio para louvar o que ji so conseegulu s111.

3). QuO VS, de.Ja deoaonvolver uras propriedade oitricola

que permansoeri muito depots da sua w1da. (Conhego
laranjaes na Florida, paquanos, que form plartados

sesofta ou Maat ano* passados o que eaSo alsa aug-
uentando sua produaglo.?
4).* 0 progresso admirevel que tehio presenaiado no desa-n
volvimento duae eitrioultura raclonal no Brasil, me
oonvenga do quo noie ohogou ainda o meihor phase dessa

produegic. TodOS devea so esforgar no sentido do
melhowar ase tAt isIporstant oulturea o tornal-a per-




PHOTOGR& PIAS.

For-a aciiloloadas eatas photegraphbs para da4 deionza tragsao
visual do aspns dos assuntos diesutidos no relatorLo. Espero quo
ajudarAo a oselareoer o que eat esoripto.
Photographias 1, 2, 3, & 4 deveo animal a V.3. para oontiauaer
vigorosamento oor o projeto quae inielou.

^ ~~~-----^------.------Mn.d
Photogrehia 1 (veja no pagina 24). 0 priseiro pouar eatabeiootdo
nas mode da F'zenda dae Tres Barrang perto do PitangueiLra, Estado ds

Sio .Paulo, 4i o dou rowasultedos satiafatorios. Potr iao a coapmnhia
/'
inioiou outro plntioo, ita un vintae kilonetros de distancia do outr l
On terr A fuwo arenosoo A' squwrda, da esarose Vi-s a vaostagio

























native; i di-it&a, alssas midas reentemente plantadas, ooa rmats Ou
mjaons urn metro, intoirament. sm felhas; os tronUoe pintados e o oal

pan evitar rnuadhra polo eol. (S' drirlo eats poear peor w U-
sos oam lonag exparienoLa no& paises iagloues onde produz-se o oitrue.)



















2. Peamar 81o Sebasetlae eeu ui anue do idade, aem kilometroas a

*ate do Santos, Estado do Sio Paulo. Terreno preparado o oultivado
por tratorn, /A area d6 aspeto brineo ao torreno* DrenagBm g43l

4 da osquev, par a diroita da photographic. Ia "sloug" (dra emo
/ *




:-* -J. it


natural) est IDdicado corn riocas: de tints nes unr-oens. No prirniro

piano vS-se uam areno art,ilicial, muito b2m constrfldo, doa modo (ue af
tratarea, puivarisadores grE.ndes e caminh~os poem ntrP.vcssal-o corn

suita faoiiidade. Os cultivos sao todoo realizfedos cm ani-ulo recto

corn este drwio, para fcilltar na drenagea rc.plda da supe rficie. No

fudo, a asquerda, v-ve uma asttrsda do oamlnhat. (Nao leva em considera-

gio as u,.tro iifnwas foacos, pois clln3 vAo apsnas defeitos no nega-

tivo.




















Pboto 3. A mraa"i p.-.ropriedad, uo=lo 4m -2hoto 2. A' dirrta 6
usa OpeOCie dc Canal; as falua ocu bnjros o .rro-iam as L,.utas ao

paaklinhoua8, no, 0aes a ..t6ke0 a d'naOeia artificial, Iue entra na

photo aphia ond s& acha a riaca de tintLa rjna argon eauerda, passando
.disgonalmante ath a direlta. std indicado bemrn cltr,&1zte palo 1,&a .

volvimento manor ds-r arvorea.






1I'




















Photo 4. Culture ecollente para oobertura da terra (Cover Crop)j

no& fins da estagio chuvosa. Durnte a seemana que passanos em Sfo

Eebsti&et us vapor da "Blue Star Line" oarregou corn trewntos e on-

*ooate ati quatrneutoa tonela4oa de citrus. As a udas form importadae

'a Austrliat Afrioa do Sul s Florida*. As mudas oo-pradan no BrasLl

plantamdas o mBno looal, alo tilasa attingido, naquolla epooal edade

sutficient' pora estar-em produsindo* (Este trabaiho 4oi todo dirigido

por oeapeoaliatas a oaitrisultura, rovenientsa de paises inglosas quo

produs mio aiorue* Oa inDle3I6f soemprot sabtm eoonomiaar.)




I ,

Photogrsaphia

5. Pomar do
/'
c; itrus plantado

*' " nmue tloreota

-A I
i j


,1i Ii


natural do pina

heiroeg Produsu


.!




-87-


Os pih beiros protejea as ltrmaneiras da-s geadam. No primsiro piano,
S direita, e*ai tra-seB u 1A con um am: a & tseuernaj wvores do pomar,
aos td%% uns quartore enoa* e que kstAo pr'odusindo lucroa durantO
mais 'do des enos. Coneeguiu-se o que 6oi considerado "Impossivel".

Pou perto do Delandg Sata:o da Florida, 2.U.?P...






Photo 6. A' esquerda, a Snr. H.B.
Stevena, um dos citrioultores mais
adiantados rn Flori&a. Tomrnou-n

oomplitamcwito osgo ha uns anos
pasados. Tem sido mou amigo deeds
1892. Dcade 1905 tuaos trabalhado

juntos am diversos pequizass dif-
ioeais e ebatratoa na citricultura.
A sua suailor coatribuigiio tern id4o
em prover serm falsas diveream

orengas a *uperatig6ao. Todos ra
Florida ocnasideraras do today Loapos-

sival cultivar o citrus luoronamente
debaixo dae pinheiros.
*, 0 Sar Stevens easava trabalhaint

pars urn *orapanhia, send asmia

obrlgade a realisar ouidadoas flucalisagio das Cewpeaaa. Tove leiauga

do plantar des "acres" U priloiramntOitsaperar os lucros desse plantio
pars depois poder aoutLnual-o. Aseaia por diante. Atualiaants o poear

no pinbhAral esti can unus enfts sharess" de extene&o. 0 "Stetson
Estates"# de que o Sar. Stevens 6 ambro inooerporado, poaue Centenas
49;




,88-
do "aorec" d o Itmeu, do@ qua" o Su'. Stevens 4 director. Eaubomr
o ogo ollt pod. "ver" aula qua quaL todoe no outros.




















Photo 7. Poamr som tree anoa, prto da oiaded cde Campoal Exstado
do Rio. V&-s o Sr. Mattoso, tio do Dr. Raphael Chrysostoao de Oliv*fta
atra delies Doma Clari8ema, i diroita o Dr. Raphael, quo estudou
PeausAeria durants dois anos, ns Eseola Superior doe Agr loultura an Teai.
Ona eu eastudos orloa iaelle o npirito scientifiee.
Quando oa dotLs queriam nai iar a plnutio de laranjas e eesola
grande o Dr. Raphael veLo i Vigoaa, passou um dia oomnosoo, estudando
os moelhora typos do mudaaes m noroos viviLroi. Depois cowprou aa Buas
ads.* NKo eel de que proatedenota.




A-29-


Ph'.oto 3. Laxeujas en aaocos, nos cOeS i.h Mio FPIn'age~uay. Coa

destino a ueo. Ai-es, Calculai qui. o v.por eim ,ui- viajavaemos lovou

approxiadawienite .il e -uinaezloB s8au4a8 CiL lavaanas no io 6 Mait ai~a do wb~xio8G&RSi 'Lajcas, CIO -convez z3IP'ariJr. f.'tas Lorea
tambem endcregadqas a Buenos .-ires$ Lodavia, pelo acondici.onrQamnto ba

fsitt, Julguat Lcue seriam r espachda pau uroCpa.
E' bern posslvel que a vencl3a cdE laranjaw em s&ccos especirimento

fabrioados, seja negocio lucre.tivo pnra V. S Dur'nte os primeirom

tries ou quau'o anos, as laranjas serio muito randtes, de Lio que nfio
terio aocce$tagjo, nos mercados da %uropa. Laranjas grandoa sao, toda-

via, multo apreciadas no 3reaail, sondo crus os -rasileiros pagac i muite

born preqo pai.a um bow artiwo e ijue ao niowE tempo snja tinijt. Podia

The aitar mutitos casos disso no rasil, par& prova= cue 6 ao roiutftor

Brasiluiro ,e "iao oraUusidiE, iue o culpatio polo pouoo C-acinsav.lvi-
mentio do sroado iantarno. Convem V.S. e tudar a quest&o do coio as

podter6 tifrar proviito de qurs o ouLros considaram refuago.
fa iPlorida a venda de laranjee em seaccos oontitue grande nagol4o1

pots v'Ande.-e maiesa aocOs do qu. o total do export&ago do Brad.ll1

Vie a laranjaam aaceoa a u=a distanota doe aia do mil e quinhenato
/




1 -30-0

kilometro. Nbo as podia fs"er isso nos sacoos qua se uda na exporta-

%Ao de is ranjsssno Rio raragjay, pois sao sates laccos mui, eolbudot,
do modo quo as laranjas apodrsooriam p&lo crinrho. Os eaccos uaados
na Florida, ado fabrioados aapeCi.atcntL s-ra ste fi, auit.o wives,
muito abartoa, de modo qu a firjta eGta expota a '-VIcLa c ao ar Usn OaU

outro dos consules do '-Qsil noe L-tla U.ridos p facilc"unte obtur
* rkmetter a V..:: amos7tras dcesce &cocos. ?o.',ku piIc pede E- cuaIquE.r
desl, I t iQ C.utRO favczr ?






















Photo 9. Tuoumxn, .Argentina. Pesquizas par'a daetriinar o desmn-
volvimnto coaiparxatiio de divuraas uaspeoias e cl itrus. A. .esaa exper'-
lencia foi repetida wais duai v.&ws a.. outras po't'ves o terreno .da
SE6tas&o. Tiranao-eso a media do desenvolvimenLo dos t'wes plalAtiOb obtew-

se inforaafrio aCertaaa para julgar as quuiida.as.
rEse.10o riazr mala uma vamp que V.C., am dJsea-volver wuia e.preBa

p'ra txportag6o ae lairaajas pars a Zuropa, ten. tuio aisi8 a toe3ar da
concurrenoin da Argentina do que da CKlifornia1 ',i"lca lo Zul 3U palis-

tina. No Bramil, sio puoo aoBmu6 lars njae tio bons coa om quo no*.

viaitamos na Provincia de Missionee. estes pomarea form planesad4




, ^ -- , ._ -



-:31-

por techaiaos treiuo&inas fos Zatad.oa Uaidos. Nunca tenhao viatro

laranae tVo bonitas neam na .'.ra> -ica do Sul, nai, na L.a a'ic, do lTohte

soMo a& que Ghu.WIaos k&i ucumii, a :r, etiui. 1XM i;lezS ha uu dizers

"PreviarnenLe avisado, praviamnLate arnado."


Photo 1J. F&-azenda ,.tiLro, pr.to cit Vcoltz cdonda.









C.N
CONTENTS


I. Introduction
The Human Element

[1. IGeneralities
1. Latitude
2) -Countries
3). Altitude
4). Soil


a).
b).
c).
d)
s).
f).
S).


page
2
2


F).F). Packing House

G,*. Lachinery ta d Iniple-
icent -ouse


page
17


.V. Hill vs River Shore Planting 17

A). I1Ill Grove 1'


Adobe
Band
Swemp
Limestone
Ideal Soil
Failures
The Human Element


IM .Volta Redqnda 6
A). Climatic, Elements 6
a). rempqrature 6
b). Rainfall 6
a). DraiLnage system 6
a) Run. off system 6
) Huidity 7
f). Vejhtilation 7

D). Proplgation
a). /ecdbedd SA
b)cv,'hN. Iursery 8
c7 .udd.ng g
r,. ioreaeeive Brasil-
lana 9

C)"., The Orchard 10
,a). Planting 1i
b). Type TreeA ze
3c;. Tutor5 12
d). ul rivation i3
e). The Plow Sole 13
f). Covu.r Crop 1
g). Pruning i3
h9, InRJPtfnT hV i


D). illustrations in "A
Muda de Citrus" 16

S). The Coffee Orchnrd .1C


B). Rivershore Grove


C). Similarly Loc-ted Groves
1). Placaninz Pairish
I). Atwood Grove
. Prts-ton Grove
4). Monarch Grove
51. S3o SebdoiU&o


V. ConcliusiIOUs


VT Phittog: -e phs
1) Pitangueiras
' So be.stido
3). "I
4'. Covw.r Crop, D a-o i:1C8..a-
5- ". Pine", Woods Orchard
6,1. H.E.?'tevens
7). Campos
8). Paraguay Rivr, qoaI..a.:
oranges
0). TucundiI, rert d.n
1,)). Volta Redonda.


