Sailing up a River: From Bahia to Paulo Affonso Falls, Brazil, by C. Rolfs. 1935


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Sailing up a River: From Bahia to Paulo Affonso Falls, Brazil, by C. Rolfs. 1935
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Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
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Folder: Sailing up a River: From Bahia to Paulo Affonso Falls, Brazil, by C. Rolfs. 1935


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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From Bahia to Paulo Affonso Falls, Brasil.

G .Rollfs
On the morning of Spetember 14, 1935, viwhenthe little train puffed

out into the cold grey morning, at Bahia, Brasil, there were two very much

interested passengers on board. We knew we were in/ for two days of train

travel, so settled ourselves to enjoy the parts that were enjoyable and

endure the others (few in number) which were not.

After working for twelve years, on the project of loathingg, esbuUlish-

ing and condueting"a modern Agricultural College, for the great interior state

of Yirns lerais, my f-ther and I had made up our minds to see intimately some

of the other arts of Biasil, uef'ore returning to trie States. 4e were rather

better habilitated to profit by end enjoy such an expedition, tnan the vast

majority of "turistas" in that country, for we really enjoy the Brasilians

and understand their language sufficiently to indulge in general conversation

with anyone and everyone along the way, from baggage boys up and down. We

understood Brasilian psychology sufficiently to know that they would always

be courteous and kindly according to their manner of understanding it. We

like Brasil and Brasilians !! The general attitude and capacity of the

traveler does make such a difference in what he sees !! We had decided

that one of the things in Brasil that we especially wished to see, were the

Falls of Paulo Affonso, and here we were, headed in their direction.

Now in traveling in Brasil, the best plan is to head in the general

direction In which you wish to go and then keep going. Don't worry about

whether you will get somewhere in times for such and such a boat or train.

Usually there will be a later one along, just as good as the one you may

miss. If we had been in a hurry, we should have had to take e steamboat

from Bahia to Recife, and gone inland by train and automobile to the Falls.

Thus missing one of the most delightful highlights or our entire nine and

a half months of vagabonding in Brasil.


Sailing up a river j! A real anomaly 16 An idyllic way to travel.

No noise, no fuss, no schedule, only the captain and one helper for crew.

Our kind friend, the Bahia editor, who had studied in the States some

years earlier, had been much distressed when we announced our intention of

making the train trip in the direction of the Falls. He considered it much too

arduous for us to attempt. He wanted to know if we were carrying provisions, as

we would find the eating accommodations of the train trip impossible. Now on

numerous other occasions in our wanderings in Brasil we had heard the same

story and disregarded it, and always our expectation of finding ample food in

a palatable form, had been fully justified. So when the editor friend appeared

in the hotel the night before our departure, to bid us farewell, and presented

himself armed with a big basket, fully a peck in size, (really a lovely basket,

how I longed to le ep it as a "lembranga") fullof provisions, we were somewhat

amused and not entirely pleased, as our baggage was already volumninous. Wise

editor. He knew.

Pretty soon after the train started, we decided that the tiny cup of

black "thermos bottle" coffee provided by the hotel, was not sufficient on

which to start a morning train trip. Once in the diner (a few tables in a

divided car, none too clean, and getting continuously dirtier all the way)

we heaped blessings on the head of the editor and his wife. We never got to

meet her. I'm sure she is delightful. Anyone must be who would prepare such a

basket for total strangers and even more than that, foreigners. A delightful

mixture of american and brasilian good things, tea cakes, an enormous coconut

cake, and those delicious individual chicken pies.

The morning slid by uneventfully, mostly thru cattle country, with here

and there a small farm. A government cotton station, where we lost a friend of

the editor, who had made himself known to us, and delighted us with his general

store of local information. Then another government station, this time for

Animal husbandry. Most of the opssengers got off and the others hung perilously


out of windows and off of steps, to watch and freely prefer advise about the

unloading of a full blood stallion and two splendid looking bulls, not at all

vicious, but sufficiently lively to keep the crowd in an up roar. Of course

everyone chattered with everyone else, in a most informal and delightful manner.

The hours of the afternoon were much longer. Finally, long after dark, we

reached the little town of Boquim, merely a "wide place in the road", but there

the up going train elects to spend the night so perforce the passanxers remaain

also. The super was not up to scratch, the bedrooms small and smelly and the

beds uncomfortable.

Off again at six, ith many of the same passengers. Quite an "espiit de

corps" had sorang up among them...they were already friends and fellow sufferers.

They viewed as interlopers those few who intruded themselves at the tiny towns

along the way.

The main incident of the day, previous to arrival at Propria, was a pro-
longed stop at Aracaju, capital of the State of Ua1giou. We were delighted to

see a Ariend in the station, a graduate of the tinas Agricultural College, then
Sergipe .
employed by the state of ,agw and just as proud of its accomplishments as

if he had been a native son. (Little states, like little nations, seem to impart

a spirit of solidarity to adopted sons in a surprisingly short time.) The Sergipense

are proud'of their state capital aid seemed to think we were committing ag. serious

injustice to the entire country, in not spending some days, or longer, in Aracaju.

And so finally, we arrived at Propria. After about twenty five hours oh

the train ( much less if the length stops could be discounted), we had covered

something like five hundred and fifty kilometers '' (Less than three ilundred

aiid fifty miles.) This is according to the Guia Levi... that indispensable

collective timetable of all of the railways of Brisil.... we traveled on

nearly every page of it. It is worn and dirty, but a treasured memento.

Following the usual procedure, in approaching a new tovrn, I had inquired

of nearly everyone with whom I could fall into conversation, as to the best

"hotel". I had been ass red there was none, but that the best oensio was that


Dona Francisco, and that there was no use to hire one of the very few automo-

biles to get there, it was only a step.

So we followed two heavily laden porters up a rough cobblestone street,

around a few turns, and into the unoccupied, very low, ground floor of a rough

looking building, to an even darker, less inviting stairway. Apparently the

ground floor was intended for a store. Unoccupied, at any rate. But above staimzi,

the atmosphere was different. Oh, yes, she would be happy to give us her beset

bedroom. Then ensued the usual complicated explanation that we were not husband

andwife, but f& her and daughter and required two rooms. i. so jnod...she had

one small room, near the big one, would we see if that would do. Yes, it would

do... no danger of suffocation, it was partitioned off from what had previously

been an enormous sitting room. by the simple means of domestic tacked on a scant

framework, a little more than head high. Some peepholes facilitated the servant

knowing whether or not the occupant was ready for coffee in the morning. The

larger room. a bit smwlly, had walls well up, of the usual adobe sort, not

ceiled, affording obligatory ear-spying on your neighbors -dovements.

Vell, anyway, the supper was good, and hot, and must more substantial.

than /f/' our recent meals, from the remnants of the basket.

Copious inquiry in the city of Bahia had failed to elicit any very clear

information as to just how we would get from Propria to the Falls. Only that

one could go by automobile or by canoe. Now we had spent a day in a dugout

canoe, with an outboard motor, down on the Rio Doce, in the chocolate country.

How long would the trip take ; nagi Again no one knew, several days anyway.

Several days in a canoe of any variety thst we knew didn't cound at all inti-

ting. Following our usual method, we left our bridges till *e reached them.

Settled in the pensgo, the obliging porter was waiting below to make

himself useful in helping us make arrangements for the rest of the trip. He

escorted us down to the water front, to decide on whst means of transportation

we should select. In the pensao we were assured that we must ciinrter a canoe

for tne trip. It sounded rather formidable. Well, we were in luck one way

anyway.Next day would be mirkst day, abd many canoes would be in. It is much

simpler to explain fully one's needs and wishes to a native and let him (or

her) help you out. On taking the good landlady into our plans, she had most

willingly given me an estimate of more or less w'iaz I should pay for the trip.

I was determined not to pay very much in excess of the usual price iv.hich would

be made to a Brasilian. It is rather a point of honor in the interior, never

to pay the first price asked. The seller would feel terribly cheated it one

should do so. ..a might easily have asked the double if he had ever suspicioned

he would get thef irst price asked. And what about the automobile trip ?

*' il, it had been done, but was not 7,t all the usual mode of procedure, a

few foolhardy souls had made the tr p.

Once at the water front, we capitulated immediately in favor of the

canoe, which was something original to us in the line/ of water craft,thirty

to forty feet long, v-ith "butterfly sails" all furled, their palm thatched

cabins always in the bow, very light draft, and grace fu lines. -ie Rio Sao

Francisco, at Propria, is a highly impressive river. Its headwaters are high

in the interior plateau, way up in our own dear Pinas.

