Report on Agriculutral problems in Minas Gerais.

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SLetter of 'iansmittel A
lt


h 1im4-' fnr.
L'=r. Ljja-ira kinner-o riagas, M. D. -ecrLtario de "gri-
heuetaL d.i Agricul tur-a,
be, wt eriz.jnt et.'ia ,1a. flerass.

.audad'es resneituoss.


I. iLovemb-r, lw-9, in cori'f--.nce .ith V. Excia
/
it was suggested t'-,at I preparee rad egE gener.-:-l re:ort,


including redorm:enaatioo.n dealing '6viitln the agriLuItur.il better-


ment of tie itate of rin.-.


The brief discussion h-re.ith ,-resented has been :.re-


o.red neither to extoj the glorious past of this grzat. cre, .
D6
u9,'n which volumes could be written w'.ithiut l:eing. ade.uae.t ,


nor to disparage the i..resent manly efforts that ma- uing uade


b; her noble statesmen wl.. are v.:ili*ittly and u-,selfishly


ti'Lu gg]ing for a better and a more gz rious sinas.


I wish to cy,.iain chat this vw.ork positively hlias not


feen pce&a..i for Lioii tion, ut i th the speci vie'A f


pre.entti-g cons trLic Live -riticism, useful to the .-nr. -ec-ret:irio


de a-g-ic:ultura *n to a fe'.v other loyal statesmen oDf ILinas


.ih:, k.i-Las not, i sLice; l.y trust, -onsid er any of the criticisms


as unduly -i--sh. y only desire is to be of service.


The observ. t.ions here r'e.orded are the results zf nine


years of study and active work in -inas, during Mhich time I


nave stinted neither myse..f, m-y time, my m:,ney, or my energy


in doing what has oea-n nossi ie for me to aid in the advancement


of the ctate. The enormous difficulties and discouragemiente







encounter red have been appreciated oy very few vineirans, I am


v;ell aware,,. My part in the agricuLturW.jl etter-merit of the


State has been to "help 2ineirans to help themselves". I wish


especially to record here my deep gratitude and personal


affection for the founder of the Escola superior de Lgriculture


e Veterinaria do Estado de inas Geraes, q Dr. Arthur da bilva


Bernardes,. whose kindly consels, unbounded interest and


enthusiasm in the work, his patience, and above all, sympathy,


have been one of my chief sources of comfort in the lonely,


arduous and frequently very discouraging work.


In concluding i wish to state that the translation of


this report from the Lnglish to the Portuguese was made by my


daughter, *iarissa Rolfs, and the Portuguese was corrected by


Professor Humberto Bruno, Cathedratico de Horticultura e


- omicultura da i'. 6. A-. V. Both are hereby tendered my heart


felt thanks for their unselfish and painstaking labors.


With deepest appreciation of the kindly sympathy


received from the ion. 6ecret&ry of Agriculture during one of the


most difficult and perplexing quadrenniums of Lini, I am,


Very sincerely yours,





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soldiers) was exceedingly dangerous to a monarchy. iLocal


initiative was even worse and must be curbed at all hazzard. The .


more severely jhe slaves and serfs in europe were depressed .'_


the more easily they could be governed. When this submerged
_49

class became too numerous or too turbulent fa. wie for pillage '.
.* "-'*'*


was made on a neighboring nation. burope was the most enlightened'-


and civilized portion of the globe and the only place from .


which our educated and ruling class could draw inspiration and


ideals.


In North america the situation was as nearly reversed as possE-


ble. The colonists from Virginia northward were almost entirely .,

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of the anti-monarchial type. For the moet part they were


religious out-casts who were classed as undesirable citizens and


criminals from various European nations. Thus cut off from


,uropean dominance they had to rely on local and individual


initiative for self preservation. The powerful and hostile inidan


nations threatened their extermination. The necessity


of self- preservation brought about a high degree of cooperation


between the individuals of a colony and also a cooperation between


neighboring colonies.


&o far I have not SB read a clear exposition of the evolution


which has produced the present civilization of rrasil. in the


first place we must not overlook the fact that -Drasil and the


"rasilians are predominantly peaceful, nonagressive and lovers of


art and literature. -They have never carried on long and brutal -


wars and have been singularly free from sangivary brutalities often..
A.

practised in nearly all the other colonies of the Americas. -


The fundamental difficulty originates in the ideal type of -


government, which stifles local initiative and cooperation. It also'...


discouraged the colonies from cooperating with one another There "


was no need for it,- the central government did every thing,---


provided police, protection, co.lected the reeeiue, constructed -

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public buildings, provided public roads and did everything that was .-


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0.1' A thought to be advantageous to th '" p;
s t: the people T at.
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so populous and the governing class so numerous that even th -

so great hearted and beneficent a ruler as Doam Pedro II lost his:;"I].

throne. The monarchy had failed to keep up with the progress .


of civiiattiann. The highly centralized form made it an easy
-1.
conquest for a relatively small numee to accomplish the over- .

throw The independent thinkers af the country saw clearly ;
a majority ..
that the great/of the population were simply serfs with no
V.'--

ppssabiiity of rising above it. A country in which those favored ..

by the government grew in opulence and the poor grew poorer. :

This young republic, only forty years old, has made marve-

lous strides toward the democracy which its founder had

clearly in view. it inherited the traditions of a monarchy,-

tactfully modified toward a democracy by a tryly democratic

empreor,- hence the transition from empire to republic was

without bioodsnied, an evolution and aot a revolution.





















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?7 After more than eight years of experience with the people of

Minas, ranging from the Presidents of the otate to the laborers

in the field, I can see no, essential temperamental difference

between them and the similar grade of society in Florida. In

Minas we encounter the same difficulties tha t were encountered





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.'- there during the pioneer days of agriculture. My experience for a ..,

.,. .year and a half with students in the 6scola Superior, proved to me

c;" c.on'tlusiveiy that they react to the same stimuli as do the students
*. ... ." .*
,,. : in Florida. There is a difference between a Mineiran and a Paulista ;

-. '2 or a Bahiana. There is more or less difference between a kloridian
'..- and a .A.ew orker or an Iowan. .

An Angls-Saxon Illustration. I"
-.*. \. .** ......

pfV There is another illustration much more forceful. At the close:

of War of Secession in North America there were a considerable -
-:.,.-.:. ;" .* ..*- -. -.. -* -.:.i

-'""" .number of people in the South to whom the subjugation h the i^orth .
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7 '' became unendurable and so they emigrated to other countries. One ...
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S:. contingent of these people settled in the ktate of .'&o Paulo, where

0" they found a beneficent government and a most congenial social con-
,S B. .,..

,,-'.:dition. They could own all the slves their financial condition <"
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.. permitted and could worship God according to'the dictates of their "

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own consciences.AH In fact the empire guaranteed and gave them all :.
'.!. *. i':
; the liberties that they could ask of any government. They were .'.4
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of Anglo-Saon extraction. Did they prosper prodigiously and mi ..ke *1


an :extraordinary success in agriculture ?klhey did.not! Their, ,, :

agriculture and their surroundings today in Villa' Americana are a .*
.'" .' ""'f a "f'.^"-
.,.-.. the same as any other prosperous and enlightened community. And tlt&.....
.* *.-, .. *,

:. after two generations to prove their greater aptitude for agriculture',,'
. '^ .;: s

if such a thing existed, as some writers affirm. About the only -i
*.. difference that one notes is that there are among them a larger *:,y

'. percent of people with a light completion and light coloured eyes. -:.

... N ot one of the foregoing illaatrations can be denied. Taken ".'

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-v. together tha" Ejow clearly that race origen has very lutle ihnfl-ueace.....

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on the development of agriculture and civilization. A race with two

thousand years of civilization back of it is certainly more capable

of sdlf government than one that has had only two centuries or

less for a background.V Education of the masses and inciting them to

personal initiative are te fundamental steps that any state must

take to become prosperous and to advance in civilization. jMy conten-

tion is that it is of highest importance that the attitude of the

government, the dominant class, should oe such as to oblige the

masses, the recessive class, to iCitiate and do things for them-

selves. If the masses are illiterate and uneducated and are left

to themselves, they will bot progress, but rr degenerate. ^t

If the riiemtnis over paternalistic the masses lose the power

o| 'self-maintainence and become obligatory parasites. I have said

before, that a beneficient monarchy is the most efficient form

of government,but it stifles personal and local initiative. The masses

become indolent and unprogressive corresponding more or less to the

degree of absolutism of the government.

The states in -Orasil have become more self reliant and many

cities in Minas are learning to do things for themselves. Private
and community initiative is not wanting, ]but needs to be carefully

fostered.

The point I want to make is that the backwardness in -inas in
I! .\
education and agriculture among the masses should nart be ascribed to

race origem but rather to a lack of education and training-.


as some writers, both Brasilians and foreigners affirm and
apparently do not seem to be denied)







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human "aste ( L". "


The greatest waste that occurs in "'inas today is the waste
*

of human ift life Emand effort. This waste has its foundation in


the illiteracy of the masses and is a direct result of the


empirical government which inhibits education among the wzs*


and stiffles local initiative.


Medical men sent out by the Federal. government have frequently .


aIaeeid attention to -the tremendous loss of time from sickness
-* '-. .
and death sue to disease's that are easily prevented. They tell


us that in the -'-tate of "inas, among the :1t t-masses it is


almost impossible to make any perceptible improvement. They meet wit1'


all sorts of local opposition in place of encouragement and support.^
".-f
The ma.sses know little or nothing about the most elementary princi.-;


".. ples of hygiene and it is impossible for them to comprehend its --

B -" -
importankce. In war it is an axiom that a wounded enemy is pre- ,
.'

ferable to a dead one, because the wounded enemy requires the att- '


mentionn of one or two additional men in the army. In the case of


sickness among the laborers, riot only is the time of the sick .


!-,zrson lost, but he also requires the attention of others of the

.1
family to nurse him back to health. Vvhen the disease hat progressed -.


to the ficurable stage a doctor is at times consulted or called ..;:


for. 'tMoie frequently a pharmacist is consulted by.:somejther persa
r. .: *: ^

than the one who is sick.1^ .0 ".A.M. *-W
thn one who is sic.The distress occasioned by this I.,

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ignorance is beyond comprehension. .-he financial loss to the_

agriculture of the Otate of Minas is incalculable. -I

second lamentable taste of human effort lies in that of


laborers s139 have t= competent disAoeta. The feitores are .
iLn /rQ, Pqa-4'W

educated and frequently illiterate. They are docile and servile. :
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A cupcrintondant dooe not get along wol. with. a fFe tar who shows A
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'n3;itiativye aad~ muuww moro atbo'lt kkaxni the work than dcles |


the admni trder- Such a man, in case of a crises is likely to -,


displace his i,=+'' i 1 superior, consequently h-s superior is


jealous of him. (The Mkineiran has no monopoly on this feeling, it is---.
...

human nature.) Likewise the feitor is jealous of any laborer who .


manifests an aptitude for becoming a feitor. As a result of this -.
'"2

unconscious selection for the unfittest, during many generations,


our agriculture has remained primA.tive. Very frequently the


owner of a fazenda has other interests- that compromise his entire ,-
.*.. .'.',

attention. hie knows little or nothing .about agricultural economics. Z


All he cares to know is what are the gross receipts or gross sales.


He does not know whether his superintendent is efficient or


inefficient. When the cftses comes, as inevitably it will, reorgani- -


zation or bankruptcy results. Usually the first syePAis to reduce the'".


wages of the laborers and tnereby retain only the less efficient.
\ .-",.

It is a common sight in Minas to see men, women and -
'-* : :: :

.. children hoeing coffee, cane-or corn, while ox.n and mules are

'--fl:.vl 1 I..;aw..i an mule ar
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fattening in the pastures adjoining-. Often the administrator or- -:.


superintendent knows that work done by implements is more eco- -.
AA
nomicaR anct efficient bt.., tt -. ,,..he is absolutely helpless to *


inaugurate such a system. They thbmmselves are unable to teach -
-,.

their subordinates the use of tjmax even the simplest implements ::


and to employ someone else for that purpose would disorganize ,
^8


their whole laboring force and system. ,


Most of the old time superintendents who have been obliged to .:
..
try outt faim implements, consciously or unconsciously ruip the


implements or do ruinous work wtth them. They see at once that w -


the introduction of mew methods and improved implements, their .


former positions would lose their importance. If he directs


two hundred braqos" he is mBS much more important in his own


eyes and in the eyes of his HmpmaWxm employer and the employees I
-'...':*

than one who directs only ten or fifteen braqos, altho ten
.. .


or fifteen Aith agricultural implements could dothe work of


two- hundred enxadeiros. The feitor who directs ten tuaxkxx hoe hands'


would consider himself forever disgraced to be seen teaching a laboxQi]


how to drive a mule and guide a cultivator, et he alone, with


a mule and cultivator, could do as much or even twice as much .
-i.
work and much better, than the ten men with their hoes. .

CL- C^-T~e-p-T ktp^o ^^^.&-
When we were preparing the campo experimental at the Pscola :'


a young^t and intelligent Lineiran was in chwtge of the field d "
_. ",* "..' .'j








He took nineteen menaid a feitor with enxadoes to prepare


the field. There were oxen% and plows on hand but they were


entirely useless to him. He was working for the state and


considered it very degrading to .... y hf ,, ip nt..-


ihe otate wanted the work done, therefore the I-Itatei must provide
A

the trained laborers.Soon after a disc reversible plow, a


team of oxen a boy and a native who had never before seen a


disc plow, were taught by the -irector of the Q4e how to use


the implement. This plow did more thorough work and turned the


soil deeper than did the enxadoes and in addition prepared nearly


.twice asx the area in a day. The field foreman was privately Very


much displeased. iis department lost a large crew of men and was.


reduced more than a hundred mil reis per day on the labor pay


roll. The plowing was done by an illiterate countryman and his


son, who knew how to drive oxen and who was considered an inferior


by the field superintendent. In the end the -scola lost the


services of the field foreman and saved more than a hundred milreis


for each days plowing. 'here were also nineteen laborers and a


feitor who were very much displeased by the innovation.
OL -" PAA A <
In 1929 at the "scoila it became necessary to haul a consider-


able number of tons of sugar cane to the railway station. hs the


car (railway; had to be loaded without delay, available


means of transport were pressed into service. These included CL^*









a four-wheeled wagon, (North xmerican type) with a team of small

mules and ba.ox cartl,.such as are usually employed in Minas

for transportation. One man drove the wagon and mules, while

it took a man And a boy for ii team of oxen and cart. The team

of mules hitched to the wagon e'&ail=y vw........ times the amount


of cane drawn by t- xen. -he team of muiesl made .. trips md

rny jr in the time it took the oxen to make t*j trip. This simple


demonstration whows that one man with a team of mules hitched


to a wagon can do as much asiA4/. men aria. axhz 144V. boys with


ox carts. -Or putting it in another way,- the Kzx local prince for

the work of the man, bo, and ox cart is--.-.therefore, the


work done with the man, wagon and mules saved the zscola.A'*.A...

for every day's wor. (The above datewas supplied to me by ir'rof

Diogo A. keilo, Prof. of Agronomia in the L. S. A. V.)

The Escola( has) for three yearsold citrus mudas of the


finest fia and mudas of a quality never before offered for sale


in this state- oome of these were sent to the z.scola Agricola


de Lavras, having to travel over three railway lines to reach


their destination. To get them thru to -'avras, x it was necessary

for the I-'irector to petition a friend at Juiz de -bora to receive


the mudas from the -L.eopoldina Railway, xm transport them to the

central l RailwayA, less than a hundred meters away, and despatch them

tolrbacena. TBx d s had to petition another friend at -
'* *. '


4 ..










barbacena tp receive the mudas from the Central Railway and des-


patch them from the Oeste Oation. This was a great waste of time


for the Director, his secretary, and two friends. A loss'-ithe


State of kinas greater than the price of the mudas. ouch obstacle


make the promotion of nurseries by private individuals almost


impossible.


When we sent two hundred mudas to Riarianna, the Archbishop



had to send a man to ronte ovg to transfer the plants from the


Leopoldina to the central Railway, which was a waste of time and


an annoy-.nce for the Archbishop and for his employee.


Two years ago we made another shipment of mudas to a city


in the western part of the State of 'inas. Near the end of the,


transportation a flock of sheep were loaded in the same car in


Which the mudas had been paced. Enroute the hungry animals
I

voraciously devoured the mudas until not enough was left to


even justify planting them.


To make it possioie for a carload of dairy cattle to be sent


from bello orizonte to viq-osa, without unloading,


eez it was necessary for the President of the geaat state, pre-


siding oVe Sight million people, to take his valuable time to


have an order prepared for the transfer of the car from the


Central to the Leopoldina railway. This was an utter waste of


time for a man in his elevated position.


.-..














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abusee :
*The U69g of Inefficienty.


The foregoing illustrations have been taken from actuql


occurrences in Minas,. They/illstrate the costly penalties that
i^ ;|
the present generation kaxxk ha-*e to pay for the unprogressiveness'
1

of their predecessors. They show toohtiat agriculture is not the


only industry that is burdened by an antiquated system. However,
A
agriculture suffers more than any other. Her production is by, f :r


the most important resource of '1inas and is relatively perishable.


%uick saxax and safe transportation are essential to the continued1


existence of the farmers.
.1

The great railway systems of the State do not cooperate


in transporting even very valuable livestock, excepting on pe- '"


tition from the President of the orate. The employees of the


railways, either through ignorance or thru irresponsability, '


mill permit valuable shipments to perish in transit. The' reason .-


is simple, the salaries of the employees remain the .same and


Le has almost no prospects of being promoted, so' he remains


indifferent. If he prove efficient and aggressive he is in constant#


danger of arousing jealousy among his fellow workers or in


his immediate superior's.
reslte cenral
BThRA- wli-c c situation resulted from highly central- '


ized government which fell under its own weight in 1889. Under


this regime the government was everything ani the


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individual nothing. Absolute subservance was the means of


self preservation. So we should have compassion on the laborer, 2.


the minor director-, and even on many of those in higher positions. I


They have never been taught efficiency or cooperation and their



initiative instincts have remained dormant, always aw waiting for .


someone higher up to tell them how, when and what to do.

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Economic Difficulties .


The 0tate and national government are passing through

who
financial difficulties. Every one/has given thought to


the matter knows that it is because the expenditures are


greater than the-rever.ae, and hence financiers, both national


and foreign, are afraid we will be unable to redeem the pledges :!
4-

at face value. The Federal Government has attempt4 to meet '4
D

this difficulty by issuing paper currency. The North American


government attempted to meet her deficit during and after the'


Civil War by this same means, with the result that it took


two dollars' and ninety cents of paper money to buy one of


go0A >In the decade of 1915 to 192a*.the governments of


many countries being unable to cut their expenses to equal-


their incomes attempted to supply j.- deficit bu issuing


paper money, often much beyond a reasonable amount, with

~*1
always the same result. The difficulties were that the earning ;
A
capacity of these nations was below their expenditures. '
1-.-A

Earning capa- too low. 'The difficulty with rasil and '
/ : I

Minas as well, is not that they have spent too much money for I



I
non economic enterprizes, but that the earning capacity of the


average citizen and hence of the state, has been and is too


low when compared with .i
thatn competitive national.



4W4
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L.


b


In the foregoing pages are discussed very briefly how it


came about that the young republic inherited this honerous


condition. The past cannot be modified or changed but seeing


clearly the cause we are in a better position to apply the remedy.


To make the Otate of A'inas more prosperous it ts necessary


to increase the efficiency of the average citizen. AS shown on


previous pages, Minas has dedicated herself to a democratic


government even though an autocratic government could be


administered more cheaply. (Mexico under the autocracy of Dias


made marvelous economic progress but at a terrible cost to her


civilization. This was demonstrated by the period of anarchy


that followed.).
,6 ,
^/'/l (/ .kLrC t e c.^-L
Industries 4-t-j.ed. In recent decades Brasil and -inas


have given every encouragement possible to the estaoisihment of

j(gO, a a r-
industries. These have as a whole not proven as successful as


was anticipated and will need continued state and national


protection until the average earning power of the masses is


greatly increased.


In the first place the workers in the factories are so


inefficient that the product does not readily compete with that


made abroad, That Is a penalty we have to pay in order that


(in the future Iwe may have trained operators.


In the second place the great rural population has such

.'..* .


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mall earning power that their daily income scarcely suffices


to buy the extreme necessities in clothing and food. (A


camponez gri*tgg rice in the brejo earns less than one milreis


for each days labor expended on it. However, he should be


encouraged since he adds that much to the wealth of the state


and saves that much with which to buy clothing, himself.


Besides this it teaches him to be a mrnm= self reliant and
A

independent citizen.) Until the earning capacity of the great


rural class is greatly augmented, they will not have money to


spend for manufactured goods.


ihen simple implements such as the plow, planter and


cultivator replace the enxada at least fifty percent of the


present farm laborers will be available for work in factories


and industries. The fifty percent remaining on the farms will

far
produce a/larger amount of food than the whole hundred per cent


now employed there. Fortunately this condition will come about


oy gradual evolution. It takes time to teach the young man


the use of farm implements. Only a small percent of the older


laborers, whose only instruction has oeen in the use of the


enxada and foice can be educated to work with the plow and

d
cultivator. The release of these farm laborers to industry


will be so gradual that no one but the statistician will be


alarmed. The price of necessities will be sensibly reduced. .

.A





















A'


- 11111- -







d


the total production augmented and the salary of the laborer ;
C ,
increased. A


S.Machine.y &3 fficiency. This has been the history of


agriculture in all civilized nations. North kmerica is one of -


the best illustrations, fith the introduction of farm machinery


has come about a great improvement in the efficiency of labor.
* -^

In 1915 wheb the world's political condition was stable, a


careful computation of labor efficiency was made. Putting the
-. i
Jorth American farm laborer as an hundred per cent efficient, .


the farm laboreriof England and Germany were forty per cent


efficient. Those of France Were only thirty three per cent
:-

efficient, while those of Italy were only twenty per cent


efficient0n the other hand, the average wheat production per hec-


tare for N&rgland and uermany was two to three times that of Jorth ':


America, but it cost Lngland and uermany two and a half times as


many days labor to produce a ton of wheat. bngland and Germany


were obliged to put a protective tariff on wheat to keep their


farmers from abandoning its culture. France produces more tons


of sugar beets per hectare than does aorth America, but North


America produces far more kilos of sugar beets for each days


labor expended.


.U '. ..... It is not surprising therefore that North
America ..compete with uop.- in i

America -c=n compete with ropee in industries."'..
.. ,.'. i










&urope Wasteful. The important point that we must constantly "


keep in mind is that Europe has exported the most valuable of .


all products human beings, and treasured more highly land area. i


Minas like North America has vast areas of productive lands lying "


idle and awaiting the husbandman. In fi following the Iuropean :i


precedent Minas has lauded production and disregarded labor


efficiency,- has insisted on work with the hoe and has neglected ]


work with a cultivator. Ninety.pix percent of her rural establish- --
.. ... ...-<^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ~ c g .^.. _^ ....y/ /" -
inens are conducted by Drasilians very few of whom have had -.,


an opportunity of learning modern methods.:',


Minas f* Motive ?ower. We have the motive power and the man ..


power. hIk=, according to the census of 192u, we had over i


seven million bovinos, over a million equinos and nearly half ..


a million asininios e muares. Yet only a hundred and sixteen A

rural .A
thousand/establishments in 'inas. At the same time there were only :

:.4
seventeen thousand five hundred plows. If in the last ten years


the number of plows has been increased a thousand per cent, quite a


above any reasonable expectation, it would give approximately -.*
-.'

one plow per rural establishment. We hage motive power enough for *


ten times that lumber of implements, -t is not an unusual sight to :


see men women and children tilling the fields with hoes while
o..

oxen, mules and horses are pasturing on the same farm. ..

J
.. :M
i- "
-, ... ^








"'" .
LaLLu Jhj.. Jr4lo. Io Labor Shortage.


We must constantly keep in mind. "0 maximo de resultado corn


o mimimo de esforgo'".



ugagas, Djalma Pinheiro, Iinas ueraes, iov. 2-4, l929,p.2J




It has been estimateddthat Minas has a population of


esyen million five hundred thousand ".h ,,.. of which


probably sixty five percent are classed as rural. She has appro-
fea.^x-'',-^/- ,, *itu 7"*'-
ximately a hundred and fifty thousand rural inhabitan-t-s, that

-At -i- 4 4 i





here should be no difficulty in securing fl-i L ufbver

a efficient and useful employees from ti large group. The


difficulty, however, ', as pointed out

on an earlier paged *e have taught our employees to be docile,


servile and unpregbressive. The farmer has not taken the time,


patience and expense necessary to educate his labor in the

art of modern farming. He will not, until zdib


compelshim to do so.

The labor shortage so much complained of is really a


most hopeful and healthful sign. It indicates that Minas is


really progressing. The data cited above show that we really

hW
have a great surplus of labor. What we are lacking is a proper ..
2.
compe .... .o do so





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(u//Ut6-LrLt'/ZC 2











instruction and direction of our labor. Human labor is the


most expensive factor that enters into crop production. Every


time we employ an ox, a horse, or gasoline we reduce the labor


shortage and also lower the cost of production. As long as a.


farmer employs hoes for crop production he is wasting labor and


he has no right to complain of the labor shortage. In 19<2


corn was cheaper on a gold basis in Chicago than in bello
:."'
aorizonte. Yet laborers were so few in illinois that they received


eight to ten times the wages paid in i'inas. In 192- a responsible


citrus Growers Association offered to deliver oranges by the
2i
box to Bello horizonte at a price lower than the local dealer


demanded k The California Company had to pay laborers a salary



i Minas ueraes


ten to fifteen times that prevailing in linas. In addition they
A

had to pay long ocean transportation and -a-jg railway jransporta- ::


tion from Aio to Bello .orizonte. "









-:-.
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4.,


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-4


Unwise Lesislation :.
TEe unfavorable financial condition to which have called


attention should not over alarm us but should give us cause for .


profound study, The predominating statesmen of about two decades ",
--; '.
ago made a -namber of serious economic errors which we ef today '


are obliged to correct. Their- predecessors made errors also in *


permitting Brasil to lose her predominating posLtion in the -.
.^:,
production of rubber, sugar, cacao, etc. She lost her position -


bY a failure to apply known a "_i ,. and a lack of -.


education among her laboring classes. A young nation, like a "


youth, must learn-,y study and experience. That nation or state, ..
'*:
:-:, in^. is doomed to T'ailure when it closes its portals .i
'4i.

aw i against the introduction of new ideas and new methods .'


from other nations. China, India and Japan were highly cultured .. 4


and ci .gized nations when we, .uropeans, were still uncultured -


barbarians. '


Brasil as a whole and Minas in particular is making -


many efforts to recoup opportunities lost by our predecessors. :.


Some of these efforts are yielding results more thah a thousand fol|.


There is a saying that there is no extravagance so wasteful as


a miser's economy. At this time when the state and nation are -


passing through a great financial depression is just the moment


when wise economic laws and measures can be prmulgated North .





10)







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i ij^ i t> e u -^~ ~ g c ^ / l ^ ^ ^








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America passed the first Mortiil Act in 1861 when her national


life was threatened. Various states established College of


Agricultura in conformity to this law when their financial


condition was at its worst. The Hatch Pxperiment rotation


(Instituto biologico) Act was passed when there was another


financial depression. These institutions laid the foundation


upon which the present prosperity of the united -tates was buil;.


.* An agricultural project to be successful must be economi-


cally sound. This requires much study, fine discrimination and an


intimate knowledge of agriculture. Data which are not available


today. -


I-


-i-


Al i








P t III D T-,ALD j-.N.,L'SIS OF S.. `'ORTT


In this part (III) is given only so much discussion on


any topic as is necessary to comprehend the ecpomic status of each


crop or product. The discussion has been limited to an, ouine Df the


most important aspects as they present themselves today.


Under "Items para o kelhoramento" only those -gg-tijns


have been Made that if inaugurated and consistently carried out will


bring about speedy and beneficial results-. Tii'e ,er.a.i is the '-,Lie


great agency in the state through whose {ffr ;or ,he rtf'jrmb ,2,n be


conducted. Many of them must be put into e:_c.tioii Ob; if,.iiell m-Kthojs.


In formulating these "Items" due consi.r.-tijn hac. 0- 'ih-n of i-Le


present educational, financial and po-Liti:;ali -t-;.ts ..f Ih.. Ltte.





A. Vegetaes e Oeus Oroducos.


The value of vegetaes e seu-. ;.du-tus p L .psrtai i- ii S r W0S5


711-709 contos de reis. Nearly thr1: timWC t",t ojf -f i-Ii t esE


products but received relatively lesz. ittenti-r, I1--Ln tlh h tat,. I'


well directed propaganda would easily do-ioi th:- :*/.ile of th-e


export. The railroads are amply aole to haridi^. this '.- mI i5


shown by the very slow average speed of t:-i fj-i frcighnt *iLS,-


sometimes only thirteen or fourteen kii.oete-r. t Jnty fur


i'iou rs.





increased. However, we wii u3e that figure as representing a very

conservative estimate of the number of hectares producing coffee

in 1928, when the exportation was 6.58,3.8b.8 sacks, or am average

exportation of less than five sacks or 6ju kiLos oer hectare

cultivated. Tnis coffee was valued at l7T6uOU per sack or 4,950

per kilo. The cost per kil3 A of producing coffee in the ,state"

m Nuniz, Dr. J. C., Pan American zulietin, Dec. i9)9 p.iL.-40

of cao Paulo is o,06 'in zone one, where primative conditions

similar to those in '"inas prevail. '-n newer fazendas, zone two,

thle .,ost is 264 per kilo, and in the newest and most up-to-date

fazendas, zone three, the cost is -$,'64 per kio.

These figures show at a glance that coffee culture in

Minas is a precarious business. However, it cannot be abandoned

,,W- itihout causing an agricultural revolution and a financial break-

down, as every fazendeiro Knows how to grow it, and it constitutes

tne principal article of agricultural exportation.


7F
II *


/ y^f~o o c ^^0AAA 1,,',4,.



OF The area planted tn iinas in 192j was

650.003) hectares A oince that time the area has Oeen considerably

m ^aruaiho, Afranio de, 1,h Actualidade "ineria, p 44-46 U929.J


q















U-S HA*' 'i( '241 4d 444* *






", .-.. r "








.: .,. ./, .. /
.. .
77.. .





I _____ ---__..-. ---""
r ?*- .Ji -i .: ; ,:.:.. .i.. .. .. ..,, .. ... : .- -. ... .*


4, a






Crops III B ,,


The cecretaria can aid greatly in rejuvenating the coffee industry


by having information puoiished from time to time, advocating the


following lines of improvement. Some of the readers would inau-


gurate and adapt some of these suggestions to their own o-s. "


A great many of them still believe it is more economical to employ


manual labor than to adapt motive power and to inaugurate refDrms.


Linqs -focr Improvement


1). Reduce the amount of Labor. a) ,-y cultivating all vargens


and pbs de morros oy mule power, o) transport to ter-reiro of the


picked coffee by mule oower in place of oxen, c.g Long hauls Ma?


be made by caminhoes. ..
.4
A great service can be rendered by the W'ecretaria to the


inaustria by publishing articles and short bulletin that set forth


nearly tfae mariner in which these changes can be made. -


}. Improve the quality of coffee sold oy a). installing new ',
S" _".

and up to date machinery in the usinas. b.) Reject all inferior '
f^
coffee, c. Prohibit, by law, the exportation of coffee of inferior


and mixed grades.


.4
\ --^ Here again publications can aid greatly but without fiwcal-


izatioh of the export the grades will be misbranded and inferior


coffee allowed to contaminate otherwise excellent product. The


fazendeiro and usina operator must learn that the inferior one -


percent in -t grade often reduces the selling price of the '

K..s








Crops IIi C .


whole by ten percent. All the machinery I have seen in usinas was


old and badly worn. (The profits in coffee cuitureqWso small


that the employment of old and wornout machinery is simply ruinous.).


0). Choosing suitable land and locations. Fazendeiros should


be discouraged, by publication and otherwuse from making their


plantations where they cannot oe cultivated by mule power, and "


tae transportation Dy mule power or caminhao. '


4). Literature in arge 4uantita is needed to ring about a -


reform in a .....practises. This must De written in small


pamphlets,- preferably sixteen pages or iess in size. The illisstra


tions should be simple and elucidade the subject discussed. The :*


language must be such that the agricultores can comprehend it.


The magnificent volume, "Minas e o Bicentennario do Cafeeiro no


zrasil", published in l)29 is a great credit to the Jecretaria.
iI
SIt should oe in e~ery private and public laDrary in the -tate. JI


between pages 585 and 492?- there are some <-j to $0 pages of


material that is of practical value to the coffee grow,,er. his .


information should oe brought together by e 20fef Li ptrmco and
4I
published as one or tw.%o bulletins, it takes years to train up men


who can write practical builetins and articles. In the meantime
AI

we must utilize the best that we have. Later a publication should '
bld

be made giving full and well. planned directions for J3
'i; s





$9


a). selecting locations for new cafezaes.

preparing the nursery and planting out.

selected for the various locations.


v..^ *..
;
b'. best methods of

c varieties to be


\..,




i
1 ._...


ra' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - - - ^






-r 'e --- / ,f


JRie'- The exportation in 192 8"was 16.614 tons, valued at


11.852' contos de reis, making the value per kilo approximately


$726, this being higher than the average of foreign markets.


According to statistics the average production of rice per hectare


for Brasil in i9' was 585 kilos, (this being exceeded by only four


countries) It is quite probable that the average production for


Minas for 1928 was about the same, making a valuation of 424$710


per hectare. This is only a trife less than one-half the valuation


of the coffee exportation per hectare. A reasonable amount of


publicity would easily double the production, and reduce the cost


of production per kilo.


Lines for improvement.


1).,,rublish a bulletin and distribute not earlier than


oep't 1, 9.UJ nor later than Uct. 1 to all "estabelecimentos ruraes".


This pamphst should be written for the farmer, in simple and clear
S
language, it should contain six or eight good photographs iilistra


tings that the farmer can comprehend and which will aid him. His-
I

tory, art, statistic, and other materials irrelevant to ric ttr-


snould be omitted. It should lay special stress on the fact that


cice can be grown profitably by sibostituting mechanical cultivation


for irrigation. Irrigation is good but far from necessary. (During


the five years in which rice has been grown on vargens altas










on the grounds of the Escola, it has never been irrigated and

the production has never been less than two thousand liters per

hectare, and has produced as much as five thousand five hundred

liters of rice in the hull per hectare. The pamphlet should not

contain more than sixteen pages, preferably less .

2,. Reduce the amount of human labor by

(a). utilizing the vargens in place of the brejosi

('O). clear and plow by oxen, mule or tractor power. o-

(c cow by planterA*

C;. cultivate every week with mule power

(e. Harvest with mule mower 0,


Ld) Thresuh by machinery

3). Secure and distribute disease free seed of the best qual- .

ity. come of the rice examined in 1928 showed as much as 410 7"

or the heads diseased and worthless. '
**:!

I
4). The small grower wiao plants in the orejo should be


encouraged. he gets practically nothing for the labor of himself I.
".J
and family out it tends to teach him initiative and his family i
.1r
learns valuable lessons about Oplant growth and the preservation

of food material.







Fumo -u


The ilndsutry 2obcco is in a pery primative state-


The market- is q uite unfavorable to the producer. He is subject


to all sorts of unfair business practices from the commercial


men and hence reaps very little benefit from his toils and


loaor. vitf. all his handicaps, the exports in i9E8 were 35.194


tons, valued,at more than ten thousand three hundred and twenty

five contos de reis, or an average of 3S per kilo. To a very


large extent it is raised as a second crop, being planted after b


milho has begun to mature.


Under the present system of "hoe farming" the average


producer nets less than one kilo per days labor expended,-


probably less than a half kiio. However much can be done to


greatly augment the production for each days labor expended.


Lines for improvement.


1). Good seed of the heaviest producing qualities


should be made available (py purchase) to the prospective


planter. In the Viiosa-Ub& section Georgiea is a n excellent


variety. Its vigor and produttiveness overcome any preju-


dice in selling price. It is well known among tobacco special-


ists that the present method of producing seed by the local


/growers-is a case of the perpetuation of the inferior indivi-


duals. The state government should sell to all tobacco growers


seed of superior varieties to produce seed for the succeeding yea
.......... ." -. .........








2). Publish a bulletin discriptive and illustrating

the best methods of pursue under the crude conditioBs of agricul-

ture in Minas, to produce the largest amount of tobacco ready

for the market.

3). Aid the tobacco growers with information as to

the marketing and orobabie price of the marketable tobacco. The

price paid to the grower is entirely disproportionate to that paid

bY the distributer. bn ..w.rful i e. L.i. .fu..ne.e of the into-

-mndiflt p.....t. h -at t; 'ga sh -ita ot'f-ir.i A.. n nj t .intcrfc--- t00

t-be produor .. onti. ,elpl--. r If the state government

does not come to the rescue of the producer to enable him to

produce a better grade of tobacco, produce it more economically,

and at the same time receive a better remuneration foe his labor,

the industry will gradually transfer itself to other states and we

will be without ..he money which it has been bringing to us.










*
I


b Ii E
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7~

4

I
I
.1




I
46

SW
.71
2.
I
I


7


^v.


I




,,.


(~6T)


The exportation of this crop for i9428 is given at


eleven thousand and ninety tons, Valued at four thousand six hundred


and fifty seven contos de reis. ni approximate valuation of -U-u


hundred ana nineteen reis per kilo. This price is so much Detter


than the selling price in iorth ,merica that we cannot Dope to make


it a national export.


*The export table tells onty a fraction of the story since


a large amount of it is exported in the form of fat hogs as well


as ooulitry and poultry products. virtuaiiy the export of miiho is


aoove that of any other cereal. The actual value of miiho exported

as such aaded to that which is exported as animals and animal pro-


ducts will oring it up to fifteen to tvw-enty thousand contos.


The amoun-t of technical vvorb cone on this crop oy the


government of 'inas is almost negligible. This "let alone" poicy


of the government has militated against cnrn production until the
A.

rice to the consumer is higher than in other great corn producing


countries. We meed not fear over production. ,hemn the actual


price goes low enough other industries based on corn will oe


established.


J'.l
;'I





'....:.^^: ;'





*s n -~ Sr;^


III b (75)



w.ines Suggested for -moprovement.


i). heed. i'he Oecretaria should oroceea to secure an


abundance of seed of the three leading varieties, yuarentio, Cattete,


and -rystal. iThis seed should oe ready to send out so the


farmers can receive it in august 1960. The 4uarentaoa for earliest


feeding when corn is scaree and very high priced, altho it produces

S &t4V
only a half or a third of the otner. *'is seed should be pur-


chased oy a responsioie representative of the department. It may


be obtained either in Minas or -ao raulo.


The planting of good seed from a productive strain kestirpe)


will increase tne oroduction anywhere from Q5 :; to 75 --


W.. Literature. 'The "ecretaria could ouoish a bulletin


giving basic practices in planting and cultivating milho. The oui-


ietin should be illustrated by single row planters, single mule


and double mule cultivators. It should give aata as to the saving


in money oDought about oy using mechanical planters and the use


of mule cultivators. It snouid also show the profits resulting from


the use of good seed.


This bulletin should oe mailed to farmers not earlier


than duiy 1, JOW3, and before august 1st.










,_,_ "". '. \

(Feijao;.--. --- -


nean culture;. is probably in the most primitive state of


development of any of the export crops. They are so easily grown


and tiarvested that no one seems to consider them as worthy of


attention, in 1228 the state is said to have exported eleven


thousand one hundred and twelve tons valued at eight thousand


eight hundred and eighty nine contos de reis or $800 per kilo.


The export Leans that have seen were everything that


they should not have been,- varieties mixed, dusty, containing


small stones, anid many imperfect seed. The estimated export Fpice


is most excellent for the quality of the product.


The only thing that can be done at present for the

-
t' at/. 1 '.1". v-"< I. S-*' ';
betterment of the crop is to o#;z good seed of the better :;
AA

varieties. As seon as milho planting progressed to the state of


employing macinher there will be abundant opportunity for ..


greatly reducing the iost of bean production. At the price given


for oeans in the statistics table it would be more remunerative to


grow beans on a urge scale than to grow coffee "3
/(;?







!I~g








-.,--...-;-.-.--









Sugar


According to the table there was an export of 4.823


tons of sugar values at three thousand eight hundred and thirty


eight uontos de reis or $79E per kilo. The export consisted


mainly or almost entirely of crystallized sugar produced at the


large Usinas. In addition to the sugar a large amount of alcohol


(aguadente) is made at the usdaas, which adds materially to the


jha pma'e from the cane fields.


Aside from the large amount that is exported from tihe


state a very large lot of raoadura is produced which does not


enter largely into the export market% out adds very greatly to


the wealth of the state oy keeping the money at nome that would


otherwise tbe exported. Along with the rapadura an indefinite


amount of cachaqa is produced.


The small growers who produces raoadura and cachaeca sa-pw-


very-- difficult to reach and educate. They compose Stch a large


percent of the population and the sum total of their production


is so great that the state government cannot afford to ignore


them.


The efficiency of the small mills is so low that it


wouda not be credited as true if the statement _P_. __..... were ,1


made. All of this loss or waste simply impoverishes the state to
A I

that extent and diminishes t te income to the State government
t-0 the state government.




III ;


bugar ( .


The worst vice connected with these smaller mills is the production


of chacaca. The government by putting a high tax on this firey


liquid can do a great deal to discourage its production. When it


becomes more expensive to put' cacha&.a on the market than a good,


rapadura, then the farmer will oroduce the latter.


Lines for improvement.


1). The introduction and dissemination of mosaics


tolerant varieties, so well begun by the Honorable secretary of


Agriculture, needs to be greatly extended. It is an economic crime


for any usina to grind P. 0. J. 213 while there are still thousands$


of hectares being planted to disease and non-tolerant varieties.


Tne demand for rie mosaic tolerant varieties has greatly exceeded
A

the supply.


2). Other mosaic resistant varieties shou-d be


introduced, propagated and the seed widely disseminated. To do this


may' be beyond the powers of the present administration but plans


can be perfected that will insure such a condition for the future.


o). Measures should be taken to secure a more


perfect method of transportation of the seed. SCome of the seed


of the mosaic resistant cane'arriving from the 'ecretaria showed


n;= 80 A dead. Seeded received from Deodoro showed 80 to 100 ..0


germination. This indicates that where the seed is carefully
.tni
treated it can stand long distance transportation in =rasil without ^1




Ill


Sugar (r. "


serious deterioration. My personal observation is that no one


person or agency i culpable for this loss in germination. The


gathering of the seed in done in a manner similar to harvesting it


for the usina. It is loaded in box cars without due regard of
c/
its value. The railway transport/ it slowly as if it were a life-


ie--ss material. The seed tZ unloaded by laborers who treat the seed.-

4pwv
as if destined for grinding. After unloading --seed often


left exposed to the wind and sun until it is planted. The planting


29 done in a cr4de fashion conforming more or less to the back-


wardness of the sugar industry in general.


Observations. This merely demonstrates under what tremen-


dous difficulties the nonorabie secretary is laboring. It demonstre


tes how tremendously discouraging it is when one tr-es to do some-


thing really meritorious for an agricultural industry. It is the


result of the neglect to train the laborers and the neglect to


provide for a numerous middle class who are educated so as to


carry our instructions from the experts. The principal agent of


the oecretaria carried out his work splendidly in spite of many


discouragements. He is not to biame for the presence of the


illiterate, docile, and servile laboring masses.


4). Literature. T'he work so well begun at Anna loren-


cia and probably equally well inaugurated at other centers, should


3.-




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'S








Ill


(Zr


Sugar 4)


be given publicity, among all the usinas and sugar cane growing


centers. i short article of, about four or five thousand words,


illustrated with several full page half tone views, and published


as a separate bulletin would do wonders to stimulate the planting


of these varieties, incidentally it wuid encourage the sugar cane


growers to introduce better methods of growing cane.


; -- I - ;, ?,


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Fruits s '


F .uLs The exportation of fruits is relatively small


being Less than six thousand contos or 1i.-"8. At the present


time there is a considerable animation in Brasil for extending


orange production for exportation to foeeign countries. Mineirans


have been much animated in ti-his line. It is an expensive under-

taking but one that can be male remunerative and should be


encouraged to the fullest extent possible. The undertaking

0' :
is @r 1 0!2y Y o huge a one for the Treasury of the Octate of


Minas. The State of Oao Pauio has sent more than a thousand


contos de reLt for her tvo packing houses. The one at -imeira


the larger one, with a capacity of three thousand boxes per


day cott over eight hundred contos. It is undoubtedly the


most perfect and modern in Louth -merica. smaller Dacking houses


cost relatively more ,er box. capacity.


I would recommend that Minas begin at once to work


up this subject systematiCally so as to train a considerable


number of young men along the iine of preparing oomares and


starting work in backing houses. It is probable that thie Otate


of oo Paulo would permit some six or eight intelligent 'ineirans
j
A*.-
'S
to work for the entire season in the uomares and packing housed


SLimeira &nd.... ...........



,yi






Fruits B 0 1.
"I
In this way, and only by actually doing the work, is it .

possible to learn the difficult and delicate work of collecting, -

boxing and despatnching citrus fruits. Dr. Felisberto Camargo

who is thsoving spirit, -s' is the one man above all others in '

Brasil in the citrus oa king house and field work. BHe is a

graduate of the Luiz iueiroz Agricultural college e and took

wha had the honor of being De ctor
post graduate studies in the lorida -ricul tural College He


bggan his career in citurs exportatioas the lowest class of

laDorer in a Viorida packing house at WVinter 'A& t'::olv:o- b

,u@r& tgo, and has ninu_ ._ inT fruit cuiturl ever since.

He left the position as Director of the L'-fta5o de Pomoctitura

de Deodoro, fIzagx fkti:xiaxamxiiax=.ntm to accept the position
Lt4*t.ZnaC
in the Instituto -gronomico in ,ampinas, being "wndrt |

kBE kR axaxf Lm'ni .c Hr o. .... "- Lirector^ 4@& he saw that

his native state needed his services at this time of difficulty. |

The s3aax salaries of the two positions are about eqqai,and |

are considered excellent -

I helped him to construct the first ucrates for ex-

perimentai exoort shipment eight years ago, and have been in |

yearly contact with him ever since. C therefore that no .,

better opportunity exists for kinas than to send to Limeira |


eight or ten men of. intelligence and vho are not averse to

manual labor, in order that they may secure the experience I:.

.... :. 1
- - - - - - - - '.,-.,:.I',.







Fruits C "7


necessary to a successful orange export from Mines. Qzga

4-
oP is a highly specialized business. One exporter lost over


three hundred contos in this venture last year in spite of the


fact that he had the assistance and advice of the best technicad-


man in Brasil. Other exporters made a handsome profit. On the


Eurooean market the -rasilian oranges came into competition


with the oouth African and -ustrai-ian fruits. When the zrasilian.


fruit i3 inferior to the other fruit, it failA to yield a profit. .


Read also, Minas ueraes,' Jan 14, 15 e 16, "Transformando -
-A-

Laranjas em uuro, oelo P. H. Rolfs.)


Several Paulistas, to whom I have tacked, assume


that all of their troubles are solved by the establishment of.


their magnificent packing house. The packing house can be secured A


for money, but experience and knowledge axmdxcaiinot be purchased. .


It took Florida and California thirty years to educate employees ;.


to their present stage of perfection. "



Lines of -mgrovement::..uggested. I


1). Eight or ten young men should oe selected to


go to the 'tate of Sao Paulo to work with the packing house.


They should be employed as laborers, doing all of the work from I
-.

that of picking oranges to loading the cars. ('Jut of the ten *I


men we should expect to get not more than three leaders niless


we assume that the Mineiran is far more intellige-rit thaa the :"
Floridia




^: :I
Fruits III D 1 ..

2). The establishimerit of nueBeries from which mudas

can be sold in large quantities to prospective citrus

cuiturists. (This was already Ainaugurated but had to be

suspended for want of ap:,propriation.)

6,. Ti e export of pineapples from ,kinas should oe

second only to that of oranges. here is far less difficulty in

their culture& and muchness loss in transportation when they

are properly packed.

The pineapples *in Minas ripen when the European market

has very little or no home fruit maturing. Arrivitng in Europe

during the colder monthsr-less difficulty is encountered tW

A,
decay1 after the fruit arrive in the market. It also meets
A

with little or no competition from pineapples from Jorth of the

Eqqia,4or.

.t the fruit exoosition in -=ao Paulo 1Feb. 4.-6, 9.30)

444A was a gine demonstration of the Roperr way bf packing pineapples

for export.

The consumption in the home markets could be greatly
the riening sea s, n.
(Thi intro-nuction of otfi Lr variety _jpv uid ga-reatly extent'
augmented ba carefCFi selection of varieties tl --


,i *e4kfor marketing and better market facilities are also greatly

needed. in telto Horizonte, for example, the cineanpoles are

discharged on a dirty floor and there assorted. In ,io the diffi-

ct:-5,
culty is even greater. From 5U ;. to 80 % of what the consumer
-. .












pays is absorDea oy the middlemen and for transportation.


I have pointed out the splendid opportunity for


pineapple exportation but can make no specific recommendation


that would be within the finances of the Ltate of Minas ec^4id *


































































.'.4
7'


^ ^







III A

Vegetable (Truck Crops..j 1). One of the great obsta-

cles to more general truck growing for local markets and for the


household is the fact that it is nearly impossible to secure viable

seed of good varieties. At rhas been almost impossible for the

6scola to secure such seed for experimental purposes excepting

oy importing them. s..For example, the Escola purchased tomato seed

of a variety Rnowvn as "Franceza" from a leading vendor in Bello

Horieonte.- When the plants from these seed came to Droduce fruit

ninety percent of them were a mixture of wild varieties. The other

ten percent produced a mixture of inferior garden varieties. Later

the Lscola purchased seed of a variety known as Rei Humocerto, from ,
:.,:
one of the leading seed houses in Rio. Jver 5J o of the plants

that came to fruiting on an experimental plot were i.f the wild


variety, and the other fifty :. a mixture of varieties. e the Escoq3

encounters such obstacles it is not surprising that the private -

individual finds it impossible.
.4

2j. Another serious handicap to the establishment of a .


truck growing business is the exhorbitant tax levied, by the -

middle men and transportation companies, it is not uncommon for '

these intermediate people to charge from a hundred to five

hundred percent for their services. -

3). A third handicap is the means of communication.
";"- '










a). Tardiness of telegraphic communications is


notable in the state. it frequently takes messages from ilio or


Bello Horizonte more than twenty four hours to be delivered at
Vicosa.

O). Letters are very tardy and often fail altogether


to oe delivered. It frequently takes five days after the letter


has oeen mailed in Rio before it is delivered in Viqosa, Deing


frequently as long a time for a letter to pamxmlvmtwis be /received


from cello Horizonte or Ponte -ova.


c). Encommendas and freight are correspondingly slow.
-- ,/.


Lines for Improvement Duggested.


ij. Postal and Teiegraph. At first sight it woud seem to


be impossiDie to improve these conditions. It appears however that


it is not impossible. At the Instituto Agronomico in Sho Paulo they


do not suffer many of the inconveniences which greatly reduce the


efficiency of the bscola. It seems that conditions are especially


bad in Minas. 'Tzeoo@ For example,- the scientific journals to


which 1 am a susocriber and for'.hich the -nstituto is also a


suDscri-ber. Their journals arrive with very few or no failures,


of tkwxe mine less than 50 t of the numoers have oeen delivered


for theo months of i.,ovember and e-caunber. Similar bad service


has oeen rendered for several years. The government of 1iinas


should be strong enough to correct some of these postal and


telegraphic irregularities.




- I


Ill C ---^


2. Transportation. The faulty railway transportation will


oe largely corrected by the opening of automobile and truck roads


to the large consuming centers. With good roads the truck


transportation is more speedy and economical for short distances


of four or five hundred kilometers or less. As high as 85 of the


vegetables received in NJew -ork -ity from some of the neighboring


states, arrive by truck.


3,1. Good -eed. It would be quite unreasonalLy expensive


for the becretaria to set up a seed supply house with branches in


all the important sections. A cooperative arrangement might be


entered into with private individuals loCated in all the larger


centers. A purchasing agent under the secretary, could buy state


produced and foreign seed in quantity and allocate these to the


various centers. AS ali of these seed would be sold at a profit


it would return to the state more than the cost. Preference


should be given to the home produced seed, to result in the


establishing of specialists for producing seed.










4

.1-r




. i +..-. Z'- -'BB
17 -., u ..,, .. ^ zw
Ita ^-r^









The unusual .rops.


The btate should always be on the Ilert to try out s


new crops amd introduce untried and new varieties. By means of


miscellaneous introduction we at times will discover some valuable

much
plants that may develop into an industry. It takes/patience, time


and money to establish an industry founded on a plant or animal


unusual to a country or a state.


In considering the possibility of establishing new crops


the leaders in agriculture should raemmmber that the population of


iinas ij relatively sparce and not highly efficient. It is reason-


able to assume that better results will be obtained from crops that


can be grown with relatively little human &4' per hectare than from


those that require a high degree of skilled hand labor. The day of


the agricultural machine is rapidly approaching in Minas so we


should favor crops that can be grown extensively rather than those


that require intensive application.


a). Date culture would seem to be an ideal occupation.


It is doubtful however if there is any portion of "inas where the


climate and soil will permit the production of good commercial dates.


Before the minister of Agriculture in *'orth America


attempted to promote this industry, he sent specialists from the


Bureau of Plant industry to the regions in 'orth Africa aji Ar.;oia


wnicn exported the best varieties of dates. By conferences with








French a7 a english and natives residing in the regions, the loca-


tions of the best orchards where ascertained and visited. Data on


climate Y obtained and where analysis of soils had not been made,


samples were secured.


When the data regarding soil and climate had been assembled,


specialists from the bureau of boils, -hemistry and Veather,


cooperated to discover those localities in iorth America which


exactly duplicated the climate and soils found in the localities in


Arabia and Africa.


The purchase and importation of ship loads of mudas was the


third and easy step. In less thqn fifteen years, the industry was


established on an economically independent basis.








b). Tea 6ulturer is well established at mixpczx a few


places in kinas and should continue to receive state sympathy and


aid. It is not probable that it will spread to other places. With


increased efficiency of labor;in other agricultural lines the


experienced workers are likely to be drawn away.


Tea growing was begun in 1orth America more than a hundred


year Ego, underslaverj conditions, and continued to the present.


Despite the invention and 7xxz application of special labor saving


machinery it is not yet a self sustaining industry. The government


has given generous assistance by subventions an4 by paying for


technical investigations, but the sparcity of population seems.';


to impede its rapid extuation.


c). Silk production is very attractive from its aesthetic


point of view. Italy is by far the largest producer- in Lurope.


Her output is about twenty times teof 'rance. Aside from Yhese


two countries Europe produces comparatively a small amount of silk.


Italy in iXx 1928 had a population of 132.8 persons per square


kilometer while the estimated population for Iinas in 1927 wxx


gave 11.82 persons per square kilometer.


North America long ago introduced silk culture. After the


Civil war strenuous efforts were Made to extend its culture among

^ a. .//^
the millions of recently liberated slaves, wh climate conditions


for the growth of the mulberry tree were perfe*. It failed to give

results commensurate with the efforts and money expended. After more










than sixty years of active government propaganda and support the

industry is not self sustaining.


With the perfection sa* production of rayon (seda vegetal)


by France, this substitute is so largely used in manufacture


of silk cloth that it seems improbable that the production of


natural silk will be extended to new countries.


The production of natural silk has fine educative values


and from this point of view alone is worth a 11 it has cost. Minas


should c courage the idea but it should remember that it


will probably never produce an economic income to the state.







I
d). Wheat growing is justly eliciting much interest in


Minas. ft is more than probable that large /areas in the state can


ultimately be devoted to this crop. Not with a view of quickly


producing a large amount for foreign export (see pages..........)


but for consumption and for supplying the needs of other


Drasilian states. By supplying the amount needed for htme consump-


tion the export of money will be thereby reduced.


Active propaganda should be directed to those sections of


the state that have ext~sive areas sufficiently level to permit the


use of labor saving machinery. A second indespensible factor is


a dry climate not only during the harvesting but also during the


storing ueriod. VVe have raised fine wheat at Vigcosa, but in most


years the rainy season is so humid that the grain is ruined by


molds unless by could resort to artificial drying. Similar con-


ditions prevail in many other tropical countries making it imprac-


ticable for them to produce wheat economically (North of


Mexico city there is a dry plateau that supports a splendid wheat


industry, because the climatic conditions are exactly correct.)


It is probable that by studying the meteorological data some sections


of 1inas will be found quite favorable to wheat culture. A third


very important factor is to discover a soil favorable to this crop,


within the level and dry section. In the absence of numerous


chemical analysis and detailed soil surveys we have to rely on


experimenting with the plant to discover the productive localities.










To establish the Durum (macaroni) wheat industry in


iorth America required a plan similar to that for the establishing


of the date industry. The chief creralist of the -Oureau of ilant


Industry visited Italy, and other parts of southern Europe and


Asia, going as far east as Turkestan. Exact data on the climate


and soil that produced the best varieties of Durum wheat were


obtained. Seed of all the varieties were purchased and tested


in localities of North America where climate and soil resembled


most nearly those of the localities in L-urope and Asia from which


the seed aame. It took more than ten years of intensive propaganda


on the part of the -hief Cerealist and a half dozen other high grade


specialists to put the Durum wheat industry on a sound aaxs


economic basis. Bit it has paid a most handsome profit, as millions


of tons are exported annually.




e). There are many other crops that merit mention but must


be omitted from this discussion. The leaders in agricultural develop-


ment must know the specific limitations of each crop, otherwise


much money and exceedingly valuable time will be wasted for the


State, which might easy be saved by taking advantage of the


knowledge already in the possession of Mfxx scientists.










B. mAnimaes e Seus Productos.


The exportation of animaes e seus products for 1928


was 290. .21 contos de reis. This should be quadrupled in the ne(t


decade. Minas has unrivalled opportunities to increase enormously


her exportation of dairy products, poultry and its products and


hogs and their products. She has vast areas desoccupados that can


be made to produce splendid pastures and enormous crops. She has


hundreds of thousands of splendid laoters awaiting to be directed.


There is an almost unlimited national market for these products.


To realize a golden era we must have a very numerous


middle class with a practical education. Our experts and scientists


are abundantly able to fiscalize and condemn any unsanitt iy article


but are lacking in peattical education to instruct the producer


how to avoid marketm g the inferior article. Denmark in 1870


was one of the most stricken countries of Europe. By educating her


producing classes she has become Mich and made herself a model for the


whole world. -orth America has profited more from Danish experience


in lacticinios than from any other country.


.I&- .






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Bouvinos,- The most importantexportation from ainas, next



to coffee, is bouvinos. This shows the pastoril condition of the



State. It also shows that Minas has lost some good opportunities



otherwise since she exported only ten kilos of caree fresca e



conservada (?) (written in table "cons") para cada cabeqa de


bouvino. Te table does not show it but probably the largest



percent of the bouvinos were exported to ,o Vaulo to be utilized "
A A


in the packing houses. This would mean that the best animals were



exported leaving the meat of the inferior ones to be exported as



a Minas product, while the meat from the best ones was exported



as a bao Paulo product.



The zeb6 is to my mind the best basic animal for the



Minas conditions. The hybrid makes the best oxen we have and the
ot~.4

meat is excellent. The hybrid is so far area of the pure 1-uropean "-



breed? that ... .jhju, l LU .,LIIL t -- ,Z -.tL-fn ... .



A suggestion. The Herbfordlapoear. to be the most



rustic of the finer !uropean beef breeds. It has made -.rgentine '



famous as a beef producing country. This breed has also made
.,i

Teazas which older geographies included in the "great Dorth



American Desert", famous as a producer of fine beef. Touros of this

9

breed can be obtained in large numbers at a very moderate price.



They could be used to cross on zebu and on hybrids. The Herefprds-



have the ability of thriving better onr coarse forage than any of"
.i-






SIII B (Bouvinos 2) C *'
CIA

other Duropean breeds. This quaLity being shared by the zebu,

would seem to make this an excellent combination. It would not

be necessary tp purchase pedigreed-touros for this breeding work

6. but L j.. Ig o nz...g.i. t-o -C-Si:e r animal since pure

bred Q full floods of the proper conformation would serve equally :

well, and cost much less than registered animals. it seems that

:C- s X^- "k~ tic^^4.^irJ~%-4,
the reciorocral cross!" .....has not been tried out in
I
Minas on a sufficiently large scale, it at all, to give definite ']

results. ....

SLines suggested for Improvement. -

i). Pastures are the Oasis for a livestock industry. -
'Vl
Gordura and Jaragut seem to be the most gengrajly-.used.-grasses.
: .-A
Gordura has developed at least six distinct varieties, varying -

greatly in their productiveness. when seed is obtained, if possible, "j

Sit should oe of the more productive variety. 4

Jaragua has not been studied sufficiently to enable one
P
to affirm that it also has broken up into garieties,- but if seed :

he obtained from the region where the best pastures occur, it is

Probable that a good variety will be obtained. *1

2). Literature Much good would result from the compilation

of a work on what is known insects, worms, orotozoa and bacteria .

that affect the bouvinos. 'his work should be written in a lan-

Sguage that the laymen could understand and the remedies as far as
i^ < *. '' ^




. .--** -. "" ^ +" '. "".. '- ."' W lra W -^*





III C (Bouuinos >


possible be available to tie cattlemen and fazendeiros. it


would take an able man at least a year to prepare the manuscript


and illustrations (le would most likely oe attacked Dy the


practicing veterinarians, especially those educated in some of


the European universities, so the zecretaria would have to oe in


a position to protect tne unfortunate author.) ouch an author-


itative publication would correct i- superstitions and


beliefs aoout domestic animals.
A








&

Qeite e Lqcticinios. Minas stands at tfie head if milk

production of the Brasilian states. Her statesmen take a just pride

in this distinction. Her exportation for i928 was nearly a hun-

dred thousand contos de reis,- almost a sixth of the value of her

coffee. The state government has taken a commendable interest in

improving the breed of her milk cattle by introducing purebred

animals. There is no doubt that with the beneficent climate and

productive soil, som3'ay in the near future, ner exportation of

leite e lacticinios will surpass that of coffee. The number of

milk stations along the railways wi-L oe greatly increased. Athose

farmers farther removed will sooner or later be joined to the rail-

way station by automobi-e roads. there practicable, the sale of
A

milk id more remunerative to the dairyman than the production ofta

butter or cheeeed**, A4iu tWt Itf-64t.A&t V

Rio de Janeiro, the world famous metropolis 9 receives less

than one-fifth of the milk per capital that she should consume.

Even in Belio aorizonte, the most beautiful and modern city of

Brasil, the supply has always been far below the demand. It is nr

wonder that we have such an appalling infant mortality in both of

these magnificent centers of civilization.








.. . .
i- ... : .. ...:.l** !^ f^.. -- -;. .... -.. .. .,,






III B


(Leite e acticinios)


Lines for Improvement.


1). Winter forage. For the present thetmost


important innovation is the production of a winter fortage. Canna
-/, tfm ^^'fltBntr2^ <^4nG
cavallo is a fine, almost perfect,,forage for milk cows. It can be


grown at a cost of about five to ten milreis per ton. The vdwinters


are never cold enough in Miinas to damage it seriously. This enaoles


the dairyman to utilize it as a green forage at any time during the


dry season. It makes excellent silage at a cost of from 5u to 5J


milreis per ton.


jther grasses, such as J.apim Elephante and --apim Imperial,


also make excellent winter forage, but produce less kilos of


carbohydrate for each days labor expended than does the can-ia ca-


vailo.


*). Rejection of coor ruduc;ers. MAst dairy cows are


ch.asen by their sleek appearance and their ability to lay on fat.


Until thie dairyman weighs tne product of each cow and keeps a


record of her yearly production, his herd will degenerate toward


the minimun D roducerstAo-E' X 4w9*


_. breeds. beyond question the Hoilandez is the most


economical breed for Minas.. They hold the world's championship


as producers of milk and butter. Other r.uropean breeds are more


pleasing to the eye and their dariciers should be encouraged to


improve their herds. If a farmer is especially pleased with his

.-- .* .. .. -l i~i'







III C (Leite e -acticinios) -

zeou milkers he should oe given every aid and comfort possible, some


of the i-hybrids are fair milkers ayd are better aoie to maintain


themselves under =y adverse conditions,


4}. Literature. jut present greatest deficiency lies


in the direction of milk reduction. T-he most speedy, ciapest
'**4
and certain way of augmenting the milk productionn is by wide ouDii-


city in regard to the foregoing three Lines of improvement. The


marfketis practically umlimitedc, especially for miik produced-.during


hie-int er.c.
'A


Bulletins should be prepared on each of the foregoing


three points and distributed to all of the milk producers, whether


they carn read or not. These bulletins should be revised and 'M
.4

republished annually or biannuaiiy. .v

OA'L AdtV d
5). Intrdu.tion -. 'urebreds. The introduction of


purebred animals should be continued The Honorable Secretary"
". .

should give all encouragement possible to .he establishment of :


herd-ooks for all of the breeds, ni.luding the zebiu. Otherwise "


the records will be so 4/a-h and J that in 15 or 2. years .-


more no one will ia ve confidence in he animals Droduced in Minas. -.


'.






.4.


y*' I
2^.S




1. 111.... .1||..1> I II III I I 1 I l I




(ves e evos. The exportation of ayes and ovos


in 1928 yielded Minas twenty seven thousand nine hundred and two


contos de reis. Placing it higher than suinos e seus products,


banha e toucinho. This exportation should have yielded -an income


of at least fifty thousand contos de reis. Rio is our principal


market for the Zona da 'atta. Frequently eggs were retailing at


Vigo.aa for a mil quinhentos per dozen when in hio prices were from


four to four and a half mii reis. Frangos at Vitosa were oeing sold


foB a mil quinhentos when aio sold them at -dour to four and a


half mil reis. One hundred to t'o hundred percent is too high a


charge for the services of the middle-men and transportation. However -


even these high charges for services have not deterred the thrifty


but uneducated iiineiran from exporting a tremendous quantity of waves


e ovos. if fifty thousand contos in niac-e of twenty seven thousand


had been in circulation among the poultry raisers the ambition to


raise and sell more waves e o'7os would have oeen noticeabi i -un=a=d.


For the most oart the waves e .ovos come from small farms,


sitios and especially from the smaller estabeiecimecitos. ihe


poultry fanciers, wno raise ;ureored aves aid the state indirectly


oY supplying the small producer Ywith better sto_.k. i-s a class the


poultry fanciers are educated people who are aoie to take care of


themselves. They are intelligent, widew-awake business men and

need al the hep and encouragement the govrniet an give them.
need all the help and encouragement the government can give them. V-'






. f III B':I:

They do not hesitate to mae their wants and keeds known to the

difficiaes of the government. They have made wonderful progress in

the last decade and indirectly have aided the state to export

millions of ayes e ovos, but these large establishments and fancy

breeders are not the producing power of the state. it is the many V-_!
rAM -
thousands of smail producers who turn their daily labor in o wealth
A

for the state. These greatly need and merit the states most earnest

endeuvuaB$ in their oenaif.

Lines for Improvement suggested.

1). From the foregoing discussion it is 4 uite clear that too
Sii
much money is charged by the middle men and possibly also by the

transportation companies. "his is a condition thayhas been met

with in other countries and successfully solved. Just how minas

can go about to solve it is not -ss.s_. The distributors,

of the necessities of life are so well organized that it will require'
'V*
a powerful and long continued effort to wrench from them a position
^ 'I
of the exorbitant profits.

-2). Literature. Two or three bulletins treating on separate


phases of poultry culture distributed among tne sitiantes and small

poultry growers would greatly stimulate production. A bulletin on

each of the following three divisions of the subject seems to me

advisable: a). Different breeds and purpose~for which they are

adapted. b). dimple Poultry houses and farm methods of incubtion.
c). Methods of feedinV Food production and economic pastures. .
.r .. ... p s --res.





It
a


H -i -- gjui o s --"'1"" ..:j



(uinos e 6eus Prodcos cording to the table of exportation.?
..-_ -_ to-e porttio


of suinos e seus productivos, Danha e toucinho amounted to fourteen


thousand three hundred and thirty four contos. Probably the weakest


point in hog raising is directly on thearm. In the first oiace the-
'. i^
hogs that mate up the vast otik of the export are of a hardy race, ..j


resistant to a ff.fficult enuironment slow to mature and return a


relatiev.eyi..small amount of oork for the food consumed. under the
3"q
usual conditions the farmer has little or no donception of the


amount of food his herd has consumed nor the value of the food if ,4


it had been sold as corn, mandioca, etc. The breeding conditions i
'SI
and reading are so crude and inefficient that Itlls purely a '*


matter of good fortune is a considera-ble unmib-'r ,-..f them .-r.i-re :


at an age ready for fattening. '


In the whole -hog-raising business there is no point that ~
.-g

needs so great attention as farm sanitation. Much, but not enough, ,


attention has been given to the subject of hog cholera. The -..


information is so tl understd that it still requires an .
A A *-

expert veterinarian to diagnose this disease. /'Parasitic worms, w


appear to cause greater loss and snn maxdi to De more difficult .


of control are very imperfectly understood. A great deal of


investigation on this subject is still necessary. .



1 .,
.A~.,N.Yi







simple sanitation measures need to he worked out anC1-'


formulated into simple ru-ies and very widely circulated. It is a


much more simp;Le and cheaper matter to keep hogs healthy than to cure


thea sick ones. ns a matter of fact a sick hog is nearly worthless


and often times worse then worthless since he either pOllutes the
A

pastures or is the carrier of disease to the well ones.


flext to lacik of sanitary condition on the farm is the


iack of care oj the brood sows before and at farrowing time. '-,n-iy


a small amount of aaditional attention t.o the sows and brood during


aoott a six "eeks period woud immediately do.uoe the hog population.


The introduction of purebred sires, so well begun, will greatly


reduce the time necessary to elapse between farrowing and marketing


and at the same time'make it possible to :produce much more pork on


the S;ame feed. At the Lscula there have oeen ten to twenty times as


many requests for oure ored sires as we hlad animals tD sell.





Lines of Improvement Suggested,


1). Literatip.A-Bulletins should oe prepared at once on


a). Hogrlot sanitation, b. ihog ciolera, written so the farmer


can understand it. c). Worms, treatment for and prevention of.


). Breatly increase the investigations on hog diseases.


a). 'Foster tne formation of a pure bred register for
pedigreed animals.

4}. Increase the number of oureored animals available to .


the farmers who want to buy them. ,,
.., 1.




.. .- ^ ^ ..,:^ L r \'*
"^ .' f'**

III A -

oimae de ,''enos 'mpo-rtan-ea- e ~ broduc~oes-. There


are many other animals that merit careful attention but to dis-


cuss a great number of these would carry the treatment much beyond


the limits of this report. battle, poultry arid hogs make up the


great bulk of our export and also are the mainstay for home con-


sumption. With the proper improvement in transportation, market-


ing and postal system we will be abie to make many of these


minor items of greater value than some of those that are prin-


cipal items now.


The breeding good saddle horses has already bUen


started and merits much further altm.,ix assistance. The estab-


lishment of a good pedigree record it appears to me, would at


one? give ain i.-tu, t: pef,:t-i,-n in breeding that is now lacking. .


Mules of a heavy type are greatly needed and almost


impossible to obtain at any price. The small pack mulefw excellent -'


in the recent past. This type is becoming t, with time :


betterment of roads and the increasing use of caminhoes. The very 5


largest type of jacks only should be used for breeding purposes.


some of the mule raisers still cling to the old type, largely, from .


habit, and sa.ttm without considering what the market/ tz demanding.'. .
^''1
These people will be able to continue to supply all of the mules *


needed for pacfk service in Linas. The large type of mule is -
"o.|
,* .-,





-U-----


p .,.D uvinos.- The bheep raiding industry, according t


the 19W;J census is saout ecLinl to mute raising. The greatest


menace to its extension is the roving half wild dogs. There
J

is a very strong sentiment among all pastorii people against


the kil]inig of roving dogs, which revert to their ancestral


instinCts take pleasure in killing sheep. a state tax on


dogs would help somewhat in reducing the number, but is


not entirety effective.-Untii we can aoate the #og nuisance,


sheep raising will languish.




1 "- .' '


greatly needed Cfr echanica. The tscola has made every


reasonable effort to obta-in suitable mules for farm work out


up to the present all the efforts have oeen fruitless. Ve still


have to worry qiong with the small inefficient animals. These


vitiate to a large degree the work of the machines agricolas, and


are in a large measure responsible for the slowness with which


modern machinery is neing adopted on the farms.


It would oe very desirable for the cecretaria to


secure a e-Pf e number of arge mares occmomemdrnagcmumomamm, ;b


o i.m.or.t i'for .r......ooding with tho. in order that the


farmers may be able to obtain muies of sufficient size to do effici,


farm work. Vvith the present small type of mules the human labor i:


not, and can never be more thaCn 51 .'o efficient.

/
,/ /;. '> /N
U4 r ,.' '

Caprinos. Goats are almost every where present, i'heir toti


numeral appears to oe over half that of asses and muies. They add. ve:


materially to the health and support of the poorer classes. They ,


make themselves a nuisance in all of the smaller cities and townss"


toing lizryy ..'eiql. Tie ) lk bto thousands of families that


otherwise would Oe without. Their meat is nutritious and sa x tx


not unpalatable. They merit much more consideration than has oeen


given them by the Uovernment of Minas.-









Lines tif Improvement suggested.


i. Literature. brief and ;practicEi bulletins should be


issued as soon as suitable manuscripts can be obtained.


aj. ThLe cuciications on horses should illustrate the


types of saddle oreeds and give directions for breeding and feeding.


b). The puolications on mules should lay heavy,-


emohasis on securing draft animals for Minas, without these


larger draft mules our lavoura mechanic wili oe greatly retarded.


c). The bulletin on goats should be written in the


clearest manner possible. It should lay special stress on the oroper


selection for milk production and needs of suitable forage and.i


pasturage.








-JT




























.. ?
,'4
*.'i

... : 9








Part II


analysis of rons produced .


Vohat has been said on the foregoing pages, (PartL),


was inaispensaole to a rational understanding of what will be


presented on the following pages.


In -this part of the discussion is taken up very


briefly the methods that may ue employed for thie betterment of


the rural people in the great otate of ''inas Geraes. !his discus-


sion takes into consideration the state of society as at actually

a
exists, the political organization and the present financial


" condition. Innumerable mistakes have been made by trying to


adopt projects as a whole from Luropen or otherf'foreign lands.


These have generally proven to be failures, uur sociological and


physical conditions are very different and hence we must modify


our efforts greatly to meet the situation as it exists. The


southern part of the United states adopted hurope as her educa--


tional and financial model, went into bankruptcy and had to remod


her sociological structure, brasil has long held to the L-uro-
o,^

pean ideal and consequently has lost first pace with some of


her most important export crops, such as rubber, and sugar, and


coffee is now being threatened.



.t.



.
S.... .- .. ,








SPart II B


North America during the Civil War and during the


sociological unheaval that followed, lost her supremacy as a cotton


producer. From 1915 to 1922 her supremacy was again threatened


by the ravages of the boll-weevil, in 19b. and 1922 the best


: authorities predicted that before the end of the decade, supre-


macy in cotton production would oass to some other country, most


likely Brasii. brasil has the population and the area but un-


fortunately was not ready sociologically. By 1928 the price of


cotton in North america was so greatly reduced that there was no


foreign competitor for first place. 1This happy result for -'orth


America was brought about oy advancing the price of farm labor


and nence getting more efficient laborers, ma by using more modern


mechanical devices, including even the air-" to apply insecti-


cides, and- by evolving a better method of culture, ouch an achieve- .


meant was made possible by having thousands of graduates from


Agricultural Colleges and by a practical absence nf illiteracy.


The place held oy'a state in a nation and of a nation
i

among otner nations, is determined most largely by the value of


her export.


Export as an Index. In final analysis, an agricultural
',:
state simply exports human labor. If a certain state can produce ::"


a ton of sugar, for example, with one half the normal expenditure .

S.-.- 4 -
f...~~ ,"". .. -
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