21
21
22
22
S8
23
24.
265
26

26
28
29


S Al'


-t
L ~t- ~










R E P 0 R T

A Technical Study of Fazenda Retire of Volta Grands

:. PART I, IlITRODUCtIOK

Your oitrud property is in most excellent condition. I1 would

take many pages to describe the excellent work that has bees done.

Such praise, while it might be very agreeable, would in no wise

improve the production.

What I am writing in this report is confidential; that is. none
of it is to be used for printing nor used for circulation without my

special permission,

The Citrus Exports.

Immadiately on arriving in Florida in 1891, I began a scientific.

and practical study of the diseases and insects of citrus (See Car-

valho Barbosa, page 15 line 7), (See also American Men of Science or

Who's Who in America). During the last half century there has been

the most stupendous development of citrus production that the word
has ever seen. The greatest grogrese has been made north of the

Equator in the Western Hemisphere.
During the mlid-eighties, Florida set the paoe by planting citrus

extensively ror Shipping (export) purposes. Followed closely by Lout-

anet, California also entire& the field but her most vigorous and

extensive planting were after 1895. At the opening of 1900, Jamaica

planted extensively. Said "to have the largest citrus orchard in the
world". By 1905, Cuba became the most extensive planter. Bahia Honda,

west of Havana, had an orchard or more than 1500 hectares, which I

visited and reported on in 1906. Columbia, in the eastern part of


''= r i







-2-
Cuba, had an orchard of 2000 to 8500 hectares. Co-incidentally, Texas

planted extensively. Palestine also supplies large quantities to
Europe. Argentine has been exporting for some five years. In 1933

we visited a packinghouse that was exporting grapefruit to England.
The oranges produced along the Paraguay and Parand Rivers go to the

Buenos Aires market, mainly. In the province of Missiones we saw some

splendid citrus orchards. (In 1933, mp daughter and I spent 9 1/2
months visiting 17 States of Brasil, also Argentine, Paraguay and Uru,

guay. After our twelve years of service to the State of Minas Geraea,
we wanted to know agricultural institutions and how the people were

employing the teachings of these institutions.)

The Human Element
As I said before, during the hasp fIfty years, there has been a

most marvelous development in citrus culture. The progress has been
greater than during the preceding fiv centuries. TOday the educated

man need not repeat the errors of his predecessors.

There are dozens of excellent and accurate boots written in half

a domen languagest- Brasiliant English, French, German, Dutch (Hollan-
dish), and Japanese. There are hundreds of pamphlets (dozens in Portu-

gues). In addition there are many magazines theL devote much space

to citrus culture*
It finally sums itself up to the ability of the man who is direct-

ing the enterprise. In the first place, he u t be an able executive,

otherwise he will employ inefficient associates and laborers. He must

be able to see clearly how to produce a commercial unit, (the box of

fruit), at the minimum cost, but at a profit. It would take many pages
to elucidate this topic fully and for this report, it is unnecessary.

The very fact that you caployed me assumes me that you want UnK1tvtLve
'tkAV.^1 /A.J. P -$&^ nnis4~eL. 4 Asu^-A4 ff^.n4 4f~u W3 -
_- I ^ A .' ..i --'- q& _a !s r>ju kd ,T ryit A







-3-


have been eblipgated to write you a laudatory letter, all true, but
containing few constructive suggestions. By employing me, you have
shown confidence in me. My experience in citrus culture of nearly
a half century, on two continents, should enable me to give you infor-
mation that I could not have given you twenty years ago.
You bre to be envied for never having had any experience in com-
mercial citrus culture. The older citrus culturists are seriously
handicapped by the erroneous methods that they have acquired.


PART II, GENERALITIES
1). Latitude. From about 36 degrees North (not far south of the

city of San Francisco, California), to 35 degrees South (south of
Buenos Aires), citrus may be produced if other conditions are favorable.
Brasil alone has more land suitable to orange culture then is at pre-
sent employed in the whole world for that purpose. Every state in
this greet country produces oranges.

2). CoQmimea. The orange knows neither race of man, language
nor country. Brasil is likely to suffer competition from Argentine,
who has already shown her ability to market grapes, peaches and plums

in Brasil C&Lo). The citrus grows we visited during 1933, in the
province of Miseionea, Argentine, were as orderly and well kept as the
best in Brasil*. Citrus growing being a new industry in the province,
the beat varieties and latest methods of culture, packing and shipping
were being employed.
The finest Bahia oranges I have ever seen were s served us for dinner
by Dr. Cross, Director of the Estacion Experimental Agricula at Tuou-
miAn, Argentine. They --e California varieties, belonging to the

ahina Popp They were so perfect and so beautiful that I
.&44~r^ J^LW a. MAtA-tA M t ts's a








-4-


to handle them, Dr. Cross insisted that I teat them.,
- The finest Satsumas that I have ever seen or eaten were imported

from Japan to the Paeific Coast of North America in 1909.

3)* Altitude. In 1925 I imported 13 varieties of citrus from
Florida. There were ten trees in each variety. All the trees of each
variety were of exactly the same mise; budded on the same root-stock;
the buds taken from the same "type-trees", eto* This importation I
divided into two equal parts of nearly identical trees. One half was
sent to Feliaberto Camargo, then Director of the Deodoro Experiment
Station. Camargo had studied pomoculture for a year at the Florida
Agricultural College of which I was Dean* He had visited us in Vigosa.
I mention these details so you may know that my deductions from the
experiment have a scientific justification.
This experiment demonstrated clearly that Satsumas have a higher

aroma, better color and were wester when ripened at Vigosa than when
ripened at Deodoro. That grapefruit ripened at Deodoro were markedly
superior to those produced at Vigoaa. There is approximately six hun-
dred meters difference in altitude. This is the only technically cor-
rect experiment in Brasil to teat the influence of altitude, that has
oome to my attention.

4) Soil. Much has been said and written about soils; mostly for

propaganda purposes. Especially in INorth Ameriea. Chemists have s$nt
years making analyses. Physicists have spent almost as much time Glassi-
fying soils. The results of all of thies work has ybhlded a very

large dividend on the .vestment but in unexpected directions. The
question, as to whiioal components and physical constitution of
the btMtaiOtfu8s aoil, has not yet been answered in a language that

enables the practical grower to pre-deteruine what is a good and what




-6-

is an inferior citrus soil. Let me illustrate s-

*). Equally excellent citrus fruits have been ripened every year
at Vigoaa on sticky adobe (massa-p6) and the greatly variable alluvian

soils (vargens).
b). Forty years ago, when chemical analysis of soils was much
in vogue, and physical analyses were highly praised, in North America,

we had the sand-dunes at Eldred, Florida, aialymed. It showed 97 S
of "sand and insoluable matter", considered absolutely worthless for

citrus culture. At that time, C.T. McCarty, a lawyer by profession,
moved in from the rich corn-belt of Iowa, planted citrus on the sand-
dunes and made a small fortune from shipping (exporting) grapefruit.
The Florida Horticultural Society honored him by electing him Presi-

dent. His name is commemorated by a variety of grapefruit planted not
only in Florida but also in Minas and in Prgentine.
a). Near Davle, Florida, some two hundred kilometers south of

Eldred, there are thousands of hectares of citrus, fruiting and making

a handsome prodit for their owners. These are growing on drained Ever-
galdes (swamp lands) which analyzed 90 % of organic matter.

d). In Dade County (Municipality)3 Florida, there are many thou-
sands of hectares of land of pure ooraline limestone, analysing over

95 % calcium carbonateo, To plant citrus trees* this stone had to be
dynamited, to secure a location for the "mudas".
e). I could take you to scores (vintenas) of grAoves in Florida,
planted on sites selected by experts as having the ideal soil from a

chemical and physical consideration, but whose owners are unable to
pay the interest on the mortgages; in other words, failures* (The
right location, but thww'vgg man. )




@
f). In 1900, my friend Robinson of Sanford, Florida, began buyig

up citrus groves held fn foreclosures by banks, and ftamoiers, for

failure to pay interestn. He managed these "failures" and made handsoae
profits. HBe died some twelve years later, leaving his family a hand-
some fortune,
g). Anothbhaintimate friend of Minse F. D. Waite# Palmetto, Flo-
rida, adeaas speciality of buying "ruined" and "obsolete" groves and
rehabilitating them. He was able to judge beforehand how much profit
etch a grove would yield him in five years.
h). Once again. It finally sums itself yp to the ability of the

man tho is directing the enterprise.

PART III, VOLTA PREDONDA.

A). THE CLIMATIC ELEMENTS. a). Tem.eratgre. At Volta.Redonda,
this need not concern us. In oiftl aeotions of California$ the tem-

pereture rises as high as 120 degrees Farenheit and drops to as low as
24 degrees F. QApproximately from 48 degrees Centigrade to -4 degrees C.)
b), Rainfal. This is very important to you. Your cultivation
should be strictly limited to the dry season and the dry spells during
the rainy season. Even at Vigosa, rainfall is an unpredictable element.
On an eight year averages the month of January gave the highest preoipi -

tation. This year, 1938, in January the precipitation was zero.
o). Dryainase stem needs to be established in all parts to
disoharge the superabundant rainfall. These need not be deep, and
should have aloping sides so that the spraying machines, cultivating

implements and loaded arts or trucks can cross them readily. (See

Photos 1 and 2).
d). un-off drains should be established between all the row, so

that the water will be discharged quickly into the drainage system.




-7-


ALL your cultivation should be carried on so as to throw the soil
toward the row of trees, thus leaving an open furrow midwqr between

the rows.

Nearly a hundred percent of your grove would be the better for
having such a run-off system established. All citrus trees1 wahtber

small or large, suffer in a water-logged soil,. This stunting (from
partial asphyx6&tt&n), is very noticeable in your nursery and also in

the seedbed. It is beginning to manifest itself in your orchard.

s). Humidity, should not be confused with precipitation. At
Vigosa the relative humidity for an eight year arwage> the year

round, stands at about eighty. Only slightly above during the rainy
season and slightly below during the dry season. High humidity favors

Anthracnoset Exanthema, Stem-end-rot, eta. Hence your trees seed
wiAe spaces to produce export fruit. There are some places in citrus
growing sections of California, where the rainfall is very lowt but

the relative humidity very high. In irrigated sections of California
where the relative humidity is low, the moot beautiful Bahia oranges

grown in North America are produced. Tuouman, Argentines is in an
irrigated section, and has low rainfall*

f). Ventilation. Lack of good ventilation in groves produces
stagnant air of high humidity inside of the tree top, resulting in
much of the fruit being inaooeptable to export trade. Good ventila-

tion produces a brighter colored fruit. All other conditions being
equal, the well ventilated grove produces a larger percent of fruit

suitable for export.




-8-


B). PROPAGATION, a). T Beedbed. The site for your
seedbed has the basic defect of being located on uneven ground. It
has the further defect of having been insufficiently prepared. The

seedlings around one aide were-very much retarded (partial asphyxiation)a

As a whole it was an expensive method of raising seedlings to be trans-
ferred to the nursery. (See "A Muds de Citrus' pages 13 and 15. Words

"Na Esoola Superior de Agriculture d Veterinaria, on page 15, are a
misstatement, introduced by the printer. Some printers would rather
be provincial than truthful.)
b.) The Nursery Its preparation also was insufficient, No pro-

vision was made for drainage outlet; even provision for run-off is
absent. There was an unusually good selection of seedlings from the

seedbed. In other respects about all the defects usually encountered
in most of the commercial nurseries ure present. In Vigosa, I found

it advantageous to have shallow ditches thirty to fifty centimeter
dep furrows, plowed out to carry off the surplus water. These fur-

Vow were ten meters apart. (See "A Muda dE Citrus", Fig. 25.) The
nurserye beds were plowed in such a way as to throw Ut& thil toward

the middle; that gave slope enough to provide for run-off.,

The location 6f our nursery was the site of a dozen brick kilt,

which had made about a million bricks for the construction of our
main building. (See "A Muda de Citrus", Figs 7, 10, 11,20, 22, 24 &

26.) In the hands of a novitiate, the nursery would have been a

ruinous failure.
Nurseries: Rio Grands do Suli Bahia (Leonardi); Nordeste; Tucumkm.

Later our nursery was located to the eastward, where the soil Was

much more inclined* being the soil left by erosion from the hills. This

is rather stiff clay. (See the clods in left foreground, Page 5, Fig. i.)
p) -,LobwrSffTdC
The incline s sufficient th-at drainage furrows are not needed. During
-8-




-o9.
-9e
the rainy season a deep farrow
the rainy season a deep furrow between the rowe provided for drainage

and runoff. Fig. 1 represents Dr. Bruno (behind the first tov of

stock), giving a laboratory exercise in the proper way of budding

citrus.

).*uu When you are ready to bud your stock, employ some

ten or fifteen young men, ranging from eighttn to twenty two years

old. Older men rarely learn correctly; younger men learn but do not

hold out. In twenty days you can get a count on successes and fail-

ures and know something atout their ability. Fig. 10 illustrates a

young man of unusual ability but who would leave his work without

permission.

The best of the seedlings remaining in your seedbed merit being

budded, It will be difficult and expensive to move them to the

orchard; but it oan be done. Their long deep taproots and few fibrous

root make the transplanting percarious. By pruning back severely at

this tim of diing a d removing all but two or three of the leaves,

a fair Aucoess may be obtained. The leaves left on will indicate

whether the "muds" is still living or not and also indicate when

watering is indtspensablie.

d). Proresive Brasiliana. Fortunately for us there are already

a number of young men in Brasil who understand the art of producing

excEllent nursery "cava.los". While visiting in Rio Grands do SuIl,

in 1933, we visited a state nursery. The recently planted nursery

"cavallos" would have scored nearly perfect in a competition. Showing

a great improvement over the older nursery. In the State of Bahia

in 1933 we met Snr. Henrtque Leonardi, whom I had met some pyara

before near Nova Iguass6. He showed the ingenuity of our younger

generation.. His superior instructed him to plant all of the ssedbed,

m eSaflst Leonardi did soi but separated the seedlings into large,





-10-

medium and inferior classes. This was very convenient his superior

could boast of the many thousands of mudas and then show the section
of large ones. Leonardi could bud the large ones and wait indefi-

nitely for the inferior ones to grow. In 1935, at Condado, Estado de

Ceari, in the Obras Contra Seccas, there occurred as fine a nursery

as could be encountered in Brasil. In 1936 we saw first class budded

citrus "mudas" on a sail boat, at Belat, Para, destined up the Amazon.

The point I want to make is t at rapid progress is being made in

thE production of good "mudas" from one end of Brasil to the other.

The cheap "muds" is a curse on the citrus industry. "Mil quinhentos"

is a standard price for them. I would not pay a mil reis for quin-

henLos of them. It is false economy to plant such worth less"mudas".

The iMineiran fazendeiro has many times been accused of being penurious.
That is contrary to my experience. He will pay a good price, even a

large price, for a first class article. In 1927 we had a thousand

five hundred first class citrus "mudas" we offered to sell for 4000,

limiting the sale to fifty "mudas" a person. The "mudas" were to be

despatched in rotation with the receipt of the money. Enough money

was deposited to pay for three times the number of "Mudas". We returned

the excess money. At the same times many "mudas" were being offered

for sale, by others for "mil e quinhentos". VWe had similar experiences

with other products. (See "A lMuda de Citrus" pages 2 & 3.)

C). THE ORCHARD. Before planting on level lands such as
yours, ample drainage should be provided for. A study of photographs

I1 2, & 3 illustrates this. These orchards are located in a region

about as rainy as yours. The character of the soil also being quite

similar. It will be economical to employ a surveyor with either a

transit or a surveyor(s 4 e4. On an extensive undertaking such as

yours, this Will make a saving of considt-rable money.


, --sv.r-am.-^.r.-.ijff-i i *- <--*****




-11-

a). ThEe Plat All of your new orchard was planted to fifth
grade mudas, on the Florida classification. (See Hume, English edition,
p. 246.) This grade includes mudas 60 to 90 cms. tall, regardless of

the diameter of stem above the bud. A fourth grade muda must have a
diameter of one and a fourth centimeters and over 60 centimeters tall.
The grades change successively w&th the diameter of the bud. In first

olass mudas the budstem is two and a half centimeters or more in dUam-
eter. California, Australia, South Africa, PA&estine and other citrus

countries follow a very similar grading of mudas, A portion of Photo-
graph NT 1 shows a portion of a pomar planted to six thousand five

hundred mudas purchased in California. (Trust a 3ritisher to practise
sound economy).
When the mudas which you purchased were received, it would have
been wise economy to plant them in a proving orchard. Using per-
fectly prepared land in an ideal location. Setting the mudas in rows
two meters apart and one meter "de p6 em p6". A hectare would hold
five thousand mudas. In a year's time probably 10 % would be vigorous
enough to withstand the vicissitudes of the oampo. The second year

50 % more would be ready for the oampo. By the third year some 25 %
more would be ready to be grubbed out and burned. (Do not present
them to anyone unless you want to do him an injury.)
This represents th a general way what I practised at the Esoola,
when we were aeeemflmg trees for a pear. To appease the authorities
I Justified the "test orchard" on many hundreds of trees, on the plea

that we must prevent the introduction and dissemination of insects
and diseases. The important dessideratum was that it enabled me to

eliminate the weaklathe inferior and the worthless. The results have

more than justified the effort.




-012-


'My count in one of the best parts of your pomar yielded eight
per aent excellent 'mudai, ten percent worthless and some 80 % ranging

between these two extremes. These 80 % could have been handled much
more economically in a nursery1 planted 1 x 2 meters, and planted out

when they were robust enough.
The trees you Jiave planted out will grow and made a fine orchard
no doubt of that. Your great problem is to place the fruit at the
shipside and make a profit. Your fruit will have to compete with thAt
produced by many other Jrasiliens, not to mention Argentinianas, Suth
Africanas Palestinians and to a lesser extent, North Americans.
a). Type Treeso. Both the Pira and the Bahianinha are exceed-
ingly variable as to productiveness and quality of fruit. Some of tIe
trees f v. have planted will die. Others will be unproductive. Still
others willroduce fruit that will be unmarketable. That will occur

as long as you have to depend on someone else to provide you with
mudas. The only remedy so far discovered is to produce your own
mudas to replace the worth less trees. In case a large percent of the
orchard trees, say twenty five perce ant, are unppofitabae, their tops
may be cut off half a meter or so high and the new sprouts budded.

In any event you will need fifty to a hundred ideal trees from
which to cut your budwood. These are most economically handled in a

small orchard. (Producing oranges for profit is a very exacting
business.)

ttofragj. should be provided for all the weaker mudas. Some
of the trees are already injured for want of tutors; two of Which I

pointed out to you. About half or more would be benefitted sufficiently
to justify the expense. In the Bahianinha orchard about a fourth

would be benefitted by having tutors; all of them need pruning and

shaping. Pruning should be done orj when the leaves are all fully
developed and the muda showsthardening'.
.1"i,




-13-

d). Cultivation l a complicated affair on so large an area
and which has such variable soils as occur on the Fasenda ReUnda
At two places, which I indicated to you, harm had been done. by culti-
vating when the soil was too wet. A safe rule is to permit cultiva-
tion only when the soil crumbles after passing the plow, or diao har-
row. A soil is never too dry to cultivate, but often too wet. When

the clay turns over and leaves a glistany surface, it is too wet.
e). le Plow Sole In Florida much mischief hbas bean done by
cultivating when the soil was too wet. Th4reason for it is very sisi-
ple. When a plow or disc cultivator is passed over the soill, the
downward pressure is equal to or greater than the weight of the soil
turned over. This pressure on the subsoil compacts it and makes it
more impermdable to air and water. When rain falls on such an area,
the compacted subsoil prevents the water from passing freely into the
lower soil. The surface being* "water-logged" and presents the roots

from getting a sufficient amount or oxygen (produces partial asphyxia-
tion.)

f), The Cov Crop (Sec Photo 4). In all humid countries, where
the principal rainfall occurs in summertime, the cover crop is an

important factor in citrus culture. It prevents the soil from becom-
ing super-heated; provides organic m atLer takas up some of the surplus,

moiastrte; prevents plant-food from leaching out; prevents erosion;
and prevents the filling up of the drainage systems.
A judicious use of the mowing machine will prevent the cover
crop from robbing the grove and provides organic plant food to the
barren spots. Hay should not be removed from a citrus grove.
g) PrUnjjg. The muda should be pruned in the nursery. (See

"A Muda de Citrus", p. 75 ) The young Mineiran learned from my
instructions more quickly in the nursery than after the muda was dug.
.. (See "A Muds de Citrus", page 81, for a second class muda. One meter
" i- .*




-14-


tall above the roots; 1 1/4 ea. diameter above the bud. Millions
of Mades pruned like this one are sold every year. See also photo-
graphs Nes 1# 2, 3 & 4.)

A citrus mnuda should never be pruned, either for transplanting
or for formation, when it presents young, tender leaves.

h). Avoi Isolated Trelo or Gvups of TrEu. The success of
your enLerpriase will depend on the quality of the individual fruit.
Inferior fruits are a waste product. The sooner you can eliminate

these the sooner will the superior fruit show a profit. What is true
of the individual fruit is likewise true of the individual trees. The

tree is the unit with which it is most convenient to deal. As soon as

it is discovered that a tree, for any reason9 produces ap unprofit-
able crop, it should be eliminated. We know beforehand that a tree

located so that cultivating machinery and spraying machinery cannot
pass on all asides of it, will not produce a profitable crop. In a
number of places you have planted trees that will require the use of
the hoe, the scythe and hand sprayers, Hand implements produce that

great bulk of inferior and unsaleable oranges. Do not imitate those
who produce them.
The export orange is a highly specialized produce. The profits

from export fruit hcve to be sufficiently large to sustain the loss

from producing the inferior, otherwise the pomar is a failure. (The
North American expression is sub-marginal orchards".) The sooner

you can eliminate the inferior fruits and the inferior trees, the
sooner will you have a lucrative orchard. The first two or three

crops till be rough and large and inferior to that produced on the
same tree during succeeding years.





-15-


i). InterflanM&1wi You have planted your cltrus grove to pro-
duce a profitable rop at the earliest possibJi date. The citrus
crop is your money crop, so that anything that defers that date
should br avoided. The best citrus growers that I know prohibit all
inter-crop planting. Decades of experience has taught them. Growing

a oover-crop (See Photo 4) is a radically different principle.
We do not havc to go to foreign countries for the demonstration.
Dr. Gouvea demonstrated at Bello Horisonte, in his fertilizer experi-
menLs, with corn, that corn roots draw nourishment from the soil to
a distance of two and a half to three meters from the foot of the
stalk. A citrus muds one year planted will draw nutriment for more

than a meter. This makes it necessary to plant the corn at least
four meters from the nearest citrus mudas. Quite impracticable.

When inter-planting is practiced, the greed of the planter
almost never allows more than two meters from the muda*s. This robs

the young tree of sunshine and nutrient at an age when it is greatly
needed.
Citrus trees gather nutriment from a much greater distance than
is generally believed. A three year old tree will gather nutriment
for a distance of five meters. One five year old tree at Vigosa
was gathering nutriment for a distance of' seven meters.
Corn is a voracious deader; the feed roots of citrus cannot
compete with corn.

J). The Hoe has no place in our nurseries or groves. It was
the man with the hoe who surrendered our sugar supremacy to Java and
Cuba. Your hoemen scraped the surface of the soil, leaving an indu-
rate flat surface exposed to the SuM. Such a surface heats up and

driei out,- a very appropriate odedition for the road side. The

older generation did fairly well in using the hoe to cultivate but




-16-
Oven they could not compete with animal drawn cultivators and tractors.

kc). C0eap Labor I Costly. In 1992 I had occasion to prepare

a discourse on the cheapness of high priced labor. This was prepared
to convince the "powers that be" that at the Sscola we whoO&dd Pay

laborers a wage slightly above the prevailing seals. I showed that
corn in Bello Morizonte was selling for ten percent more than in Chi-

cago. The day's labor in .Tinas was only one tenth of that in Illinois.
In other words, it was ten areceiattmore costly to produce a kilo

of corn when cheap labor was employed. In Iowa,4the great corn center

of the world, one day's human labor will today produce as much corn
as did twenty days labor forty years ago.


D). ILLUSTRATIONS IN "A MUDA DE CITRUS". Figs. 13, 14, &
19 illustrate mudas with block of soil attached. This was in 1927

and 1928. Up to that time, all the mudas I had aseen planted were
k
by very inadequate methods. To correct these defects, blocks of

earth were left on and 4.OOO per muda was charged. The price per

muds was high enough so that the instructions sent with them would

be heeded. Otherwise they would have planted the mudas too deefl*.
Fige. 13, 14, 16, 16, 17 & 19 show mudas with the leaves on.

.That is of course morse than" useless. Most of the customers would

have retarded a muds without any leaves as injured orddead.
In those yiars the Eecola still had to prove herself. The a average

Mineiran Fazendeiro was s till doubtful; he was not certain.

E. THE COFFEE ORCHARD. If it is unremunerative, as a

precautionary measure, it had better be removed. If it is remunera-

tive, the best entomological advise should be sought. I cannot advise

you'




-17-

F. THE PACKING HOUSE. Should be located at the raitwy

station. More than adequate spftedeutpide should be allowed for the

reception of fruit from the groves, Lack of reception space is a
defect most common in the Drasilian paokinghousea. A cooling room
and a coloring room should also be provided. (Our railway stations
have accustomed us to jostling and crowding. Most of them at small

statiLona are planned with little consideration for the passengers.
RArely does one find a railway station that is convenient; this has
reflected itself in the packinghouse and the space surrounding them.

G). L-iCHINERL ALD IiIPiEIENT HOUSE. A shelter should be estab-

lished for- taking cAre of tractors, spraying mac:-iinery, hand implements

ani records. This space should be ample to receive all the larger
1"5
machinery and open. Any wall or grating to the front ate a great
inconvenience and loss of monday. Harnd tool for the field ,need to

be kept in an orderly manner and well displayed. The small hand tools
for repairs and small accessories need to be kept in a caeL locked

room. A separate record room is also necessary.
The location of the machinery house should be on the main road

between the residence and the packing house. It is important to see
and pas this house every day, so that it will be kept in order.

PZR: IV, HILL VERSUS PRVTR SHORE

No one but yourself can determine whether you should extend your
orchards by planting the hill WAhich you were preparing or plant along
the river shore. If I were doing the planting, I would select the
.iver shore.

A). HILL GROVE. Advantages: There are a considerable number of
similar groves that can serve as guides. It makes a pretty picture.
The ventilation is good. Sunshine good. Fruit will most likely by
bright and running small.




-18-

Disadvantages: Erosion and leaching will exhaust t'e fertility.
Soil will be compacted by the rains. Production will deteriorate.
Scale insects are likely to become troublesome. An uncertain but
permanent expense due to the great amount of ,and labor that cannot

be avoided.

B)* THiE RIVERSIDE GROVE. Advantages: Orchards similarly located
have been in optimum production in Florida for n(.arly forty years

and show no deterioration. No expense elevating machineary, worBena
and tools above the road level; small amount of hand labor required.
All partssof the grove can be reached by ti'actoraad trucks and

power spraying machinery.
Disadvantages: There is no grove in -Brasil, so far as I
know, that you can visit to study how to handle such a situation.

You will be ridiculed by about every orange grower. Vrntn y-u make
a success of it, they will laud your intuition and ectneprize.

Trees must be as well spaced as in your anchards already planted,

to provide ventilation and sunshine.

C). GROVES IN SiMLAi4 LOCATIONS.
1). Placamine Parrish, Lousiana. In about 1902, I visited these
groves, to make a scientific investigations in citrus groves. These

groves Wtre planted on soil three to five meters below the water
level in the Mississippi River. While working in the groves, cotton
for report was being carried by on steamers more than three meters
above my head. And yet the groves were producing lucrative crops

of commercial oranges.
2). Atwood Grove. In 1901, Qtwood, President of a large

insurance company, planted an extensive grove at Manavlsta on the

shore of thl Manatteeliver. A large portion of the land had to be

mounded up to raise it above the water level during the raing season




-19 -

It has been a lucrative orchard ever since it was three years old*
The trees are now among the largest aad most productive, per tree,

in Florida.

3). Preston. At the beginning of the century, Preston, a large

importer of citrus and other tropical fruits, had extensive grove
properties, located on Terra Ceia Bay, also near Manatee. A large

portion of one grove hed to be mounded up to raise the trees above

water" level of the bay. Some oZ these mounds stood as high as my

shoulJer arnd trees plranred on them. During violent storms, on the

Gulf of Liexico, salt water penetrated far into the orchard,. The grove

is still lucrative.

4). 2omarch Grove. The [ionard Grove was located in a swamp,
near Oxford, Florida. 'hihtu the water was lowest in the swamp, the

earth was mounded up. The muuas were transported tintbhijia and

planted on the mounds. The crops were t transported to the packing-

house in skiffs. Later a canal was dug to drain off the surplus
water. After bore than thirty years, it continues to be a remunerative

grove.

5). &Ao Sebaatiao. ihoLograpas and 3 were taken in the groves

at Sio SEbastiAog Estado de Sao Faulo, about 100 kims. east of Santoas.
These will be interesting &nd highly instructive.

These five examples illuatbate my statement "That the MAN is the

important element in producing a lucrative citrus orchard".

We hear much about soil being inappropriate for citrus culture.

Under the discussion of soil& I have mentioned my friend C.T.McCarty

who taught the Floridians how to grow citrus on sand-dune soil; V. J.

Krome wTho made iioney planting citrus on almost pure (95 %) calcium
carbonate; and large areas being planted on Everglade soil, over 90 %

vegetable matter* After these leaders had shown us how to succeed,

thousands followed their example.





-20-
CC^:CLUSICW S

1). You have in praparatipn ont of the beat orange properties

I have seen in Brasil.

2). You employed me to point out your shortoominas .rather than

to praise the many excellent things you hrive already done.

3). That you ra'nt to have a lucrative property that will endure

beyond your lieftlme (I know groves in Florida, small ones, that

wre -)Frntcd siXty o- notn- yt.ars go and are still increasing their

crop production)

4). The splendid progress that T have seen in 3rasilian citrus

prodpation assures mc that we have not reached the ultimate of this

industry. The young men must strive to improve and rmak. the industry

permanent.





-21-

I-F-HO T Or^\ HASO
These photographs nave ben appeared to give a visual demonstra-

tion 'of some of the topic ; I have discussed in the report. They will

help you to understand better what was said.

Photographs , 2, 3 & 4 will. gvweurage you to proceed vigorously

wiLh thn project that you have urjdertaken.






















Photograph 1. The ffrst nrchard was established at the headquarters

of the Fa'zenda das Tres 3arrasa near Pitangueiras, Sao Paulo. When

t-i; o:rchar-d camiii into btnring, the results were not satisfactory, so

tae company authorized the establialraent ot anoThLer orohard about 20
klzms. away, on -a deep sandy soil. To the leIft of tae fences native

growth; to the right recently planted mudas a meter tall, absolutely

leafless; the trunks whitewashed to prevent sun scalding. (Directed

by experienced citrus men from British citrus growing countries.)




-22-

,, .



















Ph'to Z. Oha year :ld citrus grovw at 3&o Se'uastiao, a hundred

kilometers east of Santos, So Paulo. The land prepared and cultivated

by tractor. The whiteness of the soil due to sandiness. The general

drainage direction is i'ar left to right. k slough (natural drainage)

is indic ted by inkmarks on 'lIe iarjen. In the near foreground is an

atficia-l Sdrain so oons' ructe as to parnit tractors, spraying

machines and trucks to pass readily. The cultivation is carried on

at right angles t-.o thE drainage, to provide for run-off. Truck road at

uppa' left. (Do not let The four blurred lines confuse you, they are

defects in the negantive.




-23-


( LA 3.- The same property as Photo 2. Two year old orchard. At right

is waterway; barges aar y loads of flu&t to the packinghouse located

at the dooks. The artificial drainage enters the photo at ink
mark in the le.t margen an runis di&gonally to th. riga. It sla
quite clearly perceptible by retarded tree growth.



















Photo 4. Illustrates an ideal cover crop at end ad of' the
rainy season. During the week we spent at Sao Sebacitifo, the Blue

Star Line Steamer, Afric Star, loaded between three hundred and





-24-
fifty and four hundred tona oC aitrue fruits* Produced by mudas.

imported from Australia, South Africa ana Florida. The mudas wera

purchased in Erasil had not yet come into production. (This work

was done under the direction of experienced men who learned the art

in British citrus growing countries. Trust the British to be asitte I)





















Photo 54 A lcitrus orchard planted in tte pine forest; a profit

making orchard a Lower right corner a onc y ear old tree; at left a

fourteen year old orchard that has been yielding a profit for ten

years. An illustration of a man doing the "impossible".




-25-


: Photo 6. At left, H.-B. Stevens,

Bece.Je totally blind a few years

ago. Has been Ry friend sinoe 1892.

Since 1905 has been frequently
associated with me in c-'rrying out

difficult and abstract citrus

experiments. His great contribution

to the citrus industry has been to

iisillusion citrus grower of mis'- <

beliefs and superstititions. The

Florida citrus growers were uniml-

mous in the opinion that a profitable

ciLrus 'grove could nou be establisbl

in u piney woods. workingg in a

corporation, he ihad to make a rigid
accounting. He vas authorized to

plant the first ten acres and then .

no more unLil Uie profits from the

first t en acres paid the expenses of an additional Lan acres and

so on untt.! now the piney woods orchard is 70 acres in extent. 'The

Stetson Tstate, of whioh ir. Stevens in a corporate auember, owns

hundreds of acres of citrus groves of which h, is director. (YTho

blind he "sees" mior' than most other poeple.)




da26a


Photo 7. Three year old orchard near Campos. Snr. Mttoso,

Uncle of Dr. Raphael Ehyyaostomno de Oliveira, b-ck of hiln Miss Rolfa,

and at right Dr. Raphael. He studied Animal Husbsndry ;for tto year

at the Texas Agricultural College. His studies develnocd in him a

Bcientific mental attitude. ';%hen he and his unole were about to

plant a pomar, he came to Vigosa, and sprnt a day with us, studying

types of' mudas in the viveiros. He then bought his ruB-s. I do

not know from whom.




















Bhoto 8. Oranges in saoks on a dock on the Paraguay River. Reay





-2 7-

to be loaded on a steamer for Buenos Aires. I estimated that our

steamer was carrying a thousand five hundred aacks of oranges on

the lower dock arid a larger amount of orated mexericas-on the upper

decks. These Too were addressed to B.A. but I judged fr:.-u the paak

and loots of the crates that they were destined for Europe.

It is possible that selling oranges in bags might be a good idea

for you to develop. During your first three or four years, the

fruit on a citrus tree is oversize for the variety, so they would

be a practical loss on the European mare t. These sixes are eagerly

accepted by the Brasilian custoers. Brasilians are the best ou-

tomers I Kaow of for a good a rtiole that is at the same time beau-
tiful. : could cite you dozens or even a hundred illustrations to

prove that it is not the Brasilian customer9 but the Brasilian pro-

ducer tha6 is at fault for the seaLl inLernal market. Now it the

time for you to step in and make a profiL from what others regard

as a "waste" product.

Florida has developed the trade of bagged oranges to a high

degree. She sells more tons ol' bagged citrus fruit than Brasil's

total export. She ships oranges in bags for more than a thousand

five hundred kilometers. This could not be done in the type of bag

used on tne Paraguy --.:iverg the 'ranges would rc dn the way. Tho

bags used in FloriJa have been manufactured especially for shipping
oranges. They are light and so woven that the fruit is clearly

visible. One of the Braa lian consuls in the UJniLGd States could

easily obtain$ samples of these bags for you; why not let hin

be of service to you ?