As the Sao Francisco falls from the vast interior plateau, in its last

considerable drop, it forms the Falls of Paulo Affonso, third, I believe, in

Brasil, far famed in the eastern country and little visited. Brasilians are

not given to vagabonding. Below the falls, the river has cut a canyon,,

thru practically all of its extension, and air currents perforce, are either

up or down the canyon. The native!, with his customary astuteness and ingenuity,

has adapted his cruft to take the fullest advantage possible of these slight

wind currents, to Iropell him in the direction in which he wishes to go.

Only by studying the photographs can one obtain a good idea of the

beauty and dignity of these novel craft. As we would round a turn in the

river, ard look back, several of them would be visible behind us, vast wings

giving quite the effect of enormous white butterflies lightly poised on the

water's surface. Someone much moretnvetoe traveled than I, has mde the


statenment that only on the Nile are similar craft used. Possibly it wasn't the

Nib but anyhow, on only one other river in the world, are the river gods

sufficiently beneficient to furnish the natives a means of ascending the

stream. In all other places the river gods jealously fight against the asention

of the river, but here they are friendly. Typically tropical .

A whole chapter would be insufficient to describe the market. The age old

custom in some European countries, of each twwn maintaining market on a certain

day of thw week, always on Ithe same day, is perpetuated in many of the towns

in the east and northeast of Brasil. A charming custom. Everyone gets to know

all the news of surrounding towns, without the formality of reading about it.

The piles of pottery were particularly fascinating. Paint of vividly contrast-

ing colors was used much more effectively than in any of the other pottery

markets we had seen. The large water pots gave mute testimony that we were

approaching the "sertao", of which we had heard much in south and central Brasil,

and of which our omnivorous reading of descriptions # in Portuguese or English,

had given us no conception. The sertao is a world in itself.

Then the people of the market....... oA the dire, stark poverty, cheerfully

accepted. In the absence of a desire for "things" they are far happier thaim we

who claim to be more favored. A matting to sleep on, which rolls into a conm-

:act cylinder for tranuoo-Lation, an irom pot or perhaps a stone pot for cooking,

a little mandioca flour and salt, coffee, brown sugar. Maybe X one of the

ibiquitous gasoline; tine for carrying water. Of clothes very little, blankets

none. And withall, blessed with sunshine, strong sunshine in endless abundance.

Plenty of space, pure air, fish for the catching. Are they not infinitely more

favored than city poor ? Small sized, rather pleasant faces, in vErying shades

of brown, many pure wli&tes, but burned by the sun. Others with varying mix-

tures of negro A or indian bhbbd, or both. Mortality is aX high, birth rate

als o.

-tile gentle slope of the river bank is paved for blocks with huge

paving stones, which affords beaching space fUr hundreds of river boats,

be the stream high or low. On the street above, the stones serve as a floor

for the hundreds of /f4 "barracas", or booths, which had sprung up in

tie late afternoon, to shelter wares and families of venders. Those that did

not have a barraca, well, no matter. They were probably much more comfortable

down by the friendly river, in the open air, than were we shut up in stuffy


Most of the negotiations that we observed (while studiously lo king at

sone thing else) were for the most trifling sums, a penny or a few cents.

he interviewed several cj'tf skippers, declaring that heir prices were

much above what we would pay, and that we really wanted to go by automobile

anyway. The fact that we were requiring a start as soon as the wind rose in

the morning (prompted by the useful landlady), made some of them unwilling to

forego the pleasures of a day at the market. Any one of them would be glad

to take us, after he had gotten on a cargo. No, that didn't suit us, we would

go just as soon as thw/lX wind rose the next day, or not at all. Finally we

came to an agreement with Senhor Pedro. The porter would come for us, with

his assistant, whom he ordered around most vociferously, well betimes, before

the %.ind would think of starting. ..Lat time would that be...quite impossible

to say... there was nothing to do but be ready any time in the morning.

How many days did Senhor Pedro think the trip would take V/ell, no one

could say, maybe, with excellent luck, three days. Couldn't he make it in

two ? Maybe but not likely. It had ono time taken him five. The reason for

a little insistence at this point was the necessity of telegraphing for a
car to meet us at Piranhas, to take us to Pedra, the town eof the Falls.

Then, too, there was the detail of food. Each traveler had to provide his own.

The basket must be restocked, and this time with no possibility of obtaining

fruit from the cFr windows, as we had been able to do at rare intervals on


the train trip. A much food would two people require for

two to five days. Canned food is extremely high and usually not much as to

quality. Too hot for perishables to do other than Derish. Finally some sort

of a list was made up, and the purchases assembled. After a final round of

the Fair, about eight o'clock at night it was in full swing, we turned in,

already anticipating the pleasures of the luxury for three to five days (how

we hoped it would be five), of freedom from thenecessity of making arrange-

ments, and deciding where we wanted to go next and a en we wanted to go,

and getting under way.

So soon after coffee the next morningg, when the porter arrived we sent

him a.long to YW "our" canoe, with the first installment of bagtge. .'e were

telling Donr Francisca how much we appreciated her doing her best for us. It

was thoroly sincere, we did appreciate her help. '"71'hit were we expecting o sit

on", the good soul inquired. 4Evid-ntly she had traveled by canoe. WVe had

one soap box, with the provisions in it, and our baggage. No, she decided we

wouldn't be comfortable so nothing would dissuade her (I don't think we tried

very hard), from sendidjng, along two of her best chairs, the usual straight

backed, Austrian type. We were to return them with the canoe man. She was

confident they would come back to her in due course of nnrket days. I wonder

if the good lady ever received her chairs again. I pray she did. There is no

way to requite such spontaneous goodness. It warms the soul.

Shortly after we were on board, baggage disposed inder the twenty foot

thatched babin, the captain decided there was a little wind. It was little.

Should we try a start, even if we were becalmed in the- front of the town.

We would be the first canoe out that morning. Wes, we would try it.

The-gigantie-sails After considerable poling, to get free from the

other crafts, part of the sails were hoisted, then more and more. The wind

filled them gently, moving the boat along with an indescribably gentle motion.

Just the least indicationof waves. Gfloridus. Sone thing to enjoy in retrospect.


More sails up, soon the full butterfly effect became apparent. The wind,

scarcely more than a breeze, was doing its part nobly. How long would in continue ?

No one would prophecy. Round bends the skipper managed cleverly, #/ folding

up one or another of the sails, sometimes keeling over finely. He did not want

to have any of the other boats pass us.

within the palm thatched cabin, in the frontof the boat, along the sides,

and up in the bow, were ##Y/1/X/X shelves, exactly eighteen inches wide, and

covered with the inevitable matting. About three and a half feet from the floor.

Those were the beds. The Pater being a six-footer and corpulent in proportion,

visions were had of a hard bump. Well, at any rate, it made a retreat from the

sun, which soon J#s became too hot for comfort. The sails afforded scant shade

or none at all, depending on the angle of the river, which determined their set.
The riggiLng was simplicity in itself. The two/masts were securely tied, about

eighteen inches from the bottom, to the center mast, and the tops supplied with

palm fiJnr cordage, so they could be hulled up or lowered, in accordance with

the intuition of the skipper.

Some sleep, some reading, then interest infood. cooking ves-

sel. We thought the skip.--r would have an extra one. The little charcoal fire

burned cheerily in the gasoline tin, ne&r the stern. No, he only had two pots,

one for coffee and one for beans. 6e8-er- Consternation. Io tea, no coffee :V

nothing hot for three, four,five days. Should we put back ? Most emphatically

no. Then the skipper offered to share us coffee. ",,a gladly contributed our

coffee powder and sugar to his stock. He even pressed us to accept some of his

beans. They didn't go so well. The xarque (jerked beef) with which they had

been cooked didn't seem to suit our palates. Anyway, bread and marmalade and

cheese aren't so bad a diet if one has plenty of hot coffee.

All the afternoon, all the evening, we sailed on and on. Past little farms,

past "towns", past high banks and low. Sailehifting, cleverly done, kept us

in the most promising courses. When a boat gets stuck, the river helps to

dislodge it. Kindly river. But our skipper was skillful, very skillful. And

we were riding light. Thanks to our early get away, the skipper had been unable

to acquire the cargo he had fondly hoped to slip by without consulting us. Only

a few sabks of flour. :e expressed regrets when he lamented making a loosing

trip. doubted but that he was making better profit carrying us than he would

have on a full cargo of freight. His lament was that he had not had both.

Sometime in the night we hove to, as we were approaching some rocks, in

a narrower part of the river, which would not be safely navigated at night.

Roused by the sound of morning abolutions, I donned a bathing suit, leaving

the Pater enjoying his eighteen inch shelf and overcoat pillow. The one man crew

was overboard puffing and enjoying himself greatly. No battling suit of course, so

we respected his retreat to the upper end of the cabin, out of sight. TThe water

looked and felt cold. e'd wait a bit. It might warm up. Then the skipper came

on board, he'd evidently been gossiping about his strange i-saenLers # with the

inhabitants of a two W#/I/( house town near which we were awaiting the wind.

He wanted to know if we should go ahead, the wind vwas already sufficient. Consent

was given and we are still lamenting the X/"/ longed for swim in the Sgo


We had left Propria at nine o'clock. Imagine our amazement at being told

soon after getting under wpy 'i// in the morning, that we would soon be there.

'ut", we said, "We have only been out ondX day". "lio matter, it is a very

good boat". "Yes' we added to out buttons, "and very lightly loaded".

So abo#t ten we X{X# beached at Piranhas, a twenty five hour tr@

which might have taken us several days. Piranhas is a very suggestive mine,

denoting the fish that greedily devour all flesh that comes their way. Some

claim that there must be a break in the skin to attract them, blood in the

$ water to attract them. Others claim that merely trailing the hand in the

water is likely to result in the loss of a finger tip or worse. We took no

chances as we had no excess supply of finger tips.


What tido now ? The automobile driver, knowing the time we had left

Propria, and knowing the river, would not think of starting for us until

sometime the afternoon of the next day, at the earliest..

We proceeded to a sort of warehouse, to talk to the station agent. r'his

isolated bit of railway reminds one of an abandoned orphan. It is connected

to nothing at either end, having been constructed to take freight around the

falls. Then a railroad was opened some years ago, from a port much above the

rough water, to the city of Bahia, thus reducing a profitable enterprise to

a sad skeleton.

;7as there an automobile in Piranhas that we could hire ? No, on no. ior

any way to send a message to Pedra excepting by foot messenger. Some twenty

seven kilometers.... However, an engineer irom Pedra was in town, he iiaht

take a message for us. He was very gentile, so said the agent. He proved to

be more than gentile, he was amiable acnd really pleased to be of service to

these curious North Americans who wanted to see something of his marvelous

country, some of its beauties besides those of So Paulo and Rio.

So the engineer and his beautifully dressed wife occupied the front seat,

with the chaffeur, ourselves and baggage on the back seat. 'Ihis was a fortu-

nate arrangement in view of the fact of the corpulence of the respective parties.

The road, as a road, left a great deal to be desired. As a test road for

automobiles, it would really be superb. At times, for thirty or forty feet,

the thorofare ran on bed rock, quite innocent of improvements, and climbing,

climbing all the time.

Something more than halfway to Pedra, we wete shocked to meet the car

coming for us. ''as it telepathy ? How had he known ? He hadn't. Merely

having less than nothing to do in Pedra, he had decided to visit relatives

in Piranhas while a', itiig us. We transferred to the other car, warmly

thanking Snr. Carvalho (the only payment ke would permit us to make) for

his courtesy.


Arrived at P dra we were ready for dinner. The wrong time of the week,

unfortunately to have fresh meat. We were served jerked beef in a variety of

forms. The slight difficulty being that it imparted exactly the same flavor

to all of the various dishes.

And the Falls....well, they fully deserved out visit. Not so much of a

drop as at Iguassh or 'Iiagra, nor nearly so much water power as at X)%Y Sete

Quedas (which lays claim to being the most powerful of all waterfalls in the

world), but beautiful. It was very low at the time of our visit, so ve

could enjoy scouting up the river course, where in flood season water would

be rushing along at a great rate. It is easingng, even tho one is expecting a

river and a water fall, to run 4' onto one, coming in from the caatinga,

or semi-sertao, which surrounds the river at this point. The winds had not.

been kindly to a tiny planting of corn well up on the steep bank. The poor

plants, they were anguishing in sight of plenty. It always affects me badly

to see plants suffer. The mist had not been carried to them, so the labor and

danger of planting and cultivating them on the very sides of the canyon would

come to naught.

At the bottom of the FeLls, is the maelstrom, in which "mingau" is contin-

ually boiling. A characteristically happy choice of words. The water becomes

so mixed with air that it is creamy in appearance, justifying the name of

"mush", white corn mush of course.

A fascinating phenomena was that of "foguettes" or shy rockets, at the

bottom of the falls. A curious shooting upward of the water, for maybe fiiteen

or twenty feet or more. Our only explanation was that a certain quantity of

air having been imprisoned in the "mingau", resented the continually increasing

pressure, until finAlly it became too great to tolerate, giving vent to a

rocket like miiiiature geyser.

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