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Si N '-,i NT
o I -E Ho i Cullr1iL
Founders and Foundations of Florida
A SERIOUS AND FRIVOLOUS STUDY OF MEN AND
P. H. Rolfs, Gainesville
Florida State Horticultural Society
Salutation.............. .......... .-..................... 129
Fruit Growers Long Lived. ............................... 129
Horticultural Leadership ....... ....... 129
This Address, Serious and Frivolous ........ 130
Who Made Florida Great? .---............................--- 130
Three Periods ..................................................... 130
Two Groups ................................................ 131
Enter Pragmatists ..... .......-......................... 131
Prove All Things .............................................. 131
Founders Were Individualists. ......................... 132
Fate, Who is She? ......... ............. 132
and M en ........................... ............. ........... 132
and a City .............................. ..... ............ 133
and Politics.............................. ............... 133
HORTICULTURAL CROPS ....................... ....................... 133
General Aspect ................................................... 133
Nine Leaders in General ..................................... 134
Truck Growing ...................... ....... ............ ............. 138
Strawberries.......................................... .................. 139
Deciduous Fruits .............................. ... .......- ... 139
Six Mortals and Immortals ............ .................... 140
Pecans ......................... .......................................... 141
Table Grapes ........................................................... 142
Pineapples......................... ........................-............ 142
Mangoes, Avocados, Cashew ............................... 143
Romancing .................... .................................... 145
Citrus............................................. ......................... 145
CONCLUSIONS ............................... ................... ...... 149
APPENDIX, LITERATURE .......................... ...... .......... 149
APP1!NDIX II-NAMES AND
ADAMS, DUDLEY W. 131, 132, 137,
ASHMEAD, W. H. 134
BEACH, JOHN B. 142
BEAN, E. 131, 145, 146
BERGER, E. W. 148
BOGGS, A. A. 146
BOOTH, J. B. 129
BRANTLEY, S. P. 129
BROWN, ARTHUR 141, 142
BROWN, A. H. 129
BRYAN, MILT 135
BRYAN, NATHAN 135
BUTLER, CYRUS 145
CARSON, JOE 129
CHASE, J. C. 129
CELLON, GEO. B. 144
CHIPLEY, W. D. 135
CLUTE, OSCAR 131, 135, 138
CONE, HUTCH 135
COVILLE, F. V. 129
CURTIS, A. H. 134
CURTIS, J. B. 129, 142
CUNNINGHAM, A. S. 146
DEPASS, JAS. P. 133, 134, 135
DORSETT, P. H. 129
DOWNING, A. J. 150
DUNCAN BROS. 146
DICKINSON, ALFRED 139
EARLE, FRANK 138
FAIRCHILD, DAVID 129, 132
FLEMING, SAM 133, 135
FLOYD, B. F. 130, 150
GAITSKILL, S. H. 136
GALE, PROF. 144
GALLOWAY, B. T. 129, 136
GILLETTE, M. E. 146
GODBY, T. K. 139, 140
GWYNN, JUDGE, 135
HADEN, CAPTAIN 144, 145
HADEN, MRS. 144
HAMMOND, BENJAMIN 146
HAMPTON, B. M. 129
HARCOURT, HELEN 150
HARDY, CAPTAIN 143
HART, E. H. 132
HART, W. S. 129, 131, 132, 137,
HASTINGS, H. G. 136
HENDERSON, F. P. 131, 140
HEALY, G. P. 140
HENRY, A. M. 147
HOLLINGSWORTH, G. S. 131, 146
HOWARD, KENNEDY & LYLE .139
HOWARD, L. 0. 129
HUBBARD, E. S. 132, 147
HUBBARD, H. G. 130, 131
HuME, H. H. 129, 141, 150
HUSMARN, GEO. 142
Hux, T. A. 129
INGRAM (not INGRAHAM) 142
KOST, J. 134, 135
KROmE, W. J. 132, 137, 138
LEUTESCHAU, BARON VON 142
McCARTY, C. T. 132, 143
MCQUARRIE, C. K. 132, 139, 140,
MANNVILLE, A. H. 150
MARLATT, CHARLES L. 129
MATLOCK, A. S. 129
MAXWELL, G. T. 134
MEAD, THEODORE 129
MELLISH, GEO. 139, 141
MOORE, T. V. 143
MOORE, T. W. 149
OBERHOLZER, JOHN B. 129
OLIVER, GEO. 144
NEAL, J. C. 132, 133
NEELD, BiLLY 144
NEWELL, WILMON 138
PAINTER, E. 0. 136, 137
PERRINE, HENRY 134, 142
PHELPS, LYMAN 131, 132
PICKELL, J. M. 134, 135
PIERSON, F. G. 133
PORTUGUESE JOE 138
POWELL, G. HAROLD 136
POWERS, STEPHEN 139
QUAINTANCE, A. L. 133, 135
REASONER BROS. 132
REASONER, E. N. 144
REASONER, P. W. 144
ROLFS, P. H. 129, 130, 132, 138
RORER, J. B. 136
ROSE, R. E. 147
SAMPSON, F. G. 132, 147
SEARS, JOE 135
SIMMONDS, EDWARD 144
SKINNER, L. B. 129
SORRENSEN, CAPT. JOHN 143
STEVENS, H. B. 129, 148
STEVENS, J. A. 148
STRINGERm, DR. 135
SWINGLE, W. T. 130, 132, 143,
145, 146, 148, 149
TABER, GEO. L. 132,139, 141
TAYLOR, WILLIAM A. 129, 130
TEMPLE, W. C. 147
TrCNNY, LLOYD 136, 138
WAITE, 'F. D., 139, 149
WARTMAN, E. L. 129, 135, 149
WEBBER, H. J. 129, 130, 132, 143,
WESrR, P. J. 144
WHITNER, J. N. 134, 135, 150
WINSTON, J. R. 132, 147
WYMAN, A. F. 133
YONALLY, W. D. 129
N.B. This article was not proo.f-read by the writer.-P. H. R.
FOUNDERS AND FOUNDATIONS OF FLORIDA A..
A Serious and Frivolous Study of Men and Measures
P. H. Rolfs, Gainesville
President Taylor of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society; Ladies and Gentlemen:
I am proud to stand before you today, to con-
tribute in some degree, however small, to your
enjoyment of this occasion. We have each come
here to add our mite and take away something in-
spiring and valuable. I have never missed a meet-
ing since the Ormond meeting in 1892, when I
have been in the State. I have always carried
away more than I have contributed. The noble,
splendid men and women of the Florida State
Horticultural Society have always been an in-
spiration to me.
The preparation of this paper has been a great
pleasure to me. Pleasures are contagious. I
hope that you will enjoy hearing it a fraction as
much as I did preparing it.
FRUIT GROWERS LONG LIVED
Last year the American Fruit Grower an-
nounced the official formation of the -Fifty Year
Club, to commniemorate the magazine's Golden
Jubilee. The Club consists of persons still living
who had dedicated fifty years personal service to
the business of fruit growing. Fifteen of the
181 charter members resided in Florida. They
are: (1) J. B. Booth, Tavares; (2) A. H, Brown,
Manatee; (3) S. P. Brantley, Clermont; (4) Joe
Carson. Babson Park; (5) J. C. Chase, Winter
Park;'(6) J. B. Curtis, Orange Heights; (7)
B. M. Hampton, New Port Richey; (8) W. S.
Hart, New Smyrna; (9) T. A. Hux, Tavares;
(10) A. S. Matlack, Sorrento (since deceased)
(11) John B. Oberholzer, Esmeralda; (12) L. B.
Skinner, Dunedin; (13) H. B. Stevens, DeLand;
(14) E. L. Wartman, Citra (since deceased);
(15) W. D. Yonally, Grand Island.
Theodore Meade, Oviedo, and possibly one or
two others should have been included.
You see, I am not quite old enough to be among
the immortals; in other words, I am just middle
aged; in my opinion. Any one younger is not
quite middle aged, really not quite old -enough
to be taken seriously.
A second page of the American Fruit Grower
is dedicated to Fifty Years Horticultural Leader-
ship. This contains thirty-five who were too
young to be in the Jubilee Club; twelve of these
have had a marked and potent influence on Flor-
ida Horticulture. They are: F. V. Coville, R. H.
Dorsett, David Fairchild, B. T. Galloway, L. 0.
Howard, H. Harold Hume, Charles L. Marlatt,
P. H. Rolfs, William A. Taylor and H. 3.
Webber. Fairchild, Hume and Rolfs reside in
F. V. Coville's efforts in domesticating the blue-
berry are a notable piece of work. P. H. Dor-
sett saved the Subtropical Laboratory when it
was being dismantled. David Fairchild has an
und ing monument in the introduction of thou-.
sands of the plants we are growing. B. T. Gal-
loway, in organizing the Bureau of Plant Indus-
try, fought to have the crop recognized as the
unit on which investigation should be centered.
He lost, but now the Department of Agriculture
is attempting a second time to organize on this
basis. L. 0. Howard, as head of the entomolog-
ical work, opposed the co-operative ideal and won.
Both, as heads of their respective labors, did
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
splendid work in their own way, for Florida.
Hume and Florida Horticulture are synonymous.
Marlatt has done splendid work for Florida in
pest regulatory work. P: H. Rolfs has been
with you always. Taylor lias contributed tech-
nical descriptions of numerous of our fruits.
Webber ushered in a new era for us in combat-
ting citrus pests. With Swingle he started citrus
THIS ADDRESS, SERIOUS AND FRIVOLOUS
This brief paper is a sort of "Who's Who and
Why, Among the Near Great in Florida Horti-
culture." Serious and frivolous. "Lest we for-
get" the forgotten men among the makers of Flor-
ida Horticulture. The historian will be able to
reconstruct a fair picture from our Annual Pro-
ceedings and other contemporary publications.
There are many side lights and unrecorded inci-
dents, hunches, or whatever you may call them,
that never got into print. Often, apparently ir-
relevant incidents determine the success or fail-
ure of an entire industry. In a measure I am in-
terpreting the meaning and effect of some move-
ments not recorded on the printed page. Some
of the glimpses I am recording, I hope may be
useful to an historian, to enable him to construct
a clear picture of the history of Florida Horti-
culture and Horticulturists. It is largely a rem-
iniscence of forty years in Florida Horticulture.
Secretary Floyd asked for it: So here it goes.
WHO MADE FLORIDA GREAT?
I am not unmindful of the very important role
played by the transportation interests in aug-
menting volume. I am not unmindful of the part
played by the great fertilizer manufacturers in
augmenting production. I am not unmindful of
the splendid and untiring labors of civic organiza-
tions in securing the presence of winter visitors.
I am not unmindful of the nurserymen who made
it possible to plant extensive groves of the finest
varieties. All of these could not have produced
Sa Florida without the orange tree. The orange
tree put steamers on the St. Johns River. It was
the lodestone that drew travel to the Tampa Bay-
to the Ponce de Leon; to the Royal Poincianna.
The orange tree, always beautiful, always in-
spiring. The delicious perfume of the bloom.
The delicate waxy petals are the ambition of
the bride. The lush spring and summer growth
fills the grower's heart with contemplation. The
balls of gold foretell the harvest. When the
Lord created the orange tree, He called it a day.
He has not attempted to improve on it.
Reminiscences easily become "remi-nuisances."
"Reminiscences are the nurseries in which chil-
dren grown old, play with broken toys."
If you are not mentioned in these ramblings,
that is your fault for being alive, and if you
happen to be among the "dead ones" you would
be overlooked anyhow.
This paper will be replete in anecdotes, irony
and sarcasm, possibly. For tonight's purposes
we may divide Florida Horticulture into three
periods: (1) B. C. (Before Coming); (2) A. D.
(After Doing So); (3)Cenozoic (The Age of
Voluminous Printed Matter). The first period
(B. C.) ended in 1891.
All the books published on Florida Horticulture
up to that date can easily be held between my
thumb and fingers. This period found three
young men who were the sole representatives of
the Bureau of Entomology, the Bureau of Plant
Industry and the Florida Agricultural College.
These organizations now have a hundred or two
hundred men and women employed in Florida.
The State Department of Agriculture was tim-
idly knocking at the door of Florida Horticulture
for admission. H. G. Hubbard, Entomologist for
the Division of Entomology, had just invented the
emulsifying of kerosene and soap. (For which
someone else got the credit.) Swingle had been
sent to the state by the Division of Plant Indus-
try, to subdue orange blight-through the influ-
ence of Senator Platt of New York, whose wife
owned a grove near Leesburg, badly afflicted
with that disease. Your speaker was Entomol-
ogist and Botanist to the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station and Professor of Natural
Sciences in the Agricultural College, which studies
ranged from Entomology, through Geology to As-
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
tronomy. "There were giants in the land in
The A. D. period merged rapidly into the Cen-
ozoic period which was marked by voluminous
and splendid publications. One author alone,
Hume, has already published an armful of books
and will publish another armful by the time he
reaches "middle age."
For the convenience of this paper and your
comfort, I have divided the forgotten horticul-
turists into two major groups-those I have not
known and those that I have known. It is this
latter group that we will pass in review tonight.
In the B. C. period all necessary problems in
orange culture had been solved. An authority
says so, in so many words. The Florida Horti-
cultural Society was a mighty youth who had just
entertained the great Pomological Society, 48
years ago. Adams, Rev. Lyman Phelps and W. S.
Hart were among our outstanding leaders. We
youngsters were horticultural pragmatists. We
knew nothing about subtropical horticulture-and
knew that we did not know. We were from Miss-
ouri and had to be shown. We dared to call on
the wise old heads to prove their theorems. Mind
you. We adapted ourselves to the environment
'but basically remained pragmatic. Dudley W.
Adams made caustic and cynical references to us
in his annual addresses. Rev. Lyman Phelps, the
vitriolic, and he was a master of rhetoric,
squelched an attempt to extend a cordial word to
the Experiment Station. W. S. Hart could al-
ways be depended upon for kindly constructive
criticism. He was frequently nettled by our
youthful incredulity. Sometimes he proved us
PROVE ALL THINGS
In 1893 the presence of the San Jose Scale at
DeFuniak, was determined simultaneously by
Prof. H. G. Hubbard for the Bureau of Entomol-
ogy and by myself for the Experiment Station.
The Experiment Station, under Director Clute,
started out to exterminate the pest. It was a
losing fight. During the latter part of the next
year a report came to me that trees in a certain
peach orchard were quite free from the scale.
Our field notes showed it was one of the first
and worst affected. I spent months, at intervals,
seeking the natural cause. Locally the people of
DeFuniak Springs ascribed it to the wonderful
climate. It looked to me as if the dictum of the
spiritualist was going to come true. He affirmed
that if we forgot all about the San Jose scale,
there would be no scale. That it was all in our
minds. (See also F. P. Henderson, under Decid-
Chemical Analysis as a Guide. Analysis of the
soil as a criterion for productivity was then in
vogue. In the late 90's a private chemist adver-
tised his ability to analyze the soil and predict
therefrom whether the soil would produce a re-
munerative crop or not. Even so late as in the
present century, a few were using this as a cri-
terion. (The Hilgard tests for soil fertility).
I remember one case where the analysis had been
unavoidably delayed for some weeks. When the
report on the analysis was made, the scientist re-
marked: "Absolutely unsuitable for any agri-
cultural purpose." The Dade County tomato
grower who paid for the analysis had already
banked $150.00 per acre from that land. In those
days the "whisper phone" functioned from Cutler
to DeFuniak. This incident put all chemists in
"A" grade in a large class of theorists.
Bean recommended Eureka insecticide as a
cure for orange blight. He claimed to have had
effective results from its application in liberal
quantity. It was a double barreled recommenda-
tion. If'it was adopted it would be highly re-
munerative and also would rid the commercial
men of an annoying government plant patholo-
gist. (See also Bean and Swingle, under Citrus.)
So far as I know the suggestion has never been
followed up. I wonder if there might not be
something in it. One never can tell.
Way along in the '90's when everything was in
a formative state, we were discussing the best
kinds of clippers for citrus. Hollingsworth from
Polk County gave us a great tirade on pulling
oranges and grapefruit. He was so overwhelmed
by the clipper men that he quit the meeting in a
fury and said some words more forceful than
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
poetic. He was vehement for pulling oranges
and grapefruit and got properly "sat down on."
He went home and published his own horticulture.
Now in April, 1935, comes the surprise. Prof.
Winston, Horticulturist, Department of Agricul-
ture, announces that pulling grapefruit instead of
clipping it gives less stem-end rot. Prove all
In 1889 a bulletin, lavishly illustrated, contain-
ing much valuable information, was prepared
by Dr. J. C. Neal. For want of reference litera-
ture he erred; classifying the root-knot worm
as Anguilula in place of Heterodera. Scientists
accorded him full membership in the "Ananias
Club." Investigation of the effect of Heterodera
was "taboo" for a whole generation. Along comes
a young scientist and rediscovers that Heterodera
does cause a citrus disease. Prove all things!
THE FOUNDERS WERE INDIVIDUALISTIC
The makers of Florida Horticulture were strong
individualists as distinct from collectivists. They
would co-ooperate with the scientists as individ-
uals to the "nth" degree, but as a community or
an organization they "fought shy" of doing things
collectively. This made them and the industry
easily subdued by the transportation interests.
It laid many of the growers open t6 exploitation
for private gain.
The epoch making discoveries and progress
have been made by individuals rather than by
groups working collectively. This underlying mo-
tive is strong in the easterner as distinctive from
the westerner. The easterner raises the great
bulk of deciduous fruits in the United States but
it is the Pacific Coaster that distributes fruits to
the cities and hamlets of South America and com-
petes on the European markets with all comers.
He even competes with the countries south of the
Equator during their shipping season for citrus
The leaders in Florida Horticulture were drawn
almost entirely from the east. Adams, Vermont
via Iowa; Taber, Maine; IH. S. Hart, Vermont;
F. G. Sampson, Massachusetts; Rev. Lyman
Phelps, New York State; later some recruits
came from the West; Swingle and Fairchild from
Kansas; McCarty and Rolfs from Iowa; Webber
from Nebraska; McQuarrie from Scotland via
Indiana; Krome from Illinois. Those of you who
heard Dr. Fairchild's masterly address yesterday
before the Krome Institute, will know at once
that he was running true to form.
FATE- -WHO IS SHE?
Fate is a determining force whose motivating
incidents 'are not clearly delineated. For today's
allegory we may represent her as a lovely young
secretary, playing "solitaire"; allocating cards in
the files of human affairs. There is nothing su-
pernatural intended; although each one of us has
such a handover inherited from countless genera-
tions of ancestors. This submerged superstition
in our subconscious plays for us an infinite num-
ber of pranks. I have a hunch, I play-it, I am
successful, it is permanently filed away in my
subconscious. I play on a hunch, it proves nega-
tive, my subconscious erases it. Fate is merely
the outward expression of man's adaptation to
his physical and social environment.
SDuring the late '80's we had political and social
upheavals. The assassination of President Gar-
field; depression; over production; election of
Cleveland, a free trader; bitter strikes of rail-
way employees; other social disturbances. In the
early '90's the U. S. troops were called to protect
mail in transit. It was a period of social read-
justment. Enter citrus industry.
Fate and Men. She drew her cards, located
Dudley W. Adams at Tangerine; Rev. Lyman
Phelps at Sanford; the Reasoner Brothers at
Oneco; E. H. Hart and E. S. Hubbard at Fed-
eral Point. They were the strength and builders
in the citrus industry. Taber at Glen St. Mary
to propagate deciduous fruits. They were all
strong individualists-had to be, to carve a com-
petence out of a wilderness. Their names are
luminous in the annals of our Horticultural So-
ciety. Scores of others, more able, wealthier,
became luminous and then faded. Not these.
In '92 I discovered that a certain Sclerotium
producing fungus was the cause Of extensive to-
mato blighting. In '93, my Director of the Ex-
periment Station permitted me to absent myself
from college classes to perform some field ex-
periments, but there was no money to pay tray-
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
eling and other expenses. In my experiments at
Grand Island, potassium sulphide and ammo-
niacal copper carbonate proved most successful
Now Fate slips in. Saccardo, the world re-
nowned Italian mycologist, whom I had never
seen nor even corresponded with, called the fun-
gus Sclerotium Rolfsii!!! Think of it! Devot-
ing my life and energy to protecting plants against
diseases and then have it linked in literature
and possibly in history with one of the most omni-
present pests in the whole tropical plant world!
Fate and a City. She plays her pranks with
cities as well as with men. Archer was once the
center of extensive peach and truck growing. She
produced such notable men as Dr. F. G. Pearson,
President of the National Audubon Societies; Dr.
A. L. Quaintance, recent Assistant Chief and
often Acting Chief of the Bureau of Entomology;
the late Sam Fleming, Assistant Director of the
Florida Experiment Station. All three of these
hunted birds' eggs there. Kerr, extensive trucker
in eggplant, cucumber and snapbeans. I visited
him because he was the "most extensive eggplant
grower in the State." A. F. Wyman, who car-
ried this knowledge to-the Manatee. Dr. J. C.
Neal, second Entomologist to the Florida Experi-
ment Station. Rev. Jas. P. DePass, second Di-
rector of the Experiment Station. What was it
that made Archer become luminous and then fade
out? I have often wondered. Some LeConte
trees, about forty years old, are still flowering
and fruiting. Climate and soil are favorable.
Fate and Politics. Ofttime remote incidents
have had a profound influence in the develop-
ment of our Florida -Horticulture. These are
likely to pass unnoticed and the results are as-
cribed to Fate. Some of these were important,
if not determining factors, on-our Horticulture.
I have already referred to the pioneer hoticul-
tuists as cominIg from the individualistic East.
For the most part our leaders were Republicans
and hence unclean in the eyes of our Democratic
Legislature. Hearty and sympathetic co-operation
did not exist. A sympathetic Republican U. S.
Secretary of Agriculture was checkmated by our
Democratic Senators and Representatives. The
freetrade Democratic administration threw our
truck and tropical fruit growing into the doldrums.
These influences were remote and yet exiled many
an able Florida Horticulturist to the tropic isles.
OUR HORTICULTURAL CROPS
The distribution of Florida horticultural crops
has been more or less regional. This was more
by fortuitous sociological circumstances than from
physical causes, if we recognize transportation as
a social condition. Inadequate distribution of the
product has often been an impediment. The in-
troduction of the automobile and truck has re-
lieved this situation to some extent.
One does not have to seek far to find localities
greatly favored by nature which, nevertheless,
have made dismal failures of an appropriate crop;
another locality far less favored by nature mak-
ing an excellent success of the same crop. Why?
A GENERAL ASPECT
In this section I want to discuss some of the
factors and persons who influenced the develop-
ment of Florida Horticulture in a general way
rather than through some particular horticultural
crop. Some factors and persons have had a very
profound influence on our horticulture and that
were broader than horticultural.
My deductions have been drawn from forty
years experience as an active member of the Hor-
ticultural Society. Forty years of marvelous
progress in human affairs. By studying the ul-
timate element, the individual, we arrive at a
clearer understanding of the "mass behavior."
It is a want of "collectivism" that has made so
difficult an orderly development of Florida Hor-
ticulture. Our individualistic behavior has made
us especially vulnerable to "booms and depres-
sions." The northern portion of Florida was
populated mainly by individuals from other
southern states. It made them exceedingly vul-
nerable to dominance for private gains, hence the
dying out of peach and pear production. (The
transportation and sales dominance.) -
During the '80's and early '90's we had a reign
of political brigandage. The office was secured
for private gain; not always; there were notable
and noble exceptions. No wonder the staunch
men composing the Horticultural Society would
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
have nothing to do with anything that savored of
politics. Many times we erred in failing to sup-
port measures that would have made for a more
orderly horticulture. But more frequently we
did well in withholding support from schemes
that appeared to be sound but later proved to be
detrimental to our horticulture. Rarely did we
as a Society, "pull a chestnut out of the fire."
. A hundred places in the state might be named
that were "boomed" dry and then left stranded;
some returned to the "primeval forests" from
which they had been wrested. Scores of other
places have grown and prospered without ever
having been "boomed." Why?
NINE LEADERS IN GENERAL
In commenting on the individuals who were di-
rectly or indirectly actors in the development of
our horticulture, my motive is to make a record
of their doings. I have only the kindliest feelings
for their memory. Nor do I claim any superiority
of intellect; a superiority complex; my "inferiority
complex" has often been an inhibiting factor.
No one else in the forty years has had a better
opportunity for a "close-up" of the horticulture
from Pensacola to Key West, so intimate contact
without being a part of it. A sort of airplane
PERRINE, HENRY. He had gotten a grant of
land from Congress on the Keys and mainland,
far south of Miami, in the early days of the last
century. His assassination by Indians cut short a
noteworthy project. Some of the plants he intro-
duced maintained themselves into the twentieth
century. In one of his reports he said: "The
sterility of the soil is made up for by the fertility
of the atmosphere." (Quoted from memory.)
Perrine did not realize that he was the precursor
of a numerous progeny of atmospheric boosters.
KOST, J., M.D., LL. D. Director of the Exper-
iment Station, probably from 1888 until about Jan
1st, 1889. There seems to be no definite record
of his having been elected or discharged, but his
name occurs on Bulletins 1, 2 and 3. I had the
pleasure of meeting him at least once, in 1892, I
believe, during the meeting of the American Asso-
ciation for the Advancement of Science. The
general reputation among my acquaintances at
Lake City in 1891 and 1892 was bizarre; more
adapted to an adventurer than a scientist. He had
secured a charter from the Legislature to estab-
lish a private institution at Tallahassee under the
name of the University of Florida. A brick two-
story building, looking very much like a residence
of some twelve fair sized living rooms, was re-
peatedly pointed out to me as Kost's University
of Florida. From some printed matter that came
into my hands, it would seem that at one time
three or four students in medicine had been en-
He had made a collection of fossils, mainly from
phosphate mines, which he took east with him
upon leaving Florida. These arrived at their des-
tination in a badly broken condition. Through his
astuteness he was awarded a considerable damage
from the transportation company, by the court.
This was most remarkable for that day. He left
in a shed a model of a geologic turtle shell, some
ten or twelve feet long and maybe six or seven
feet broad. My, but that was a wholloper!! 1
Well, when I met the doctor and had a chat
with him, he proved to be all that the Lake City
friends had promised "and then some." I must
have been a regular life-saver to him, with all of
that bile pent up in his system, he must have
been at exploding pressure.
Now comes the astonishing note, for in "Sci-
ence News Letter" for March 30, 1935, it is stated,
"There were marine turtles over ten feet long
in the North American inland sea, 90 million years
ago." Maybe the Doctor was not as batty as we
Bulletins Nos. 1, 2 and 3, published with Kost's
name as Director, and No. 4, the first published
by the Rev. Jas. P. DePass as Director, showed
able scientists as contributors and presumably on
his staff. Col. J. N. Whitner, Agriculturist;
William H. Ashmead, Entomologist; A. H. Curtis,
Botanist; J. M. Pickell, Ph.D., Chemist: George
Troup Mexell, M. D., Veterinarian. A list of
unusually able men for an Experiment Station
staff of that day.
DEPASS, REV. JAS. P., Director of the Florida
Experiment Station from 1889 to 1893. A South
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Carolinian, he brought with him the proverbial
pugnacity and political astuteness.
How he became Director: When the time for
nominations to state offices was approaching, he
announced for State Superintendent of Public In-
struction. The incumbent wished to succeed him-
self but saw a bitter campaign ahead. He was
Ex-Officio President of the Board of Trustees for
the Agricultural College. Friends of the Reverend
gentleman intimated to the incumbent that the
matter could be smoothed out by making the Rev.
DePass Director of the Experiment Station with
an equal salary. That solved the difficulty and
only one candidate for State Superintendent was
up for nomination.
He was bold and aggressive, pugnacious, lack-
ing in scientific training and practical experience.
Apparently none of the staff that had functioned
under Dr. Kost continued in service excepting
Dr. Pickell and Col. Whitner.
The period up to 1893 was a hectic one for the
College and for the Experiment Station. And
yet some good agricultural men, like Dr. A. L.
Quaintance and Sam Fleming, arose. Other fig-
ures like Rear Admiral Hutch Cone and Con-
gressman Joe Sears have given good accounts of
CLUTE, DR. OSCAR, M.S., LL.D. President of
the Agricultural College and Director of the Ex-
periment Station, 1893 to August, 1897. He came
to the state the best equipped man by training and
experience that occupied that dual position. Be-
fore coming to us he had served his Alma Mater,
the Michigan Agricultural College, as President
and Director. He came in the prime of life and
health. He left completely broken and died only
a few months later. He was of pure Dutch stock
and so killed himself licking the other fellow.
Politics could not down him, but the "whisper-
phone" inflicted a mortal wound.
The original, life-tenure and self perpetuating
Board of Trustees proved to be unsatisfactory
and was abolishd. The new Board of Seven, all
appointed by the Governor, contained such emi-
nent men as W. D. Chipley of Pensacola, Judge
Gwynn of Sanford, Dr. Stringer of Brooksville.
Their first acts were sufficiently sensational. They
elected Oscar Clute, a Michigander, over "sixteen
native sons." Dr. Clute at once set out to put the
College and Experiment Station in order. He
aided the West Florida deciduous growers in their
contest with the San Jose scale; he aided the
South Florida tropical fruit growers at Ft. Myers
(the East Coast was still largely homestead
lands). His experiments transformed the velvet
bean from an ornamental into a forage plant and
a cover crop. He sat as referee, on the rostrum
at the Gainesville meeting of the Florida State
Teachers' Association. In short, he vindicated
the new Board completely.
To me it was a great inspiration to work for
and with such a Director and such a Board of
Trustees. In 1905, a radical readjustment oc-
curred by the enactment of the Buckman Bill.
BRYAN, MILT. During the transportation tyr-
anny, industries and communities were suffocated.
Milt Bryan from Lake County and Chairman of
our first Railroad Commission, believed that the
shipper had some rights. They could not smother
Milt Bryan, so the "interests" had the Commission
abolished. Later the "square dealers" created a
second Commission that has functioned to the
present. While he lived in Lake County, I know
Bryan only in passing; later in Osceola County I
had the pleasure of visiting at his home. Sturdy,
honest to a fault, a man of clear understanding of
the needs of Florida and about twenty years ahead
of the time in which he lived.
The best thing that he did for Florida was to
raise a family of worthy sons and fine daughters.
Son Will was elected to the U. S. Senate, but died
from typhoid fever soon after. Son Nathan was
Chairman of the Board of Control during the tur-
bulent times when our system of higher education
was being reorganized. His keen judgment and
masterly understanding of Florida law success-
fully guided the- Board of Control through that
difficult period. The present greatness oi the Uni-
versity and the splendid College for W-Vomen, are
monuments to his untiring efforts. (See also,
.Wartman, under Citrus.) Modest, unassuming
and retiring, he was always embarrassed when
merited honors were thrust upon him and always
enjoyed it immensely when others who merited it,
FLORIDA. STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
received applause. He could not do otherwise;
it came to him by inheritance and home training.
To my mind,. Nathan Bryan is the ideal of a
statesman and judge.
POWELL, G. HAROLD. With his two young as-
sistants, Lloyd Tenny and J. B. Rorer, he made
a visit to the state about 1903, ostensibly to study
citrus growing, really to see what collective co-
operation he might expect from the Florida citrus
growers. The Bureau of Plant Industry, B. T.
Galloway, Chief, had just organized a systematic
study of the citrus fruit problems. In 1909 I vis-
ited the Pacific Coast and saw a, co-operative
packing house, the first established, dedicated to
the successful work of Prof. Powell, although he
was still living.
His work had a far reaching influence in shap-
ing the collective fruit business on the whole Pa-
cific Coast. One finds Pacific Coast apples and
pears for sale in almost every hamlet and town
in Brasil. But never a one from the individual-
We missed a good bet when we passed up G.
GAITSKILL, S. H. After the '94-'95 disaster, S.
H. Gaitskill planted a hundred acre orange grove
for the Elder Dempster Fruit Company, at Port
Antonio, Jamaica. I saw the grove in 1901. The
trees had made magnificent growth, but no fruit
had been shipped. Too much moisture and too
frequent rainfall; oranges and grapefruit need a
period of retarded development to produce abun-
dant bloom and to hold the newly set fruit.
Mandeville, within walking distance, in a rather
sterile, dry region, produced quantities of excellent
fruit. The London Office judged that all Jamaica
was a good citrus producing region.
Gait-skill was a good orange grower, an excel-
lent truck grower (by necessity), and at heart a
livestock man. He was a Kentuckian, so of
course, loved livestock.
He was a powerful leaven for diversification in
Marion County. I enjoyed his frequent and un-
obtrusive visits to the Experiment Station and Ag-
ricultural College when they were in a formative
state. Many of my colleagues were irritated by
his rapier like sarcasm. It did a great deal to keep
our specialists from going off on visionary tan-
HASTINGS, H. G. In a modest way he started
a seed business at Interlachen. He also started a
paper called the "Ruralist." Both were prosper-
ing nicely when ill-advised legislation made it
imperative that he move out of the state. The
legislation was intended to curb some spurious seed
and plant businesses that had sprung up, but it
overshot the mark and hit also legitimate and
honorable business. A little more care in drafting
the legislation might have saved this meritorious
business to the state. At the time of his transfer,
he was Secretary to the Horticultural Society,
which guarantees that he was doing a straight
business. He has made a marked success of his
business in Atlanta, Ga.
PAINTER, E. 0. A fine leader, an excellent or-
ganizer, a sound promoter. The life of the Hor-
ticultural Society. A Philadelphian by training
and probably by birth. Although a Baptist by pro-
fession, he was a Quaker by nature. In my long
and intimate association with him, I never heard
him utter an unkind word about others.
He never failed to carry off some pleasing stunt
at our Annual Meetings. One of the best ones
was our visit to Cuba, after the first Miami meet-
ing, in 1912. His aids to horticulture were many
and unobtrusive. He provided the money which
enabled Professor Blair to install the first four
tanks for the lycimeter at the Experiment Station.
They are still functioning.
His will provided for the publishing of a book
on truck pests and diseases by the Experiment
Station. He was the one commercial man in the
state who used the Experiment Station to advance
horticulture rather than to promote sales. Only
a short time before his untimely departure, we
visited a cantaloup field in Marion County where
the fertilizer had given disappointing results. My
judgment was that the fertilizer was at fault.-
Painter settled up in favor of the truck grower.
Checking up later, it was found that by an inad-
vertence, the truck fertilizer had been dispatched
to a cotton planter in Madison County and the
cotton fertilizer had been shipped to the cantaloup
grower. "Q. E. D."
Painter was a printer by profession, a citrus
grower as a hobby and a fertilizer man as a di-
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
version-I almost said by accident. He experi-
mented with "chemicals" on his own young grove;
results most pleasing and economical. Neighbors
got him to order for them. Presently he had built
a lean-to shed and provided a shovel; a mixing
plant in embryo. The project being based on field
results, grew amazingly, beyond the capacity of De-
Land. Jacksonville was the logical headquarters.
By that time the "Florida Agriculturist" plant
grew into the E. 0. Painter Printing Company."
This he left in competent hands; it is still func-
tioning. An ordinary man would have regarded
it as a life's ambition fulfilled.
Speaking of printing, that reminds me of the
many deserved compliments that have been paid
to our unique printed Proceedings. Printing is
and always has been, a bugbear, passed up to the
Executive Committee, fortunately.
On the way to Pensacola, for our Fifth meet-
ing, this was seriously- discussed. Means were
the obstacle. W. S. Hart had taken extended
long-hand notes of the previous four meetings and
promised to meet Adams and write them up fully.
At Pensacola I gave a lecture on insects, illus-
trated by stereopticon. That clinched the matter.
The Proceedings must be published. An informal
committee waited on our Secretary of Agriculture,
Wombell. The Hart and Adams resume and the
papers read at Pensacola were printed. The lead-
ers were not pleased. It had cramped their style.
Painter steps in. 'He offers to print all the pa-
pers in the,'Agriculturist," then lift the columns
and assemble them. He offers to do this charging.
only for the material used and additional time re-
quired. A number of more affluent members con-
tributed five and ten dollars each. Presto! The
thing worked. The style has been retained, and
the same printer. It is the most pleasing and
easiest read of any horticultural society proceed-
ings that have come to hand.
The Ethelwvold episode is completely forgotten.
save by the "ancients." Near the middle of the
'90's we were suffering from "over-production."
Optimists put the orange crop at five million
Painter aided and abetted a movement by the
orange growers to charter a ship and send a solid
carload of oranges to Europe. The finest and most
advanced piece of co-operative work done by
Floridians. As a trial shipment, the only one, it
was a great success.
FATE drew a card; filed it. The Arctic Circle
burst open. A blizzard escaped. Cold chills went
down the backbone of the North American con-
tinent, lost itself in the wilds of Mexico and Cuba.
Rumors said that it snowed in Cuba; the flakes
melting before reaching the ground. The citrus
industry was thrown into confusion.
Painter's untimely and entirely accidental passing
robbed the state of a staunch promoter and the
Horticultural Society of a profound stimulus.
The rest of us had to carry on, but the vacancy
still remains. The guiding mind had ceased to
SKROME, W. J. Neither the history of Florida
Horticulture nor the horticulturists of Florida will
give him the credit for the determining role he
played during one of the most critical periods-the
citrus canker fight. The progressive people of
Dade County fought the insidious canker to a
standstill without either state or Federal funds.
The motivating force was collectivism-the in-
spiring force was Krome.
The physical difficulties and litigations gave
Krome a clear insight into what a plant quaran-
tine act must contain and what funds would be
necessary for its successful operation. It taught
him where to look for support and what obstacles
would have to be overcome.
Krome was raised in Illinois, hence a collectivist
and did not know it. He was a trained and prac-
tised engineer; hence his straight thinking. He
did not, like the rest of us, have to unlearn a lot
of text-book stuff "that was not so" in horticul-
ture. He was not a lawyer and hence could think
and write without "where-ases," "afore-saids"
He wrote the Plant Board Act and the Legis-
lature approved it. He wrote the Plant Board
rules and the Board judged them to be good. The
Plant Board law and its rules have stood the test
of the Supreme Court. Krome told me that the
magnitude of the appropriation so overawed the
Legislature that they did not study the Act; passed
it as written. Actually it was so logically and sci-
entifically written that it was recognized as a
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Do not for a moment assume that I say that
Krome did all of this individualistically. He was
not an individualist; he did more than his share;
and others went to the limits of their ability and
opportunity. He brought all of the elements into
alignment. He saw more clearly than anyone else
the intricate interrelations and foresaw emer-
gencies before they arose. Krome was acting as
a private individual with no ulterior motive save
the prosperity of the state.
In formulating the law and rules, Judge Price
gave whole-heartedly of his time. After the Plant
Board Act became a law, Krome, Tenny and Rolfs
became the Advisory Committee to the Plant
Board until a Plant Commissioner could be em-
ployed. The able Wilmon Newell demanded that
this committee continue to function, as a con-
dition to his acceptance of the commissionship.
To Krome belongs greater credit than to any-
one else. He repeatedly denied this; he would
point to someone else who saved the day. But
Krome had already seen to it that the man would
be there when he was needed.
(See also McQuarrie, under Deciduous Fruits.)
Truck growing has always been a tolerated step-
child to the Florida Horticultural Society. Our
first President, Dudley W. Adams, used the epi-
thet, "Old squash head from the Manatee" in re-
ferring to a truck grower from that section. Fol-
lowing the winter of '94-'95, many a citrus grower
debased (?) himself by truck growing in order
to rehabilitate, but not Dudley W. Adams. He
was a citrus grower or nothing. Many a citrus
purist through adversity was converted to a pro-
gram of diversification, most of them have "fallen
The whole evening might be devoted to ro-
mancing on truck growing. How a good lady
made so much profit one year on Irish potatoes
that she had to sell her farm to pay the income
tax the succeeding year. How old Portuguese
Joe, a cook, was marooned on a desolate island
south of Jensen by an angry sea captain. How he
homesteaded, grew snap beans, was offered six
thousand dollars for his land and refused. Joe
told me that he knew how to grow beans, but did
not know how to take care of so large a fortune,
Joe was wise. He said: "Nao sell nao." The
county attorney, in settling up the estate of $15,000,
found a daughter in Portugal, living near penury.
If the story were properly polished up, it would
make a prize winning romance.
How an agricultural writer in the late '80's
proved conclusively that Irish potatoes could not
be grown in Florida and especially not at Hastings.
Last year Hastings shipped nearly two million
How, toward the end of the bicycle era, dwellers
in two room shacks rose to the opulence of auto-
mobile owners and were on the roll to pay income
There is not a county in Florida where climatic
conditions are prohibitive of remunerative truck
growing. The inhibiting factor is sociological;
in this is included transportation and competent
labor during rush seasons. Places in which truck
growing has been highly developed are not al-
ways the best places climatologically, nor always
on the most favorable soils. Science has done
something to even up these defects, but spraying,
fertilizing, draining, irrigation and protection
against frost are expensive prices that we have
to pay for sociological advantages.
"Truck growing is the poker game of Agri-
culture," in which transportation interests and fer-
tilizer men are the "stake holders." There were
and are some gifted and natural born truck grow-
ers. How otherwise can you explain the vagaries
of grubbing up a grapefruit grove to clear the
space for truck?
Most truck growers are individualists. They
cannot act collectively; are easily intimidated by
the interests or bought off by promise of imme-
diate gain. They are improvident; they stake all
on one year's crop. They are itinerant. I have
met the same individual trucking in four different
centers. Where they have acted collectively, they
have had to be "bludgeoned" into line by sheer
desperation. Even in the last decade and a half,
the "strong arm" tactics have been more potent
than an innate collectivism.
Frank Earle of Palmetto was a born horticul-
turist. Typhoid cut off his career as a Bermuda
onion culturist on the Manatee. He belonged to
a family of horticulturists (Parker Earle). He
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
was splendidly educated. Bold with caution. He
was from Illinois, the region where a "commu-
nity of interests" dominated in agriculture. I ex-
pected a large extension of this crop with Earle
as the motivating figure. Fate decreed otherwise.
Howard, Kennedy and Lyle rescued Terra Ceia
from trucking oblivion. Their cry, "Rescue us,
we are sinking," had gone up to the Experiment
Station. Director Clute responded. Lyle was so
despondent that he offered to sell out his whole
interests, lands, tomatoes, eggplants palmetto
shacks were the only warehouses and dwellings),
for the price of a ticket back to Mississippi, his
home. Later that year he had paid off all his
debts and had money in the bank. Made it on to-
matoes and eggplants. How after Bordeaux mix-
ture had lifted the tomato growers onto Easy
Street, it was used on eggplant aphis with dis-
couraging results. Another cry for help; kero-
sene emulsion did the trick. Later Lyle dis-
graced (?) truck growing by becoming a banker.
Such are the patches Fate used to design her
horticultural "crazy quilt," truck growing. Yet
with it all truck crops have aided immensely in
the upbuilding and prosperity of the state. Some
well directed and well organized truck enterprises
occur. These have been due to the efforts of out-
standing and exceptional individuals.
Up to the late '80's strawberries had been planted
in a garden way in nearly all parts of Florida,
mostly without success. Stephen Powers, editor
of the "Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower," took
up the work seriously at Lawtey. Through his
instrumentality, the plantings were extended and
shipping methods perfected. Lawtey and straw-
berry growing became synonymous. Powers
moved to Jacksonville, Lawtey lost her suprem-
acy. She still grows and ships- berries, but other
cities in the vicinity surpass her. The great
strawberry center at present is in the Plant City
Powers was Secretary of the Horticultural So-
ciety at the time of his death. He was genial and
obliging, but almost painfully reticent.
PEACHES. In the late '90's, peaches and pears
vied with the orange for popularity. Delicious
peaches have been produced from as far west as
Escambia County to as far south as the Everglade
country. Last year I ate fine peaches grown by
Mr. Alfred Dickinson, at Bonita Springs. F. D.
Waite grew fine honey peaches at Palmetto. Kis-
simmee shipped delicious Peen-toos in the nineties.
Orange, Lake and Volusia Counties have produced
peaches on a commercial scale. The nurseries of
northern and western Florida grew peach nursery
stock by the hundreds of thousands. Taber and
Godby originated varieties that had special merit.
If we had the data, it would probably' be found
that the total number of peach trees sold in Flor-
ida would exceed that of citrus. During the '90's
peach nurseries were the more extensive.
The big peach growing region was centered
around DeFuniak. The West Florida Horticul-
tural Society did valiant work to stimulate peach
growing. Large shipments of Elbertas and Sneeds
went forward. C. K. McQuarrie, George Mellish,
Plank, and Stubbs took leading parts.
Through propaganda by the railway companies,
people planted extensively. When production in-
creased to a stage where the early peaches were
no longer sold as a novelty, the cost of transpor-
tation and sales commissions exceeded selling
prices. In other words, those agencies between
them smothered a promising industry.
SPeach growing for the early and fancy markets
throughout Florida and as far south as the Ever-
glades, merits investigation. The varieties and
stock have not been standardized. The varieties
must be chosen so as to ripen ahead of the more
PEARS. The pear growers were widely scat-
tered from West Florida, centering at DeFuniak
Springs, to Central Florida. Archer was one of
the largest shipping points. The orchards were
rarely more than ten acres in extent. Remnants
of orchards planted over forty years ago testify
to the hardihood of the Le Conte. Some fruit was
produced on the Manatee. Lake County made
some shipments. Pear orchards of small size
were planted in nearly every community from
Central Florida, northward.
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
As a commercial proposition pear growing found
itself between the upper millstone, transportation,
and the nether millstone, the pear buyer. Trans-
portation had to be prepaid, so the buyers bought
for a price that assured a profit to themselves.
No wonder a substantial income to Florida disap-
KAKI, JAPANESE PERSIMMONS. This delicious
fruit has never attained the popularity it deserved.
At the time of its ripening, the northern markets
are glutted with home grown fruit. A small quan-
tity can be marketed there, at remunerative prices,
to the fancy trade. Its high nutritive value is ap-
preciated by but few. At one time it was recom-.
mended that the Lake County crop be used for
fattening hogs. The Kaki, which is to me one
of the most delicious fruits, is rarely available on
the market, even in Gainesville.
A NEW PicrURE. The introduction of trucks
and automobiles has profoundly modified the pic-
ture. Today Florida alone would absorb all the
deciduous fruits she produced in her palmiest
,days. The trucks effect the distribution that was
lacking in the '90's. The fruits ripen when there
is a dearth of homegrown fruits. Georgia peaches
find a lucrative market in Florida.
The production of deciduous fruits in Florida
could be made to supply a large local demand.
The fault is ours, not that of the fruit, nor the
soil, nor the climate.
SIX MORTALS AND IMMORTALS
GODBY, T. K. Originator, propagator and dis-
tributor of Godby and Waldo peaches.
Our earlier Proceedings occasionally refer to
his work. In later years he devoted himself es-
pecially to ornamentals. He has an extensive
fund of practical knowledge of deciduous fruit
growing in Florida. Reticent, almost a recluse.
HEALY, G. P. The Bald Eagle from Volusia.
Noted for his want of hirsute adornment. His
-sudden attacks, sarcasm, wit and oratory carried
us over scientific doldrums. He started in as a
citrus grower; then went into peach growing; a
good man gone wrong, he finally went into poli-
tics. He was one of the last of the commercial
HENDERSON, F. P. A Florida Cracker with a
Yankee temperament. Dabbling into all sorts of
horticultural projects. His- distributions of
Sphaerostilbe coccophila by mail had attained to
large proportions and was growing. Hundreds of
acres of peach orchards in Texas were treated
successfully with it. He was the only active mer-
chant in. that field for red-headed fungus of the
San Jose scale. He was disturbed because the
peach growers were reaping so large a profit and
he was getting so small a price for the fungus.
The "testimonials" from customers would have
filled the heart of an insecticide manufacturer with
envy. It is the cheapest and most effective San
Jose scale remedy that we have. In fact, it is
naturally so efficient that the name of the scale
has nearly disappeared from our vocabulary.
The great obstacle for its more general use lies
in the fact that it has few friends among the en-
tomologists, no friends among the large interests
of insecticide manufacturers and the spray ma-
chinery manufacturers. Some of the "higher-
ups" in Entomology feel that the less said about
the "fungus enemies of scale insects, the better."
Their principal interests lie in the direction of
propagating parasitic insects-a most laudable
The weak point in applying nature's remedy is
that the horticulturist depends on the state and
Federal agencies for propaganda. And, believe
me, it is exhausting and time consuming. Propa-
ganda often accounts -for more than 50% of the
price of some insecticides and spraying machinery.
If a scientist were to expend that much of his
time for propaganda-well, you know what would
happen to him.
On account of the possibility of. distributing dis-
eases and pests the distribution of natural material
is not permitted.
McQu.ARUR C. K. Secretary of the West Flor-
ida Society at the time of our Pensacola meeting.
A farmer and fruit grower from DeFuniak
Springs. The West Florida man on whom we
could always depend for help in the Farmers' In-
stitutes. Later he became county agent for Es-
cambia County. From that he was promoted to
State Agent. In this latter capacity he did his
really great work. His intimate acquaintance with
North Florida agriculture, horticulture and county
commission culture. His Scotch geniality; his
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
rugged honesty; his directness of purpose, brought
many a county into alignment. You, my friends,
have profited from him more than you realize.
He brought to you many an educated man as county
agent, who knew or would -soon learn to know,
local conditions. In place of concentrating agri-
cultural knowledge at the Agricultural College,
it was diffused to every county co-operating. His
acquaintance with thousands enabled him to mould
the sentiments of legislators and county commis-
Through the farm and home demonstration
work, agricultural education was carried to the
point where it was most needed, the country home
and homestead. McQuarrie was a staunch be-
liever in collectivism. He had seen the West
Florida peach industry fade out because it was
"everyone for himself and *." From his dour
experience in West Florida, he perceived that our
weakest point was the lack of agricultural infor-
mation by the rank and file of the rural people.
But for the good work done in the counties, the
canker fight would have been lost. The Medfly
would still be with us. And what would have
happened two years ago to the Experiment Sta-
tions and to the Extension work, without a united
"There is a divinity that shapes our ends,
Rough hew them how we will."
My dear old C. K. !!! You have journeyed to
that distant land from which no visitor returns.
How I miss you!!
MELLISH, GEo. He was one of the most active
peach growers in DeFuniak Springs, but had to
surrender because the transportation charges were
greater than "the traffic could bear." He headed
our operations for the extermination of the San
Jose scale. In his company, we checked over
every peach, plum and apple tree in Walton
County and the presence or absence of San Jos6
scale was noted. Later he headed the Experiment
Station field operations of spraying.
One of the amusing incidents that happened
was when we visited the spiritualist to get per-
mission to inspect his orchard. He assented read-
ily enough, after lecturing us on the influence of
mind over matter. We had expected to be re-
fused permission. We had left him until the last.
He told us that, of course, we would find the scale
insects present because that was in our minds.
When we revisited him to report that nearly every
one of the trees was infested, he said he knew be-
forehand that we had our minds made up on find-
ing it and of course we saw what was in our
minds. He admonished us to go home and forget
that we had seen the San Jose scale in his or-
chard. That as soon as we had forgotten about
his orchard, the malignant spell would disappear.
Sure enough, when I revisited it about a year and
a half later, I could find no scale. Nor were there
any fruit. He regarded the use of fertilizer as
another hallucination of the community-he used
none and marketed no peaches.
TABER, GEORGE L. A "down Easterner."
Brought with him all the amiable and rugged qual-
ities portrayed by novelists. Has written himself
indelibly into Florida Horticulture through his
nursery catalogs, in the Proceedings of the Hor-
ticultural Society and in articles to the horticul-
His leaders were peaches and kaki (persim-
mons); of both much was expected. I met him
first in 1892; reticent but genial. He "inspired"
Hume to write "Citrus Fruits and Their Culture."
The pecan is unique in Florida Horticulture.
It has never had a boom and so never had to be
deflated. Like the rest of us, the pecan grower
has had his years of exhilaration and years of de-
pression, but the tree keeps on serving its owner.
The old time propagandist advertised it as an
absolute resistant to any insect pest or disease.
The pecan has fallen from grace. It has attracted
some insect pests and acquired some diseases. It
can now be catlogued as a domesticated species.
BROW N, ARTHUR, Bagdad, Florida, was a volum-
inous writer on the taproot hypothesis of fruit-
fulness. He had a score or more bearing seed-
lings producing excellent nuts of large size. It
was the beginning of the pecan era-late '80's and
early '90MsY Brown by vigorous publicity had
worked up a good trade for seed from named
trees, one he called Helen Harcourt. Our friend
Taber and other nurserymen were beginning to
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
put grafted nursery trees on the market. Arthur
Brown set up the theory that no pecan tree with
a damaged or defective taproot would produce a
crop of nuts-hence, as a corollary, no nursery
pecan could possibly be remunerative. After the
hurricane of 1893 or 1894, I visited my friend
Arthur and he very reluctantly permitted me to
make photographic exposures of some of the
overturned pecan trees. Some of them had no
taproot whatsoever. We compromised. He prom-
ised to-forget about taproots and I promised not
to publish the photograph. It was a lucky break
for me, as the plates had been over-exposed and
were quite useless. The nurserymen never knew
why Brown said nothing more about taproots.
DR. J. B. CuRTIs, Orange Heights, originated
and propagated some excellent varieties of pe-
cans. Among them the Curtis and Hume (Cur-
tis No. 5; see "The Pecan and Its Culture"). He
has some seedlings from the Brown trees.
The growing of table grapes in Florida has had
two major periods. The first opened with the
experience of Baron von Leuteschau at Earlton,
south of Waldo, in the late '80's. He carried on
his experiments with the greenhouse types, growing
them out of doors. The Baron, not needing the
money, ducked out before the decline in the mid-
nineties. In the early nineties extensive plantings
were made in Lake and Orange Counties. My
first basketful of table grapes, Concords, was, pur-
chased at Grand Island in 1893, I think it was.
They came from a vineyard said to be forty acres
in extent. West Florida also took a hand in the
grape game. Then there was a "diminuendo."
The second period was ushered in with the sec-
ond decade of the present century. The principal
propagandists were In the Tampa environs. One
finds vineyards located well to the northern part
of the state.
The Florida Key grape merits mention. Prof:
George Husmann made a trip to Key West about
1904 especially to see a notable vine there. The
history of this vine dated back to about a half
century. making it easily the 'oldest table grape
vine in the state. It had a numerous progeny
planted on the Florida Keys and fruiting as far
north as Miami. Under favorable weather con-
ditions these vines ripened three and even four
crops in a year. Prof. Husmann identified this
Key grape as belonging to the Black Hamburg
At the Subtropical Laboratory, under Prof. Hus-
mann's direction, we planted some hundred or two
hundred varieties of European and American va-
rieties. We got some good grapes, but the cost
of bagging and spraying made the project com-
mercially unattractive. Nevertheless, two differ-
ent vineyards of five or more acres were planted
out. They succeeded, but other commercial ven-
tures were so much more lucrative that grape
growing was given up.
Table gripes have been marketed from Miami
to Pensacola, but the vines and grapes have need
of so much coddling that other lines of endeavor
have been more attractive.
It appears that the first pineapples were fruited
at St. Augustine long before they were thought
of as a commercial crop. After transportation
facilities arrived, the industry spread down the
East Coast, utilizing at first only the hammock
lands on the islands east of the Indian River. A
Mr. Ingram and John B. Beach had an "extensive"
planting of two or three acres, northeast of Mel-
bourne, across the Indian River. That was in the
early '90's. Pineapple production spread south-
ward like a conflagration. By 1905 it had reached
Elliott's Key and Key Largo. The "Conks," long
before, had planted some near their habitations.
Perrine (See "Nine Leaders in General") appears
to have imported some. Palm Beach boasted of
having "the largest pineapple field in the world,"
two hundred sixty acres, in one unbroken tract.
Mr. Mathis controlled the largest portion of it.
They called him "the most extensive pineapple
grower in the world." The shipments from the
East Coast figured in the hundreds of thousands
Slips and suckers had been brought in by sail-
boat loads. Abandoned and useless fields on the
West Indian Islands and even the coast of Mexico
were ransacked for plants. Rickards of Boca
Raton got a carload from the Hawaiian Islands.
Spruce pine lands rocketed up in price; some
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
choice tracts went up to the fantastic price of
"$100.00 an acre." Shedded pines brought fancy
prices produced heavy crops and lucrative returns.
The East Coast pines came onto the market after
the citrus crop and before the ripening of northern
deciduous fruits. Propaganda exploited the re-
gion as the horticultural El Dorado. Even bank-
ers "lost their heads" and invested in "choice lots"
that existed only on the charts of the skilled prop-
The discovery that spruce pine land was a suit-
able habitat for pineapples was more by accident
than by intent, as told me in the early '90's, by a
Capt. Hardy, I believe was his name. It seems
that he was in New York with a return ticket to
Jacksonville and only $10.00 in addition. A
schooner came in with some tropical fruits. He
bargained for all of the pineapples his money would
buy, twisted out the crowns and carried them back
with him to the "Indian River country." There
he heeled them in near his shack, which in the
homestead days everyone built in the spruce pine
Before he could plant them out on the hammock
land east of the river he was taken sick and re-
mained in bed for weeks. When he had recuper-
ated he found that the pineapple plants were grow-
ing lustily, and feared that a removal to the river
hammock land would prove disastrous. They did
so well that all his slips and suckers were planted
on spruce pine land.
My hat is off to the pioneer; he faced privations
with a smile; hardships with ridicule; and iso-
lation was his diversion.
FATE reaches for a card; it has "Cuba" written
on it; she hesitates, but decided to place it in the
catalog of nations.
Pineapples from nearly all of the West Indies
and even Mexico poured into the market created
for the Florida crop. The Florida growers strug-
gled on. Then came the knock-out blow. Pine-
apples were being shipped from Havana, through
Miami to Cincinnati for a little more than one-
half the price charged by the Dade County grow-
ers when delivered at Miami. The steamships
sailing out of Havana wanted freight, so put on
an all-water rate to Cincinnati. The Republican
Congress treated Democratic Florida to a dose of
free trade. This prevented any new capital from
flowing into the industry. The more progressive
growers put their money into some other enter-
prise. To account for the decline, the former
propagandists hollered "freezes" for an alibi. The
once prosperous pineapple industry went into a
T. V. MOORE (son of T. W. Moore, see Litera-
ture) was one of the most astute of the East Coast
pineapple growers. In the late '90's he had an
extensive plantation at Chetolah (just north of
Jensen) and trucking fields east of the Indian
River. He had an almost year-round income.
His laborers were constantly employed. Between
the pineapple crop and marketing of truck there
was considerable income from marketing slips.
Later he proved his ability further by becoming
wealthy as a business man in Miami.
CAPT. JOHN SoPRENSE9, Moore's father-in-law,
stuck it out to his last in pineapple growing.
C. T. McCARTY, an extensive pineapple grower,
past President of the Horticultural Society,
switched over to citrus and went into law.
Orlando produced fine Smooth Cayenne, but
commercial enterprises engulfed the fields and
citrus culture was the magnet. Pineapple growing
was an episode. Punta Gorda and Fort Myers
shipped an appreciable crop. At the latter place,
Washburn drained and ridged up flat woods to
make a pineapple habitat. It failed.
DR. H. J. WEBBER and W. T. SINGLE originated
a large number of varieties by hand pollination.
These were fruiting in the middle of our first
decade. Some of them were of superior quality.
At the time pineapple growers were "sick of their
jobs." I doubt if one of these superior varieties
MANGOES, AVOCADOS, CASHEW
The propagation of tropical fruits other than
citrus and pineapples is of relatively recent origin.
The principal propagators are alive and "live ones."
They are living in the most delightful period of
Florida horticulture. The airplane and the auto-
mobile are at their services. These marvelous
highways are theirs free, for the using. Won-
derful tropical gardens have sprung up, that forty
years ago even the Gullivers among us dared not
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
At the beginning of the present century, Geo.
B. Cellon was just budding his first nursery of
avocados and mangoes. John B. Beach, at Mel-
bourne, in the early '90's, had a hundred per cent.
success in budding mangoes. He moved to West
Palm Beach and lost the art. He was the only
-man who made a commercial project of supplying
"seed grafted" avocados. Later his commercial
interests engaged his whole attention. Horticulture
lost an able man.
P. J. WESTER was a day laborer at Palm Beach.
His rise, self-education, and work in the Philip-
pines are a monument to his ability. A Scandi-
navian, he ran true to form. He had fine ability
to acquire horticultural information, but lacked
in inclination and enthusiasm to disseminate either
knowledge or plants. Some of his best "stunts"
had to be rediscovered. The late EDWARD SLM-
MONDS, his successor, was an excellent plant man
and a good mixer. Left a decided impression on
local horticulture. Always had time to show me a
species or a variety that was "appy" and sympa-
thize with one that was not '"appy."
PROF. GALE., at Mangonia (now engulfed by West
Palm Beach), appears to have been the first to
fruit the Mulgoba. The tree was received from
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. He had
planted his mangoes on spruce pine land. The nat-
ural dryness of the atmosphere had a notable in-
fluence on preventing bloom blight (Colletotri-
chum). Later, wind brakes, the growth of or-
chards and cover crops conserved the atmospheric
humidity, bloom blight flourished; production di-
minished. GEo. B. CELLON bought hundreds of
buds from this Mulgoba tree to top work bearing
mango trees in the Dade County section.
REASONER, P. W. Pliny Reasoner, as he was
affectionately called by almost every horticulturist,
I met during my early days. Although a recent
recruit, he had made an enviable record for him-
self. I never met him, but his spirit radiated
through his many colleagues until I felt his per-
sonality. His untimely and lamentable death oc-
curred before my advent to the state. As far back
as 1889 he was quoted as an authority on foot-rot.
(Vol. 2, pp. 32 and 34, Fla. Exp. Sta., 1888.)
REASONER, E. N. His influence on Florida Hor-
ticulture will be greatly underrated by the his-
torian. The thousands of species and varieties
that have found a permanent abode in the state
through his efforts will continue to be an ever
The catalog of the Royal Palm Nurseries has
been a standard that many have tried to emulate
and few have equalled. His papers published in
our Proceedings remain as a permanent attestation
of his ability.
I think it was near 1893 that I paid my first visit
to his home. It seems to me that his soul ex-
panded with the years. All of us older men who
knew him as a nurseryman, as a horticulturist,
as the head of a family, as a citizen of Manatee
County, feel that we can live a better life for hav-
ing known him.
The Reasoners are well authenticated in litera-
ture, but that gives us no idea of their pleasing
and amiable personalities.
HADEN, CAPTAIN. Among the tropical fruit
growers, he will be best remembered by the Haden
mango, a seedling from the Mulgoba. This was
the best one, from aomng a number that he grew
It seems to be quite forgotten that the Captain
produced the finest lot of CASHEWS that have been
ripened in the state. The fruit was luscious and
delicious. George Oliver, the tropical plant prop-
agator, while squatting under a tree, gourmandiz-
ing on the ripe cashews and fighting mosquitoes
with both hands, remarked: "Rolfs, this is the
first time I have ever been in heaven and hell at
the same time."
Mrs. Haden has told me that these eight cashew
trees were from seed that arrived at the local
postoffice, from Brasil. There was a note on the
box, requesting the postmaster to hand the seeds
to someone interested in horticulture, in case the
addressee was not to be found. One of these trees
is still alive, although nearly suffocated by native
vegetation. This abused remnant, overgrown by
oaks, is located beyond the east end of Hardee
Avenue, about fifty feet from the old stone fence.
NEELD, BILLY. The caustic, vitriolic Billy He
said little and wrote less. But sometimes when
he did, it seemed as if he dipped his pen into con-
centrated sluphuric acid. In his family life-he
was a very meek and subdued husband. I enjoyed
his irony and sarcasm. His wit in taking off some
of our foibles was excruciating; though I never
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
heard him laugh, he always had a smile. He told
me that he made the money that bought his home
place at Pinellas by hunting plume birds.
In the early nineties, he had the finest mangoes
that I had seen anywhere till after 1900. One
tree was probably a seedling from some grafted
tree that had been imported by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture during the '80's. It was my
first experience, 1893, -with the mango bloom blight,
Colletotrichum. He had sprayed with Bordeaux
with excellent results. The best tree was lost two
BUTLER, CYRUS. Memorialized by an avocado;
lived fifteen days without nourishment, excepting
water, to cure an intestinal trouble. An ex-Uni-
versity student, he lived alone in a house amid
avocados and citrus. His splendid work had to
give way to "progress." It is now city lots, inside
St. Petersburg. His horticultural dream dissi-
pated. He grew oranges as a maintenance crop;
sold kumquats to make money; spent it on a
hobby, avocados. His citrus grove was unique
and profitable. The trees were of round oranges
each with a skirt of kumquats.
ROMANCING. The centers of avocado and mango
production are in lower Dade, in the Charlotte
Harbor region and on the Manatee A large
tree of the Mexicin avocado, thirty years old, is
growing at Earlton. Fine specimens nearly that
old are growing on the Experiment Station grounds
at Gainesville. These are from seeds grown in
the Captain Haden grove. At Orlando occurs the
largest avocado tree I have ever seen. The trunk
is seven feet in diameter; the top sixty feet high
arid fifty foot spread. Probably a West Indian.
This tree is hundreds of miles from the centers of
production and a thousand miles or more from its
native habitat. Why?
Whoever writes up the anecdotes and romances
connected with citrus will fill a large volume. I
hall not attempt it. I will limit myself to those
incidents that stand out in my memory as having
had potent influence on the trend of this great in-
dustry. Some of the names I am about to men-
tion already have notable places in our citrus lit-
erature. But the reminiscences I wish. to record
give some side lights that are gleaned only from
At times remote events caused us serious per-
turbation. The policy of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture has had a direct influ-
ence. The Orient sending us the citrus canker
caused us annoyance. This paper is concerned
more with personal foibles and apparently trivial
incidents. Sometimes leading in the right direc-
tion and sometimes initiating mischief.
MEN: ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED
ADAMS, DUDLEY W. President Adams in one of
his annual addresses proved conclusively that his
protonym, Adam, was not tempted by the ordinary
apple, but by the orange, the apple of the Hes-
In a debate Adams was often picturesque. He
was a rank specialist. He maintained that Flor-
ida horticulturists must specialize as to crops and
especially on citrus. He had short patience with,
the diversified types of horticulture. In one of
the debates he used the epithet, "Old squash head
from the Manatee."
We young scientists were remembered with wit
He taught that nature, given a chance, would
correct such defects as dieback, scale insects, etc.
He tolerated entomologists, but plant pathologists:
were merely faddists that would be self-elimi-
nating. Some of his teachings were most excel-
lent; they knocked out many an hypothesis. He
was a most vehement anti-prunist; a wide spacer
for trees. He practiced, mulching, citing ham-
mocks as being nature's teaching.
Rigidly individualistic; sociable and kindly spir-
ited. He enjoyed isolation. C. F. A. Bielby was
the only man who led an open insurrection against
him for the presidency.
BEAN, E. Manufactured and distributed insec-
ticide. He had set up an extensive business for
those days. Recommended the use of his insecti-
cide for curing blight. This was developed otr
the idea that "Angulula" was the cause of blight.
Copious injections of Eureka insecticide into the
soil were recommended--very profitable to the
Bean was not enamoured with us young fellows.
So if he could spike the scientific guns by an-
nouncing a veritable cure for blight, there would
be no reason for Swingle's further sojourn in the
state. Single retorted by showing how lime-
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
sulphur spray could be made for about one per
cent. of its market price. Bean exhibited his
patent right and warned the citrus growers not
to infringe on it. Swingle exhibited a chemistry
showing that lime-sulphur solution was discovered
before Bean was born.
I wonder! If there is a modicum of truth in
the assertion. May not some type of blight be
'beneficially affected. Blight is relatively less im-
portant now than in those days.
BOGGS, A. A. Made enough profit from his
North Carolina apple orchard to grow grapefruit
-south of Coconut grove. He was the first to es-
tablish a commercial grapefruit grove in that re-
gion. It was the pioneer for that region and south-
ward. Horticulture irked him; he escaped into
politics, law and a premature demise.
CUNNINGHAM, A. S. A student from Bunsen's
laboratory; condenmed to convalesce in a tropi-
cal climate; and settled at Altoona. Still referred
to in the American Journal of Botany (Vol. 22,
-p. 346, 1935) by Webber. Highly educated and
especially in theoretical chemistry. He was cha-
grinned that the rank and file of our horticulturists
failed to appreciate him. He divined what was
-wrong; learned the scientific names of half a dozen
common plants and insects and used them on every
occasion. He no longer said "whitefly," but
"Aleuroade citri"; no longer said "gopher-apple,"
but "Chrysobalannus oblonglfolius." In less than
a year's time he was a "great scientist." Moral,
D)o not hide your light under a bushel. Learn a
few scientific names and always use them. Then
-people will know that you are highly educated.
He was the "pinch-hitter" in establishing the
Subtropical Laboratory at Eustis. Without his
timely assistance the laboratory night never have
'been erected there.
DUNCAN BROTHERS, of Keene. A. L. Duncan,
-of Dunedin, co-tempore, should not be confused
with them. They had the unenviable distinction
-of having been the introducers and distributors of
-the cottony cushion scale. It was done quite in-
nocently. Fortunately specimens were submitted
to the entomologist at the Experiment Station.
Vigorous steps were taken at once by Director
'Clute to subdue it with insecticides. Unfortu-
-nately this firm had distributed many packages by
anail, principally ornamentals, to widely separated
places. Later, introduction of Cardinallis con-
trolled the cottony cushion scale.
GILLETTE, M. E. Gillette, Waite and Brown
made their debut in citrus culture at Belleview,
Marion County. Their principal activities were
in Hillsboro and Manatee Counties, though some
of their best formative work, for the industry,
was done in Marion County.
HAMMOND, BENJAMIN. Thrip juice, once a
rather prominent remedy for a multitude of evils.
Especially recommended for preventing thrip
marks. One of Mr. Hammond's side issues. It
was the earliest spray recognized as a sweetener
for citrus fruits. Even in the '90's some growers
recognized the deleterious effect of this arsenical
spray. Some denounced it as ruining their fruit.
It went out of fashion during the first decade of
the present century.
HART, W. S. Always genial, altruistic to a
fault. He has taken out nineteen patent rights
and the citrus growing public benefitted without
any compensation to himself. He gave unstint-
edly of his time and money to the Society. Diffi-
dent, modest, retiring. It was always embar-
rassing to him when his achievements were men-
tioned in the sessions. He is looking forward
with pleasurable anticipation to our Jubilee meet-
I wonder if there is not someone among the
citrus growers who can aid him to put his latest
patent, a citrus clipper, on the market. For the
want of funds and strength he is unable to do so.
HOLLINGSWORTH, G. S. "Thirty-five Years
Among the Trees, or the Quintessence of Orange
Culture," Enterprise Publishing Co., Arcadia, 31
pages, price, $1.00. (Date wanting.)
"The clipping and pulling of citrus fruit is an-
other point on which, we are sorry to say, nearly
everyone is against us just at present." "The
writer has all round oranges and grapefruit
pulled." "Some of these wise creatures" (who
employ clippers) "swallow a pole-cat and gag at a
vinegar-gnat." (p. 16). "We will simply say that
lemon is the best to bud later on if you will be
guided by this book." (p. 8).
Hollingsworth was thoroughly disgusted by be-
ing overwhelmed by the clipper men. He, went
home and published his own "proceedings."
Now comes the surprise. According to reading
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
notices dated April, 1935, Prof. J. R. Winston,
Horticulturist, U. S. Department of Agriculture,
has discovered "Pulling grapefruit instead of clip-
ping it gives less stem-end rot." (Agricultural
News Service, Apr. 5, 1935.)
HUBBARD, HENRY G. A resident of Florida by
force of physical circumstances. He had a very
beautiful home place at Crescent City. A genial
and cheerful companion. In 1885 his 227-page
bulletin on "Insects Affecting the Orange" was
published by the United States Department of
Agriculture, from the Division of Entomology
That was in the good old days when the azure of
Entomology was reached through describing new
species. Prof. Hubbard's Elyssium lay in the
field of the Coleoptera.
The "great" entomologist had ascended through
that portal. Classifying and listing insects was
the great scientific indoor sport. It brought sal-
ary and applause. When an insect had been clas-
sified- and its life-history had been traced, the work
was complete. The rest was up to the farmers.
Occasionally an addenda might give vague in-
structions for treatment.
The passage of the Experiment Station Act,
1888, liberated a "flock" of youngsters who viewed
Economic Entomology from the standpoint of the
husbandman. Hubbard "fell from grace." He
discovered how to mix kerosene and water by add-
ing soap; kerosene emulsion. Bureaucracy pre-
vailed; Hubbard returned to the fold. Morphol-
ogy is an important aid to Economic Entomology,
but is not synonymous with it.
ROSE, CAPTAIN, R. E. A most constructive piece
of work which Captain Rose put over was the
chemical standard for ripeness of citrus. It was
he who placed the chessmen on the board, so that
McRae, Commissioner of Agriculture, and W. C.
Temple of the Citrus Exchange got together at
the Gainesville meeting. The two luminaries had
been at cross purposes and only a master mind
could appreciate the opportunity and see how to
move the pieces on the board, to win the game.
McRae was made Chairman, which kept him off
the floor and very busy keeping order. Temple, a
past master at handling such a situation, had the
State Chemist and the Experiment Station to aid
and abet him. Both of these had shown that the
sugar-acid ratio in the juice of citrus fruits was
a more reliable test for ripeness than any other.
But nobody did anything about it. Temple had
provided the salary for a Chemist; The Experiment
Station the laboratory to make a long series of
sugar and acid determinations. This had con-
vinced him completely. But still there was hesi-
tation. A public meeting was necessary. A. M.
Henry, Assistant State Chemist, made public de-
termination of any orange handed him and this
proved to be the final clincher.
Florida was the first state to adopt a rational
standard for citrus maturity.
We could always count on the Captain for help
in the Farmers' Institutes. His papers before
our Society were timely and worth-the-while.
SAMPSON, F. G. A strong individualist; that
was why he could go into the wilds twenty miles
from railroad, before there was a citrus industry,
1874; convert wild trees half a century old into
a prolific orange grove. His grove at Boardman
remained remunerative to the end of his days.
Through all the changing vicissitudes, Sampson
was always ahead in the game. He was the one
citrus grower who could not be bluffed, brow-
beaten, domineered over or bribed. When the
transportation company abused his fruit in tran-
sit or delayed it in delivery, they had to pay the
damage, full damages or no settlement. The same
with the buyers of his fruit. He demanded only
what was just and accepted nothing less. He told
the railway attorneys they might as well pay up
at once because he would keep after them until
it was finally settled and they learned that he was
not bluffing. When the railroad proposed to aban-
don the station at Boardman, he informed them
he would charge rent for the right of way, which
was given in consideration of a depot at Board-
man. He had been astute enough to have the
letters recorded in the Marion County court house.
The railway station continues to function. He ad-
hered to the good old Quaker adage, "If thou
cheatest me once, that is thy fault; if thou cheatest
me twice, that is my fault."
Personally most affable and genial. A constant
attendant on the Horticultural Society and Citrus
Seminars. An annual and most welcome visitor
to the laboratories of the Experiment Station.
Sometimes it took a day. sometimes two days. to
dig up the information that he needed.
He was most generous in giving out information
that had cost him dearly, but so diffident that he
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
could not bring himself to speak before an audi-
ence. He wrote very infrequently. He even
threatened to remain away from our annual meet-
ings if we persisted in calling upon him to speak.
In addition to his orange grove, he had a re-
munerative lemon grove at Safety Harbor in Pi-
nellas County. He told me that either one would
give him a greater income than he needed. The
lemon grove gave better returns and was more at-
tractive, so he sold that. It has been worked over
to grapefruit, I believe. He considered a lemon
grove the best citrus proposition in Florida, but,
as he put it, he would want all his time free to
He was a strong individualist; not a provin-
STEVENS, H. B. He was brought to Florida on
a stretcher. In the darkest days of our citrus in-
dustry (1895), in an informal group between ses-
sions, all that said anything were planning to leave
the state.- Stevens, robust, genial fellow, spoke
up and said that he came to Florida to die and
was of the same mind still.
Always companionable and always doing some-
thing worth while. He has completed for us four
1. Dredging muck from Orange Lake to fer-
tilize an extensive grove. Result, the adage.
"Hauling muck is a harmless amusement."
2. Exterminating the whitefly after defoliation
by cold with DeLand as a unit. Citrus and all
other evergreens which might harbor the pest were
completely defoliated. Results, negative. Dr.
Berger discovered later that the pupal stage of the
whitefly can live on dried leaves until new growth
of citrus appears.
3. Protecting citrus with half shade, sheds;
can be done, but was not profitable in ordinary
4. Producing a citrus grove in a piney woods.
Last year I saw his sixty-acre grove ranging in
age from trees recently set out to twelve years
old. All in splendid condition and as remunerative
as groves under ordinary conditions. I would
not have believed it without seeing it.
STEVEN, J. A., Son of H. B. Stevens. To him
belongs the credit for initiating the Citrus Semi-
nar, in 1910 or 1911, in the old dormitory, Thomas
Hall. There were no set lectures, simply labora-
tory demonstrations and explanations. The first
call was for 15, our seating capacity; 29 enrolled
with an average attendance of twenty-three per
The next year we had moved into the new Ex-
periment Station building. The attendance was
more than doubled. The good reciprocal effect of
these laboratory exercises cannot easily be over-
estimated. They brought out many of the citrus
growers who rarely attended the Horticultural
Society meetings. The Experiment Station staff
was put on its mettle to provide instruction that
would fit in with the knowledge of the citrus
growers. Really a one-week laboratory course.
Classes were held from eight in the morning to
five in the afternoon with two hours for lunch.
In five years the attendance had so increased that
even the commodious laboratories of the Experi-
ment Station Building were inadequate. Formal
lecturing had to be resorted to. Splendid help
came to us from Tallahassee and from Washing-
By 1920 the attendance reached some 250, rival-
ing the Horticultural Society. It more than jus-
tified J. A. Stevens' concept; but had lost its orig-
inal basis-a meeting of a small group of citri-
cultural scientists. The Seminar ideal.
About 1915, the leaders in the Horticultural So-
ciety were fearful that the growth and popularity
of the Seminar wuold cripple the Society. The
two programs, however, were mutually co-mple-
mentary. The Seminar took-up all sorts of prob-
lems and fact supported theories that might or
might not stand when the grove man brought in
The Seminar is one more of the has-beens; the
Florida Horticultural Society keeps on function-
ing. The practical citrus grower seems to have
developed faster than the scientist.
SINGLE. W\VALrE TECUMSETH. I first met
Swingle returning from the 1892 Horticultural So,
city at Ormond. He invited me to call at his
headquarters at the Magnolia Hotel in Leesburg.
which I did sometime about June or July. IHe
had preceded me to Florida about six months, so
naturally r looked up to him as as an old-timer.
I asked him what in his opinion was the worst
disease of oranges in the state. Instantly he re-,
plied, "Non-residence I!"
He was a most delightfully witty companion;
very generous in what he did for others. Rules
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
and regulations irked him; he enjoyed circum-
venting them. He said that his greatest irritation
in Germany was the omnipresent "Verbotem."
His encounter with Bean of the Eureka insec-
ticide was so masterly that no one else had the
temerity to attack him. He saw more clearly the
real interrelations of science and horticulture than
anyone I ever talked to. He showed me clearly
that our set-up was basically wrong. Instead of
studying the orange as a crop, we were giving all
our thoughts to the diseases or insects. That we
were recommending all sorts of nostrums for in-
sects and diseases without knowing anything about
the reaction of the tree. Thrip juice (arsenic oif
potassium) he considered a rank poison to the
tree because of its effect on the citric acid of the
Fate drew out a card; it was marked "Chills";
she filed it under Florida. Swingle and Webber
moved out of the state.
WAITE, F. D. Genial, companionable and gen-
erous. His principal, a Rhode Islander, I believe.
frowned on giving out information. Waite made
the grove great, but himself unappreciated. Many
of his best horticultural practises remain a closed
book. He handled the ordinary diseases as if by
magic. Blight was the one thing that was too
inuch for him. He could spot a new case sooner
than anyone else that I have worked with. At one
time he had a grove of forty-two transplanted
blight affected trees.
He amazed me most by rejuvenating old, de-
crepid and debilitated groves, converting them
into remunerative properties. His honey peaches
were a gastronomic treat and a delight to the eye.
His packing house, although recessive in some
respects, sent out fruit that topped the market.
Always working under pressure. Always ready
for emergencies that arose or that might arise.
WARTMAN, E. L. Probably best kfno*ni through
marketing the finest pineapple oranges produced in
the state. I hate tiot seen their equal. He at-
tributed this to the benign climate and unequalled
soil; maybe so. Who can disprove it? He knew
Marion County was the best county and didn't
hide this knowledge from anybody. He-was just
as provincial about the Womanis College afid the
The greatest work he did for Florida Horti-
culture was when as a legislator he threw him-
self Whole-heartedly into the passage of the Buck-
man Bill. He served for repeated quadrenninums
on the Board of Control and on the Plant Board.
Being a grower and shipper of citrus fruit, his
judgment determined the actions of these Boards.
(See also: Milt Bryan. under Nine Leaders in
1. I have endeavored to give you a close-up
of Horticulture forty years ago. You know what
it is today. Marvelous progress! I record some
names and movements that are all but forgotten.
Some of them would otherwise be lost. No at-
tempt has been made to cull literature; that may
safely be left to an historian. The address is re-
plete in reminiscences, anecdotes and, I hope, data.
It should inspire greater courage and greater for-
2. Movements, leading to great good or to
great evil, have their origins in trivial incidents,
perceived by commonplace men. Great men com-
prehend and co-ordinate them for private gain
and public weal; selfish men for private gain.
3. Florida is A great state. She might easily
have been greater. Her beneficent climate 1 the
productive soil; the nearness to the centers of
consumption; all favorable. Too frequently,
either for private gain or because of lack of per-
ception, we have followed the wrong trend. For
the present, our major project is to adapt our-
selves to the gasoline age and the new sociological
I. EARLY BOOKS.
1. Treatise and Hahd-book of Orange Culture,
More, .Re*. T. W., D. D. Ran through four
editions, from 1877 to 1881. There appear to have
been revisions of the fourth editionli one bearing
the date of 1892 on the title page. there *as
probably one later printing lfice the t6ctor told
me that he had just completed material for the
iti the preface to the irfst edition, the author
says naively: "This book is intended As a mantial
for all who wish to best succeed with the least
expense in the growing of the orange." (P. tx,
In his conclusions to the fourth edition, he
closes by saying: "Finally, to be stidccesful, the
FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
fruit grower must watch and work; but not
always, for soon the golden harvest may be had
for the gathering." (P. 152, 5th ed.)
'. 2. MANVILLE, A. H. Practical Orange Culture
Including the Culture of the Orange, Lemon, Lime
and other Citrus Fruits as Grown in Florida.
Ashmead Bros., Jacksonville, Fla., 1888.
In the preface to his modest 122 page book, we
find a statement that should be of great com-
fort to the Florida Horticultural Society. "Or-
ange culture, like everything else in our busy
world, is progressive. What a few years since
was a chaos of conflicting opinions and practices
has been 'reduced. to something like system."
(Pg. 5.) "In dealing with this pest (scale in-
sect), it may be laid down as a rule that healthy
vigorous trees are seldom or never seriously at-
tacked." This reminds me of the observation of
my first family physician: "A perfectly healthy
man never has malaria."
The author then devotes some pages (87-90) to
the emulsifying of kerosene with milk.
3. WHITNER, COL. J. N. Gardening in Flor-
ida, a Treatise on the Vegetables and Tropical
Products of Florida. Professor of Theoretical
and Practical Agriculture in the Florida Agri-
cultural College, Lake City. C. W. Da Costa,
Jacksonville, Fla., 1885, second edition and ap-
parently the last. He devotes five pages to the
orange, discussing Varieties, Fertilizers and
4. HARCOURT, HELEN. Culture of Citrus Fruits
in Florida and How to Raise Them. 1886; 125 pps.
Also author of several novels.
5. HART, E. H. Federal Point. In the last
edition of "American Fruit Culturist," by John
H. Thomas, 1885, with 593 pages, only three are
devoted to orange culture. These are by E. H.
Hart. This gives us some idea of how North
American Horticultural literature regarded orange
6. DOWNING, A. J., in his "Fruit and Fruit
Trees of America," 2nd edition, published in 1885,
dismissed citrus with three pages.
II. Booxs WITH BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE LISTS.
HUME, H. HAROLD, "The Pecan and Its Cul-
ture." The American Nut Culture Journal, 1906.
159 pages, 38 illus. Bibliography on pps. 153-155.
HUME, H. HAROLD, "Citrus Fruits and Their
Culture. Orange Judd Co., 1915, 3rd ed., 587
pgs., 124 illus. Bibliography on pps. 555-560.
III. CURRENT LITERATURE.
1. Experiment Station Bulletins and Annual
2. Extension Bulletins, Gainesville.
3. Publications by the State Plant Board,
4. Publications of the State Department of
Agriculture, Tallahassee. State publications are
free to all citizens of the State of Florida.
5. United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.
(a). Bulletins from Bureau of Plant Industry.
(b). Bulletins from Bureau of Entomology.
(c). Bulletins from Bureau of Chemistry.
(d). Bulletins from other Bureaus.
Federal publications may be purchased for the
cost of printing.
6. Nursery catalogs. A complete file of these
would present a vivid picture of facts and fancies.
Also the evolution of this potent branch of our
horticulture. A complete file is probably non-ex-
7. State Horticultural and Agricultural Peri-
Weeklies, monthlies and quarterlies have been
established, flourished and faded. Often they were
determining factors yet one looks in vain for a
complete file. This is the fault of the older gen-
The Librarian of the Experiment Station,
Gainesville, will thankfully receive any copies or
files over twenty years old, for archiving in their'
fire proof building.
8. Proceedings of the F'orida State Horticul-
Published by the Society, $2.00 per current
copy. Complete sets rare. Bayard F. Floyd,
Secretary, Davenport, Florida. The most com-
plete record of horticultural progress in Florida.
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