Preventing Damage ot Stored Seeds by Insects.

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Preventing Damage ot Stored Seeds by Insects.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 5
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Preventing Damage ot Stored Seeds by Insects.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00084


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
7a- '' -".. ... ,' .'.1, 1.a p. o,"-, t., I
l, I-h: "'i' J "- .' ^' "J" .. ..-^ *l^ *."^ ^ / i. ^ ,. '" -"' / '
%*;.:.,*'* : *. : '... )* y .'1. f .,- *l.*-^.,.-- ,"^- l .**t<-.'^ :-;- ,o ,-,< .- .. ., ...,, .^. ,^-- *' ?' ,* '


^ -'^^ *i,, ^l ^ .-- '",..^ W ^ ",.(. _TO ,'Q.i *fl i'I _Y I ^ CT'. ^,"" *
;?'i"" ." .'0 ', ^..'" "; '"' '" '*" .. L" ( "* "" : . *' . -., v k "*- r
.. .
J C






t;q 04. .;,., ," ,, tilo r..", "t'ura e. Vet-.-in. ,ria,
,. '. :.* < :(u *.<^ t,^i i(g*n .l '~ Vi~os,, .. '



,,, ; -. -, ^ _T ,~l.f ,t .U^ ^t Ae o r t i~ ra ;yil t y e
1 i t -ity ,'-roy A ,_i-l TO S.TIDp i l IydiT.u.ntS to .afiy


de .. t" r . .



t', .1 '. a b, ,6 1 VI
*," ^ l^'iidsa 0{ 0'rJV;' i.y9. C-hf; VOV4. (f our 0270C.'.VI!1 hc--aIL; &t.d '1-! .!UA.t 1.;i the

; *other .irbo rtn!nt- hitr.,4. ,uct de CI.I+t.U-'Ea" L-.V "b.,e.n i izAi-Sh.6ed1 'ov: f oroigD
1'" *' ? i: '
t..^ fo u ,ienri .d "l:h,>'i.'.Q ,.,-;.c" r *t.x'nd~uQ~ 'fc. :- ^aecd ,-''-i L.,.'L Ii.Ai'c i'ul "u p i, ,

e W .' a i -. :t, 'I ., U L

with. ; rn ner.rly -.A. i'f not m LL,.- of tyhe. irneoct r,&,.s ;.i b.i, ;2 .:o (.:'f
,."in o.:,. c' ur'ie3. 'II'u-; 2. 1 t .' f' Yl tu i1 rIV iv c's tc t
,, *. iL'1 .** H ; ,, ..: .^

"L%&3;n 0 etid u1.gi ve ,itf, 3 ..1 ,z.3c of t..' J iv 'ustt Liu '
A *, .- ., ,
c a t p ,, 11


'' ,- th ir,.Lift history uLs Bi ,'Vf U thA.2 't ;,. '-; :.ir i ric.' a1. 1,:m. a:

%-@<;v~la (.*' p i i ue 0ri;v;-'. nu,., ) y In s*.incr?-lo -&n~r *th/ i'.L'-Uan,
t' S.

six thuui.waud de;tceodets. F.' Vli of -otiiA ,.,. ;tu..t, eliY L ',dwit'f. ..V. Kt ,Ji-
S dartc.o -o food. e,,,ryertl i i.i tt,. couow6e o' ftLv,4 ./c; %.ris. to 'cQ iWulcL vtt
1h ,r-id 14 'd 0 1 .oi + (1 .na1 ,J
be enou;ih rco in the .rrid .o 0eb all.of r. ac. rt." o iir
I, .
'. pair. lortu t-ely,' 'r Us) rfi l,-on:s of' thi' dia s ua y 't
S,." find food., iand aayy milUona sior( beoaule tilr uEn; erio, mlore'-
n' .N.. "" t,, t v r r .
;, '. ; ". ,^ .. ,, ". '*; '.' ; i .; '- *, :' '; .'" ,. B ^i '. ".
a~tatncE s, ,, 2,


.'t ,, "" "1 "" ";" '-.'* ** ... "* ." ", '*. "- ".,- : .' : "* ., '' -:.. ^ : '* *
I.LI



w. ,-d put ,'.t i, reQ are easy, oiw i an.r, .....e....e t.. .ioda
,, .',' .* "^^ H ,,-,, 1, '.' *'*;., '^ i: .- -. *** ^ ; .. 1 ,'

X 'E -' ' ; 1 '. ,.-

;'.. .,, '... .... ." .. ".' ..'. ... '.. '. ... . '.. ... .
L .. "_ "" _.'" __ "' '" ..
r ; .,i, ,. .,, , .,, ,




'. .
I 4 'I ..." ^ ** .* ^ ^ '*



TRAATZ ING UMS)TOT FECTm D C ESDS' ,4

Onev'of the safest, cheapedt and maost effiioenit 'me odot
of killingg irnnect posts in stored gxain nd seed ia by the applkction

of hiq .t, '
a second matho4 that ais alqo phiap and effecottVe, but

whioh carries with it a. seall rrerement of dangztr i.I the appiicat&an'of
seiOn gas, eapeciakly carbon bisulphide. ou cyaide gas ,
,; .. '., L 1 .'
2W11:nITATIW2 fljWMES
FPbrhaps iavre practical than the me thuog me itio3e3Q for

1Ai in^ tinuootu in U!ted aeods are proven ta-1cve ,aesuitAes agalu't., them.

Theso P'easures are nxti'eitly simple, but thu fazendeiro who observes

them rigorously for a fea yearo till fiM4 hi.'c..i liL.itsumaly rewarded.'

111 wo0..t im-3portuitt of thesd IaoaasurSdi io that~p keueng4
bihe .prseiaisee Co-peoially the store house ai -A'ee as possible oat lU
"i
imuc-ts. This is vory. impotaait, pinoe no matter tf every inbect kaS
bjen killed by fur-igati.on, i.f one permits iismeout infected mitoril to

bi iiiLroduoed, tih smrk will r-wvo to, b@ all donb over gain, or great
lo2-,reu sufferedd. in the store houac-on tho far, z terr the6 cror, has
been. ubed u.p o.- rold, t.ncru i:, nearly always TALoh refuuc left. Th.s
r'fuso a fforda a splendid harbor for the iutctt. anyt tmeas the'new
crop ie plaoea in teLs n3aSe roo .iere tt from t'he year before 'Waa'

i;.totPodw without the room hv.4n&, been c jeaned out. ,,ore. frequently thae
as.,r is cleaned out only a short tit.e before the nw crop is put ,.
l* n rj''t-t, and manIy of the iInsect pe6ttiive over in the -radks wa'dotalet,
.'
lirotoctod places in tOm house unti4 the new food taog them. &rri~ o All :
t 4 '' .i "* ,' *:
ctore roQous shoqa 'b ole-on nd 1ZIUnbiatel4T aftir tr oz'opbha beep..
', *.- '. ; *'. * *,j ', "* .! .' ',' ",,,
I V
markmeted or ooI n iaed may insoot. aa, We .n Itba ibs


'1 4 .. .. .'.
,,. ,* 1 ., *.4"" .':',,: ','.. .. ..-,,....-,
* .. ** r ., ; L*:; *, .' :. '. .' -* *. '.. >', ^' ',, ? '* =' .1 ,i M [ i? ,i' ;\ ..S
,.*'r. .*"*-,' ..-s4',.,,.. ,.4 4 i..'-'*....;'..,
,'+ "'i .. .'. ... .? .: .' ., ,' ~ .**~i.~. 4 ,' ; .. *',,,j,4j' *'$,. 4




I 'V 9.*'. :



*1< }. I :
or'o opeop inseotloide, such au kerosene, should be nde. *
r ..m e m-''3- '.. -any re it
oars a large rniount of grain and other seed is unavoidably seOattered about.4
This makes an ideal place for the breeding and dissemination of paeotT
pentse. .'or Uttl reason, r 1, when seeds for planting
must be traunspo.tod by railroad or boat (or even in keeping them on
the fAzendna) ta tf-_ro plauooed In closely woven btags. 1 -f the fabric
oAsuoh bago hau as nnny ras ton stra.nds to the clntimreter it wlli'P re-
vent many of tlbe cozr.on insects from infect'ing thie ad,' The lociaely
S 1 *
woven Jute baga that are frequently employed rernit several accliee of
wvovfils auda macthe to onter through the meshes or to deposit tioiur eggs
pn the i rain. 7f stout paper bago are used Inside the cotton or juts
boes, thiee are not usually torn in transit mid serve to pievenrtV in-
.O n~ i or. *


A: : A : IN.T XT,.CT DWLT$OYtJ R .

Every one kno w that fire is onro of -the best pV.rirf1r6
Ilo7oveor, very iew. know,? that a- deores of heat, far below a.ltual, b&iaAt1g
le entirely effective for Ilcliina insects.. ,3ntoolOgi1ts who hw?,ve
i tudled In-tect phyriplogy ,lve diseoovor.ed that It Iu yoosbles to rnpply
wufflclent ehoab to the seed of. coreali -Id beans to all all inuoc-ta
without, deotroylrv its ser.ulnatinS quality. "'The: onibrynz f" ti;oq coumlon
be-.an wfovil1StrfCh4S (;\canthoocsUabs) obsitus {.JJSx)J & @killed yten

esponod to .54 degrees Qentigrade ten minteaS; the nihly hatch lairvae
die in s even 1Inutes at !6 degrees C,; full Crown larvaq in bj d dS
in twenty minut, at 55 degrees C. and pupae. ip beaus cile .When oxposed
or tenty are killed by a our

4 am:1--poetro4 to degrees c.P". (So's 5arBerm' j3uU1etin.. 1275% 6 i

( e *' *-* .
:. .
,,..9 I .. .. .




,. "1

4-,
: .. -4- 1'

Del)srtmient of Agriculture, pg 30, by r 1. A, 3C.Cal). The gerrnina.-
.~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,! : : ,. ^ "" *" ":* '.**".r **

tine quality 4'seeds of oerealls and beans is no ordinarily inured.

,..^ ,* ". '. '** ( .,: .- ,' *.* . ,. .
when they are exposao. to 63 deAVee's uC. for tasty five minutes. A
temperature above 65 degrees Centigrade seems to weaken the plants
., = .' i ..
oc-ing fIom the seed ao treated, although some apeciea of beans retain

their o.erminaling power even after hivinj; been exposed to a ternora-

ture of 87 degrees C. for ten minutes. *2
4f.
B3y m-kIng application of these diesoveries it has beoon

possible to leave hundreds of thousands of coetos worth of need at an

extremely small cost per ton. 1:laborate machinery is not necerms ay.

A ;ocd coffee roaster, an accurate thernac'teter, such as can hbe pur-

chased from a pharmanoeutioal supply house, .rd a.r.atch .are nufficiont
"' *.--- .L '.' '
to perform the workt on a. small scale. On a lurge scala, BwapftatiAon

io oquotly iiaple.. The great grain elevators in the r aiin product

sections have to be supplied 'with a boiler for running their ,nchinery@,

'By using this-4eae boiler for furnishing heat within the elevator, all

iaaects in the g an are ohedply and-effioibntly doestroyqd.,
The :.t3razilian !l,vernmnt had applied this sao,. principle

tpV th destruction of insect peats in cotton and other seeds whioh are
to:be distributed to the fa-endeiros. A machine for killing insects
in seeds
flhutj ( especially In cottoft ueeds) that at'e to be Alrt--4tdQ hAa.
boen p'atented by'a firm In io Paulo and I m- told that it has been

Vrnl7sueoesfully employed. When it is necessary to destroy the in-
a e"oa in seede but preserve, their.. ge3hinating quality, ,the o0:eat ion

I s a little more e-pensive and must 'be performed with a little miore
A** .
oare than when the grnrilnat-ing lility of -the sead neo* not be taken .
S into 'ooi''deration 'B2t even so the destruction of t.tn3 Is jt

I.s f:r uxere eoonpmoal than their dlneAIn-tion wi th $
S % o ,- .





, ., ,.'. -t"

I T HEAT OF SUN UUED
4 *' -.
'" fanttr friend of mln~eonstruot&a very cheap anduse-

ful storehouse for coon and rice in vthoh the. insects in the atbred
eed were killed b'y th'a heat of the surz He. had built an Oriny

1o0 z 12 ma.tor' tore house with brick Wflla, v:ithout windows, and

witl c. on'nsrete floor. The roof of tice buil-aing was of L-alvaniaed
steel shots (any cther rbofing metal would do.) Thiu e.et_4 roof-
inr was essential for tansaitting the eant of the sun's rays., The

space between the tmp of the walls 'and the roof was carefully filled

wiv.h mortar to preventt the escape of heat. At the peak., of the roof

(whtch was ra.de in fuur sections, coming to a peak In the -enator)

vw-. provided a, lrg6 ventilator that could be easily opened and

olied. ?.uriring das of inshaine thL ventilator -nr.s onerted I.o

Prevent Ileu teiptUrature 6n th-e ;Nt-rehnusa fronx beoominz too hia,
Lt night and on rainy days the ventilator was kopt cloned to re-

tain the hast in the store house. '"t thi iple arr aaent

-it was ;ossiblo to secure a tEperature o-' 65 degrees Contisrade
S during :-4inry layB, without the iue of artificAhl heat.
One advantage in th.e use of bhoat for destroying the

innoectr in cprn, bano, arind peas, i1h thcat they lose GCIof moisture

during thi QruceaS anrd for thi- reason jecorie faLr less susceptible

to reinfection. A difficulty experienced in employing heat for

this purpose is that when one has a large body of grain in. a heep

or stored in sacks, a" long tias is required for pafficient heat,
,. .. ", "
to ppeitrat@ to the Interior to aociomplish the doasltrd result,.

S.,,.. .' GA% FCIR .STRMWG J;TECTS
A..
4 ., fGas is much more frequently, employed thp heat to
0 '. .. "'. . ",

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..,....:..._.. ..............."............... .. .. .......,..,......., ..'.i.". ;;,




1~ -
*1


-6-


destroy$ inseota. It is somewhat more expensive whon applied on a
l c' t
** 1io' nogIle'and cartfs with it-'OTfie element of detgeTw However, wfien
the operator is fuly aware of the danger the risk i3 esnu4l. For cxa
.a'lpte, cyanide ns, on qf tho imost deadly to hwUan beaings, ha, been
I
usodfor tac fumication literally mi.lions of times without the losa
of a n".nrgle liie ThI'he two gaeeo moat frequently raailoyod arc cy'.nidAe
and -&Iaulphlde of o'irboon. but there are r.iaty ot-hers tiht milEht be
suooeBosfully OfImp;20oy34.
A E'ftall m-.chine for killrq insects in -Peo 'by uting ga.-
bon bisulphide gaa Wau been patente4 Ly a ..Ineeiraei-d pay be lur.chuased
from >haaras, Lino, Co., ua da Uanda.erio N0 36 6 io J: J. Bci.ro, 4his
:.iaaIoQir is n i.l- i-ro have a capacity of 32 i uck; oX 60 ktior each very
24 h.ours.-;, aind to g-ivye Lood )etultfl.
Cnrbon iu lphi.le
Tilis ciQe:;Aieal h)m" been -wod fcr decades to i!l ioueuts
In oeed. Y1 It la so eunily h-nrnlled arid th.:.0 is m.1 littlo li.'.Qcr in
itz uas that no educated mii ftcedi hesitate to employ it. T:.,, -t ng,
dio;\eoaable ot'.or ofa ito gas will prevent vUyene from breathing areough
of it to affect thB e burio.cly. Early all are f.Raiilarir Vi thl toa. fact
that it i,. li-ly to c:*plo.:.e when even & seatll f3re, l .ch E., a lighted
zlt:oh or cigarat.te, is brought into itLs Vicinity.


I -


.x.trpTt TO U!,
uAi'lton biulphitp of c1 purity1 rthenr u1cd at the rate
of 20O0 rag to 2 oUbic .aotera otq &aoe uW.i rosdifly kill all insects
4,
v/itiiout inju iln *te. ger~iiw.ting~quuli y of &fted L&ure Is not ;ielov 1 degrees C. nor above 23 degrees C, ;A tae .
oompartment Is ooaued air ttitntA If the *ompartrient iP not t^i94
.:,.c
:L. ., ,, -. .. -- .:
'" '. ' "; f : ,J .. .. ... -'. ', "" -' .. ". '^?'




,,. li:, ,: .; ........... *- *.. .... ; .. ^ ..* ^ J ^ '- ^ .*'* ....* .. .. .. : ? .'" ..."......... .w^ A' .,.,. % .. .




4. I.,


oloed a oorrepondingnsly larger amouakt oa the liquid mauist be used.

Aio, if the eheincal in i.npure, enough mot, usat be' u0ed to maie up

for thii,3 d'efioiuncy. xt a higher temipe'ature mor liquid 16' reqiated


than at a loiror one. Dr. Carlos Moreira reconmmaiendds the employment of

twice an rnuoh of the')iquid when the tewtpera ure ia at 30' de-trees' C

au when it it at 10 degree C.

A ton of cdon, beanas, or peas will be easily o contained

in two cubic meters of Space, To make the darbon bisulphide effective

it is necessary that it be used in a oompartmsnt tight enough to prevent

the escape of the *.ae. Thr treatment ihoul.!. continue' during 12 to 24

houre. After this time the compartmertt should be opened and thie ga

prenlitted to dieeiaiate. In the course of an hour it is usually safe

to take scud out of the corapartment. In 24 to 483 hours the seed should

be examined carefully for the presenee of live insects, to asco.rtain if

the 4dosaiue hM.- been suffioiontly hc-avy.


HOW kPP~aO ; .

A sixu-ple Try to use the liquid tsois to pour it into

overall uhallou sauoere ov squp plates. Jince carbon bisultphide gae is

heavier 4han air, these ,aueqors afould, be placed .at the hAi;hest...poi.nts

ct Lbb compiArtrt.-rst, or 3iiply .on top of tAe seed. x pure ca'bon bisaul-

phids is spilled on the seed no iLrm will be done t,' ti'e torainatinsg

cquaLity but the disag4eeable odor will remain with the- seed for a

longer iIme. \ftcr the vqsaeln containing.the'llquid have boen played,

the comipartent d.iould be ogqoed,, and the volatllizati on allowed to .,

continue.. ,
.si I' *,',. .


If tite eed in a compartUant with a capacity srasxtq.r

than two cubic motors Id to be fumigated, the relative .ea=*nt ft t '

.' V-
,, *. *, .
*. .. . . .. .., *1,, ,


7r
I." ', ,
"/.. ;, '. '. ,




., ,q
St,
t *.' ,' ':
~~-8- .. \

carbon bisulphide should be employedl. If the roria is ve77 oompaot

and In .. ,e mo' u "'than a m$er daejp. it is adviable to use some

Taean of. iwtzoduqong the carbon bisulplide into the mwas. By pouring

%me ouf the liquid qn a cloth, suoh a$ coffee sackingand rolling this

Up In. ,t ball, it oan "b reaikly thrust down into the loose grain, jo-

ivard thu Qentur of thua hap. The carbon btiuLphide on tiL oloth will

vaqqr'tZ ad tho fuameap dip eiaeLnzte tlrouw- tLhe seed.

10Mora f$oq us1 eI.4y a, Ursaller quaaiity of 1Pr:ail i to ba

treated acd in this camo allo i .will bo ntceia4rj to de.terridns the

tajaclty 0g the oOxlLu1Laor .rid uaq. the c0;rbon OLJ 10bib 3ite aSt approx-

aatuiy th0e r-ate given toa :.- cuboi rnizters. i a relatively lstrger

arnount of he alt-arLioalj i- uced, no lit'rix tc tle go;djtnatlng quality 0of

the ae(e4 in likely to be cimx-ed, )utf one recuivetv no benefit I'rorm using .,
., *,. ,
more on it tlan ,is needed. .. :

In cse .a b.frlel in tU'e container in which tho seed is

to bo fwdaii,. ted, the approximat@ o CatOlty o0 th-is may '"e obtained by.

ialt'iplying lthe aqUaro of ita 4iaaiemter by i eT hoeilht. (The rmeoaaurs-

mantj o'hould be made in dce1irain Of a matir). If the figure thus

obtained is oomnpared -withl the tw oub'ic meters, the neoawaary axoiint

of iiafbon bibaldhihto C;=n readily be '-aloUlatod. -Plaoe t1*x shallow

venC.e acont;d, irting; tOw liquid on top of te s6dd. lThen ovor the bat.
-'
reX wvith a heavy' cloth thazt is more or 16s impmi-a tj~able to, the geas

l; '*Uoh a cloth cu i s twd y ths railwAy c6inpatioS in proteottflg auto-

mobiles itaile in trpndit will orTva quito well. In the absachoe of
such a. Loth, Ooffae rcska,' or may bo pl-ceover the

top of the barrel and on top oQ tlheea olone fitted boalCeis; tof p event, '
- asi'fat a, pn eible, the oanoape of the' as.
''- : .'; ': .' ."
i,' i -... -, ,' .. .'
,'''i ''. "' ," '





i ',0
?,,., ,* .

i


Vaopje"& ex'erionoed in killing insects with carbon bi- *

&UlphicLe. have'been abUle to do 'it very auocesufully by silaply piling

the 3;:@ed on A uoncrei4' floor, acplyinA thie amonGU of 'I -e'a iuical.
S' .
nawdled and covering the mdur well with a lar:;e canvas clItho, izaper-
*J .' ,
S1eablt to th1e gab, ThiL .a thod ih no recormiended to' thie beginner,

-ca4sCe--fltaiirt y-iaan rnor-Vpfre ons, tha neeleot of any one of

t &itit 7wottid mBtas.-^-fai v*e at t A(nB-fia^i ori: '"'" '-

.- .-- 3arbonu.agWin-e 6%f tv-."t9, pltty rAy V-d

Sqs44e 4hsaaly l.rr"te' ].azrr!e"'conmereial: oontskrB8scaxtfla ';
eive use as Em 'Insecoicide as w'if l aa in the azta. i'riU'feTfnt

omracadial agenoios, Such as iuipleaient, dealer, fertilizerr dealori0,
4. .
and ins ectiide dealers;, sell it in 3C'lciio drunis. j0pe brctndjof
ling ~ ~ %a eu n P..,rt of 'thia
the i.48ecticideS useU for killing aauvao 'o de up npt of this

6horaical. One of tbesw various ormA.cidas may be employed At.:'itS
** .'"*. : *, ." : 1 ** '... ': ...
relative amount of free aahrboe bisulphide is known.
*,. 1 ** ; ; .. .' ,* _. : .
S,: Pue'rcarbon' bisulphide can usually be obtained in small
.. .. 't : '. % .. / ..
..... -. ^ ', .A. .
-quantities -trPm the lari~r pharnui4es or troni, 4aleors Ztiar etteetie

cal. supplies #."but at a o oparativey, highWprice. ,., .. : .
,^ .. .1 : ^ ., ** : ; :i -.; ,. .* *' i.
A". .....
| ,- .. *. ". -* *, ; ** y- ^ ; l ,,*/ 1l.^ i ]
*; :- .. -. : > '.. ..- . ... ., -.1 .: "*T ^ '.;, ** *. :. .* i ':
: r .. .*. . : .

4. ,-'.'' ,,,.*.,- .j~ ~ -i., A
'" /C" : .,. f-A' ':' ? p -A. t'- 4" . '".A ..A'A A : .. '- ,'." -


'" 3 A


, l 'f' /," ,

S3o'Xn of various sizes ray be ;aso(I f o containing the

-eod to be funig.ted wi th arbon bierlphida. -o prepare tese it is

nearly always necessary t6o paste paper XAnside ot them to p-event.Atne
.* .. ..' "
a^s cal o excaaping tX4J(/ though the oraoks and oorners. After the,

top has.bed pboad in 4QSition, pasta paper around the cornea of It.

;f thq gas escapes one will kalw it by UI pr080aoce of the chajrater-
C. 'd.o ,
i ltid odor.c 1r






,, *l *
0-, .. *

ala- 1 *T *
II

way of killing insects in staed. Xt iuTolyes. move dagare than the use

of barbon bisulphide, and requires constdor.able care to use the exact

proportidns of the chemicalss, as well ae'to get the right quantity

needed fo, doing the'Work, effectively, while e it is one of tas mast

OntX dwigeroua gasses to huiLa being (one breath of it is fatal),

it has been eipiloyed millions of times without the Plosa of a single

person. Dr. ;.Ltrlcs Z.oreira (Direotoor do laotituto-a1ologico, de Delesa
-*t- \c'oola e 1^ha'e do -'ervigo de 'i&tOi.Uiologia ftgiooJa), hi s "Ento-
*" ." i0*

rwnloi' Agricola BJ.& lrasiiaira, aao i2.6, a~v: "Q0 gaz oyariliydrico d uMn

uwin".u vijoaUL 'e 0OIIO iraductici-d.tL d (to rande' ohllcaoiah aegk eaipreigO
4 de, uaose orrnete noe 1tetado.s Unittoio d.a Aamerica do :ort&, onde oa

traballiadorea o ia.prot.oa:, dir4ridaratmute seiu que ae re.sistrom casou do
&ciaidntos por envenenwate^to; jasa istoe t uo Car.ado
-cc iwito ...baxta quo-as cr~oarragados do
UMI ea~te n dta~i. t il a iki cdadt o a XnJqvando abaocoa ffia os
urfocut inetodatgzui^o a ^"- -
dedos nxim os objtctos tkaOdoa polo acido oyanhydr i ao nao prspiraAdo

& :_Oid at) L cl'Ita.Ca=XaM de"JujsO noo txone oao4o depojBs

i~Lbso VrintiladceQ **', *

ESither sodium or Vpoja.oiu cyanidle may be tuedL, Th1e

WtriL4 must% bd pura. eitherr one i, solds aie, a"ora.u a,
; ,
* whictabaorbup raotioture f raja tbo atmpiwe$ore. Zi40&w.;ia of ttis, the.
i, *,
supply houses furnish them in Laalea. ,tin cans. '2ZLher 9f these wi4l
.-^ L ,' f ,* ,. .
vha4tlliaegiiLne off a pioteQ1QuB n.
*T T umlgabe two eublo meters, of space with. oyanide gas,

the foaloin iamoints of ohemilBl, hualdbe e.loyed, The reoulting

eaz will bistrong enough to kilI' all i ins4cts a, 1rvaie aMd eggs, amd

S. yt not quite strobn enough to deatrOy the ge.,inating pCoer of the :

*sefls Lra % tosat oaws all of thte nasaott wtll be Tado within three tor V
Stow' hour Wi*to lo the Airnystm nt o'eutd for frof L

T.7 ., % 'I I,' *
.S .' .Y.. :.. .& I ?. '._, -, -.;
. ''" *y ", '] "^ ', "''* ". ', '-'; '* .',*^ ^ 'f"il
., .. ,.,^.-:^;"., to=,, ~i^i^ M^-^;^1 .^.lz, *^^1e^. ....:^&^




'- : .. *; l ;. *. '. '' : *- *' '*' ; +-* '

'' H l '",.'ik' '- .. "" / ^


0Ix to twelve hours. If there arr any cracks otw-&-paentngs In'lt
"" "' : "' ; l ', + *, '. i !* e ,"..

CoonvArtmle.nt,, thliCt cac be 01oued by tho uuo q$'ta-w, qr by rat1nt

paper ovor t1i24m.. After tbO .fumigaUcA tha' been. etfoot0&, tht cS 01<

pn.rtmenft :i&uXd -be th.6roughly. alred befoz.e eariye works iUt* it or. takes

any 6.t the suaed it-, M-it: oganMr. .p4, bte cou.trtMit Shou approach

it Oatuilouslyo ht'lting his breath until it Is vopei and he is: mrnln '
eight or teon meters a&w.ay. c'
!. *' *.,* ** ,* .** .. ,.

,,.
** '. (^'or .two 'cuibic Ae~t(?rB ote''pvAOe.) .' *: ** \*'

7'a llitfiiz o Qya*"r .9.itde -
r ator^^./ly ^^~ ^ c, "*_ .._sy ....*...,'... ,., 4o.
IAutfw hic .o :... ... ,. ,0 be .' -ulfuric nieid. 4. ...-..;.30 fl.
.ot .aiun oanide........ 3 Soi oya Q ...
'Utn nSvdrmA-A'xr 'im(W3


1.".ib 1':' u ',lntl l tter than air, very penaetratlt'g -. .

q dl f rue.t ..pidly. -Cot-t equently t mty-t taepraten.t.in any ,u.
** 1 *1 ..;"* 1 .' ," y ..

Pf.C the uumparntrtont. In'laz'ge 'tore houtiso It J uWuat24 men cslaone- 1.'
.U
,ient to eonorito It on the *flor.. *lrm tht' tfablqiven pabOV-eO, i-'.
I' ,

qUantit.y which shoulct be .. aIler- ompurtifehtg c" a

Sb e G' ". o n;,4* t o..,; ,,' ,- -'..' .. .. r, ...
r. t b k. ,:& : .
*'; .- lt ; .* _
o w, kenerttig the, gas eoztdews, laad:



No..t' 'U. '. 0.' Is .v'* ... .. .... :'



4'
4w;>Uu24 Tbe wiset as'. ernafiAri- actid .<1fl attet^opl netlr1 of>l. 'ot the 'no?-tam.

o s oepti s ,le A vec L .of c ,'Qt ct ,''f._, ,,,. bU';b;t +.t",






Lto
a l=ge ,anoant of fa_ r.t,.t Iw 1 evo3ve6,+ ;Tb ,rens ol hoiut' be tt-a,,i$ % !

!'4w trana R lawgp'*,lass%^*0ar 'ttbtit flgipn& w, ttia^



-:* a r '' ' '.' 1' ,
14"" .** ^: is Wise W.: n'&&t 1i.-atatdl''.pife at-*M^ 4 pW @4,.t ithE MO*4%:**'.-,.^
+',. ,, ,, ., / "-'.. .' *, 1- '
^. .- .*^ *: ^ *t'v .- ," u" + ;,;.. '; : ..^ ;i ,* / .< .;+ .' : -. ,

;*,.. II' 9ail'i^^^ .^s


9 b: .- 4 ''. '.'.. X ooo.l -It i .... -'.
:' "' '.. ,, n 5 .- --- ".-^ *'.,| ... J
:,,Y,,', ,.,.:',:-, :, . s 15 ik. .~ & r
,. o~ o* II_ i + m .i .. .. ,;,+ + + .+... .. .. + .: .< ,+. .. ..., _,:.., ..




A
o .. ..... *",

, .- .,, .J '4, I ,pr 4

.. ,, '*. -, ,* o ., ., ., .w .,. ,, o .. .. .. *-
* ,* ; ...' ." ; ,. :' "
...d-. ,.:,. -',;l-., h..Qi k, s a* O --t a. b& usa d -A then our n,
.." .- ,' .. -, "'' .* .' -. .,
4*0M *qr~ n d'ad& 1w thiLw the a u1AJzftlad.:A Xi' tit acid a. tLWntd$
-i, ttrcek -first -sv4 the w,-tr'to,4nah et .viJ be 4.to@e& d

.d' ." g.bi ot, te aw-4r ostoufu riaI;-wiJ4 be Ythroi out of .b
1 .. '. ^ 1' .- ,' *

".'. tt jar.d IVtWee0giifl too am 6oopL'6a gbdI -tof wmroiaJ4. ofs
..,* ,.' ,*.. *.'.. 1 : ,o .. P ,' ."'* **. y ..' .' '. Z .. .';
,. :.. ,' *f r l d d ." .' !. ._ -' '' ", "* '. : *' i '"**.=g
It a: a ., -
, , .. , ... ... ._ ,. *** ,. '
&'short timpe aftot' the acid .As begn .po.x-ed iAflrtu-'te-

4-* r ..wii.ter iOe. -anid hay bp.added. Xt *e3ghlng outt this Chemical 4 no 11
"- i ; ''* *' ' .' .' ; '' ., ', '., K J '', '
*.* 0 batidleo1tor-tlan ia abaol*te.y ,eQoeerlz. t o not t ".,ou.h i6wth. the' -..i t
.. .. ,, ," .4
*-n.- unrto~ted. aridfu Wb.4en rauclv-q.ynnide: i-r-,p*V~lsE~l
*. p .a J," i d i. .r "d t
.to .puhaa.lcae. -rub or .ove. .:o? the -ort. rdAt'ely 4,,,r hdlwl ,,I
,11vuiqstl kUb'e A. very
i$tUhe *indz antd tlovet-i should flwutb thoroughly flW1i A
.. .. '-** ;.. .. .." .. :,* ,^
o .nv n.alt hay. ia to pla1 the yanide in c.*e. t.O t,?o to4s. o.0 t:sue : .'"O
10. 1:
.i t 1)43 4beef. we'g!'.1. ..i..'" will Stbl. *.x handle it ,

w1 it at g J I, I k 44. the .hand .. The .tt d, -.fl..:f,.
:i.. \ ', ..,. .-,'*, ,.,. .' -::. .-1." ," .. ; ": ".'. : '

> 4.1d: ., .....;' V 'ett the ti ..ue. ..0,? .d bo
. : .'' -' .' ,' "' ,' *' ,i *' t ., *' : "
,4 i n.. ', .ti.,- .- ,,. '.. ,-

,A ,'^ *;* -; ;' .. -'^ "., u ': '-** .". ". .'.". : .* i, '. ,,'- .
'*''- "" .. ''":: **'* :^ ?-' '' .t ..^~ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ .... ^. '- .f 'ta~ i-- 'n 'IA .o. ,.
, *" ". '"* '^ r (' '" '-. '. *' i, '' > '' 'J'. "' ,' ', '* -* ... '. -'*' .


*' '.': ,. .* ; ;' ...r&'a ~ i B ", 4 ",' "" i v 'f Q ^.bi ^ 'ti. '.... ... ,? .-' a :, ." .-.:" : .** ;-*.1
". '" ,. & ,' : .'^ .' '. *r+ ';1 '. r. .. 't : ^ :' '. .* .... :1':,
:I ^ k4AIIfc'^ UEPA*IEIC'i1.vnxhr^ra~tl 1Q05evea t inie.'crf dfrstxAistio~ia P31^': sI VJUIS




*. ,. *../ .vis. 'e .. t. ae ,; .,. el .,.s m~a'..i.u -.. ;.:;.;
_t ., .'L .. .' r* *' "' ;- '' ". .' '^ *f *'. '' '' "'-* '. ^ .* 'r ,' '* i. '(
Ln r ".,,t ,"', ,,'"r.a. ,l~ t ~ ~ t 4 ', .Ai" OQ- ,n*L vtt. a.d l '.





).':,-"" .:.,.,- .. U,; .^ A v .o .- W ji '- Q f., ii t-, i .i^h ,' .": ;:v, 1:-..
** .^ ^ *' ,. : ''. ,,"* *1; '. ., . ', ,. -,* '* ; : '*
.. .: .. .. ..., *.. .-' .. ,-.t.



441
oya"u";..kd + de .. oevr t.hank s.r not m.o.s*Mr ..z.. .,...fl.



?"lOllS VpatQ V8 .a t
.. :" :; '4 .J.41. ..- o r- .".
'ua
t --'41^?5^^^ .4,pv^ lvaNll,
W t,,l'",.. ... ., t...l#.. ...P- .2 : '-" i -'L -""] ..... :. "",dsz., .a'i, ,,: ..;: d, ...- :, .. ,'-


**. ; *'t. i'. '. ,,., *' *, -, .' *-" ;"* ,' '* :'. ...s. "' .- -' .' ." ' *-'" ,' .''> .-'-' K *- *," '*' -' .' --* i:'
1n' 44&laa w
; :4- '" -ag ,< ', :'- .":1 '' "- ',"" "''" "' ,-.,'* s ', p. w t A*' o ,,"t'e.n


.4 .., I.,. .IC A.,_-. .
.. 3... ... %.*; '44) ,e ,,. .. .'.,aP + ." '":'" ,"-.j : "' t "4 ;-+ "",,,j ,,, ,'.-.F.';-'' ... ,. *, ,'r.-., .,. .. .- ,.+,,".. ,
7:+ .. ": A'*gtf ,I4....*' '" ;: "" ,. + ,'. '-' ".W4 ,', h- '.o;.;..j'v ... .. .r '- ;A;' ".v..... -
+. +'+.W +.-'f ,, ,, ... ,tW+ .. .. .. It .... ,, .... %' ,,,4",4 '+ 4-+. 4,+:g *Lk1A+ .,h ,o ,....
The s^an;nc-a^v^ t-saQ ft;^ k*^MAe~& ^;$i^~i" ~
42c .v AP *ru

^s';lIS




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EYW8ZY0KN_2NR3U6 INGEST_TIME 2014-03-24T17:50:02Z PACKAGE AA00000207_00084
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES