Rice without Irrigation.

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Rice without Irrigation.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Rice without Irrigation.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00089


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

'Vista. geral ds caampos de exlerimenta~ao. A'"
dirG'ita arroz. AI esquerda algodac. Vs-se
- quo tkrr2io a lto e beai dreaado.


I







Vlet.a :)!-rtial 6. c:.r.no ,.i ,...eri,.:. rt.:...,' o

dz ...Co'Lr ; 'erior r.e v.cricIlItu..x. e

Ve ,erin'l..'ia, .nte.-' a nze le -z r .-'.io e

destrs'd,.






Pileiras de arroz antes da
colheita. E" de se notarman
as ,-':Y .jdes fend,-n .ro uzid..s
p9l2 reaiccc';rmtm u dc trrUM; ;
IA.





., ';

V I, t ."_7.. 1 1' : .o de :.. o o -x i
.'. ..'.- d3;tL'.tl: :j*1; : li ti ..e Ic i, .i .: c.
n r ;)c 1 i:-t fc1'i i~j -sq .r e ,! i 1.vr :r2 >rn* N:* i c{(p
.. I- .i. I 6







,. 0.
I-.,):'. 2-'. H Dolfs *^Ix'ectcr.,
,. .o. SBup.. ue Agr; Vi %' ;a.


o, ,
.0 10re,10 e te 1aM'ig olO e-r o a: i. ae j.io.. ,_ U c......

a ,: .-' 0 .: a ct o d O e *n o dt t} r e a q] u ai s i 6 o d o s o s f z e ndi ro, -a Z o a cl -t a



cin E eU es c Liva o -vO! 'e, cracessidulo e de r *i sc[o L-a, u a




Cn o.,uci.o c s e .OSS. bwl' i il, 0 U ; Cr.. & .a t
clo i,. b 0 cl7i _a ^ is dur, d. t S, e, a:,uo o Oei-- cre d0 eiAl'!..fc a,.-, ui'u

ec _aft I ... 3ua p3?od cc- o re.a ;jido s.u ,.cies e -C ,-ra"a vveera ai-fc-,tir




e1p0':. 0 o 0. r'22 -iOuClOI Uo 11u2 10
8.;& 0T "."i \ 0T EGGL"

0s ,_ _. ,o- s de ex-periment-at<:o da'. .-,cci;;. ,3ao ;:ituacicfe a~o






c i Lt e para yi



o: e t ;,0ie1Ab...O c d ce
.... .....10 U 0 <. .A ~ 2 C Ee':r o iv .OC c > O:l -u-- 4,- 0





icido etelo s 0(pccttido aeppro;; 1t Udasd-b a. ncia peb:e: do h0ecct ao;

endo "I ez..eO; dez A rcS di-e a L-ru a c (3, L tro:',s cl no 1C)o

-,.a G'. --,e ...ics p+3zsadcos .s terreans f .-: cutivados e depois abalo0r-.0

dos, Ver zhcto -).-hia 1. D u rura. nte a eatag-o yecca do ultimo .annoa

p ... o. oeira foi destrui e as sauvas mort-as. i t e o c, _

Sar"adocon u. ar ado ..;,;- couil de ,", lbicco ea ,u ,ix, e reversivel"

coin o fi--ni de livrar mais ou *menos o_ s0lo das raizes e equenos .bos. ,-
fora dei--..-o: pel- tr ._. ores dura .te o destoca EraLen to., sc

da o' terreno ',.:i .^ i .: bb'aradc de discos 'Chattnoo_ 'a :, _versivel a






-2-

attingindo a profundidade .. iedia de vinte centiA etros, e depoi0s 0de

e tar co ooleto o se. -ico dos arados, foi u :;ado d .i, r ) -- aUra a

de disc .s. riaas vezes foi ncoceusario as-sar a jrade p:ara .u o 0teOreno

ficasse co p Ietauhente livre de todas as ra Izes e pedr s1. ina. 'jr1 te

uragade de denies foi passad sore tcdo ter..'.no con o pj)opos ito de
41
torna r ua supercficie r r i {1 par rce" Je- as s erent ces

I1iJIEAD9UIA i fi ei ras de arroz forax alianI.h, hdcas no -eatidLo

dr coIproilieUto do(s lotes e esT. adas c". cincoenta cCenti.e tros L os
\L ../ / / ., .. ,.. / ,, /
diaS -.s e -. o dae 'ovembr. (i923) o//.', '.._ ',/... / ..1 J 'ai/ Loi

feitaa pl. nta ao,, uando-se ,-- /t ria tadeira imaecI.anica a track, uao
ial, rca ..eriess Lulu". A pataLdeira foi re .ui.a.da de

aodo a dei:ar cahir du..ia so vez 1 a20 a.s de arroz e coa

o esiac. -_-to de trinti entire -.. eotre cad; se ieadura. as .aen es

fCr.., raceia.o de Scretacria de ..r ,-riuIltura e erarn de excellente

Slidade ..erziiativa, tendo do ddo en0 c;-- ova mais 91 antas do que

*uXS o .;cessrio. Fci eir.iare ru2a qeU ,.tid d db e seC entes cor--

reso ;o.i Gnte a t reze. ...s litros j-o a hectare I,.as aco s s C bes

de ac .t qualidade e c tr- o avoravel so0 i-ne e t e o, .',.,

dois tercos dessa uantid ae teria sido sufficient. 3 .de re no-tar

que na cultural de arroz se. irri, (odeve s esar mfaior rqu ntid d, de

semen.tes do que .-ando a cultural se ifaz -; irri o. Observa-se tan-

benao aser de absolute nece.:sidade o plantio e'i co0 0 erad.as;_ deste
otI r(n -o do 1C
ac:.._ cilital -. cultural e torna-se is facil a conserve .0 do c .c.

i .. tri- --i.. to de hervas damni. .-




-L d .a .-_-, -- .: ..i o .

..,. : i : -tc i .:.,, .i i .- L ,, ,: ,,- I C." *
-,7 ra-_. i ,'i tc,.: )- ...i ,-. 6 'i- l:.,..?t ..'. ,,.'. "' c _.-. ,_-:- I ..ca '._ '. -,e --..-i. t..r 41,_e







ol terr cOiise eobr e as C.e .easb *la. oiv C e
-oCC L"ii .: ........ (1t)v (2>i o ........
aL L 7s S L- e L e
L e ;en os uea ye s o xc s e-a1na .. >Q s :" .o ,sT i ve s s e s u'"'"cie-- -*e-

nE:r~te secco ?ax:ca^:^.e^:::ittir_ 0 p'iz.eiro .cnltivo 6-iriu "

dun ra2>Laz-e 14 a:nos durante uoi a .i dia, a c-ultiar dois Cleci os

Ce -eot e, As f ie ei Las e '.ain s fic'iien temeLnte ,- a....das. 02 it--

3~2 0 0. )1110121 c CJ.0 ( CibL...,
Ce,
t i u r.-A c t v d r a n l a ne ,s sa 6p o c ha. ,n "- Ba b e s "- a ^' ~

O..... a be: .: CL .a se titi e2 C tra, 1r de02 tro o cit es .
e_ culture. Depos .de feit? a D2 ieira culture. as oacas do cul[iv-du,

C C O J~i 0 C ) .~ ~ 2> .Z 3 0 I C. sc2 l ~ t 0 C C I t .
l a su,,batituiclas -el e tes .-raI -,ece:sarios 0.e t oi o ......c:: s

ce tIr a I.i o do a:ieS ,_ ... .z para o s .Co ec n CC.' ccc-ot u e se .tes
.C ij ti VOS ]e C ,C C 2 202>' > ~ .l ...02. ..
C7ltivcs. U, I V C en(2u 1 out'o Ct, L C 02r o c u ivado3r1e ,6 o 0 i

C)5.. l 0 ........- .7C .C O iC) Cl'U!... e 1 O 1JS0, 102 ;3e 0 (C .L: L C)CICO L J t ...J ,i'Uoi~
p .0 ittido ent no C i.po (_ es20e ( 6t(,o Ca ( u. r ate 1It coli cij o raer, as

0.e l>.: d. 2a dLs .g.. 6 0 lo Culti d0 C tiradaE a t0o"s
'.a:c~oat, eci aio a-aras eezes era cada -fi-feira, Iore quasi toros era0x deotruidas



c2 'o .v lC iiuL t en-, C L C 14 C1 e
.o e.o. s cultivG; V -e repARtArara ,f quLe

0 0 1 L av IuaVero de -antas ebenoe o u e s, .ii-'as, l, ,


-2>. e^rsfc Jl~^ ^ ^r ^a^L^o
L.. \ .. ..u...... =--' -'o t' S cc o j
.. o ,-e c
t -i n h a e' n e l r a d o -' .._ ._ 7. ..... ; ... ..
.......er --1 /- ', ... .. '_. .- -:-- as -l n a :-ai ard






iab 1 12 de o n do u adc uic YC0 ia eL;eLUn,, 1. S
1,1 I,., t ;1 C '




mol.os Poraiii feitas a mao e e 3n ,efluida tra ,ados oo :;'o ehz i',;eral..e. te os
e,,,]-2 t _,0 c < 1 .u1C....I 7c

Cequeo?. -d '" 'O-.'/o a,'r0-z Depois de e0a1em, oLC Ios bC'J seccos

e 1 ..0 0as e "I0edidcs. oA roduc-ao elevou-se a. qun ticdd. e

de c no mil quinhen1 ots l i .-., pj- hec t ar e d e ar ?-0z de oupe3 0,C r id
.....
r / (--" -' ''





-- --^ 4-- -
.. -.chinas 'neeessarias para a cul-

tura do a:Ic.2 pelo process que estamio t.,- tando, sao co. :arativaaenrte

oucasT-u u radio forte, um2:ade de disoosj umy -. .: de d;;ntes, uwa

pl cttdiera 3 i-n71ela e ura cultivadoao leave, sao s.ud as id Les-

.Pensaveis...

Todas, ou .-..-, .todas es tas ma.c i_-.., ja se- encontrami nas

k. endos. .. existindo, podeun -er adquiridas or pr,: _os f. .. '":.". ...

baixos, da -cretaria da Agricultura .ea '-ein o 'oriz nLI. -.hdo ellis

nece sarias para outras .culturas, .. o devem set consideradas como send

es. ci alImente para o arroz. Entret-..tto, s ei as machinas acimas referidas,

tornaLse quasi i.. csivel a cultural do -.'roz sem irri -....

arado deve 'er de .. o que. ,r-:zi revolve o sol,: ate

a pr .:....':':i'e de 25 'a cms. Um arado reversivel corn resi ;':.icia

necessaxria c. ser. encontrado em s'..:i..i todas as faze:...3 c,-. .'..C. A

-ade de discos .ev.f ter 8, 10, ou 12 discos corn 16 po~le. -1.os de "i.. etro

(40 centimetros). U' melhor uH os discos sej-,.- --cortados. A ..>?e de

denotes deve ter depositivo para se ,L_-.- i.cli,.,ar os de.les ou

coilocal .:: em s -c-i- o v r_: :i- i, CO... ,_,..:e .-c J :ej-..r, ura pi i... .. :i-.,
-. ... I I I U: 'U s i i

de nocee si. e .- l.; ;:3.." :. ..,Soz -, L o sera
.. .. ,-' : .' "U -: ,




/,
-t C '. I I, G ",'- L' '- ""
,71.',2 i "t o ir 'c p il .'J'."ir j.;i. c ^ n-o r ;."' ',-1 1 e ^... i.. i^ ".. .?'- i" i i '''."': '" :* L -' ^,] d-.;. o-K :.


: ... : ,.,. i'J ^ .-r .p.i i-.- .,, . ... .. _., '. ,.. i ,ui 42 Li L ... TI a
i ic.: C-J--r T L- ta LL J-1eo.) .
I;lnll l 4 C
L_--- i! L -1 ,L 111 .111, 1 L 1, I'D.--., 1 L 3 1 1 ,2 ,"I .- :, C' ,'. ,
>;r ..z.-:;; L I .:'.i ',.,o -er:, ,ie^[*u ,.i~ 1,. f tiro E t'; ,c. ::.^-. rio_ ,uri re:' .;- '., j. uraa'IL' t''.L.:_,,2
AO
*..i co _:.. : ._',,...e ..L Le, a-,-,.ro .r -i.-d .._ 'ra a .- ec-i .is A~ura o.o .u _" ,r:, a 0,.'-s -, L,.'. o
_.^ -. .e 0.-i.o '. ,_ ie,.tei,,e .,te 1 r-L O : .e ai.."o c. .: .7 i, .'e,.,.i ', a, f0 a.-.:,0 1-,c Z .


.: ,d': ",'%a e C : 1 .-t C ^._:, L-f 1 ] c i.i ,'i i- ..-.. .





- --
0 cultivador 1uito i to-ctate -t.achina, rque as 00lamtta-

9oces de arroz seo irrigacao dever ser cultivaloas em in.eorvallo. uito

curtos, desdeo que o tlerreno eI.teja sufficieotenente secco aara pe n,-ittir

U? an1ia o0u. liornenve 7,e autar a o e 7o, ( ).

0 cultivo a.r a cou o er'avao da lhuidade e o objective 1"is import a te

-,e se te:i en vi;:t'ca, 0or seremC as raises do arroz :Auito mais curtas
-^ '^ ,i --! e .^ a ^ r y a r ^ 9 & -C ^
Sneuos ..... .-,- .. .o ( mene r d---. to)

do__gue as de o0a"ros -pec0uenos 'raos. Iao *ncce.:;f3a0rio dizer que se 0 -

: vr.-:, :".-1-4---------.-- e, a. cLlturaat r e su2 'ado.

occasia 10o pa se exterrA"nar as hervo e, ;,. d ellas est. ..
;Iuito equena:s. A. con.c.dervaa CA o ds humidade o solo durante a2s boeves

alterna.tivqs de secca, ,T&.:-'o ... . .. ..... ..'......

l,r. lwoimens rei ani.aes deverao -4: l) .X ca., A" .._ estiver

lauito hul-iido, por que o s61o toruar-se-a .-a4-_ S cracto corn a cc ..ressao

.e o arroz nio -podera vegetar, ou veoetara irregularoasnte.-

ui cultivwdor de ma.o titer de ser us adp, o de tyvo
P e bo. refrio- 1. cultivador de tracgao animal o l!hor

typo sera umatlc--)iuadeira" 0 solo deve- ser cultivado a --.0s -1e- cia.-

miiente possivel, pa:a que nada o_ ;':f*rarm so.'frail as raizes. s raizes

do arroz nao penetramr tao pro fundarni ente cooo as de outros cereaes e

por ejta razao os cultivos teo. de 2 feitos cohi ixais fre1..-

es'! ecialien.te durante o o' 2 o eccc. Cor o culti--..-.or _'.., eces-

sa2i0o o t rabalho0 dUrw ,a.enino '"-,.tfze a:. -os durante tres ou quatro dias

para cultivar urn, hec -:-'e. ho rn -ode cultivar a ... area e.u

dois ou trees dias. \r -.. ..:i a tracoao anirLal u- 1 u b e u

cultiva hectare *or dia.

S13 1 i s e. a
: ,: 130 170 d i s ,.,e .-u ,de a "-




-6-
a-t e ,cha d c., r c iient os fc )aos. ..;e t e po oia n o s ., e

0 co v ac .ade -.1.t. a, c.s ... a oo a ,c Y :.idade de clo e .id

S.esent o os s qu ha au ci. de huid;j( "e, be. distribuida,
e b) A 0 ......
oa. iu c 0oi o o aJ2rroz a adureoera er, 2 be c Is f2u2tO d ea

*1 o u.e iresla, tS do fri, e dris a brios. 0 te 0oC de

se,.e.2 d.:ve se escolhido de accoicdo corn a variedade de arroz a pl -

de aodo a 0-e o radcito sa s a ciauva o

co2,0 Faer a e tiar. A eoch a di. antio Varir lcalidade
C. Eia.. 0 terreno p9a:ra recebeo o. ae <2, 6o -r..cd c.t

do cCoeco das ,..,b da _ao te; ua variedadco icrita d.- v.erz3.

ia ioss e.perient- ao decorreran 160 dia desde a d .. a eaua 0t o

torte,
.n -:' .J DA S '. .. *.. .

U .'-. das .laiores diffiol e cu ltur, de
arroz --. pec escala se ,,..-i e a r ossivel eOte s nte' etes L 7eja.

........................ -- ..., e to1d1-.-ia .a serio ob t.acuIo ra
Producodo ', COr successo zc. c ;ta, v 'zoes a .esma variecdade de,

aroz e c ,: ida con niome diversos c ..l. idades diffiferen-es, e oas
o que e -ior e que o ,esrao -.rv- aeja 'ida vriedddec feees
- o ta tep..'tanto, ,tod(. qu.e a
.o )c.'" to h o s que ': ": '. -- '- .. oa

variedade d:. c...cti-- de arroz, toiaIL nelli.cr otelui ,do d -. -"----,as
1;E ... .. Z ( /,3t$ ,i'
-.. -*.. te,-' .. ^ -:_ ^ ~- L __ -._-=._._-^ .__ : .. ...- ^ os la.=-,t */ / /', /'/,. .. .

Y ,1 '.. 2.LL '- ---- ---J Trl .
*1
*. -, T 4 C .

-- -. I







C-CC.l .;' C *..- -,.J 0*0y.? t):.0


0cust or litro Cl D o3u; c0 a e Lroz e ste* t'do

Li v 0 0 i-O~ -o c--e .0 0, cia ^ i 0 j O c ~ 2
'C C 0 -C r' 0i a -
o Z' a b d .

.ai c 0odos ,-C-,os con,'rve-.neuiao serc elle I .ieao.r do cuie u-I'I/ deciino do Or e 0o

&e ,-Sc dc .rroz .:roduzido aos brejos p l0o :ietiiodo cci-iiIun. 0 p'ego de
/^. #" ":*] .** t re "v,=
A .o.. o O0por li'.tro > entretto i pouo, ldo do cue C-... ra ...

Sou:tara seudo feita a u..ou.ao et s cal.a cci de '. -,

c'*."a t o/-das as '.ta:i a esoS)cialr ent ,darb e e w ..... i .. L
... C ............. ~ .. '. ..o
once -- j e_,co t e -Ilc d rnpal. cod a ei r 2.-c cidac .c ib c- t- c-C' C P as

no sa feliclid:i', e io .ssivel enconr fcr,-se ni!-ai es de 'I.e;c ..e-s de

sF3Is f1.L teis vantajosarnleitte situcados pra. a produce Cao de a., .oz0 .

....- .,_Ia, H res' de;0 hectar-:'e-s de vaap'ens al7as que i ,ood .n
)L 0.... L IO J o- c t~c c" OVO?"0....t _c
er ,s 2-r.ias iiiu0 b0st1a te para se -pos ivel a fs t.ei0os eaozerCU

a cu tura con iri: r 1 ia ao. J-( CJl, ,:as vaEr,1 .... p 'I ieii 1va- e te

3 (t c.a, a ctanOa d ... a c" cou' 11 3|s o caCe-, e -ctua.laielte u a si t cdas

CM- &
esCa)a- *e 's ou ab.-do cadas co)....t. ,de a o capoeiras. 0

p:i.e iro01.. 0 service' -, .A.. e feito na 0 2repa.r' o de:, C s ... v es pa. r .

1
c u oacaa di' arroz e reno.0veae tod.as as L, 1;i S z :o u s 3 oirucros

obstrcT' o e:.os QG de' forl& a a i'ejeil ser u,--ad-cas a;; .ci.in, a ao 3
0) 1.0 02 0 021.a ..2 20.2 ....< ccA) .1? 2.3..AaJ. 2I { 21CC O Wa ,3.

2ri2o le quebrara a-se e c, a e. L.:t a..o satisfa torio. c. uto doc

t caii ato varia de acccQcido Co aV Ue 'et, a..o que se et-o cct2rar no

-. a e -( ,.ne d e pod.er e te se r ivo se2 feito co i .ais econoao ia

iuraate a, es -a, ao s ecca, auado os tra. ,allckores -, 'fazendas tao

lae-sn occ., .' .. o coraeco di eta ao chuvosa as va2'rLeOs 2ode00

s0r arad{s re tocrtadis ed,.' .:, ...l- -, fia 0do -pro, p -t ) pa,ra a

20s0C a..i aur
,,1, / .'..-...i"4
S Oi.Xv-'C&'^'-,. a.i "i ~







."-- ---- ~Veo --- '' o lo ,
... .... e rc,-iO t ,oes da -',scol", ie. e dcle cCada Lotq .

foi tratad, corn diffe:ents esees 2cs Cde adubos. t ...o da

col Ieita, ae.Ioett ., a. a.. diffe2renca eintr'e as etades cue recebera-c os

2adubos e as ours que nao os receberaH, foai tao insignuificate qc ue
^assTavr desaa cL)id para pessoas I m. a :'.'.. cohl a cultural do
_cIL -a2 .D...iJ' ,..
1;-r OZ. Is t.0 c ~ -a oe tc a cQuoCC.)

::, -.-"-a ,..-;-B no c)io d L cola m e oi feita a e: erirentaiao

a cujo ferltilidade e_.,ta abailxo j.eudia o te.rre'r.no e iufi iciente-ente

prcductivo p.2a3a msE:X dar boa co ieita cde mariioz ser ad-cld.. de

quA..lq,:er adubo .
~c( ,' _/ : ;

I. 0 resuItado da expr rimentacao cdestoe a duvida de oder

ser- o a rroz cult vad o e cas Geraes sei necessicdade de iri c. -1o.
2. Zona da .tta e:iste uitg 1D llbars. de hiectabres.
~ ,' ).a r a o
de va.rogens lvao app"roveitad-s V que .sao prop ,s .para cutura d.

.rroz porf ese ro ehtiodo. L

3 ,:ictualiaente a Zona d.i tta iu.porta muito -,ailh,.res de

*tonela(s de aroz de outurocs .tado aendo oa consu-idores 0obrivados

a enriquecer outras re'i es e ao to de frcetes nuito elevadcss.

Si o dinheiro des-pendido corn a co .i..s annual de arro'z oara o nosso

cG-asumno ficasse nesta zona, poderiam os 'fazenudeiros corn tao avul i.

#X sora Icontruir z casas, e .nelhO .rar .uitas lkiloi-ietros de
a e
e0strad.ps de J2o(: :e';.





I i
Vista partial cldoi campTo de experpiment-. r, da --scola Superior
de Aj:ricultursa, e eterinaria, .. antes de ser road
e destocado.
2. Vista ( eral dos cau-pos de ,,pe"rimenta.ao. A' oreita- arroz. A.
es :erda'- a ao1'cL- 'ce-se que o terreno e alto e ber- dren.oldo.
es c..erita E allao se no
3. Fileiras de a'rroz da colheita B de se notaram as
grandes fendas _roduzidas pelo resecc'.: L.nto do terreno.
4. Vista geral duma plant .,o d a rroz ,Lri.. vargerqelevada e
possuindo agua sufficient 1ar a ir risacao. A photograp.h ia foi
tiradca e- Silvestre, na fazenda de -. -*. A.





t /Hills of rice before the time
of harvesting. Note especially
large crack in the soil due
to drying out.




I
*' "Fi *-,, ,.,.: ex?} .* irae t ,' :- 1 L S
.,".i 2Q ot t :- cx._ ".-,'.t a t .I .t. ,i. r,0 *- .i.
1 Li-...., ;. 1 i ,i. .. .1.w ei ;' .






A view of the experi.menit grounds of
S the ..co l 'u ej r de riojl';lrar
jb.re 1 n!.;








A ne eral ovi o. c- :u.L rice Il. zn .igh :... ;ciAi
where su, fi c ie, it ,:' ij.'11 LI .- :.c't,;s i.'
P120 b-o ri^r '-i'i C AR C i ;'1- t v.l' I rI 'n V.3 c- .*r: Oj: or y A'-I
Sr ?1", ,{)cl !... o
IV







RICE WITHOUT IfIG'\TION

t 6., by
) B Dr. iI. Rolts,b Director,
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria
do Estado de iinas Geraes,
Vicosa.



The present article hau. been prepared to call attention

to the fact that nearly all the faszendeiros in the .ona da Latta ot ^1-

n-3:s Goraes can grow rice without the necew-ity of irrigation. It is not

universally !ino,-n that thiL is p)osible. *Lice Las been urorwn for raore

than a century in ..rusil but dnly during thc last decade or tr-:o has a

Sufficient a.iount been xoduced to enable uis to export this cereal.


:X;ELU^i'.S AT Ti-W t.uCIA

The experiment grounds are located by thie side of the

leopoldina ;.ailway, The soil is composed largely of clay, nith a more

or less sandy admixture. The vargem on -which the exyeriinents are con-

ducted is a level tract of land, sloping sufficiently to allow the .n-,ter

to run off during the rainy season, see Vhotogra-Lh 1Q 2. ater never

stands on the surface of tLe soil. A correga nearby is froja si:- to ten

meters below the level of the exieriment"grouni

The experiment field is divided intr; plots containing

ajproxim tely one-tenth hectare; eich Iplot bein,-g ten ieter:s; iide and

nearly one hundred long.

Years -tgo this l.tnd was in cultivation, and then was aban-

doned (see Photograh 1. i) ). DUring the dry season of last year the field

was cleared of the second growth grubbed, and the sadvws killed. Later

it was loved vi th an ordinary reversible plow in order to free the soil

more or less of the roots and small stumps that had been left by the

laborers in grubbing. Then it was thoroughly plowed vith a Chattanooga

reversible disc plow to a depth averaging 25 cms., and heing completely





-2-

brollen up by means of plows was cultiv ted -'ith a disc h..rrow. several

harrowings were necessary in order that all roots and stones .'riioit be

removed., finallyy a soothing harrow was passed over the plots to p.re-

pare the surface well for receiving the :.eed.

SEEDING. The rows of rice ^ere laid off lengthwise of the iplots
fifty centimeters apart. On Novnember 3"Yr~. 4" (l9;23), the hills .'ere

dropped thirty centimeters apa,.t in the row, Fifteen to twenty grains
- are dropped to each hill. Eh- work was done by using a mule and a

",erless LLluj P1..nter". The seed had been received fr.-m the ecretaria

,.e A,; icultura arid \',as of hii-h ger,inating quality, so ,-ave up .iore plants

to the hill t-at w e-e needed. h-'bout 32' liter;a of seed -er hectare were

used, but with the hi,,h germrinating qua.liiLy of the seed, and the favorable

eQather, ore' h.'lf to t',o thirds of that amount would have been sufficient.

It should be noted, ho;-.7ever, that in growing rice without irrigation, it

is ii.,o.ta.nt to em-.loy mture seed than i: used under irrigation. It is

also advisable, although not absolutely necessary, to plant tLe rise in

hills. This facilitates cultivation.as w.,ell as seeing the field faez

free fr--.ci veeds.

CULTIVATION* ,s soon as the rice geriiinated a "-, llauet Junior"

h-.nd ;plow was u-.ed for cultivation, "t fir.t this ,*.as ujed %aith the

blades to prevent earth from falling on thie seedlings. The cultivations

were continued at least once each week whenever the soil vwaa iufiiciently

dry to );ar!Jit. the first cultivation re.,uired t.iie ,erviees of a fourteen

year old boy for one and a half oays, to cultivate the two tenth hectare*

The rows were far etiouclh apj.rt to justify tin uuea of the mule cultiva-tor,

but at that time our a-imal was nct ji.ifficionLly well trained to permit it

to enter the plot.
afterr th, first cultivc.tion, thle blades were t-ah-en from the

cultivator and the teeth substituted. For the second and later cultivations






-3-
it usually required from six to nine hours for a P urteen year old boy.
ITo ether i:jLplement than the hand cultivator was ueritted

to enter the field after t,-e time of seeding to the tir-e of harvesting.

Those .:2eds that could not be re,?cl.ed by the ploAw eore pulled up by

li-':nd, but only a few occurred in each rcvz, 1his ,-..s due to the fact that

nearly all vjere. destroyed wvile they :.ere still in the seedling state.

Thc caltivations were continued until a considerable number of the

nl.nts sho,,,ed 'esi.Ias .
TIT.' .U.-E,.'T. At the time of the maturing of the rice (see

hotograi, -_ 3) the dry weather had coruiienced. For the later maturing

plants it would I've been better to have continued the cultiv tions for

a ;eek or t.,o lon.er. The r:.cconapanying *hotogra0h slowingr the rice

n:-:_,'ly ready for cutt.ing also shows by the 1 -rge cracks in the soil that

it was very dry. The rice was cut April 11" -.nd 12" by mL.an. of a taovw-

ing nr.chine. It was g-athered by hand, and then treated as is ordinarily

done in small rice plantings.

".hentha Zeedo x'ere thoroughly dried and cleaned they

vxere weighed and measured. The yield was found to be at the rate of

5,,OO liters per hectare of first class, heavy grains,

FEiTILI.-ATIOMi. In the experiment at the -:.cola one half of

each plot was treated to different kindk-z of fertilizers. At the time

of the harvest, hc'.;ever, the difference bet'-jeen the halves which re-

ceived.the fertilizers and the halves not fertilized ,.ias so small that

those accustomed to seeing rice grow were unable to say whish was which.

This indicates quite clearly that even on the particular field at the

-jcola where the experiment was conducted, and which is below the

average in fertility, the soil is sufficiently productive to yield

a good crop without the addition of fertilizer,





-4-

I'TLE NEMTS

The implenients necessary to -rcv? rice by this Viethiod are

com-L:ratively fev",- a strong plow, a disc lhrrow, a stebl harrow, a one-

rou seeder, and a ii,_ht cultivator are all thiat are ind&.pen-iible.

All, or nearly all of these i:le-.&nts will be found on

the oiddern i-Ai2etnda. If not, they may be purchaed at re.,arkably low

.rices froi the -ecietary of agriculture e in IDllo Horin rnte. They are

needed for the production of other crops and so should not be considered

as esc cially fi.r tihe rice. iIo,..ever', without these i.pleOentr, the Y.ax

production of ride i.itlout irrigation will be ,liu at iti.)ij:.ible.

The type pf plow used should be such that it ca.,n1 turn the

soil to tie depth of 25 to 3- crfi. A reversible plow sufficiently strong

will be f-und on early every modern n fd e.nda. rlie disc Iy.rro\a should

have 8, 10 or 12 discs of 16 inch divmetar*, "he castaway tyre is ,,refer-

able. The steel harrow should be such that the teeth can be adju-ted to

either a sloping or an erect position. A one-row seeder dro.wx by an ani-

rmal is a necessity. If an atteq;.t is made to plant the rice by hand, it

will be dune irregularly a-id so riuch of it will bu covered i perfectly

that the result will be disappointing. -uch :-in imple-ieent as is used for

corn, beans, and other small grains will be suitable, Nearly all of

these machines haive a blank disc. If so, holes may be bored into this

disc to m.-ke it. appropriate for planting rice. T'he holes bored should

be sufficiently laree to drop eight to ten ;rains of rice at each hill

and to drop A1ese hills about fifteen centimeters apart.
The cultivator is a very i.:por int iraplemeit since rice

grown without irrigation must be cultivated at very shortt intervals

whenever the land is sufficiently dry to pcrnhit an animal or a man to

pe form the operation. The cultivation for the conservation of moisture

is the most important end in view, since the roots of the rice plant





*-5-

are. Ver'y much shorter and less vigorous growing than those of the other

s8n114,l grains. It is of course needless to retrrk that if v'eeds are allow-

ed to grow the crop ,;ill fail. The proper ti.ne to kill the v/eeds is .iien

they are in the s,-eflling sto.;e, The iLiportance, however, of conserving

the soil moisture by shallow cultivation dor in. brief dry spells cannot

be overe-sti.f ted. :ut either man nor. animal should be permitted to go

on the land when it is too et, or the soil will be so compacted that tie

rice will not be able to j-.row, or will grciw very irregularly.

If a hand cultivator is used, one of the "Pli.int" type is

good. Xf a horse cultivator is used, one of th-e C_..'inadeira" type is

best. The scil should be cultivated as shallowly as Possible so as to

leave the roots undisturbed. The roots of t1he rice do. not penetrate as

deeply as do those cf the otnier cereals and fcr this reason the cu&tiva-

tion ,aust be peiforrmied raore frequently, as, ccially during the dry A'rBather*

.ith a hand cultivator, it will take a 14 year old buy about three or

four days to cultivate a hectare, A i-.1- should cultiv:,te the :-t."me space

in about twj to tiraee days. Uith a !:iule nlrd a caGinadeira a man c',n cul-

tivate a hectare in a day.

T I'E OF S-EDING

nice requires frcon 130 to 170 days frl lI the time of ger.ii-

nation -,ntil the seed is '.;oturej The time varies not only vith the vo.riety

-planted but also vith the >. iount of heat and ril ;t..re resent. In y.ars

,';hen there is an abundance of moisture, well distributed, and much sun-

shine, the crop will maLure in a shorter tin.e than during the years when

the rains are unevenly distribu.-ed and when there is riuch cool mnd cloudy

weather. The tirfe of seeding should be so chosen that the particular

variety of rice planted will ni--.ture after the rains hive ceased, or when

they are beginning to diminish. This will v-ry in different localities.

Of course the land must be prepared for seeding before the rains begin.





-6-

zachncormiunidy or section has a favorite variety of rice. This year at

the 2.cola it was 160 days from' the time of sowing the rice to thie time

of cutting,

PURITY OF SEED

One of the greatest difficulties encountered in the culture

of rice on a srtill scale iX that it is almost possible to obtain Seed

ti .t is pure. This is not surprising but nevertheless a serious obstacle

in the successfulproduction of rice. often the same variety of rice is

knowm under different names in different localities but still vworso is

the f-.ct -that the s.m-e nr-ne is often applied to different varieties of

rice. It is important, therefore, that everyone who succeeds in getting

a good yielding variety of rice takes the best possible care of the seed,

so that a pure strain will be .,erpetuated.

CO. T OF PRODUCTION

The cost -.er liter of producing rice by this riethod, v.hen

oalcul ted in the --liount of labor required will be fund to be rerikarkbly

low. It Tvill be found to be less than one-te-.th of ih:.t it coat., to pro-

duce rice by the ordirary methods. in thle brejos". The. cost of productionrL

per liter will, hoeverer, be asor:.ewt.t 7 .ore than it is to produce rice on

the large plantations ,where especially adnapted machinery is used for all

operations and where the irrigation system has been laid out 17ith mathe-

BiBtic:-1 exactitude, Fortunately for us it is possible to find thousands

of hectares of fertile soils suitably situattedl for t' e gro ing of rice

without irrigation. There sre thous-ands of hectares of high vargens that

cannot be 4;plied with sufficient wan.ter to enable the fa.en.eiro to ,rov

rice under irrigation. 3o.m of these varf-enu were for'i'erly pl n'Ced to

sug -rcane, others to coffee, nnd now they are abandoned to pastures, weeds

and second growth.





-7-
The first steps necessary to prepare these high vargens

to produce rice is to remove all roots, stumps, and other obstructions, s80
that the Liproved achinery may be safely and profitably used. The cost

of accomplishing this ,ll vary according to the nature of the vegetation

on the field. Fortunately this work can be done must cheaply and effect-

ively during the dry season, when farm labor is not fully employed. At the
beQ'inning of the rainy season these vargens may be plowed, dished, and har-

rowed, ready for seeding

Cfr..CTA.IIOfS

1). The results of this experi;,ent show beyond the question
of a doubt that rice can be RW in .rinas ,eraes without the necessiiF

o4 irrigation.
2), In the Zona da N'tta of this state there are r'any thousands

of hectares of vargei.j lands nov unproductive that are suitable for the

growing of rice by this method.

3) '.t ijresent thous.-tndu of tons of rice are shipped into
the .ona da utta froj.L other states, compelling the consumere not only

to help enrich thoSe states, but &.1o to pay heavy transportation charges.
If kept here, the money annually spent to buy rice would enable tae fazen-

deiros cf this xant zone to build many houses and improve ?,ony kilometers

of roads.




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E7Y16TFL0_J63Y5M INGEST_TIME 2014-04-10T02:30:22Z PACKAGE AA00000207_00089
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES