Exportation of Brazilian Oranges.

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Exportation of Brazilian Oranges.
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Situation

1. Statistics show that the export of fresh fruit from Brasil has been

and continues to be an important item in foreign trade. In 1924 the

export of oranges to Argentine was suddenly interrupted by a decree which pro-

hibited the delivery of oranges to Argentina from all countries in which

a serious pest, the Mediterranean Fruit Fly occurred. The United States

of America aiL p_ ohibited the importation of oranges frothose countries

in which thxaxp this pest i ndmwd, Ao -^ 7,

New York is a very desirable market since tie Brasiliaen oranges

ripen at the opposite time of the year to those of North America.

Experiments made in the Hawaiian Islands by North American entomologists

indicated hat temperature of 2 degrees C. for less for a 22 day period was
tJheportt of Rio and Santos are provided with ex ellent refri er tin
fatal to-x- x ths Med. F. F. in all stages revelopme n Un er these
plants for performing this work.
conditions, it was judged advisable for a commission to go to Washington and

present the facts to the Federal Horticultural Board, with a view of having

the regulations so modified as to permit the importation of Brasilian oranges.




Refrigeration as a Measura Against Med. F. Fly.

The detailed and scientific work carried out by competent entomologists

in ith Hawaii, lead to the belief that this means would be of great practical

value,

u' Experiments in Spain. Spain, among other Mediterranean countries,

was greatly interested in securing a nrthod for destroying the Med. F. Fly in,

fresh fruits exported to the United States. Une of tie municipalities of Spai ..

employed scientists to repeat the investigations made in Hawaii. The results wert

entirely satisfactory. This work was very important to Spain, as more than a

million dollars worth of grapes were exported to the United States aaa y.
ACommercial shipments of grapes were then undertaken on a large scale, under
Commercial shipments of grapes were then undertaken on a large scale,p under







nditions similar to tho the experiments.
e-n ihese arrived in New 4brkrthey were found to be badly infested with

live Med. F. M'Jies and hence were refused admittance.

Tne orange growers of Spain believed that* had gained sufficient

control over the Med. Fruit Fly to make it safe for the United States to

receive their fruit, and invited the Federal horticulturall Bard to make an

inspection of their fruit and orchards. The results were so unfavorable that no

attempt was made to export oranges to the New York market.

Experiments in South Africa. The Union of South Africa has been growing

more oranges and grapefruit than was needed for home consumption. Consequently

various foreign markets were considered, among them that of the United States.

It was found, however that there was a prohibition against receiving these fruit

from countries infested with the Med. F. Fly. Hence the investigations con-

ducted in Hawaii were repeated there on a more extensive scale, with negative

results. The experiments conducted in South Africa indicate that refrigeration

cannot be relied upon for killing the Med. F. Fly.


Grapes from Argentine. During our work in Washington, a Munson Line

Steamer arrived with three shipments of grapes from Argentine. Two of these

shipments were infested with a fruit fly whose larvae could not Be distinguished

from those of the Med. Fruit Fly. These fruits were not permitted to enter

othe markets of New York. Whwn we left Washington, some of the larvae had

reached the pupa stage but none had yet emerged as adult insects.


Experima nts in Hawaii. Competent entokologists of the U. S. D. A. working

Sin Hawaii conducted experiments xaxlk as to the effect of refrigeration on the

various stages of the Med. F. Fly. The results of these experiments indicated-,

Sthat no stage could resist a temperature of 2 degrees C. for a period of 21 days.

It appears thal no further work has been done on this subject by the U. S. D Af'

to confirm or refute the uxtia original expe riments. The experiments conducted







in South Africa seem to indicate that these might have been conducted

under conditions under which their conclusions would not be entirely true- ..

At the present time all fruitsand vegetables attacked by the Ied. Fruit Fly are

excluded fromthe markets of the United States when they originate in a

country where the pest is known to exist. Those fruits and vegetables, from,

whatever country, that are known to be immune to the attacks of the Med. Fruit

Fly, are admitted even though this pest is present in that country.








HOW to Secure the New York Market for Brasilian Oranges

1. Undertake thorough going and technical experiments on the effects of

refrigeration on the Med.. Fruit Fly in all of its stages and under commercial
conditions.

2. Take drastic measures to eliminate the Med. Fruit Fly from the regions that

are growing citrus fruit for export. This can most readily be accomplished

b destroying all host vegetables and fruits, excepting oranges, usually

attacked by the pest. Oranges in the later stage of ripening are more

frequently attacked than in the earlier stages, so all of the fruits in the

overripe stage and those that have fallen on the ground should be burned

or buried deeply.


3. Take active steps towd producing superior fruit.. This will necessitate

the introduction of ration& measures of pruning and cultivation. It will

also be necessary to use spraying machines for controlling melanose
methods for washingpau& polishing and grading the fruit before it is packed

for the market*^k-A at '-


S4. Th i foreign and native parasites and predacious enemiAs of

the Med.. Fruit Flywill be found to be a valuable and important adjunct in

destroying this annoying pest.


5. Establish a strict and impartial government control over every kilo of

fresh fruit exported. A single shipment of badly conditioned or pest infested

fruit can destroy a fine market that it has taken years to establish.

The United States of NkAmer has at present no authorized agency for

performing this work and is constantly in danger of loosing valuable foreign

markets by incautious and dishonest exporters.

The federall Horticultural Board assured us that it stands ready to





raae--mTo---niii admitting the Brasilian ora -ges into the United States

whenever it is certain that such shipments will not introduce the Med. Fruit

Fly or other dangerous pest*


Whenever any extensie region has been o thvurughlay cleansed of the Med.

ruit Fly and other dmgerous pests, that e Ministerio da Agricultura
we suggest that the, follow
sin rely believes it to be tirely free,/thb example of Spain, and Argentine,
ort t

and ite an inspection of the ruit and o ards of that region by a urzkkug

repre native of the Fed. Hort.|Brd. The Fderal Horticultural Board

has assu d us that they will do tir part if will do ours.


Pests Intercepted by Inspectors of the FevSe`Hort AB 4
To present the introduction into the United States of insects and diseases

dangerous to plm ts and plant products, the Federd& horticultural Board maintains

a large corps of inspectors. In the port ci New York alone there are fourteen

of these inspectors. The vigilance of these officers tan be better il trated,-

by examination of their records. We found filed in their archives six hundred and

sixteen entries against material brought from Brasil in the years 1914 to 1926.
N VA.Zd -j4.-tta
.~1ruoud J.u~ -'ireiu ~ 11'A ~2-'CL pacti-nv nf +.hf r'"t skd+162A plcvi+.

pr"dA s s be si+ ,.mh pnnto irtzcerpted was such a dangerous

one as the pink boll work of cotton.



A Ie-
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Conclusions

1. It should be cLearly understood that the only reason for excluding

Brasiln oranges from the markets of the United States, is thae fact that

such importations are lile ly to introduce idi,dangerous pests #-.fruits

and vegetables. When we can s1we-4o the Federal Horticultural Board tht r o n-

can be transported with a certainty that no Med. Fruit Fly are included ,

the importation of Brasilian oranges will be permitted by the adb ption of

a regulation by the Board. TMhis a scitific problem and can be solved only
/
by scientific r ans.


2. Your commission was given every opportunity to examine-the original

archives and work done by the officers of the F Y rtPBr4. Every possible

facility was placed at our disposal to mm& full and complete investigations

of all of the work related to our problem. The Hon. Secooof AgriculGura

stated definitely th no modifications would be made of the regulations of

the Federal Horticultural Board without the recommendation of that body.


3. Our only hope for establishing a large and ,lVrative export trade in

fresh fruits and vegetables lies in a ___-___-___ ___ ..._

ia*dr that we may deliver products eae*l to, or superior to those of any

other country, not only in our own estimation but in the esteem of our

competitors. Ihmuuxuaiabnuxpzzaxztsxmzz*x The Brasilian Govermnelt

must be able to say with entire confidence that these vegetable products

are o.4-4 eo f dangerous irs-ects or diseases.



4. Finally. We wish to express to you/ our hearty appreciation of the kindness

(and consideration we have received from the Ministdrio,

A our appreciation of the frankness and kindly consideration with

which wve were received by Secretary Jardine and all of his subordinates with

whom we had dealings.






Also to the Memb-rsof the Federal Horticulturi. Board a group of

noted scientists, whose many years of experience ensebhles them to be

just and fair, guided only by known scientific data.


Signed. P. H. Rolfs

F. C. Camargo


C. Roffs, Secretary.














I N D I C E


OCaxa do &presentagqo. .........
A Situa. o. ............. .. ... .. ............ ....
yrigorifica'g.o eomo T'-edida Pre tiva........ ....... 3
Ielatorie a Mi.sfio apresentom ae Federal iortXiu1ltwal Board.
Impor-anio. do Coamiroie do Fructis do 3rasil........... .... 5
0 Brasil oao "3rade do Fzrutas v'r-sdcL. do Uids.......
hseesse. Sxperimentiial do Lcraujfzs ..........................o 7
Argmntinu -rohibe as i'"uctas Erusileirss ..................., 9
Rro87cqago de P1a:itas no Brsil ..... ....................... 10
,Ispee acg de Poaareis.. ................. 10
Preohibigo dm rfego Pl:rta ............ ............... 1
Iaepam 9io no ... .. ..... U.
Roaessas dos 1. Unidos Prohibidas m-trida. ....... .... ... I2
Citrus Peckin House no 'aii .........................,.. 13
A Argpantina Prohibe a 3.t- da das L.,.rsaju ras ileirao
por causa do Sar. ioznette 1.*.*...... ..... 13
Zonas roduttoraa do L.ranjas no rsil.................... 15
fapVchas de Amadureciawnto... ................................ 17
A iosca do Yditerraaneo no Brail........ ..... ....... .18
CzQ as do ]x=2 3Mr. Dr. Carlos ... .. ....... 19
Paoilidades "ra3-ileLras parma lFrigorificaqgo. .i
Goaslubeg.....4 .....,....... C9 21

As pairte mais importantes na 'iAnutfa do Federal I 4r3. Board. .... 3
A minmta ......................................................... 24
A tradutga& do iainuta da reuni~o. ............................ 26
Ieioa par. Conseguir o .erccdo de ixova Yiork pra iai-RujasO
b rasi3t iraa -........... 30
Refereacias & biteratura corn rafiueacia R*; moseas de fruotas
Sno raii............... 8
nInsacton 1eivos Intercopt;dos pelos ianspeatpss, em remessas
aos E. Unidoes do Brasil.... 36

GoG.................................. 37



CaGrta do apmsatago do Itinerarxio da Lissao......... I
Itinerarie da 1 iss?...... ..., ................ 11 -III,











RiF do J43eiMS


23 do Juaho do 126



Dr., VAguel Calm6 a du Pi e ALiAida,
.: D., ?inirjtro dt'. Agriultura.

Ceios o pr.zer de pfasar Is wios de V. Excia o pres-eat
relt.torie sobre a ri-ss~o que V. 2Excia. nos dinou coNitr, Emibora
rtio iivessool conseguido nel-uhun n modificagRo no regulaMnto do Feo-
eral Horticul.tural Boa d, ficou cilarawnte estbelecido que Maehumas.
prohigh n seria irposta a ppaies qtu recebama as frusta brasileixasr,
-osta _a quo eAta.K seja pric.'g:.;das de tKl modo a r-du ir pslo miniz*
o perigo do iafestaqio quanto a rosea do '3ditarraeo s outras prans*
T-a complement ao especial objective deasta iasso, oz*Vga ...
.! ",''>e~ila. colleC(^Fio i&. f' mil dos c'tro e qu aerr de grand valor .par
o Brasil. Do Brruios conieguimios trees variedadoz de oumta, de.itro
dellas fur-ouaa *,n. 1I* 1"!].,. ,)', Cu.n obtivemo3 ex'ielle'ire co?.e9gm8.
de. cl=tas, incluivel n. "Crystellina". Do Servipo de Cama do Daparft.
mnnto de Agricul.tue. dos ..st.os Ulndidos, obt-1vomos u2,a- oliea o vyali.s
incluin.oo owpeoifs se).vaYaes para hybridaceo.

Foi not. vAl nos -I.--tcs Unidos, o .rasde interesse quo *eUsw*
v-w.ios n uo or.nie rno iDdpart x'o de Aricultura, ooso em tod-. par to,
sore noi-3x industria 6 agricuturm, Pedimaoi vVia para ves infoa ...
que ser-s de grande l antr.gem para o S rr si3 a rerwssa de todas uas eZa ..
publ csaes sob ponto do vista agrioola eu industrial, para a BiU..
t 'eca do Dey M'': ,:Io de Agri! taur, dos .,:i ".. ,o-.Io-,- Unidos, "-.'erivaj
Sen dupliiceta. ern a prto devide a fei a destas publieo qe os -.
Horte Awricunos pouco conhrcoui nosso paia,-

Terminando ;.os5 declare ruos suLia&a n.e gic-to3 a V. a E.. .-
por terms a or portunidpste de Ihe ser util. GoutinUsas ser a .- .a.
iriwia UispOsicq fe 7V. Exceia,



. .fs
~ ~ ~ .. ........ ,........ *p. C. C~rfgo ....


.........C. P.Rolfs, 3cretaxia,.







S TTUAVXO

As estatisticas mostram qx a xpoertagao de fruotas no Brasil tern wido

a coatinuar& a occupar urm logar de destaque. Em 1925 a exportagio de

laranjas para a Agpentina foi bruscaent intorenro pida pr urW decreto qu

prohibiu a enirada na Argzntl.npn de fxuot&a de todos os paizd am qu fooae

encontradaa terrivel posca do ?Nediterramoo. 0 Governo Norts A2wricaa

jh #avia prohibido & impcrtag:.o de fruotas dos mesmos paizes em virtude d&

existence, da referida mosea.

:iov-;- York 6 pari oo um grand mwreado, pois as larajas rao Brasil

awaadurecem cm epochal ju tarntoie opponta aos Es'adoE Uridoe.

Sxprieuoias rea.iz.daz om iiawei H wa i o ontomologizs'ao Noioe AorioauaB

dexonstrarram quo a temperura de 2 2 C. esi menos de 20 dole, Ora e

bastacnt paza matatr a mosca. do wediterraneo em todoe oQ seus estados de

evolujao.

Os portoo de Rio do Janeiro e Ssanitos, possuem excelloates aor zeom

frigorifieos nos qaaes as fructas poderiam sor -xpur;adas do malp, per

assim cdiaer.

Tenda ostas factos em condideragao, foi juj&dAo conventente a ida dt

uza colfuissIo a -;as3uington para ter um entendiienato oon o redert- Iortcul-

tural Board, atim do cooaeguir uB modificagl no O reulanwuto que prohieb a

iwportagAo do fruetas do iBrasil.









A Frigoriftioao Coatra a Mowa do Itditerraui


Ma a HaaIL. Oa trabulboa sgifntificos 8 dotelhados to

cojie teCs entof.a iss~a eam a4waiis chgur=m a aonolusapo quo a fripor-

ifieagq seria uam media de gande valor praico. 0 resultade das experiuias

indioanra quw anhobf mestudo do inse'co pode#ra resistIr a frigorificogae

a 2 p C. ar 22 dias.


ExaerionciE> i espana. A Hspanha, entire outros puizea do Me1itew"

rneo, uitito se ilateressou ia obter um mAthodo pawa AitruiS& U.- moes&.

das fniotasj pqra poder exportal-as prxa os Estadoes U lidos. IUme das aam

ciplldad da I1ta-panha tomou scientisetas para ropetier as iwstiggies

roalizadas ea HLwU. ai, resultado i'oi a Priamira. vistt& cowlpie-Uarnone

sAti;fc.ctcrio. Msts trzbaLho era do ^i--ryne in ortasncia para .sbaa& pa
ore
uM rMilhao do dollars e uvas!/ sua. export ko annual yra oes stadas UidoAw.

RnrawiDe Do cetrdo cam essae experienoias, carregamentos 0oBmerciaBo em

lgga sesela woraa enwialaas para es Estadoa Unidoa., Chagando as fruaotas

ea Nova York, foi A omstatadp que os carrgsato nto swsa ea s3Tzramat
iafestida.s, eztaido aw larvas das moseas eom bastanto vida. A prohibigao da

iqportag.o de uvas da iiospnnra entrou do novo eam vigor.

Os oifritvaltsor e do!spmha, reaadv tarem eliminado suffieientemeats

a nosee do zeus laranjaes, solicitaram do Federal Horticultural board

que eonveisa urn entomologista afim do terlfiear as condiges de saaidade,

S cosaguir asaai eatr-a das laranjas :0Wo Estados Unidos.

Os resultados desta ,ltims inwstagagRo foram tlo desfavoravl que

Sprohlbiqso apiadi ea vigor,

Ex erieeos S Africa do BuL. Ps.uilado 0s T.gloaS nG Colo1nia do

ab, Su da Afrioa, wstiseimas pM r" iwtG4p GP pm bje-otio O 4e xpoert""o








Sna nEoessidade do marcadwo Norte AsricanBs3 roelvsra l ropetir as

experienosia do lbwai# porom em aimor ascula. Os reoutados foram agatMiTOs.

o form oz priAmeals a conmsloar ao governo iortae Aeri.sano quo por sueS

xporieAoias a rigoriiicago o %a podia. servir do meioa pare sostruigao da

mosoa do ;M;Oditerraneo.


Iv.as da Ar&outtina. 3i em fins defte trabalho, sixxx viezos a saber

em Washingto= quo ccabrva do chegar em Nova York$ ataeados por larvas do

moscas, que ez nada s3 diferenciarLmdas larvaz de Ceratitis lapitata.

Letas fruclas natural,-srte nao padiorsa si trar noz Zstados UnidAos. wu&as prt

-m~a de Vashtngton fipalmantoj, algumas xarvas tinhiam passadb6 parao e atade

do crysalidas, porem nfo tinhai aixda chagedo ao esatAdo d &aJulta.



Prestemaente toda a lruota ou legumes proveniaonto do pais

affectads polas Moscas da a irustva nao teom eiarUada nos Estados Unidov.0

ias as frwtas o leSgumas de quacLqaer regiro, sendo absolutazntiv U s.

dresses praaritas torio entrada am Estadoo Unido..












E3= Sur. Chote o 'smabros do "BNeral Horticultural Board"

Senh.ors;


Aqui nos apre3entaaos, especialmeotte oiai ados polo Dr. UguaX

GCalJon du Pin a AUmeidus D. D. I stro da Agrigultura do Brasil# para

discutir om Va. S*s., e send poastWil, obtwr urea meWfii aqo da lei pela

qua as larsnjas brsiloiras s&o excluidas dos mBr#v!3s a Estados Unidos

da Awrica do Porte.

Antes de nosco oibarquo, o Sxa2 Snr. :lnistro da Agricultu.ra ies

a-tesar a S. Exeia., o Snr, Emiaxad do Brazil an VWashimgtau aobrea vinda

desta mis8So Snr. Emibaxmidor trxasmitttu a presonte, coamsiG&alo as Saw

Seoretarie da Agrioultura dos Estades 4anio., a asT iao a so.lelsio bm

chasgaria. 0 ohefo desata ai6mmlisBo Dr* P. Hii R ,lfs .6 fimcvionairio 4*

3swado de Minas Ger9ae, e foi e3maialmtt cede<$ #4 Goevsoo Federal para

esta traWba.w. floe reside hja nais de oieo acmnoa ao Brasil.

0 egwide eabBro, Dr. F. C. Gam%-p6 o Direotor da .I sta.o ft

Poniculura#, tendo trabahlade aatexiornante no Instituto Biologico doe Detwa-

Agrieola, uma das dvisSes do Uiisateoio da Agrioultia* EStudou dols a=nom

*m curso de espcializa,9. ma Univorsitudo da Florida, ha an*o anml &

fBmnoieaario do Uinisterio da Agriculturva dedisanido-se oom preferma.*

a pathologia vegetal entoualogia agricola.


A I portsaca do. ComBroia d" Frootau nO Brasil.

Somente umna pquwna part. das mraeta produsidas no. Brasil 6

ex*ortada pare. o Hoispburio Lorta, sain, pouw p 4soa5 Us Eatados Unides

ton aiqur idea da osportb"ao brasilaira d6 fxuctas. 0 quadre abaixoe, obr








c oxpcraaggo bmleira do fwcteas do W# =a doe Brasil pars, =reoad

pliaatiws dasy uma prove da iaortaoia desse damoma .


Dxporta.o do Braeil
para
os w.roa lc platiios.


Exportaw3 dos tAiadae Ua1400
da Amoriao do Nortr par o
-raeil.


(VvLoro ea rol rle.,)


1.arenjas







195,a6452
5,356

81,919



749,567

621,030

1,554,920

1,560,502

2,411,943

5,645, 998

5e733,831


Abacaaz

97s6774


8 ,187

84,350

l059041

208e,942

215,976

332,827

492,805

757,472

1,M36254

895,794


Banants

2,319,476$



2,475,613

2,723,794

1,902954

1,799,124

1,858,054

2,539,365

2,938,312

.,033,034

10,534,024

15,459,725


Ir-agaa

"42,540$,



841,823

904,743

601S38

548l


1,413,6'4


1,490,536

1.S,52,15


Per.,

346,1984



672, 548

713,386

438,032

28S,167

938,935

1,138,660

806,377

1,06,47Y


Os vlor ale representados eam mil raise., Dividindo-os per qutro,

obtem-se seu valor correspondsnte a o- daUo]ra on oendisef normaes do

cambio.

0 Brasil omo Uaread de Frutaa Freseaau Pa.rs. ed E. Unidos.

Eza 1921p ua tratado fi. ostabelecido entra ov Estados Unidos

da Amrlaa do orta e o Brasil, estabe]na-ndo-s regiinn dl "s:*% d40

Iiarifad maie favorecidas", o quo permitte -a importaqi0 .0 fhntasf rescam desti

pain para o Brasil livree do direitos eomquanto us laranjan do Brasil eatle


1913

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918



1920

1921

1922

1923

1924








sujoitas 4 urn iMouto do 90 cents ( $0,90) per uRiza.

0 quadro abaixo indica o acrescimo rapid da importago do asos

Norto Amoricanas a3pos o referido trhtado. No qu atro amos de. 1921 a. 1925

incluivel, o walor augemutou do wis do trazontou por oeiteo

Caima- Dollam Barrio Dolle or Tetael, dollars
1922 36*196 147.428#00 1,602 157.703,00
10275,00
1923 55.6TY 1896803 232 2,114 191.917

1924 106.780 400.832 1.168 7.267 408.099

1925 141.35$5 617,887 9891 69.290 689.177


Bemssa Experimairal do Larajas

Em Doembaro doe 192, um dos meombros desta cmmisoso, Dr. F. C. Camargo,

re]aioua uma experienceia do xportagao do larvnjas a pa.ile1irv3 par- Nova

York. Esta arregaienro foi prepareado sob a direaoe a insphogio do inistdorie

d Agricultum. do Brasil, com 0 fim do deomustrar a posibiidade Ad .

collocaqAo das laranjas brasileiras aos Eatadoo Uutloas.

Em 1923, fopi prohibido a.s Estades Unidoes (I a iwoi aoo df fIrustas do

paizes affeetados pelars moseua das fruits. Isote veio obsatar proseguimeato di

exportaaoe do fructas do Braail para o3 Estados Unidos.

Trancrevoona on seguida ueum carta que diz sobro a quaLidete da fruota

r3eeb!i s.ane o earrgaaento azperimental. Esta experieacia do.mrnstron tuabesm

qus per wlhor que seja a qu..Adide da fructa, ella nAo poderE concorre r..

.oooiaomUaeg iuamdo a producq&o do Calif ornia e Florida eativer jj/

no aeriCade.p.










J. & G. Lippamn

Incorporated

COMM1XSSO MEiCILANTS

350-2 Washington St.


Nova York

5 de Maio de 1926

Esta toem por objecto declarar quo a 13

de dezembro de 1922, recebemos uea partida de 200

eaixas de laranjas brasileiras do Snr. F. C. Camargo, -

easas fructas foram cuidadosamiote examinadas per

nos na sua chegada o as encontramos em perfeito

estado, isentos de qualquer vO:;tigio de moleetia

ou insectoCdSMfi9hos

Estas fruatas foram vendidas posnos em leilJ o

public por Inermnedio da "lydepcndont Fruit Aucti.)n

Company" a .14 de Dezembro do l2,. Todos oes com-

pradores f icarmn bastante svtisfa. toea corn eassa

rerossa e depois de nos tereoa comprado e 'vdido a

referida fructa noS perguntam por novas partidas.


Re speitooamoent.

(assigvada) J. & G. Lippmans.

(assignada) lt. J, Lip:,)m.a,
Pres.








Argentina Prohitbe a Importa das Frutas Braeileiraa

o uma earta corn data de 9 do Fwwreiro 4de 1926, do Saaretario

da ASria-ultur& Inerwro doe ?Estidoe Untles, ao DBpartaw nto do Eatadeo,

venoa quA 0 Govwnw Argantin-o prolibiLu a entrada das larmjas braail-

eiras por un deareto publicado 16 do Abril de 19Z5. Ato este qu foi

resaiizado contra vantado do proprio gevorn* Argutinoi. i Mar. Nomrttot

Entomologista do Departamato de Agrk ulturp. doe Estados Unido, avitt

ao Hiaist "r da Agrioultura da Arv-stina, si w nimauasse a Arg-utiaa. a

reeeber as laraajas brasileiras, os Estados Unideos da Awerica do Norte

feoharia sus portos soatra as fructas da Argentiab .

ImE" i1 vel para o exportador brasileirtE cuirehande: a situw

gAo. Duranto mais do cincoenta aunoas a Argeutiaa tom 1ido s aercado

principal par. fruetas frescas, e durante os ultiros arnaa, eta oaer-

cia trm 3a augwntado wmlto. E' tmobem difficil pm.r*.o exportador

brasiloiro 4. laranjas coqmprhaindor a justiga a d uituno, desd. qu

plantoim gramtes pomares de larmjeirag, soae o fim d. exrortar as, fructaa,

prinecipalemnte para a Arg& .tix.a. .l2e nao pode, ec .eho.ra.r qu h_.l,,

mais perigo 4d transporti2r ta toca liditerrRnen soleb as a enadgss a"i

tarias empregrdus actualawnte, do quo sb aa eumdiqOs elwbua do exprtar

as fruictas sm cuidado. Disseq qu a Mosoa ..edite rranoa existed a .

3rasiU per divers.s dozen"a de ansa. 0 BoUetima NI 640, do Departa-

anlto da Agricultura dos -utud1V U oidos. -diusse qus ten aiido encentrado

no B3rasil doade 1901. Lounsbury notu .uau. .rsenfa am 1905-e 1906.







Proetogro das Plantas no Brasil

Maste uLttimois uatro uamos o BadLti teA fi&to grande progroso

ao sent.do do lirtat a introducgo de insects daainhos e 8imolesUaa

das plantas. 0 Instituto Biniogico foi organiazdo ea l)kO. Su. Iunngcq

principall 6 deo linitar quasto possivel a introdueiogo de pragas

molestias de plantas do oatroe psizes e de tomar mdidas contra. i

J& oxistntes no paizs. ActuaLawnte a iiporbCho de aertas plaeat.

cow*, aaf, o#anm algodro padeAr ser feita unicmnenie polo WNisterio

da Agria ltura. Estaa plantaa ura vez importaiaa ese oultiYVdaa,

saVb igilncia do techios a pes1ei nte indioceos polo linistro

do Agrin uB ura por tempo IMdeterminado et prevar a exiso eia ou na*

do p.rmsitas. 0 ?Ia.nist3rio da Agricultura, presontenisa Bnt'i so

oc3pand do iastllar am uma das ilhas da Baekla do *mcnabz-ras urna

Esa.go Ag onorAia, ujiioareate para o ler i o de inrtrodue-de planitas

Todas as arvo res fructiferas Ipo rtadaB dl ex-trruasiro as lanspeo-

ciowadas no porto do entresa. os. quaos Ws quatra a saber: Rio -4-

Jsaira, PortD Alegro, Srtos e Gahia.. Presados tres ou quatro

umanas, as plants ao insraFece ionada. do novo mo lugar em qW foram

planted43 dofinitivrfe .

Para importao5 do d plzas. vives ou parts do plsitas do qualque

espeois, 6 necssario-una autorie.B9Bo do Inatituto Biol.ogioo,- deolatw.

do-s ema detalh as aspecios e. a quoutidade de planta&a a aen, lSporta-

daes sao a quo as plants voo apprhendidasa deTolvidas ou deetruidaa.


Inspagto do Pomares.

Mas r4gi5s onde as laranajasso produzidas para exportagi.,

govrno federal ve uanwtend@ por dois anaas, Lnspectoraee afiia de detar

mainar a prewn9a ou ausencia doe Inactos dwiainho dos poaroe do*

quasi as laraxJan s31 exportadav.







PZrhM l*o am Trafeg. do Plantas.

Aeouaalrte o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul 9 parteo d Bsetad, do

;inas Geras nio podoe exporter qualquer platae sapaes do lovase

*San JA6 foalt* par se ter sonntrado eas parasite wasas regill n.

0 Estades do Rio Grande de Sul a-co pods exporter videires porque s

acba amtaainado pela Phylloxra.

UTra part* do Estado do Sto Paulo, perto de Campinas, nao pods

exporter efi6 ou eaacos de ca6 som a devida desinfecgilo. Frari s.zwatS

menqo da cuapagna victorioda que tem side feita oitrar a broca do

oaf6 (StephBznoderes coffeeoas), per usies profilacticos diveresos

inolusjIv a destruito do cafeeires. Esta praga que aecou a predueo

gSo do *af6, Uta aido combatida, e provavelmaete sori exterminda.


Wapeogto de Frustas no Porteo do Estrada.

Uma inspeeoto rigorosa do fructas no porto d e-ntrada tiOn sido

mantida durante os ultimosdois waos. Algunms expertadera Norts A lvw-

icanos j& apprenderam isto. Rumerosa row "as do fmwtas da Argntlaa

team side reeusadas xe pert* per causa de estarox infestadae.

Sgu uma lista das remessaw de rmalf dos E atades Unidesf da

Ameriea do Norte qiu fora reoemusads no porter do Rio de J#.eiro dara

1925, por aUm da proesea do "San Joe6 SsaUR", 4 do Cydia posrmeala.

Duas destas rewssas toram deetruidas, e as outras forax rooebareBda

pars a AftEtisa.

(Sagu uara Usta des oarreganext- s





MINISTERIG DA AGRICIJULTURA, INDUSTRIA R COMlMRCIl

Institute Biolo;iao do Defesa Agricola

Serv49 do Vigilanoia Sanitaria Vwgetal

Ng 77

Rio de Ja;tirom 13 de Abril de 1926
(Daobidu a 16 de Abri17
Sr. Director da IX3tag~o do Pomicultura de Deodora.

Fespomadndo o vossao offico as 201. de 8 do aorreute.

De faco. no anono pa.s ado, aqui aportaram varies part s dAs fructaes
priocedentes dos Estdos Unidoe 4da Amierica do Norte contamlafdas polo
Aspidoi.otu periacirosus Cydia pomoinella.

Linhas i segiur wapi ento a rolaio das partidas quo encon-tramos
nessas conadiges e por u6e oondeiada..

1). 80 barricea 4de magas, recebidaa polos Srs. Satos Foates & C.,
pelo navio W'estern Torld, entrado emr 8/10925. DOestruida.

2), 1,00 barricas do iaagla, recebidas olJos Srs. L.onaardo Forreira &
6., polo aavio W. World entrado em 8A0/925. Psombaroadas para a R.
Rrgentitaa.

3), 70 barricas do wage S, recebids poles Srs. Carlos & Ricaldi%,
polo navia Western World ontrado em 8/10/945. Destruidas.

4). 50 barricas de ma-s, reeobidas pjeios Srs. Leonardo Ferreira &
C., pelo mavio Vauban, entrfido em 18Ac/I25. Reomracadas para a Argoentin

5). 50 barrios do magus rocebidas polos Srs. Carlos & Li'Ialdo,
pelo navi Vaubas, ontrade et 18/10/925. Reembarcadas para a Argentina.

6). 50 barrieas de maars, recebidas pelos Sra. Jo Doli& niti & C,O
polo rario Vautba, entrado em 18A0/925. Reembracadas para a Araeni na.

7). 50 barricas de maglo, receobidas pelos Srs. Dolinniti Inra & C.,
polo navi Vaubma, ontrado ea 1840/925. Reembraoadas para a Argentina.

8). 50 barricas do mapas, reeebidau pelos Sru. Carios & Riualdi,
polo navayio Vostris, entrrmdo em 16/1/925. Reemnbrn.cadas ?ara a Arzentin.a,

9). 100 barri.as de mag11s, recebidas pelo Srs. Francisco Baron6e
polo mavle Voltaizr, entrado ex 29/%./925. BReeabraczdas para a ArgcAtiua

Sad e Fraterzidade,

(Assignada) Costa Lima
Chfte do Beri~go.








Citrus 'Twaking House" no Brasil

0 unico "Packing houes" do tyuo eppregad@ na California cu na

Florida, que se acha actualmente no Brasil, foi oonstruido em 1923,

sob a, direcq o do Snr. F. C. (Ormargo. 7-.th no distriato do S" Gongalo,

ouja xoma se interesea *specalne te ,a. esportagio deas laranJa-, -a m -.

Bahia (Washington Navel), v da SelIeoa, quo miiteo a oemiuderem eome a

progeaitaa da Wasingto a Navel, Eate "packing housa" foi construids

espeoialmte corn o fir do oxpor-ear laranjar para o09 Eetado Unidox.

InfoliUsonte para a samus interesadesoa, a prohibiqae eontra as laranjas

do Brasil foi levado a 04%f# of feito antes quo estu pudesso fimciossar

para os fins do exportgTIo.,


A Argentia Prohibe a iaportago das Laranjas Brasileiraa.

Rm Janorao de 1925, Snr. G.. F, MSnotteg Entonolgista do Departa-

mento da AgriovItura doaEstados Unidoe, fe* uma viagim d pesquixas a

AJuriou do Sul, astando bprmww tv o Brasil, e veguludo a Argentina, Omd

passou agiw tempo em j(pesquias sobre a msca, do M4diterraeso outran

mseas daes fru-tas*. Conferm as inferiagges publicAass, a mossa Weditar,

remao *xisto as, Argatina, pr6mt# o Sar, Mosuatto ajo poudw a enoamtri,.

Sat. Uomnette aoonslimou 9 Gornao da Argentina, por siow, do e.n

Mnistro da Agrilmntura, de n&o esontinuar a parmittir a entrada dos fructe'

brasileiras, sob peona des Estados Unidos prohibit a importaglo das. frutaum

e league da Ageutoiaa neOS .stadoe Unides.

S ee pia de a d eabograms reobelido polo "0 Jermal",

pubicadeo no dia 12 de Wargoo do 1925.









(DO 08 JOCW.s U do WIVO d* X925)


BuTha Aires, a (Astvr.)-*-- 0 ar. oviwttea, quo vilajv

oaiaailsiona4o polo 9X opartwaato do Agrioultui# dt Estades

Vados partiou hajo par. o- *

opisU ft etudao as a og44AqSa sanitarisa do* produota du



Agrpixftwup *W. Tomas Us Bnatam, quo exists as profuoge8t. f

otstp w sftt aas s um s wditerraSBii, peats qw uteu as fsstu

oa. OkGs= paelu ustitTrmancr*

a. 6 ortt 4felewa at aim tr Ls Bret=oa ^MF

as a Argent&B eoxntlmanua a wvebaftr fruwtama OqmiaXlt. do arm-aiX

do Zfiria 0 do ilbapsamr pwes woessimaties P,1 Mts postu podrla

I I jltkp I 1.mom 41 smnr 4g. gaAos UnLd Vptt& taaar

|9BtR4 p .hw IL rta. o awix" asi "Lo dpallIB 6 .nerduy

o Sipimr =*I*rt smiyissm profie wstualimift a lawor~tj&fo t,

fm~> pgotadat do BnaU" 4 coasqm edwwmma maue lonMf~uddaft


I IN IN 0 ; 0 .1--- l-l- --i-OW 0 lA*ikW'WO.--ikO6RvPW







Zea9 Productores do Larnja-.*

Durant oentenas do anw -as laranjs tera Aido produzid"a nO Brusi3.i

As laraInjeiras cresaoem per todos estados.. Form,a. po'oas 31 as.

rsais ans qua5s terna sido desoe olvidom :.3:re. spocl.,-nt8 p.rar- fim

do expoitagKo. st.eas centrose, tammr aiato cul'1ado para master fs pOmarep

Uvres do iasec~toea 9 aolg-ftia, e potwa roduzir i.-ranjaa #44/w,'(4% i

Sinease 5 boros ....


(IFram- in-.luidoa westo poote mappas do Distieto Federal, do

SUo Paulo, 8 RIo rio de Jneiro, na-a sques or'.m indicado as

regiSea prineipnAzs do )roducviuo cocnawrcial do laranj.s .)


Uo Gougaal. este distrlcto se aoha x Estodo do PRio de Jaaneirop

e tera altura o mawls ou Hneee 25 aMtroa. Por causa do en-v ebe veaos

redusida Bumca pode leer um. regilo pro-luctor&. cdf, Andti snet a

cultivuva-se a onnam de a sucEr, e eesta era a principri cultural desta

region, ynas metuemamnte *sth e.ndo abavrnnada% Tern-se procuredo, e .

resultado, vchar nesta regiio a Mosca Iditerraaeo. Por sso, consaideraft

coma um dos aitreo aslhoros parna a exportaa deo f=iatas ao-s "stado Uiides,

e a Europe. I Umv dos ceniros eais adiantados ua produoae do fractma, *

a unico OA quo s noarointra un "paskiag hotusef maderao, do type norte



Av laranjas desta r giS Sao principalmenBte do typo -Seleeta", qu.

m=atua. autoridades considremn wmr a prognitora 4*'.a abirgton Nevl.*

IjS ISSSS, no Eieaex o do Rio de Janeiro, .onstitue umt oias

Muito Mais %wMr na produc~ao de# a d o o Gonaloe. Ten wa altitude is male

ou aauos 40 mairos. SeBelhax&* & regiia do S Oonal, o nio tam elvaql .

iuffioierrae para Bar rdgiao productora do eaft., Por Bis., aqui tcam .a,

"0* qtuaai desconheoidas a Mosep. Mditerriineo a outras..







A Ieraa4a Pera, umna da awLs tardias, A quasi eoxclusivamnte

eultivyva bosta regime con o fil do exportnSIo pra Argentina. ( A

larama, Poera partearc ao grupo IVa.ela" dos Setadeo Unidoa.)


g Sjr-rnde, no Di-tricto Federal. Jen U met-ros de el6ve bS

apprumiadE iats. Tentstivaa repoetidas para encontrar & Meosea Meditrra-

so rasta soa tera sido infruiferaes provavelaout. d vide a esa ..a.

seor baix a d.wia pra a produ do c. Ref6 Ssta rgiga tarn side deza-

velvido mais reautemrete do que a 4de Nova TI&asS A

As laranjas Bahia e $Seatza todaa as dues varied s do ,.

invoXne# tom sido plajadas agis do quo as variodedas taie t~rdlav* ,46

ver*.o Os pnomwss tea side astabelealdos ca= o. fin do e-p"rtgrao,

espelislrante par a Europa.


gLniara, no F.ELdo 4k SAo ?aulo. oonsmtitue e control do ier

futuro na prolucglo do laranjas 3w Brazil para fisL do, exparjagqeo.

Provavelmente as acham nesta regi&o rAs ou isaos Ua ai.hiC. dl- 1 a-.

Antigmentte era zona de producg&o do crf6, mas gradualmin-'e out& cul .^

esta sendo ,.ban4adoda, e =udaft para outras r,.iiies.a

Consti-o essta um regiio eaplendide. para a producigo dos .

divorseas types de i.-i'anj. AiudA. nd o tern tsido estobeleaido e "pLakiag-

housel", me provavelwaote um ou .ais ser.o brevomente construidase. A

xena est& adito acessivel a*o Porto do Santose, o por isco tm- yrntA*-

para exportags i Argotiza o Eur a.t.


B *. *A lariiju Bahia, aoma so trata a laranja. .'ashingtoa

NavXl, no Brasils, orig-o o ad. oo asdo d Bahla., iabora foai s'et sta.

um doe priwsires a cultivar larwaal do or prodwotor do algpsa d60

moltera variedudes, n tera esido esiabesleide pomarea saa..si .M .






poc aa d iioIU/ Amadurecilawfte

A Jmpooba do amadurecimasnto dus laranjas no Brazil 6 exactaunte

opposta a Opocha do amadureimento da Chliforala 0 Florida. As laranjas

Sealcta e BaMi variodadds do invernw) emagam a amdureeor oam aio, e

cotinuami durnrUt Jumbo, a at6 ea Julho Estes nosa correspondam mis Ou

Bnom a Nwombro, aDeemrbro e Janeiro a* note do Eqadwcr.

0 seguido grpo de laraujas So geralwnte co secidas eomo 'Prea"s 9

so w=it* sawlhanto &s ii*iW #1% VaSieuoias doe MSetWo0 Undoa. Akmdumoeu
duraeto Augusto, Setembro, e Outubro, -e elguma varisdadea oon3rvyeu as-

fructase nes p94 at o toipeo de Nital, ou atS Mais t.ap ...

0 grSpo que maadurece wais esdo, 6 a quo pertece a leixejau Bahia,

6 oespecialmento proprio para exportaggo as Istadas. 4aidos -zurops. S3

b. stants apreciads nas vepublicas a* sul, mae* mua opocha coiioide ,am a

produeUo de fru *tas ma Argeatina. Por is" podes ser *xportLdas apoama

uaa pquea, qamticded da lareujas da ITvwrnam para mercados -d sul.

As lrajus tiurdiam, dto gmpo "Pera", sU o propriaa para exporta4"
term todavia pouco alor para exportaglo &a regiSem ac aorta,
& s republican 0 sul,/om vitu de d* o podr .eoopatir *a prx*e davide

a aior pr9duagoe do fruatas direras, a smo de Laranja emo cautros mais

proaztes.

Spoiywse dois quadzes para dmoianstrar as spochas do mdoiw produagiin

do larsujas a Califo. ia sa Florida, o dados forces tirados doe vo6s 1918

a. 1922, inclusive, dostram clar zte qus duratu o mazes a Jalo a%6 a s

aialdes do Steamba, ha puas larnjauas nos mercados dt Nrte Azariaa.


(Foi ineiutda nosto pouat 0s graphieos tirades do "Bolotim do

Miisteorlo de Agricultiura, Industrie. Comaercia, Anno XIII, :K.S,

do artigo -Exportaqgg do laranjas para. Eova York"n eseripto por

Snr. Folisbe*to C. Camargo.)







A Meo iaditrrasa iw Braoil

Bata proga g m sido rinc atrda o. Breazl h& un, 5 L aSo-0pi proyEcvan Btep

A data do fts introducego es*do dseconhea ic1a; soja ai-to r-aota. 3'
provaTvel quo tiveesi tide iazresao peiooporto do R -o 46 Jamwiro au SSado.,s

e qw a.o diriosse para oaoeaste ods as .oardigfta de alimntagqo ou do pviA

fGos.4misi favoraveis. Actuia&1aem 6 raraajte eJ1ontrada no, Biidw

JaTieiro ou eo Sartos,

Dmoa eow sguido duas oartae (traduogesa), quo eo assgifu, PlOs5

4ois entomologists.s rlais impO .r-es do BrasZ.U Dr, Caoa rl'os ...

Dr. Costa ima. 0 Intituto Biologiso do Defesea Agrilolf tUm feito pesqui-

sis c"idedosas sobre a wes Ibd itt e rrmnwa nas vrias i. a.gas do Rimo do :&aeOL"

* da region expTrtpdere de N!ova Iguaasfi. No ultiim logar duran tentativ

do ma.s do doeis ao -o fei eihada uma ven 6 a moscaj 0 is ao n- aonE

paasad#. Durente o ann fluent. seahurma espeodn f9i sncontreda aaua

cona. A sepuada earta quo dmos *a ssguid&, iidiama qu. um. Tvx sO *

mosca s6 enio)&trom -am e.1 !iitcheryro ca i ital do Estado do Rio de Jea.lwei

front a eidrids do Rio do Jozioiro, nai Baheia da OGanabLr& 0 apmues mIm VWI

na cido dto Ri do Jd n siro.








MINISTERIO DA AGR I C ULTU RA IA

INBDUSTRIA CO8 MEM RCIO

Institute BioJggiAoe 4d Defea ApgriselU

fi 39?

Rio do Janeiro, *a 7 do Abril ft I92


Sar. Dr. P. Hi. Bolfe.


Att+rndaendo a "a peido, inform quoa & r9a das fruntUe

oozthaeida por mosoa do ;vditerraaao, Cerptiis gakiaa. ,(Wied)

tera side encontrada no Brasil nos Estados da. ahl 4a 6 Anas

.ernaoe, do Rio do SaAeiro e S. Puulo.

Infesta muito raramente -iaranjas, sendo uotcvel sua pro-

dill so pelos pecegos, ausixas e fructose do .afoelo, Na Sona.

urban da cidade do Rio do 3aaeiro, (Distrit*r Federal) nao f4

&t hoje eneontrada a moswea do 5ditorrawo* Cemujtjis .aA iA.


S- Saude ratereidafd

(assignada) Carlou a!oreira

Oiroetor.


(#asi5 ads) Costa Liza.
Chafe do $ervig. do Vigilancia Sanitaria Veptal.









ftnaiJstris U ricultuwas.,
dstrifet*ia Ceo.v rzie (Iaobio a a 16 do AbrU, *a -o
....^..^ officio N 77 do Servio do VLg,
Institute a1o6axtQ4D d# do nsit. Biciofico.)
Daaega Agricola



1ia., Sr. Dr. Felisberto Cardoso do Gawiargo.


Stiuda@oes.



ERx additawento so off iio zfi 391 dee ns-lUtuto

axideei ao dr. RalUs, sobre a mosGa do MditerreMot, Us-

VVaMS UG Tease 08 oni. aato que cr "uxiial d igdLUwia So-

aiturUi Vegetal desto Inotltuto asronomar Jeo Alvaro J~udor

wsba 4a elcostrar ao zi tAe de c&Xeeirs na ;t u d8

B",Vidt& on* In iib-eroy ex jaibo enmaho la 4L .4w..






(ABvUig*de ) Carlos arUiya..


CAselptgB-d) .0ofEta Lima
Mhefe do Serwito de V1&-L~a=aca Sajiditarin Vogetal.







Frgrigf Ifiatle

Duramt a. uopoha da Guarra, o Brasil chegau a e-r ma das aaSes

mesis Saioratarte al Ao a naga. maia iameraate-t -a ezppartaELo ..

cmrae gaslde. ).ia sgranas ostajb.oiemeatx frig*;rf$ i IW so Rio do

Jamoiro e outro em Sant. forma comtruidoa coam est tin. SAo

mwdorniasimo a.me corotrucy o apar1iemanto. Ns do BHi d4* 4mwiro, -

cam I nsfriads ou agpleada a swammr appropriada, tran portada por

mie duma passagem subterrawa, sobre ua e tsira, 4iret entf par" -

caimmaras f rigoiUe do vapor. Durntue elgums, ramew da Gukrra, .ferw
fel.000 .40.000-
exportadAa& C* 9 ,04g0 taxela4ao da cunr congelada. A* *'/f caixB

da laranja do. laraulea.s tern sido levadus -por ua -muice o vapor, do Mio .

Jmaitr a B3unoa Airas, Toado parte estas larauijas sAi4 arienmn ..Aa .

as ca xuiraz fri gorifieas aatea do awreia poatas B@O no ai?. :

A wiaioria das fructas inportudai o Brasil, .: ^:adios Uaidou, +

traiap
y&don e grftdativa.mirto distribuidc. itie coaaae.clo. ebatue'. OwaU9iq46a>

pesmal noaportos nao podem deixak de sa6r os ailioreas methodou da .

tratar as fruetao quor sa nwas caiwx-s frogarifiaa4 azo protj.al

contra madanga de t peratura ao trnaferil-ea do va*r ipara 6taawra

trigorifioas deai caev, etc, Todas Gijqort6.g-s as fruatas at o

iaspeocionadaa ao eae a per wsrsesuata.s do 'inivtsrio da ,aAlricul-2.a,.

e sm sua "prwgaio nt podem ar admiLttldas a- psi&. sate serig. -

Bm eside matido durmts ml*w *Ou eaaos dois amosm.


Conlusa $a.

Me 4d emporar qu Brasil qpmrta inwdia:arnasnte graudts

partidaa do le.ranjas para 4o Es-'doAs .Unido. PriBirazn te, a ind.u.r.a

nao est& A uftieisat'ceont. orgmais ada para powder oosmw sem a ]iodag l .;

dw Florida. esa Cawensia. XX IIfLmd9 logar, U& aon&& Va "paukiu5I hme,






o do Si Gongalo, a uniso quo prenitte perparo do fruta para 4p6rta-

U. Lets. Eaea do sembela, t e.m capacidad aposa para duas mi.l caixaa

power dia.

R' do esperar, por6mp, quo. a Teodtrai 1torUuaituru. Board" oueotr

an mie polo qual as a raj.a de Ro Igua.au poosam ter eitrauia imdiata

"oa .areades da Argentina. Ha jauAs do vsi arina qvo a Argentina ton

imar-tadd as fruotas brasil diran a*= o fmmor cuidado 4- insp&cqU, at 6

hotje, paroao quo a mosca is diterrawa nio lei introduzida por Maei.

desse ooanrei. E auito du-iddo que a n doe d iiterran-o pasa ear

introduaaid an, Irgennl a or porrintc-rdio d"a lad'ajas bra3ileirass, 4quead

as po-mares o as propria.as. -I tao a&o ouidadom~a~erie ee aiueaaa. 0 pe*lg

de inineo o da Argoptina para os atudoes Qtuites por mnio do f'.uutau brur

sileiram jpeore oa8 miuii remote.

0 Brail desjoa gosar de. ibardado do exportoar aw laranjas paa 9f

ustados Unidze do 2 do W.o do .12 do Seteombrbo sob cidligaue tuaes iwas

ve4i on ealsoluto sorvir de vohculo a sca do madite.ramo. Amseditams

q04 iAs'* poas samr, zaliando piart 12), DeatruigRo do toduh as pl-ant"

quo sErvol de4 ..Um to a moon do vditerwamao, mwo smws citrloolts.

2). Cow me aior oeguranga. an fructas serlo frigorificadas a temperatuwa

abaixe do 36 gras F. par 22 dias polo awnos.

Zsta x mmiscaR pods om oakncidada qua o .edcrml Horticuitural Board

OnVUe ui etoologista ooEpetente aa Drasail para faser uwa inspeco g5 .

rigor*xsa do servigo o das xadid.& tomadas coitra P. infestagio das fruntas

destimadas a -sxzrtaqo, wom olujEo a maosoca d& maditerrao. .
(aasig~iad ) ., ,, ....... .. P.II.t.?olfs ... .

(asslui, ta ),,.., .C cCamaago
Co8auoss neomada pelo faalstro da, Agrilitumra
40 .arzix.





7-32- 3


As parts maias importantes da minuta do Federal lo-iaultura -

Board que tivemos SW consequiencia P nos;a laissAo &os Estados Unidoa

s&o as seguixte :

"0 Sur 1oxnette foi enyiado ii Argenitiba por exrcesto desejo,

a eonvi4te fo govareo ArgeAtin., pars examinirix X/ a

eituagao das msosoes de fructas"..."e quo slie nKo foi

auturizado a fazer .o.hun reco :iida9[o official.. S

.i nergu i.t..r.i a que deveria" fazer....".sria nauir'i. para

o Srj. .ozo-,tt o dizrr 4u3 dcviar to'-' iridid de dc defes,

contra fruotas provelio-ieis zde n -izoi ;:de fcsas conlincida a

iieoiti da, nmoocas dus 'rustas."

".....o ]Fodi::al ozrtiraltural Board nao item ev ista

prohibir a sentrida da fruits brasileiras ou de qualquer eutr.

pciis ma o objectivo de u.-,. protezcgao commercial a producgi

Norte Araii cana, c que -30 ieo lev-ios a pr:,hibir a arntrada d6

produatos quvmdo Iem perigo de introduete- de pesto1; quo toms

razlo do teer, si per qualquer modo o peide de contaminani.

possa sar eliminada a que-stio sera estudada o roasidernda." # .







769-1926

FEDERAL HiORTIGLbTURAL BOARD


A special meeting of the Board was held Ma*y 20, 19Z6, ay 10 aa. In
the Oftice of the Chairman.

P"-' .--: Doctor iL-rlatt, Ghairman, and I.essrs. Waite i ud 3raf; 2so
Mr. S'ssoer.

The object of -tLhis Mueting was to give a hearing to lbasrs. P. U, Holis
and ?. C. Caaargo, a special ooaimission appointed by the tanister of Agricul-
ture of Brasil to discuss *aih the Board, and, if possible, secure a modifica-
tion of thw ruling excludiag oranges from 3rasil (see Minutes for May 11,
1926). This ooamrissiou had already seen wid diacusued ti, iautetz- 'xitCh the
various anwbers of the Board individuailj. Doctor Rolfs submitted a prepared
states rt describing the qualifications and experience of the imnbera of the
commission, &and t1ie importance of the Brasilian fruit trade. HeU referred to
a trial shipment of ornages -o the .ew York arket ir Decesaoer iJ2, which Wa
reported to be freG from posts; but started tl.ht our embargo made further ship-
ments impossible. 4e referred to ,..r hoz2itte's survey in Argcntiaa in 1935
and s&atcd that o0 iJi *Gz,.ette's recoiaendation to the Argentine authorities,
Argentina established &c quarantine against .irasilian fruits. The Chair-
ian pointed out thut ilr. ioz'nette had boe. sent to Argsntina at the earnest
inviitticn of the Argentine Covernment to maio a -;urvey of fr uit fly con-
ditiouns, and th" ho had not Leenr authorized tc rtnke any ;uerartine recoM-
mendvtione, but that if he was asked by the Argentine authorities what they
should du to .Li rd a nit tlhe ent ry of fruit flie;. it v"Culd hvve been only
natural for !r. !;eznotUe to say that the thing for themto do was to take
quarantine xaasures Kgaiist fruit from oaun: ri's known t.i be infested with
fruit flies.

Doctor Rolls referred to the considerable progress in plant protect-
ion in Brasil dua ng tha, past four years,. -'uvo inspection is maintained in
localities wheri oranges are gZvown for export; regional plant quarantines ame
enforced against cer-tain parts of Brazil vhore Infe-3station is knmoin to occur;
and port .inspotiei is also maintained, i-i refezrTed to a number of shipmenwts
of applos froa the Unitod Stutes which were conderfned on arrival on acm unt
of infestation with -he Sen Jose seale and codling moth. In reply to a
query from the Chairman as to the competency of their inspectors, Doctor
Camazrgo atatid that they were all college maen, soS of tham having European
training add others training in the United "tess in addition to graduate
v:ork in Brazil. Doctor Caraxgo stated that ths field inspection extended
also to iisspection in tihe back yards of housaw. Tr ?raf suggested that
the use of kerosene traps might be Ihelpful in determining the prsence of
fruit flies. Doctor Rolls said that practiclly all the States of Brazil
could gpw citrus but that the oomuorGial onterprise limits itself tolsmaUl
areas-four localities at the present time. These, ho said, he had already
discussed individually with the Board T-ibero. 3 e said that the oranges
grovn just north of the city of Rio are the Tavols ard the Felecta, the
latter also of the Navel type; that the am-tnges grown immediately south
of Rio (Sao Gonjalo) are of the Valencia type wad were the oranges vhioh










foarmrly were export-d to ArgentiB. and that the considerable orange diA-
trict at Li :ir, in the he.ri of the coffe-e country wVvs nearly witegtber
of the Navel type but that this was a nw anterprim and ts. trees wwr
till S~ill.

The Coijmissior had been hopeful that, by means of refrigeration, all
fruit-fly danger from shipments of Brnzilian orw.ue might be removed.
There was ccnrside ruble discussion of the effect of refrigeration n ineeots,
hnd h Chairman referred to the failure of this sethod ia the rase of the
&ion of Suth Africa and in a recent shipment of gtss from the Arg~ntinb.
The Commission stated that they would andertako refriberatioa dxperirnt
la Brrizil with peaches and also with oranges. The Claix-man pointed ut
the necessity of cthcking up all laboratory experiments with experiL,.its
on a commercial scale, and referrred to the difficulty of maintaining a unafrm
tdmpersture throughout a mass of wateriau. Doctor Rolfa referred to the am-
perience he had had in Florida ia shipping fruits and vegetables in rofrig-
orator cars, and sltitd that preooling andproper loading t all. : free
ventilation were absolutely essential. Doctor Camargo stated that he had
wyer found fruit-fly attack in the ::avei type of oreas and thtt 1118
Valencia type of orange was praotiealUy free from the fruit fly and thbat
after many inzwetilonea made in the groves and also of fruit which had drop'"
pd to the ground he had iound only one infestateio. The Chairman was in-
clirad to doubt the general freedom from fruit fly of this orange in Di asi .
except perhaps as to the early crp, and referred to the severe irnfeaittion
of oerripe Val)ncias which he Wad seen in Zp-in last year.. Dutor Iolfa
said that it wvuld be profitable to export the V-,lincia.s to the Rdpublics
to the south t B3rasil oaly during the early season. DeLetor CLwEi'go said
that they used to ship about 200,000 cases to Arg.entina from October 15 to
Deoembar 15 and that after December the ormanges become overripe.

The Chairmaan sugge-ied that the comisasion carry back to Brtasil the
messa6e that we are not putting any qlanantim on Braziliuw fruit or on
fruit from any other foreign country for trade. protection, but only on c ount A
f pests whiab we have a right to fear, and that if they ean shin that .
that risk is elimiiatod by wy snasf it will open present retrietions f, r'*-
conaideruvioa. He suggested M invest i tion from thU s-anapoint of actual
infesta"ioan of fruit au d from the sZi.Ld, oint of control by rdrrigEr. tion,
and expressed a belief that we could cooperate by making a field review in
Brazil at tte proper time. It was thoup'ht tiat the bast time for such ino
vestigation wouid be fm m :.a y to Augut. Doctor Cumargo said that shipments
to thhe Inited Stntes would be made from May 15 to Auguat 15. Ue ci-d that
at the present time it would beiipos&.ible to dhip from aiy other place then
Sao nongalom the only point at which they hev-e a "aukiu, house ready to turn
ou a regular omercial paout

T76 meotiug adjourned at 11:55 a.m.


(Signed) R. C. Althouse

Assistant to the Chirras.
rea cal go.











FEDSSILAL !i" .'?[C:7.^" :L OAP, D

Urea runito espciaL dest cor is3lAo teve iup-r ?r 2-) do TIahio as

10 h1aoaxs no ecrioorio 'o sr. ?re idcnti.

Prein-I-tes: Dr. ;arla t, president a 2r-. V.i:s e e a raf; tamaba

SSnr, Saosoer.

0 fim desta conferencia foi para attsnder ios Si's. P. Rolfs 0

F. C. Cam=rgo, co,-' ..,; espsoial in-umbida pelo ,ar. !4'.tia.3tro da Ari-iu-

tara do BreMil, para discutir now o "YadernI Hortiicultiurl BI rd" e a

poss3ivel, onseguir urw modificaqiie no reg ii--aerto qie excite as lnat as

du Brssii (exru-inrr as miiwuas de llde Rio, 1926). Rsti comariasLo teve

anteriormente um entandimenPo, individuai coam varioa merni.bos deste em-

zalho. Dr. Rolifs apraqentou itma delaraqe desorevErndc ai qufliAd'des a

maemros de missed, e sobre a imeportancia do conercieo b-'sileiro de

fruatas. ase s referiu a um ova'igientt experimez sl de I ranja

para NIova York, em desembro e 1922, quo foi examiiAiao e verificado lUvr

do pragaz; mas declarou que e nossa prohibicNo veio btedi novaea remsas*,

SEll se rforiutt ao tr&balho do Sr. goenette r Artger.tiira em 1925

deelarou que deyido uo ivcoicer.d9QSft do Snr. Mznet'te, s atuturidade

argaenti.mas, esi paix prohibiu a entrada de fruotas brasilUeiras. 0 Sf,.

Prusidente deelarou que o Snr. .1ozaette fo-. eazviado & Arg7,.tjiaa por

ermeste dsejo., a omnvite do gowm o Argenttijo paxa exaaiawr a situation

daEosaa do fructas, 0 quc eU e o foi autoridJo a fszer enhua

roeeomeedlago affiaisl qu.ito a iadida ch oliibitivas, 4as 3i au at xaw

idadas argentinaa prgnzara ao 3nir, oqnotts, o q dctveriam faser

p'*ra evitar a intim ducao dios mosca dnj frucsba, soria natural para a

mar. LU"etie dizer 4' o ueo eUeos deviair fe-ar, seria tar wdideaw








do 4o&.: a cf trad C r=. 2 r. I a de p, ie aIlnd fease conBhiida a

exatoncja da;cz ; sces it frtvx.

$1 Dr. '
fAto wtzTs 'ltihonr. r-titro nines no aentido do defeas anowtaria rogettl.
"**r4.. 0 o govemo u.rne 5q'o qc'x',o doi paves do endse as fru w mdo4 ozpaofrlmAi

a proflbigio de tnia:borti' n* das 6e pbnas em dotendm a oc&aUtadoe

no Drasfl 6 pntiioa corirrrte mtde cortu prags asfsio ctdnsio a uispsoegL@ 0

do portoas tanut0 prgt iesda. SUe so roie riu a oa3B to Waaentod

provenitutas does. ot Unidoe cje qu o for=aondermnadoa uliogada dovido

estamrezIrt-Aas pola "Cochoiiln do Silo Jo'j'oC& Oyd4anaj g pcwn aw

-m respects a um 'crzwts do ?restdstet sobre a coqaotouoi& doa iaSsppoLois*,

Dr* Ctr-nro doeclarou todog ellas *ro 1b rmada *a fasolaa A* Agriaw Itufar

rlgwmts aim npeflsctla eJquirida xuns o non P;ruloa Uaixoa w4 cdigf&e

ao tnitte1 d& tnloa3 "rrsi'RI-ras. 0 trw Euiaargwo deo s quo 4 larviqu

do3 i-'Tc.-so r-rteolr. tirrlva o *En do quintass dnaa casa. zV 4rr4

3usorii; a Aiot. tie que o oirer.V does snoar.Toea oa lZawa4aei 40 keoroass

pa -alt r4x-dhir as swsas das trustee, peforiea ser uote9 nos trabalbos ft

iwr8oofo doatirmrr qumito esta pr*aa. 4r. r'Xt! a (Wilarou qoi a Zsrar-

joint 4 int a planta eoan em qutsi todos os e.it'Aioo do Braszi* nas quo at

cmlturms orgirzaalw sob e patet do virtt oemnrcial a* ti48WlJas a

peqUenas aWreas, $ ndo quatre losi4tda4* *a zo &ofcuuZIJ-.o '.o a3S ell*

tfirmoz, 3& ter discutAda -tnd*i aiiw aat Co a05 rw3 do CAse3ao,

EUo deolarou as vprxed! iJe do LBarEnas :u1ivuadwa so norte de aid*&

do RSi do Janeiro sae $uhiea a ulactwov use as ltlta itiaa .o (do type Vii;

4qua as lmaSM, eult-'ivtEdre 1O fee aL., Ct& vU!.2e 12 o RIo Qto Zu;r.vnlo), lESby

Ao typo "Valsncis, rcxrie &s qus aso cxportiu para a eiBntiaaw 0e quo a

grinde. sitw on Linxira, do cultua d r1,ranja, no nentro da sona do *af$ ,

eaa qitus ooqletse ate do typo r1s 4,*, a ,uo frmaa eulturas novas e as
pbctas 4i-nt MUitO p&quo"sm.








A CaisewAuso brvoll;trn tUn&a c:-sruia i. < ypot m*I* da rtgorftin."

$o todo p0144 du i:tir.diuci;4 das niwisorsrezswutos do mrttea

braiYlc*'i .w.i Loon renzvido. fouva co i4.fdoa rLr.Ti dtxortsb vobe @8

offtotos do ntrlirkriri,'94& oobn. ou s
amforitu a* tnsUO-GO'o a=t9todo f torlw i'aL&-ama UzL;ZDJ do Sul aa

Sfloa, i nun ram c;rt.: o xr:C ; do uvas dua LxA utjaui. A sBcsaseau

&~at. flZ cue t'-t^r. a t.seu catrgos t.pica~ju ?.a ceIrigor'iticcgio sn

l a3l. p o e 7'.: 0 3 "4'.:cao4t fezt var a r:*Ic' .&

dc oou.bbo-/cr as dr;4vi01w1:4 *o tGbo3Wtrilo oma ec..>le4:.-aS 0s CzrBiTi-

xarton ooix&zrc2.se -t Truzw.., sldoo a.i ,rrlau sb'ta iiCfuide40

4e MaaMteagiao 4do =3 ot:.-:.- return Uioram) SOOn) a euwsa tdac. Dr.& ilolfi

ueltrtmu a nau gX^srlenQla an FlVytr sobro o vaapocto do v..cju i3-

SumoB an ear-ns frtgorificac,. uiclnrau t riE ?8asv54so tie "prucoo?^* 0

proprit rthodc do c
ciroul"aso do frio era nbaolu-iQrLv nto oswanclial. 3 %Ww CwamrPo d4.a0sa

qtw nm-uza vzaoontrou uwmi :,tr&1IP, ao typo navl. c.0,004% pai W aOa2S df

fruottea v quo s do typo VJieanW. Or=l -rLA caUs-itL XvrE.6 Ue. .sga, qoe

depet
*hN, alley
os ].Xarc~4as 4o *yp vylpm]SCU p L ar liwm da, pnal no flrteUt

ts9o ^r, vita o Ets.tam j.ntenao i.ss s yna rrjindro aoffn ia lopwalBa,

Wa trjy; peft19.6, COAfQn Wta. obwmlufgaO liuliTidwiaX )Nw armo psasasi.

Dr, ?aif3 Coolant quo cor' vantajouc oapoarthr as Ulranjts 4 typ

va4O1eZ 3Ua as I opubliier aa Stu 10o Sr-il. uo Coringtt Os a 3cgfb. Dr*

Cew-rro dcoltron qua 0 3irrmifl sxportmnva r cta do S(C*XO catras do

l'arajz part a Arrittua entvse 25 ft 0utubro IS do 9Osestn e 0qf

ftp*4. do 4S9Stn* as Ifircjnjns *tzR=ar949 ma dafa&B





-2-f


0 Snra Pnmneato smaMutm q a ooauianaol Iswunie pae o BrausJ

a ww oUI "Petervl :forniculturat .Lif' U z)Lad na eax ca via4ir pro4mLr

a 0rur\4ia do fruntas bravilaras a do quaicuar oauTre paa oum o ?bjo14n

d o a um ntea go ooawrotai a pratwodu liowta wiistaca* c; 6 ai"M

Zavadoc, a prottbMr a enrtna do. 9raoductkA quanit am perXgo do tr.ocLll w, @

daooztes quo. 'eam raa~om do tnuerl v ai por qitwuaysr mdoa o p 4r.^p dt

5ont^~.aqioi-.a pssaw ser eJ542a40 qtuatih se-r& *tudrae eeouuider4Aft.

S do segvrlr qu a o"lnLturic t 4c rl'aulLr;a 'iswe iuaatigar- uabre a

nt~o de i/!Oe.'tCt:l'O
o tueo o "Yetear'.I ibdit~tural Boan'"g, 'rea reu Wi-io do penust roet ea.

vA*.pevs fewsueo naia vi ,tgrg do iS. ,ecin k cacuma# ia tovqpt oDar-

tu.iao Fat o' ac'- do quo o islh&ur toirpo ,--ia' nf LR SmLwS't;z $~O srE

U4 -.Ita a &tgoqao. '3 it4 Gtamago kWseLwow quo aQ G&xrJ'f atc dc 1w rpm-

Jae do BamrnU S. A'5dou iaiuo s dl .aaia

a. Ii dOt Ag&v3to. f.*lu dueiltwou qt pr ys41tOWirm's gsa:a trosszivel ta~nrc'

ear X3i"" doit tqia 4 quat r *3)tL't M IEir (p Oia cl ttc*a bra 2a

ongalo. a oiBri.o aocmtro '=--au a paskt Ua 5 ?5 c huse4t *n;

c'i~iUcaas 4e IjwrEnprrr frtA43a ?:--.r, ^.g.OrL.. yD.o



A cmkroia tor..-tiino CA fl horra o S55 Jiinutut.o,





;,zuaitcurte .o ?re sit!:.r.tc.








lioa Ptuia Coniegur o !,reado de Nova *ork Para as

Larnjani Btasieirats


1). Realiaar noves investigags., o mais perfeitos possivoisp sobre

os effeitos de frigorificaggo aos dijffrsntas etutardos da xosoa do tedit'-

ezraneo, em codigases normaes do exportago.


2). Tamer as a didas as mais exergicaa coia o fim do elimiarar a

mosca do tdit.eanem o nas regibs em que as fructas sao oultivadas para

e8port-ago. Chagaremos ropidamento a este fim W;4'i(W%% doatruindo todas

as plants hoaspitaleiras da praga. As laraujas passadas sao muito Dais

proeuradas polaes imoscas, assim *boia fructa pasoeada e ss naidap aalig

deverao soar panhads e enterradas profunda inte.


3). Proourar obter fauctas do prinoira qualidade, pe..:a o que ser&

precise empregar nzthodos racioaaes de poda e tratos culturaes. Sera

tambem neneesario o emprego das machinas pulverisadores para o combat*

das cochonilh"s e malanose, de rande irmportzmcia sorh ta mboem a lavagma

poli-nento e class7ificag-o dca fructas ants do se OU *c-ichuoi.., n3o.


4). eaclizar o combat biologico e procurar i-paortas uovos parasitosa

da miouca.


5). T-na.r ainda mrwiz officisnte, eats rigoroso o servijo de inspeco

do oxpoitagio do fruxtes. V' born lembrar quea un =iao carregnmeino de

fructas infestadas poder& acarreLar a prohibiglio defiiitiva dos maroado*

que tantos eamnno leawmaos para oonquistar.

0 governo Norte Aericano nRo toea ainda oste servigo officialawnto

organizalo o st& continumnuote 5ia period do perder excllentes isreades

divide a aage de *xportadores doehonestos.








0 Federal Horticultural Board nos deelarou -em toda sinceridade

quo egtSa proraptos a modificar o su regunawita sobre a prohibigao de im-

porta go de larsnjas do Brasil um ves que a frucita nAo w nha a coasttuir

wum vehisulo dt prapa perigosoa.


6). 7uando a Ministorio da AgriIultura julgar quo em realidade,

alguns doe seus sentoru citrieolraas estiverem complotaiate liTme da mosca

do L'edi;*rreeso, e outras pragas perigozs, recomeieoas que o Coverno

Breasileiro sige. o exemplo de. Hespanha e A'c:piiLlna 9 pepa a Secreta.ts-1

da Agri ultura dos Estpdoe UBidoB, a vinda do um dos oom rep zentmte-

do federall Uorituelutral BoDord. Lzte conseiho nos declarou quo teriam

grande prazr de enviar ua do seus repro cntanes ao Brmsil, loge quo

o IMinisteri da AgriculLuf. do Brasil julgue acertao.








Damos em seguida umx- copia das refeoreneias & liter-..tura corn Tupwito

das moseas damninhas fs fructas, existentes no Drasio. Pela gentileza

da; Inectores do 'T"Federal Horticultural Board", fomos penaittix fazr sopia

desta colle@ o de rofefeencias, que- cansiste de 44 cartoes, coupilada 'Cro

muito trabalhb, e coante raferencias s melhores autoridadas bmaiai ras

e estrangeiras sobra as mioeaas des fruct-as no BrasL.


Anqastre ha btjgrigat
1. Em araga Bezsi,M.g Oharas e {uintaas, Vol 19, N2 5, May 15, 191. p.372#
2. Fm araga, ?Psidiuim aaa, aozzi, '/,lac.i. e .uijntjBe3, S, Ptulo, XIX
N2 5t 'Ay 19i9i pp 372-374.
3. MI Psidium guajava, Beazzi, Bull. Lab. Zool. Fortici, 1919, p. 10,
(described as new sr.ed e08.)

Alastrephea frateroulas, Wied.
1. Em marwllo, wille, j., Zeirschrift fur angewendte, 1-tnUo109a Berlin,
Band XI left3 3, Dec. 1925, p. 4-23. .
2. P a6. T on Sh--, Lcvl ta Agi cola He 70, 1o(1, p 130. (sun
espeoie quo muito oMnaun na goiaba, a i& Juaotrepha (Trypeta)
frterculus 'id., qu talibejm vive no tocido a10e das fructWa n&c
mP-durzs do cafeeiro. "')
3. Stone and poaw fruits, etc $Baker, Quaintznce, et eL, Ma., "Lre IBo-
tant Insect Pests of Fruits and Vegetables. .
4. Kaki(fliaspyrus isp ), citrus, Psidium guajava, Baker, ;aiatoBee et a.,
Unpublished manuscript, ,"ors EImportant LM/seet Pfsts .of
Fruits and Vegeatebles.,"
5. AiMixal 'oiuba, i:aki, Passiflora, pere, pecego, Lima0 Dr. A. da Costa,
Archlvos da 3scolaSuperior de Agricultura. ; .dicina Ve-terinaria,
Vol. VI, nos 112, 9. 200, Dec, 1922.
6. Paidium guayaa, Keilin & Picado, Bul. Sai, de Yrence et Belgique, XLVIII,
Oct 25, 1920, P. 423.
7. Psidium guayyas, guagava raddi, e coffao, Compere, "th Bul St, GoM. ilort.
Cal. I, (1921) p. 273 (Letter of yon Thering,)
8. Awixa do .Jrapo (Triobotrya ja. rnica, Loussbury, Jr. Dept. .--A,Ga Ca Good
Hope, 27, ct. 1905, p. 457-469.
9. Pitangas, pitombae, giaabas, cajas, umhus, Anana reticulata (Custard Apple),
Lomunsbury, Jr. Dept. Agr,- Gap Good Hopet 2,, Sept 05o,.,;
p. 317. .:. ,









Arastra Xuan&A Loew.


1. Citrus,


Psidium Gua Java, Lti-..ifers biica (Maaga), Quaintauce, Baker, et
al., (unpublishad ims.)s,' "ors important Foreign Insect Pests
of Fruits and Veatables."


2. Gat6, Picado I. C., (Collegio de Senoritas), 3osta hica, Seria A, N2 2#
19S0, p. 10.

3. Psidium guayava, Kiliu e Picr4o, Bul. Sci. do Frsae,et Beigique, XLVIII,
4, Oct 25, 1920, p. 423.

4. 4aranjas, e kaki, etc., Compors, th. Bul. St. Com. Gort. Cal. I, (L912, p.
726.)

5. Fr-ctag, Compere, Jr. Agr., W. Aim. X (Aug 15, 1904,) p. 70. "Reared from
fmuit ollected Bahia, Brasil."


Apastjepha sorpentiga, 'fied.

1. imu3ipa, sapodilla, papsa amesi-cna., Quaint'tmews Baker, at &1., unpublish-ei
mansuacriptv "Uore Import;ait 7origre i nsect Pests of Truits and
Vegtebables "

2. Chrysophyllum or iito, Lueuma soinitaw Vuamea amriemap, WIumops corlacea.,
Achras sapota, Limao., A. da Costa, Archl vos da Escola Superior
de Agriculture e Lrdicina Veterinarial, Vol Vi., N2S I & 2,
Dec. 1922, P. 201.

3. luitas fractas, Bezzis, M., Boll, Lab Zool Portici, XIII, p. 7 (1919).

4. Moaa aarienma&, Achras sapota, Lucuma cainito t 5imusaps coriacea. Luts
da Costa Lima, "-%m. Inst. Osweldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro,
V, N9 1, (1908), p. 4-16, 2 p1.

5. lbemas fructas am 1'1 4, Da Costa Liia, :.. nthly Bull Agric. iiaell. e P1.
Di., RoMiS, VTI, T2 9, Sept 1916, p 1390. (Abstreat froa Bol.
taiisterio Agricultura Industria o Oomsrcioa, Rio do Janeiroe,
A Rev. ApPl'd Erat Mer. # A. V. V., n. 3, 133, 1917.

6. Achras sapota. MUill. Broteria, Braga, XIII, Na 1I, lot Feb, 1915,
pp. 52-54. (Rev. Appl-d Fat., mr A Ill, 7, p 387.


Amua magfti %.
1. Psidium guajeaw (goiab.), Collevted by Lee Piser, Oct 13, 1923, near
Pcrto Velho, brasil. *me from .0, X, Oeurtey, date, TO.
26, 1923.






3q


1. Santa Anm 4isttrict, region of Sio Paulo.., doznette, G. F., Rpot of
fruAt fly survey iu Agpxtima uitk brief saurvy* i' ChilU
and Perus, Jau-pr.j, 19-25, p 29.

2. Az3ixn, laranja, marmlo, pet.go., ;ip L, J., Zeitsehrift fur angewandt
Entotiologia, Berlin, Band xi, Heft 5, Des*. 1925, p. 423.

3. Divereas fruetasn, Quaixaneea, Baker, et &al unpuilisbtd mmarscipt, "MIro
UaVEportakt Forwiga Inseet Pests of Frk&its and yegetab1ooa

4. Ansixos, laranjas, peaego,- Limia, A. da Costa, Archivoes da Eseola priorr de
Agrieultura e l.e dia'na VeturL-aria, Vol 7I NIs 1 0 2, DsO 192,-
200. .

5. Poegos, uaalntaweg, A. L., Cir 160 Bar of Enat., 1912, p. 15, Statenmnt
by lWLounsbury.

6, Citrus simnsis (laranja), Coumpre, Ath. Bul. GCom. Horto. Cal. I, 1912P pp
710-729.

7. Coffer, sw (oaf&), Lounsbury, Rept Gov. Xta. C. G. H. for 1905 (1906), p
9S, 99. .

8, Amygdalus persica (poaego) Ci-tria aiuusis (leranjas), trieb-trya japoaiea,
Prwas sp-p.,(aioiza. do Jpso), ?icuV caj~ (M _fo S)., Lounsbury,
AgV* Tour.* De4p" Agr. Capr 6 od Hope 279 Oct 1305, ppj.457-469.


DaeML beolor
Laruesjas Kaki., Cempere, M o. Bul. Cal. St. 3 Hort. Con.: v, K9 18, 1912, p* 726.



Ljansae, kEki.p Cosmpere, Ti. DiB. Cal. St. Short. Cox* v. I, ni 10, 1l12, p*726.



Larmajas, kaki, coaere, th. Buia. St,. Co. Hort, Ccl I.(112) p. 726,*

teM&4r mjS (See A-astrpha serpentias..)

Laraijas p kauki, qm perj.th. oul. Si CoMr, Hort, uCal Ih W912) g, P 726.

ot o& curid: Gorgt*

Carica papaya (Haaift), Kr ab e Yotheres Jr, Agrv Re search# Vol II, NQ 6_ 1914.





3-s


Fruit Fly

1. Paltaa, Annona cerhimola (coriioye) :rbAnrifera indioa (amga), Decree

of Argentina Prohibiting the riaortaion of fruit fro all F.origg
Countries in which the fruit fly exists.

2, Same reference, especially orange (Citrus sinensia.)

3. Citrus sp. (laranjas), --acogoo, goiabas, aragas, C'-Lacaras e Quinttes,

Vol 19j N2 31, Tay 15, 1919, p. 70,.

Lo1cohea pasua, 3Qz~.

"Bad on maiy fruits", Quir tanie, Baker, et vl., unpublished maenuszript,

",Uro Ipor-Lant Focreign Insect eats of Fruitsind Vegaabls."

5rpihe~a bi.'enga% (/.f- // Yrypetu biaeriata Loew ? ) Loew

1. Ver/inia sp, Cou-orX, 'th. Bul. St. Gccii NIoatl Cal I, (19V2), p. 723.
(In letter from Von iiu.r:i.)

2. Vernonia, Lounsbury, Air. Jr. 'ept. Agr. Gatipe God, Hooe, 27, (Oct. 1905)5
p. 457.














Taseos Nooivos Intereoptados Pelos IuSpotowes do

Federal Hortiultur.l Board.


Para evitar a introduc go de insects msle9tls

nocivas as plants ou prodwtos aricolas, mantom o Federal Horti-

eultural Board um grande namiro do inapectores. UltIaUmente ao;

porto de Nova York inoo ntrra 14 4d seus inspset*iw.

0 servigo quo ?restam ostes inspectorea peed wr bom

avaliado, examinando-se as suas fiehas do interoepsOea. Neos amhivs

de Washington, encontramos notas 4d 606 intergaV5es e m matorlas

provientents do Brasil, unicameite na part que as efa ea a.

insactos, e ontra es annos do 1914 a 1926.

7ntrac os irsectos interoeptados, nos I.mbraas doe ter

vista nota da terrivel largata rosada do algodo..














GON LUSOE S


1). Deve ser clarewnte coroprhendido que a unica raz o

d6 prohibirrw da iaportzg.z das larawjas brisileiras, bassa-so na

possailidiAde desso s Xferwuijas puJere ijifester os pomnares note wric Soe

iur-rdo pudaermos co eweir o "Federal HoIrfticulturnl Board", quo aa

impqortago de noassas laranjas nao havorh possibilid-zado, ea a i-;-ul.Ao, do

eonduzir ino3tos vivas de Goratiltis cuiitata ou outras pra,,tas neri-ogase

a importagKo dao laranja: do Brasil sor. per-Aitida. e o ra.l W. en-to do

Federal Horticultural Lroard ser modifiaado.


Z). Esta ooti-aisslo tao di diztinc9B-o do poder exOiaia3jr tQd4a

*s trubalhos originals do Fedoruil HoliJculturul Board. Tudo nos foi post,*

a disposillo do imodo quo pudessaro fImr as inyestigage as Mias aoo-

pltas, 0 DUiissuamo S cretario da Agricultura declarou defintivaimnte

qus nenhu3x d(liberago seria tomada sem que fosse determinada pelo Federal

Horticultural Boird.*


3). Nossa esperanga no establelacim'nto da imuu -rrnds expoxtagse

do fruotas o leguis basea-ze no desenvolvimsnto scientifioo da. indust:ia,

do modo que poustmo *rodusir a* igualdad ou em melhores crdigoos do quo

qualquer outrO paist e ito nao somant3 no nosso 1oodo de paar Maas no

pessaEnto do nosaos proprios competitors.














4). Finalmeantd:

De-ejvmos agradecer a fraaqueza e ooasideoraiio per quoe noo

f'mios attendidos polo Secretaiid da Agrioultura doe Eztados Unidas-

o D)r. am. J.rd.-ir>e e todosos seu- aaxiliaes corna quaw tiveos de

tratar.

Deste ea5S;o cu-1pr.abant.) do devsr, lovatRaos eba 4Lto noaao

reoemecimiento aos waibros do Cooaelio do Federal Hlorticulturai

Board $ru;:o de sci6ntift.,s uotcre.lsw os quaes oca sus exiperienoia

se ab-tuaruam a ju--tiq e ao direito, gui.dos auiuaapn-ae pplas fats

eoieaSIiificos.

Queiru roceber, Snr. 1.nistro, nosos f6.ru.Iecliat Ls t aoo i

siaeeros gela eonsiderag&o e gentileza com quo 7c. E;ic.. nos ten

(iaivttgado.






.. .... << < *.'., ii

^ * ** *9 *.i A ^.^^'A ,












lUo t Jtair

28 CIO JA=110. I~


2ZxmQ Sar

LDr. -**ii^l t- tm.r -u '.'.L-. 1. Ahni~iaia, 2*. a,** ;Liniatr ta AgflcdA~ura,

t:.*(* dni Agtcntwnivx',

Vir- f *"! au vt jue4'l

'flytt tr^oysr ti0ytt. f.**i.

;';->o S~ifagacti'ttf a z coaiui4aao nuiaaaia. eor?

V. :,;;<3i., iS quo viaj'AUOn 035 t;-3 l'saidas 44 Lialaila

do :1iar~i, pa{ra t.water do o aitr aa dic
qu.cfttk..*' a 6f:Qm-d. e,.. l?;tuaj.-.ts OfluilSUAJLvi 4a0 4xtade

6as'rte tAflC.B tfiO3&S eji 7* pn::;.->vu1l.

0 S~r..r Ui*.u .r?;o ftpvoz-sutf; 4 W-4A6. tedrde4 giirrr.-rlkwtnto

citL t.icio aa vtui'na dslo Ut- 'Jha do OCti&.

t ^ztndc oanilaza oom quo toaws wabbidio ivts

Cono~it2. LM&.0I;.i e d ); l 1 a",3 ao.3.rt e

OJ0t13 tido i)OuaaC 1og1.^'ro~1 7-4 ) D *rua4l. A-unsm &tnntjvldoa

zoud* t'c`lid:.e pare nosen



Ssaa Vltt3.


Aiig~ e esute


*W*eO'**9@9t* 'W Jg *'Jto.-AsW


(",. R 3og. arstveutrio













Designados por V. Excia para um intendimsnt director coM o

Dipartaanto do Agricultura em 'Jashington sobre a probibiggo de

aqortagR. do d fruct.s brasileiras eambvrcemos cor destinO & NLwm

York, no dir 18 do Abril, poXo Vaper "Vendyek".

Tocando o vapor a 1lha inglwez Trnidadv no dia 228,

aprov itaime a opport nidads para visitor o "Imperial College of

Tropical A&riov.lL--'", a eirxo do Snr. Iallou velho ai %o do4

oehf4 dteyts ai o P2rc'e'orrrios os Ifborr--torios esiufW

deai3 depaadeoeius de e, iino e puaquizs. "Oussu o Collagio unma

maxi-tiGe usina de 4wnucar, t
foi foraaoido V*ajiui-36e AeoS industries ine sae. Tud4o

R& 3ai.a.so nM. ifiice iLpr68.i> p'"incip3J. a,?'e o Se u Gpo Doceute.

Zm opana di .r* Bilou visittmes tmabom e. Em -tzTo :,>oer.mBntal1

estavolocimuto que sG fledica princilaLm;rnte ao iertis do propaga.-

jio le pliti pau yw veudaL#- seode i nisio not&avf o in-ress quo

toma= pa.la qropagZ4ao do ccf6.

mDuao a oiujitka. umas yiatas do referido teloeliwjnto.









No dia imsadiato, o 29, vioit2,rdos Ys"rb. daos"&, Oo eaes nos

dirigiemos d.zwti.e% n a .s 'ifqo Agronoimio, tsendo o 3Str. Director



vifita, 0 ciWpo dLf;3- da s3a unp 1..5 !jloBtr-o3, nort-do-aa entire

o was8o trabaiios, o & hoa rinL.-.o s cmsir, tri bnaLhp este qua tern Be 1

brxiarwo a pequean& i.1ha. JuriLkaKs u=a Vi3ta do parte das milhares do

peq~enua mudes de caran. do ansfmcr nrseids de seiaattea verdadeiras.


kta-G-, v~reAf t na Ie -paz a
em bar'bados.


dc laCmn da Asimucar


Por taspeoial ;e'iilexa, aO" fwos forveicidaa, puxa. qpmhara voitd
.7
Cau m do asucO r do senate, inolui.ado enro oU.ls a amisaa B. .H,

i')-l, que A hbje eCnLiderada- um.- das rsaluyet Catnta do adundo., Eeguii4o

opir ao do to ahicoa da propria al aqi'o Ai.runowio, do cuba, Ad o .tre

duas vairedideu sao Sa UL56 Ba 632.







Tanio en Barbados e mo em Truidade tivwmos. a felicidade 6* veT

as "Casai Jvaioa" as plena flor scs icla. Jmte- pbotographia
de um IV" dessa wbllissima arvaye, eom aer ea 4d dois metros 4d

coWEpri=zxto, coberto com floors _d um tor raeo celare, 0 aepecto

muitisaoimo delcudo. Obtivemos boa quanatidade da sementes.










5 4o leao, shegamios oa Hova York com dois dias d e atrato.


6 da t ,siaiixoria o aJpr'ch. nt~i do Dep rtutfiente do Agricultura do*

0s,,tdos tUnidoi, SnIr. X, P. ?.',os. e oombiirjms aobre a. remmsea do,

platma dos Eatpdoi I'idoa poara a Bnrasil.


7 do rio, Claegaios em lachixgtont Visitaaos o Dr. W. A. Ortom,

Director do "" url'kztion ;or Tro'iesi Plert PasearcH"v ilm dos antigou

moe mbss do Fedor-,,l Hor'tio+ l-Lsaral Board, e procurams obtsar infonrmgs

sobre o modo riai: r?.-iAdo ',i revolver a questao que nos foi confiada.

-Vis-.ta.o:-, a '.,.,i'M xttaea^ onde )-a racfLcou o Dr. ',onaalvas3 3w.retari

do n1'. Tlibaixudor.

!araoriOs ura entrevista coma o Dr. 1,zrlatt Prosidente do Fedeha

Hortic ultu r.l B board. -


8 do va;. P roeurawmo a Sar. SteveBnon, Director do sorvigo d.

intr .duago e distribuirlo do planted tropicaes. Tivemos ura co.nferen-

oia oom a Sr, b Seae, Chef, de todo serving do iatiodtea o 6 distribuija

de plaatas no Departaainto de Agricultura.

Evivamos oeom o Dr. 0-allmway, enseirogdo do serving de produago

-ie plauta, enteiramente isentfA de mo sii:s ou insoctos para

di~triLbuigie.

Pr.areaso pe.A t-arde, Dr, earlatt, oonfor=a entrevista marmeala

un:teriorwwkite, e asei m inicip-mos & di usase da. qusatao quo no fe-

Aooi ada .

A~Aj tzUiO noses oert4 do apresentagrio da Embaixada, ac Snr.

Duaiopi As3i.8~Gi~at '4oXraUi@o -d Agricultura, na auaenoia do Sar,-.
SecrsetarIo 4e Wushtigon.

4.ft VI4o dumings.


43








10 de Uhaio. Continuamos a cnferencia oom o Dr. -.arlatt, Presidente do
f
Federal Ilorticultural 3oards sb entlo vieo=ais a saber quo a Colonia do

Cabo, Sul da Africa, havia realisado alguaas experiancias recentes sobre

acq9o da frigorifical.o contra as moscas das fructas8, sa insuccesso.

Soubemos tamiaem quo a :asp-lia tentou usar a frigorifioagio om4 *w aio

de exportar suas vras, todavia# sem resu!tado.

Visitamos o Dr. E. F. Smiths, emerito Pathologiata Vegeita.

Na manma tard, visitamos Snr. Sassoor, A#W 4rnotaloggista nbofr

do Federal 4iorticultureal Board.

Visitnamos tadA!m o Snr. H. iL. Sanford, Chafe dos Inspoetores do

federal Hiorticultural Board, e iniciawmos a copia da bihbliogrnphia sobre as

moscas dae fructas no Brasil. Estao bibliograplia 6 muitas vewes major

do quoepoderiamos consegtir no Brasil.


11 do aioo. Coaplntawoes a copia bibliographia sobre as moscas das fructas

do Brasil*. xcjinsimos teiabem as fichas sobre os hnsactos inierceptados

nobro prodducto agricolas provanieGnta do Brasil. 0 numaro total de- Aas

interce3c7'3s foi 616. Solicitamos do Snr. Soott* Director do ;useu do Federal

Hoetioulttral Board, elg09as photo-raphias illustrando o trabelho de

inopesccqo.

2 doe Maio. Confersnciamos com o Dr. Howard, o iLlustrado Shafe do

Departamernto doe iitomaloia, e sou Assisteate o Jr. ':uaiitunce. A tards

fomoa a.stuwas do Plantas '-ropicasa do Departam nto de Agricultura, para

estudear o+thodou emregados para breeding do eiatrs, e teaimbera com o fiin

d obteor o maior nuzaro de espocies ou variedndea desaa familiade plntas.


13 de laio. Proc,-io]iu o a. graadas, Chafe do Servigo do Caima d.

Assucar e especialista em moial4a da cam&a, Obtivemes inform9ages muito

valiosas sobre o asuuuw-Lu. A tarde proouramaoe o Dr Lack, o entomloogistj






quem em Hawaii reaULzou as experiencias aobre a aeelo do trio Ma

destruig&o dos diversos astados da Mosca do iYeditoerraneo. Podimos

informaaes eals detalhadas sobre es othodou por llo e.;ra ados, nas varias

opera9&es.


14 do ?aio. Visitamos novamroute o Snr. Stevenson, pvra combinar ulios para

introduoglo do plants.

Procuramos Dr. Iier, qued esth interessado no levantemento do mappes

das molostias das pluatas. 8le doseja estudars a situagae no Brasil.

Visitamos em seguida o Br. ( -rar CGhefe do Servilo do uma. do

Dop-rtawmnto da Agricultura, coB o fin do saber onde poderiamog eonsegulr

saesntes de fume do typo "Virginia".

Proouramos novaamente o Snr. Sasseor, para obter E.is inf ;rmaqes

sobre o assiupo de moscas de fructas.

Eativemas do novo corn o Dr. -randes, o especialista em caan, do assucar.


15 do llaio. iocurjnoy o '"nr. Doyle, ospecialistr. e almgodho, a fim do

ob;er informBagbs sobre as -iIhorea vwrladdeas Ae algodo.

Estivemou com o SecrLtario da Aoricultura, Dr, Jardixo, que acabava do

hegar dumW viagem ao sial dos 3siados Unldosa dscutimos a questgo.

0 Snr. Jardin.g, logo ao inicio da conforeneia declarvu quo a quest~o

h via do wr resolvida intoirinente polo Federal Horticulturd. Board, a quo

S lle estaria do pieno accord cam o que aquelle gonselho determinrsse,

Proouramos o Snr. '-e aovsr, Agrostologista do Departaento do Agricultural,

quo ns pediu infornatgo &obre qual seria a melhor ,rmnna pare usar mum

e.ampo de "golf", no Rio de JTruieiro,

Vol-taxos is :.stufEo do Plantas Tropicez, e p!honoraphmwos uma dap

primiraris propagag~es da laranja Bahia, introduxidas nes ?stedos Unidos.








































Photographia da laranjeira quo nos referlmos acigia.


16 do *iaIo Doaigo.

17 de 3ao. Tivemos um oofcrecia special oom o kJjor Atems

aum do e mAbos do Conselbe do "Towdation of Tropieul Pleat Rosearch"

(Fundaa&o para Pesquia As Plaunas Tropiea9e). .obr* a quesftfo
foi
florestal no Brasil. 0 Msajor Ahor= f' o fundador ireoi .or durmt ..
/
quiae mioaw de EewoLa Suprlor 4t Fo1 i'./ .llvio.ultura m fLhas

Phiflipiuaau

Por *apeial oonvito, visltams laboratories do Dep&rta.emto do

Agricultura para fabriaagio de fitas agr-Uiolas eCoSOLaa para Cir6,




-Ji>


Esite departanouto fez prssar urna W4 fitg tirada por occasion

do Congress Pan-Anricano de Estradas. A pare. relative a Brasil

era bastante interessaante, a incluiu uma viagem de autumoyvel no

interior de SMo Paulo, ac. tona do caf6

Visitzraos e predio da %iifo Pem-APmricnae estivemos corn o Snr*.

iAarchan, e o 04r. Reed.


13 do laio. Procuramos o Dr. Sudworth, mombro do Federal Horticustural

Bocxrd, Ghefe da Secq0o da Silvicultur., do Departaw nto do Agricultura,

Estivemros tamxbem corn o Snr. Graf, outro metrbr* do Federal Hortioultural

Board.

Procuramos o Rjor Ahernae, continuamos a oonirenoiu seobre

as possibilidadeodo dosenvolvimento do o mmrxoio do madeir.a do loi

no Bragil, prinoipaln.nteo com reaqao a Baoia do Amazonas. 0 Brauil

teort =it'o .. luorar em uma coopera.o corn o "Tropioal Plant us-uarch

Four,d&tiont, noaste se rido.


19 de lVai. Procuratos o ,' *Waitaes mombro do i'do .'l ortioultural

Boerd, corna quema convrsamos longawnte sobro a -itu'La.o da ;-osct do

Veditorramo, e ti pos';:ib.J.idade da iportefg dez l.,'aanjas brawileirao.

Depois, vlaitazmos o Dr. .-arlatt 0 pediOlos para amcmar u r ouniZ-o do

FPderal :-*orticultural 3o-rd para apr'oin-tiwr nosso trabalho aabre a

queot&o da mosoa do IVediterrawoo.

Ea se;,uid.u astiamos ca1 o Dr. Tayl4j, (ChieZf) e o Dr.

Kell.orman (Assiatent Chief), do"Bur-au ef Plant Ilustry", do

Departameo do Agricultura.,








20 de Maio. Apresentemos urn relatorle ao 'Pderal Horticultural Board.

Tiwraoe uma longe disciiso, anvolivendo tod os pntos da quo ato.

PRecebemov uma. copia do relatorio da rowui Copiaz d. noas ..

relnt-orio e na minuta da reumixo do "Board" rP3r4x-Lq,'1 j1Uto.

Pela tarde, Dr. 'aiite anos lvou pera v .oita.r t Estagao L"perimsntal

Fedema de "Arlington F'anas"s, em Virginiia. Observeaos os I"rcbalhos

do soleloao hybrid4o de peras, trubaihe este quo vati sando

aoguid(' frinx aamaos. ?iaii-uao:a as etrtufya em -u innumiras oxperieno

C.ia e invsstip.
Atufas oande au exoperiencias soui- mosaico term o9 aalizado. 2Z',as

ostufansio do de formia coust'ruidsai qua liageotoax foyriga3s e pequenos

anataes nao podea ontrar mon saair.. Os visito'ats ao sio porflmittide

a antrar nests ostufas. 0 'Jnr. Camargo teve o prkvilagio do ontrar

e exziauax sua consttuogo do modo a powder Lpfrovo.lar essa beli&,



21.L de 'aio. Visituraos o Assistante Screiutrxio do Agrmitura, Snr.

DOunl.p, pzt're. sber ui o decreto de prohLbi9L. ar entino -inha sidv

public Ado Oaf~i4b14FI ou ao Apparenteinents uma u mima copla existia

emi Was'.-imitn eta o opis, fazia pxrte do Arcbhivo o .3parta,.dito do

-..xteio3. 0 Sur. Saocer offeresou para tirur uvMz copia .-iiotographica

deaes .docurnatopiat, nos nlo acoeitaos waste favor, por nao tui1gejs.

c onver' Leit..

Visitmos o Conreosso ea sess,&.

22 de "a!o. A pedido do Dr. il-.-u. de Ven.z'.v;!, umn dos Directores

da UnAtio Pan-Anaricana, Comos visitvl-o, e confemncicr sobre questbes

asricolas, com re3latet do ir ail. Snr. GCemargo purAiu a noite para

a Vleox,_-i. Florida. e Cuba.








23 de Maio. domingo.

24 do &kio. Centinuamoos noa prepttrr&a'tlvos pae. obtein9.o do plantas

o outrefi material para a .-.dGOla do sa3 e tire. a t;C.t o d Poaiiet

culture. Visitrnos novamw t. an -.^.i._Lxeaa BrwisLeirmu e pediwes

informages sobre xportizqo do uvas de lie.spaula.


25 d- s io, jermimn'os de -reparr ua Itinararlo e cvrtas do introdue#5a

para o Agronwot Henriquo Lobbel Diroctor do >:'rpo c.e 3even'es da Sle

SirLao, qe deix-a .os aos cuidados do rabaixando ea 'Tiash..gt.on.

26 e 27 da .)aia, 3s.ivyiaoe em laltir.ire.

"T do 4$da.o at6 6 de .ui.ho, estivciaos m i.:_.t:Wile, .Oila, tro.ando

de consoguir iant r&s para leamos ao Brasil.


7 do& 5"<0ds volto q.-fer 'Ahiinjt'on.

8 de V& estivezuos ra bi'bliiothea vo ,-,rtameito dc Agricultura dog

i.tados, at fir de obtor .s referccia. bibliogrAphiceu das tis -

imporFi'tes obras ez !i.gricultura. Visit-Aos o laboratorio do 3ar.

Scott' e o3S.TeyimioZ, p:i:to- r.phis aobre inseetos damftiylos, boem- oe.

photographiarj raletivas dos tra'or-lho do Federal Sor-'i.oultural Board.,

Visitmos o Snr. S'tevnfona, a fim sIe conoe,'iir sements de pi ntas

tropiea a.


9 do Vo Visitiaos a imbalxada nrasilaira, a iJ m do obter as

iaformagesB uolloitadas =a=m rola..o a proIdbi ae do exportaclo dt

uvas do Hlbspyaqin, Para oz tstrAoz lr.idor.. Como so abe, vs uva

liospanholas W.^Y forau prohibidaas er)'XWi aos ports klorta aesrielBs

em v!-!tude da existenmia da maoc do 'editerraneo. N&o rutaebio-s t...

Inf ozrm o s, compromiette-&--se a 3Bmbaixd.a, do u as onriar para bwodo

vapor am Nova York. Eeta material unea reoobion..
A,








10 de p Vis3iuamos e Conuladto, oyeu ontrgwuos aoasoe

p 3sapcrto6s pram o ivis ,j 4voeuler. Vtsiatmee em aegoda o Sur.

Roo, Deospa hehoe do Deartoiito de A.iucult ura dos .stadoes Umidos..

Combimaos gobre a raoebioawi-t dos varias eaoouaaandae s doe sient-

a planztaa&W b oomo sobre a entregue das unesmauq a bordo.


12 do Mrigimen a transporta das plaatase8 bordo do Valtaidr,

e o, wum hora da tardej, e.'ixmro a caes em ioboken, vom destIno a B]rrbioae.


S7 do i t chegfumo ema Barbados8 oerca de sieo hor.as de totde3

0 Sain'oe as dez horo de noite conseguimoB, por receMo telephonios,

v- vw-isedtdes de canva de ansucar que nos haviq)promteid*, Con3guiaMiOE

Uamhe Bmis samentes de Cf.s.;- Js-7onica, tudo isto pl,!a .-.-tileaa .

da I't--i-a^o Lxpeirim ntai de Barfn-d 05.




ji^ &^s53G.

Notas tomadas por:
Vd

























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_ 1C .7 | | i ~ C :


ivi^f


JAIL





COPY
copy
*


7670-8/10/23-t- 4 12


DZ1' 7,'iT "OF A,;,'IJLZTLJ'A


B RU IT F L Y


COLD


S T 0 R A .G. E


(Reprinted frozq the Journtl of the Department of Agriculture


October, 193)


a -


Pretoria

The Government Printing and Stationery Office

1923


UIEION OF SOUtI *AlI-ICA








FRU IT-FLY Al-D COLD u T 1': \G3


The following ass',;es "are ,taken from a recent report made to the
Secretary r Lgriculture by the Chief of the Division of Ento-
oo logy: -
*MS IQ"Y
"In several seasons Lvtwelve and more ye,.;rs ago experimental
exj:o,3ures of fruit-ely infected peaches to cold storhze at Cape-
town -:'ere made to ,et assurance, other tian the commercial ex-
2perience in shipiping, tlait taLteo was little or no dal,;;cr of the
in:,-ect reaching -.n;laid alive. T"- results were reassuring, near
ly all of the larvae being found dead in Lvo weeks, at.-u all at
exumi ,ation at the end of ti'e t',irdj week. Yeurs later, in 1916,
ABac and Pemberton, of the 7%. 63. A. Bureau of :ntonboloiy, publish
ed reports on sinuila:, but mnore estensi-vt ,.ud- 2Lo.,:3 cafully con-
dtcted, "exyerients in H-wvaii. They arrived ;.t the conclusion-
as the outcome of "iany tests involvi -ig thou. ands of eggs, larvae,
and .u,,ae--tL-'.t no stage of the iwiect cculd survive refrigera-
tion for 'three weeks at 33 9 to 40 9 F., or for two ;recks at 322
to 339 .1

"However, we have the indisputable fact that Fryer, in Eng-
l'i.nd, found five living larvae in C"2,e eahs this year and
reared tv adult fruit flies (C.cratitis ccpiLtat) from tUeiaem. The
correspondence implies that the minui-iun teai eratu-e o the parti-
cular ship's char-ber in which the* fruit was conveyed '.as 37 de-
grees, a';d that the Ti.ii-aura tem.-er-'ture varied widely. The sur-
vival of these 1ac'ticulr larvae rnt.ht therefore be put down to
insufficient ref'igera-tion. But soae week:-; earlier, living lar-
vae had been found in 3alwary peaches, .aao d 3as for export, after
they had been in cold storg-e, at Caoetown for tro, three, and fou:
weeks. Senior 'ntoaol:iist Thilly ;-lade t'he l.tr -.xaiinations,
m:id reported on lith april that.at the final one he L.d found
thirty-two living zi.,.:ots out of a total of sevarity-one in eight-,
eon infected fruits. in all of t;;o or the fruitV- the ..,qgots
were @l. dead or all aLive, and ".'oLly than iot the idea that
bfrvival night be associated with extra high protection afforded
to particular fruits by picking n.:.terial. The fruits were very
heavily bedd-led in -'.,odrool, ,3 ounces ot -ihich ve.re taken from a
single tray. The trays each held twenty-four fruits and measur-
ed aboMt 18 x 12 x 4 inches.outside. '1l te fruits were equally
protected by pjiaper-~\ra.pin,, ut tie "ood;vool .i.i be supposed to
h._-ve fiven more protection t some thUan to otiierz, .d soime
fruits may be suppo-,ed ti ih. ve chilled aloiver than theirr fruits
by virtue of tiieir positions.

"EFfforts to get newly plucked fruit for further experiments
were in vain, but Aally continued observations on seventeen
further trays of tne same lot of peaches. `bogt 7 1/2 per cent-
of the fruits were found infe.ited as the exafiinatione proceeded.
An examination after five week disclosed seventeen living and
fourteen dead larvae fVom twelve iafe.,ted fruits, and nun examina-
tion after six week discloadd thirty-three living and sixteen








-2-


dead from sixteen fruits. Moreover, seven pupae were found at
each of these two examainajions, and there viere indications that
.m larvae had emerged from four fruits add escaped. The
larvae found in any one fruit in these examinations were either
all dead or all alive.

"The total number of larvae'taken from the fruits that had
been refrigerated four weeks or longer was eighty-tvo. Frou then
vere reared twenty-eight male and twenty-nine femaleflies. Only,
one fly was reared fvam the fourteen pupuria found in the fifth
and sixth wveek6. The last emergence was on 10th June, and it
may safely be accepted that the remaining insedts that is,
twentyfive taken out of cold storage as larvae and thirteen
taken out as puparia aire all ded.

The teuIperaturn records of the cha b.:r for tLie enttie i
six weeks were studid by ?-..liy. A reading is noted every two
hours vith apparently inconsequential exceptions. T'he range is
from to 44 d 'eT.. he mean of the reading is 33.972 de-
_rees, over half of the readings are 33 degrees, and on only
three days is 33 degrees not recorded. On thooe three days the
range is 34 degrees to 39 ueg teea.

"Hence, notwithstanding the apparently reliable finding gs
of Back and Pemberton, 1lally is accepted :*s having demonstrated
that 0. cai)iita larvae may survive W4;W/%IWI/4X in cold
storage at auout 34 duerues for considerably longer than three
weeks. The survival for six weeks, was in even larger propor-
tion than the survival for four week.

"Mally has advanced the plausible hypothesis that the[ lar-
vae that die in refrigeration such as that now concerned, are
killed rather by abrupt transition from a high to a low tem-
,perature than by being kept at a low te poratureQ If his rea-
soning is correct, the complete kill in the earlier experiments
at Capetown and iLwaii m by be e:..lainable on the ground that al
the maggots experienced a suddia chilling. It is recalled that
in the major experimewttu made at CLLpetUun years ago tht infest-
ed fruits were exposed in ti-igle-layer boxes without paper
wrapping and with little %oodwool. In the recent experiments,
as already stated, the fruits were in papers and bedded in a
bulky packing of woodwool. It follows here is still a hope
that refrigeration may be made thvroughlyj effective, and also t
that it is effective ordinarily.
"This demonstration that fruit-fly larvae may live in cbid
storage at about 34 degrees for six weeks, and then successful-
ly trans orm to flies, greatly emphasizes the need for the
packer' of export fruit, most particularly of peaches and nec-
tarines, t. select fruit for export with extreme care tc avoid
the inclusion of any that have become infested by the pest.
The packing of a variety from an orchard should cease at once
if maggots are found to have appeared in it. Growers whose









-3-


experience has taught tkem to expect the insect are urged to
use poison bait to the very best of their ability to kill the
parent flies before eggs a&e#laid. It seems not to be gener-
ally Inown how extraordinarily successful in preventing at-
tack baiting has proven with lading peach exporters fil the
western Cape province. The GovelnILent inspection at the ports
hereafter may be expected to be 'iore severe than ever before;
but the growers will largely hv4eponly themselves to blame if
their consigniicionzL are rejected\ fAr export owing to fruit-
f ly.


''N






V


OPY


7670-.810/23-412


SEAL


UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE







FRUIT-FLY AND COLD

STORAGE










(Reprinted from the Journal of the Department of Agriculture

October, 1923)










Pretoria

The Goverment Printing and Stationery Office

1923 #










FRUIT-FLY AND COLD STORAGE.


The following passages are taken from a recent report made to the Seo-
retary for Agriculture by the Chief of the Division of Entomology:--

"In several seasons twelve and more years ago experimental ex-
posures of fruit-fly infested peaches to cold storage at Capetown were
made to get assurance, other than the commercial experience in shipping,
that there was little or no danger of the insect reaching England alive.
The results were reassuring, nearly all the larvas being found dead in
two weeks, and all at examinations at the end of the third week. Years
later, in 1916, Back and Pemberton, of the U.S.A. Bureau of Entomology,
published reports on similar, but more extensive and more carefully con-
ducted, experiments in Hawaii. They arrived at the conclusion--as the
outcome of many tests involving thousands of eggs, larvae, and pupaeo.
that no stage of the insect cou3d survive refrigeration for three weeks
at 330 to 40 F., or for two weeks at 32 to 330 F,

"However, we have the indisputable fact that Fryer, in England,
found five living larvae in Cape peaches this year and reared two adult
S fruit flies (Ceratitis capitate) from them. The correspondence implies
that the minimum temperature of the particular ship's chamber in which
the fruit was conveyed was 37 degrees, and that the maximn temperature
varied widely. The survival of these particular larvae might therefore
be put down to insufficient refrigeration. But some weeks earlier, liv-
ing larvae had been found in Salway peaches, packed as for export, after
they had been held in cold storage at Capetown for two, three, and four
weks. Senior Entomologist Mally made the later examinations, and re-..
ported on 15th April that at the final one he had found thirty-two living
maggots out of a total of seventy-one in eighteen infested fruits. In
all but two of the fruits the maggots were all dead or all alive, and
Mally then got the idea that survival might be associated with extra high
protection afforded to particular fruits by packing material. The fruits
were very heavily bedded in woodwool, S ounces of which were taken from
a single tray. The trays each held twenty-four fruits and measured about
18 x 12 x 4 inches outside. All the fruits were equally protected by
paper-wrapping, but the woodwool may be supposed to have given more pro-
tection to some than to others, and some fruits may be supposed to have
chilled slower than other fruits by virtue of their position.

"Efforts to get newly plucked fruit for further experiments were
in vain, but Nally continued observations on seventeen further trays
of the same lot of peaches. About 7* per cent. of the fruits were found
infested as the examinations proceeded. An examination after five weeks
disclosed seventeen living and ftarteen dead larvae from twelve infested
fruits, and an examination after six weeks disclosed thirty-three living
and sixteen dead from sixteen fruits. Moreover, seven pupae were found
at each Of these two examinations, and there were indications that larvaO
had emerged from four fruits and escaped. The larvae found in any one








Fruit-Fly and Cold Storage


fruit in these examinations were either all dead or all alive.

"The total number of larvae taken from the fruits that had been re-
frigerated four weeks or longer was eighty-two, From theman were reared
twenty-eight male and twenty-nine female flies. Only one fly was reared
from the fourteen puparia found in the fifth and sixth weeks. The last
emergence was on 10th June, and it may safely be accepted that the re-
maining insects that is, twenty-five taken out of cold storage as
larvae and thirteen taken out as puparia are all dead.

"The temperature records of the chamber for the entire six weeks
were studied by Mally. A reading is noted every two hor s with appal-
ently inconsequential exceptions. The range is from 25 to 144 degrees.
The mean of the readings is 33.972 degrees, over half of the readings
are 33 degrees, and on only three days is 33 degrees not recorded. On
those three days the range is 34 degrees to 39 degrees.

"Hence, notwithstanding the apparently reliable findings of Back
and Pemberton, Mally is accepted as having demonstrated that C. capitata
larvae mea survive in cold cold storage at about 34 degrees for con-
siderabqy longer than three weeks. The survival for six weeks, was in
even larger proportion than the survival for four weeks.

"Mally has advanced the plausible hypothesis that the larvae
that die in refrigeration such as that now concerned, are killed rather
by abrupt transition from a high to a low temperature than by being kept
at a low temperature. If his reasoning is correct, the complete kill in
the earlier experiments at Capetcu and Hawaii may be explainable on the
ground that all the maggots experienced a sudden chilling. It is recallal
that in the major experiments made at Capetown years ago the infested
fruits were exposed in single-layer boxes without paper wrapping and with
little woodwool. In the recent experiments, as already stated, the
fruits were in papers and bedded in a bulky packing of voodwool. It fol-
lows there is still a hope that refrigeration may be made thoroughly ef6
fective, and also that it is effective ordinarily."

This demonstration that fruit-fly larvae may live in cold storage
at about 34 degrees for six weeks, aid then successfully transform to
flies, greatly emphasizes the need for the packers of export fruit, most
particularly of peaches and nectarines, to select fruit for export with
extreme care to avoid the inclusion of any that have become infested by
the pest. The packing of a variety from an orchard should cease at once
if maggots are found to have appeared in it. Growers whose experience
has taught them to expect the insect are urged to use poison bait to the
very best of their ability to kill the parent flies before eggs are laid.
It seems not to be generally known how extraordinarily successful in pre.
venting attack baiting has proved with leading peach exporters of the
western Cape Province. Te Government inspection at the ports hemafter
may be expected to be more severe than ever befQre; but growers will
largely have only themselves to blame if their consignments are rejecqA
fir export owing to fruit-fly.


-2-









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Ministerio da Agrici.ltura,
Industria a Gomnorolo Received April 16, 1986


Dr. Felisberto Chrdoeo de OCamargo.

Dear 8irt



In addition to the official oominioation x2 397, of this

institute, addressed to Dr. Rolfa, about the IvIMedit'rrao-m Fruit

Fly, we wish to infrca you that 11r. Jodo Alves, Jnr., shaistorm

in the service of *Vigilancia Siitaria Vegaeal* of this institute,

has Just found specimenSof the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (OCjratj*t

oaDitata in, fruits of the coffeoa located on the "Quinta do Boa

Vista", and 1a Nitcheroy in te red rose applOe.
X aai 1* '

Very truly yours,

(signed) Carlo roroira,
Director

(signed) Costa Lima,
Chef* do Servigo do Vigilmicia
Sanitaria Vegetal.









SVETERINARIA
-DO-
Estado de Minas Geraes

VI9o0A.








UINISTERIO DA ACVICULTrRA, INDUSTRIA I COMlEROIO

Institute Biologico de Defesa Azrioola

N. 397

Rio do Janeiro, April 7, 1926


rP.?. H. Rolls.

In rovly to your ri-quost, I beo- to say -uiat tsh fruit

fly kLiown as the "l Lditerranean Fruit Fly f Corati ca-jitata

(Weid.), has boou found in Brasil in the States of Belia, Uiuas

Goraes, Ri de Janeiro and S.o Paulo.

Oranges are To. rary rarely info.ted by it, being notable

its preference for posaches, plums and the coffee berry, In the

urban zono of the city of 'io do Janeiro (Fedoral 0iAtrire) tho

Aoderitorranoan Fruit Fly Caitia q.it has not yet beoon

A%%,$%S foirna.
TVery res)ect fully yours,

((4agned) Carlos Moreira,
Dirootor

(signed), Costa Liaa,
Chief of the Service of "Vigilaaoia
SBanitaria Vegetal."







T. T. LiU :.-ian
(Incor-poratedc)

CO T -IC',.: i J." ..^.. .

350-2 ..:.-; ,ton St.

.; .7 York

:- 5,1926



To WA,:. It Concern:

This is to certify -,hat on December 13th, -.-, 3e
received an invoise of 200 crates of Brasilian Oranges
from ,I1r. F. C. Ca,, r.-o, which fruit was carefully
examined by us on arrival ahd found bto be in perfect
condition, free from an# evidence of disease and
insect est, and which fruit was sold by us at
ub'jlic auction through the Independeot ,', c-t Auction
Co:,m on December 14, 1922, fruit giving thorough
satisfaction to the buyers; all of whom made inquiry
for further invoices of this sa.ae fruit after having
.ur,',:,! and handled the first invoice.

'.-.- fully,

(signed) J. & G. Lippmans,

(signed) L. J. Lippman-
Ptc-s.









IL1 7
". ..,,,. '------ ---"f---

,/,{, 5^', I,f^> / L ",'- /o )7,







A L

For Cama,'Lo to seC about

)la p dijtribuiori of fly in 3-Baai l.

,Sap of dist;ricto l'eder:al on 1 ;e -scale, showing
,riz aea. in vnich fly h", never been found.

..;,li,: itit;n Urban, suburb.n an.d ruaJl }.:rta.


e if it -will be po,..iblc, to load fruit thzru the
sutbwx for e.e':t.

*\ signedl lotto.,. x' onl .,Jr. cositoT ,i-i c-tifying that
:: ..... no 01e,. f u.i ']y .: bee' ; ound in 'the urban
a.d suburban rcctious o0- the -bLdbctoi c;erl.

St,,i v .cfnowni ,i t bution of fu it fly in



Give sC e copies of .. .:ienci' da c.,oztLa'o do
1 2Jfljaa :'o ovo York."

Go ,ic,, of the tw;.o bullet .ins fo i k- o i*a I ) tberton.

Tc' nic il p 1er, n-, me '.nd uunbcr, that gives the
quotation on use of cold sq e :ethod fwo:
p.eve, tiH n of into auction Oif l- 'uit .ly.


mr, qFp











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.. : 4. .m m+4.o

,i~ .in'sterlo da d a t ,
S INSTITUTE' BILOU-OICO' D&IDFESA'AGRICOLA -
N.1.p *+: *4,
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'""ttnedoa eu nedi do, hfm-c que, a no^'c' das fructas
conhecida -nor no scdoa ed. r C r7fied)
S .- *. ; *; s.
.' .. A ,


". *. *- 41 ...

a. 4* ** i t





InfestEi nui-to rLrzmrerife laranjas, sendo zlotiivel sua pre-
.- SrI P Ro .. t ,.





dileAd-elos peace oeu anedixois frictos' qudoa cfeeiro.a zonfuctas
,,,r___iro_ Dsr carFeeitata(ied




..urbana kda cidade do Rio dIe J~rio --1rit ed~~ )no-foi
at6 hoje encontra a ooca do eelterraneoCertto C e r, t i s canietata.
,
.






erSaude sido enFrontrada no eras n i da de
4..44 0 '4
"raedo Rio de Janeiro e dle s.paulo,
~Infestat mul, to rnr~zr+erte l--ranjas,sendo rtot~vel sua pre-









A ,y
-49&
st Fedoeffal) n~o-fo





urbanaida cida- do Rio ,.e riro,,Dircto
at6 hoje encontra~a a nmosca do M:editerr-aneo Ce4tiis ceanitata.

4 4 ." +.-
.,
Saude e Fr- ternidade' .*



S '" Director '.
4'"
44
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COPY HWC:SS


'DEPARIMNT_ OF AGRICULTURE

WASHINGTON

.February 6, 1926



The Honorable -

The Secretary of State.

Dear Mr. Secretary:

Supplementing my letter to you of December, 17, in
reply to your communications of November 3, 1925 (LA 832.612/
14) and December 2, 1925 (LA 8X2.612/19), permit me to make
a brief statement of the nature od the inspection work done
by this.Department on export shipments of fruit to South
American points and the circumstances under which this service
was inaugurated.

There is no legal warrant for sanitary inspection and
certification by this Department of export shipments of
fruit and -egetables. There is authority for inspection
ot shipments for the purpose of determining come rcial
grade. For several years, under authorization carried as
S an appropriation item, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics
of this Departmet has been rendering extensively a service
based upon the determination of grade, quality and condition
of fruit and vegetables. Certificates issued by the
inspector after examination are, by statutory warrant,
accepted by the cir ts as prima facie evidence of the true
condition of the product. The organization which has been
built to mee-the increasing 'Xi demands for this inspectional
service has freuqnntly been called upon by the trade to make
statements of a supplementary kind which would permit
the consignmants to enter territories where sanitary re-
strietions were imposed. As you are aware, quarantines
within this country are placed by certain States against
others where the protection of the agricultural interest
of the individual localities requires and as you are also aware
several of the Latin American countries impose, as a con-
dition to'entry, inspection by competent agricultural
authorities and the issuance of certificates meeting the
terms of the quarantines of those countries.

The Fruit and Vegetable Inspection.Service was not
intended primarily to make sanitary inspections. It hap-
pens, however, that a percentage of the personal is
qualified, within limits, to make inspections and issue
certificates concerning the absence tf plant pests and
diseases. In its desire to be of service to the American
producers and shippers, including exporters, this organiza-
tion fir some time has included under the caption of
"Remarks" in the commercial inspection certificates issue.




1W -.M


by it the statements exacted by the country to which the
product was destined, provided, pf course, the conidtion
of the consignment permitted such statements to be made.
'Lealizing that sanitary inspections ,f/% should be under the
control of that Branch of the Department dealing exclu-
sively with questions of this sort and which was itself
imposing and modifying quarantines with respect to domestic
and import shipments of similar kind, namely, the Federal
horticultural Board, the Departmeyt, recently directed the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics to restrict their inspec-
tional work to the terms oftheir legal authorization and to
issue certificates concerning grade, quality and con-di-
tion only. The Federal Horticultural Board not only is
without legal authority to do so but does not have the
funds which will enable it to take over sanitary inspec-
tion. Appropriate legislation has been introduced in this
Congress to give the Department bot-" the authority and
the fu nds needed. Meanwhile we have attempted through the
cooperation, in some instaaced, pf State officials, in
other instances by the continued use of the inspectors
of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at certain stations and in still
others the portindpection officials
of the Federal Horticultural Board to meet, as far as it
is practicable to do so, the demands of the exporters.
It is confidently expected that adequate facilities will
be available within a very shortX time to meet all demands
by shippers for sanitary inspection.

This Department has not encouraged inspection as an
effective means of preventing the introduction of plant
pests and diseases. In the administration of the Plant
Quarantine Act and in our effort to put into effect the
spirit of that statue by preventing the introduction of
pests and diseases, we have declined to recongise inppee-
tion either at the source of productLon or at the port of
entry as adequate for this pu' pose. In the event that an
objective examination were of itself sufficient to make
possible a final determination Aith respect to freedom
from disease and pests, the value of such an examination in
the absence of an inspection of the shipment in its
entirely, would depend upon the representative character
of the sample. The examination at Now York, both by
representatives of the Federal Horticultural Board and the
Bureau SS Agricultural Economics, in so far as the export
consignment made by E. Waterman and Company to Brasil is
concerned, was restricted to a careful scrutiny of a
limited number of samples. Such samples were entirely
free from San Jose scale and as far as it was possible
to determine from any other pests and diseases which
might be injurious to agriculture. Accordinglu certifi-
cation to that effect was made. This Department has no
disposition whatever to dispute the correctness of the
conclusion reached by the Brasilian officials upon their
examination of this shipment of apples when offered for
entry. The Department will take every practicable pre-
caution to eliminate the chance of issuing a certificate






-3-


upon samples not properly representative of the consign-
ment. It must be appreciated, however, that always upon
an examination of a portion ofthe shipment only there
will remain the probability that such portion examined
may not treveal or represent the true condition of the
entire lot.


Sincerely yours,



R. W. DUMLOP


Acting Secretary.








ii

DEPAR''Si. E. ? OF STATE

WASHINGTON


Marcg 3, 1926

1091

The Honorable

Edwin V. Morgan,

American Ambassador,

Rio de Janeiro

Sir:

Unpo receipt of your telegram No. 4 of January 20,
1 P.M., regarding the desire of the Brasilian Minister
of Agriculture to obtain, if possible, the rescinding of
the order against the importation into the United States
of Brasilian citrus fruits, a letter dated January 22,
1926, was addressed to the Secretary of Agricultura, of
which the pertinent portion follows:

In a telegraphic despatch, dated Janu-
ary 20, 1 p.m., from the Embassy at Rio de
Janeiro the Ambassador says that the Brasilian
Minister of Agriculture has requested him to
take up through this Department with yours the
question of rescinding the order against the
importation into the United States of Brasilian
citrous fruits. The Ambassador also says that the
Brasilian, official suggests that these
fruits be allowed to enter the United States through
only two ports, namely, New York and
Boston, and that they be accompanied by certi-
ficates to be issued by the Brasilian Depart-
ment of Agriculture, which, the official dei
clarMd, would exercise especial care in the issuance of such cer
certificates to make sure that
the fruit shall be free from all fruit pests,
such as the '-editerranean fly et cetera.

The Ambassador explains that the Brasilian
Minister is especially anxious to arrange this
matter because it is believed that if the United
States continues to exclude these fruits Argen-
tina where they now have a large sale will also
exclude them.

The Ambassador states in conclusion that
our own fruit business with Brasil is continually
increasing and that he is arranging for the con-




-2-


tinuance of the ftee entry into Brasil of such
fruits in accord with the agreement between the
United States and Brasil concluded a few
months ago, providing for reciprocal most
favored nation treatment by each country of
the products of the other. The Ambassador
refers to the fact, with which you are of
course familiar,that our fruit is entitled
to free entry into Brasil because Aggentine
fruits enter Brasil free of duty; but he says
it is necessary for him to rehew the arrange-
ment annually since the Minister of Fira-nce must
reissue each year an ordIer to that effect.

I should be glad to have at your earliest
convince for communication to the Arbassador
an expression of youropinion whether the change
in existing regulations which the Brasilian of-
ficial desires can be effected".

On February 9, 1926, the Acting Secretary of Agricul-
ture addresses a reply to this Department, from which the
followtinf pertinentportion is quoted;

"As pointed out in a letter of Decem-
ber 5, addressed to you by Mr. W. G. Camp-
bell, Director of Regulatory -Work of this Depart-
ment, because of the existence in
Brasil of several species of fruit flies,
including the Mediterranean fruit fly, which
are known to be pests of fruits in that
country, none of which, fortunately, at this
time occur in the United States, it is con-
sidered undesirable to make any modification of
rhe existing quarantine to provide for the
entry of Brasilian citrus fruit. An examination
of the letter referred to above will indicate
that here are no less that five species
of fruit flies recorded as infesting citrus
fruits in Brasil*.

Experience has shown that it is impos-
sible to certify with any degree of accuracy as
to the freedom of fruit from fruit fly maggots,
especially in the earlier stages, and in view of
this situation, no provision is made in the fruit
and vegetable quarantine of this Department for
the acceptance of fruitsand vegetables under
certificate from any country, regardless of
whether or not fruit flies are known to occur
therein. In other words, the policy of this De-
partment is to exclude fruits and vegetables
known-to bt hosts of fruit flies in the country
of origin, since it is evident that an* inspec-
tion is totally inadequate and does not offer
the necessary safeguards. I am sure you appre-
ciate the. wisdom of such a policy since the







introduction and establishment in this
country of any of the fruit flies referred to
in .:r. Campbell's letter of December 5 would
doubtless result in a serious loss to the
fruit and vegetable industries of this country.


Referring to the portion of Assistant
Harrison's letter relative to the
kju g-of the Brasilian minister that if we
continue to exclude Brazilian citrus fruit,
similar action will be taken by Argentina,
an examination of our file of foreign laws
indicates that such action has already been
taken by the Argentine Govemiment, in the
form of a decree issued April 16, 1925, re-
stricting the entry of frash fruits from
Brasil and certain other countries. The
apparent absence of the .iediterranean fruit
fly in Argentina would justify reasonable
action on their part to prevent the entry of
any fruit or vegetables which mab be the
meanof introducing this serious fruit pest.
Moreover, it is understood that the entry 4nd
establishment of the 'editerranean fruit fly
in Argentine Tould naturally necessitate a
modification of the Department's present
policy whih provides for *the entry of Argen-
tine fruit at northern ports."


Secretary


The letter of December 5, mentioned in the first
sentence of the foregoing, replied to a communication
from this Department dated November 14,1925, with
which had been forwarded a copy of a note dated October
21,J1925, and a copy of a memorandum which accom-
panied it -i the Ambassador of Trasil in Washington ,
making known his Government's desire that the exclusion
of Brasilian fruits from the United States be discon-
tinued. The pertinent partion of the letter of
December 5, from the Department of Agricultture, is as
follows:

Following is a partial list of the
fruit flies, which, according to pub-
liesh/ records, are established in Brasil,
infesting a variety of hosts:


Anastrepha bistrigata, infesting
two species of guava;
West Indian fruit fly ( A. fraterculi
infesting persirn, guava,
loquat, coffee, plum, Passiflo:
pear, peach, citrus, azid a numi
of other fri+ --
Serpentine fruit fly (A. serpentna)
infesting star apple, sapote,
mamey, mimisop, white sapote,
and sapodilla;
Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis
capitata) infesting peach,"


Le^ 06) ~ ><-7 h^/^^~r
____))erll^~^ ^ ^ <--^^t/






citrus, loquat, plua, fig, and
toffee;
Dacus bicolo. infesting oranges anE
Fapanses persimmons;
D. byreviZ, infesting o-rig,-c and
Japanese persimmons.


Fortunately, none of the fruit flies listed
above are knorm to be established in the Uni -
ted States. As an instance of the injury which
they may occasion, it may be stated that on
account of the I /% / presence of the Mediterranean
fruit fly in Bermuda, the excellent peach in-
dustry formerly enjoyed by that country has
long S*e been ruined. The same condition with
respect to peaches exists in Hawaii, where this
insect is known to attack some seventy-two kinds
of fruits. Efforts directed toward the eradication
of this pest in foreign countries have been
unsUcessful. Likewise, the "exican and West
Indian fm it flies have caused considerable
injury to fruits attacked in foreign countries.
In view of the. record to these insects in cer-
tain foreign countries, it is believed that
their establsihmmnt in the fruit cultures 4-
California and ths southern states would result
in serious losses to t1B fruit snd vegetable
growers of the regions concerned. Affecting as
they do fruits and vegetables which represent
an important item in tb food supply d6 this
country, tb Department does not feel that it
shoulA permit the entry of these fruits from
Brazil with the attendant risk of introducing
these pests. Hence, it is considered undesir-
able to make any modification of the existing
quarantine, to provide for the entry of Brasilian
fruit."

This information was communicated in a note dated
December 17, 1925 to the Ambaddador of Brasil.

When your telegram N2 9 of January 29, 5 P.1., re-
garding the xame matter, reached the Department, another
letter was on February 5, 1926, addressed to the Secre-
tary of Agricultura, from which the following pertinent
portion is taken:

"An additional telegraphic despatch,
dated January 29, 5 p. m. has been re-
ceived from the Ambassador in which he
refers to the fact that recent customs
favors to fresh fruits fmom the United
States{Xv have hitherto been granted under the
most favored nation arrangement because
Argentine fruits enjoyed such favors; and
he says that he has been informed by the
Minister of Agriculture of Brazil that
although, as announced in his telegraphic
despatch of January 23, 11 a.m., a copy




-5-
of which was communicated to your Department
in the customary routine manner of Janu-
ary 30, a circular to customs houae inspec-
tors had been issued instructing then to
grant free entry to the fruits from the United
States the same favor has not yet been ex-
tended for the present year to Argentine fruits.

Should your Department be unable, the
Ambassador observes, to enter into the
*agreement desired by the Brasilian Agricul-
tural Department regarding the admission of
Brasilian citrus fruits into the United
States this country might lose the privilege
at present enjoyed, which he says has been
granted this year as a special favor. Should,
^ moreover, he continues, your Department in-
sist on continuing the exclusion of Brasilian
fruits the Argentine Government might follow
the example .f the United States, which, he
says, would derange the interchange of fruits
between the three interested countries. In
conclusion the Ambassador dedAares that he
considers it important that your Department
and the Brasilian Agricultural Department
come to emn agreement in thisjnatter befvte
the Argentine authorities take action."

The reply dated February 18, 1926, of the Acting
Secretary of Agriculture to the'last preceding communi-
cation from this Department, which has just been re-
ceived, is as follows:

"Assistant Secretary Leland Harri-
son's letter of February 5, (LA 632.113/11l
referring to a second telegraphis despatch^
dated January 29, from the Embassy at Rio
de Janeiro relative to tte desire of the
Brazilian Minister of Agriculture that
Brazilian citrus fruit be allowed entry into
this country, has been received.

The position of this Department with respect
,to the recission of its fruit and
.. vegetable quarantine, as it applies to
Brasilian citrus fruit, is fully explained in
.'' my letter to you of February 9. Of
course that communication had not reached
you when MIr. Harrison's letter was'written.
I am inclined to believe that it covers the
points mentioned, so it seems unnecessary to
make further comment at this time".

I am, Sir,

Yourobedient servane,
Wor tte Secretary of State
A(signed) Leland Harrison.
LA 811?612/12315






Basis of Agreement for -he*AcceptancQ of Br.,.::.lian
Oranges in*the po*?t of New York

1). That the .time be limited between the dates of -----f&--. and *-
this corresponding to the dates when the shipments

(from California arevery light and no shipments are going forward




t e eggs avae, pae s of the ediernen fruit

f y have b coBletely d tr ed by refri g ion mc.thoc-s--
3). zThat the oranges bo held in cold sotrage at Rio at Santos

under the direct simxat psirvison of an ezr detailed

by the GoveniMeitL ofBrasil forethis special purpose, who will

certify asto the degree of refrigeration, and the time during

which the fruit has been held in storage.
4). That the fruit bofof ronhe refrigerator on the docks
of nof the vessels
to &apd the ctoc-zor d pa" d bi refrigeration chambers/cto.

u t h e d r c'zk xkAgA o f a d et i l e
byU the v 'v of e age ofrag of the Brasilian govern, ifl.

5) That the refrigeration engineer shall maintain a d ueri.erture of

less than 36 degrees F. in the compartmenthrouout the entire s

passage from Pio de Janeiro o Santos to Hew York.
6). There shall accompany s shi.rient of fruit a certificate ,d
9 a.ssw ?S@ a thermograph taken in the cold storage vslat

in Brasil and another rfig/ograp.i .co. a, i n/ certificate

a .a thermogaph taken on ..board the ship by th,.

refrigeration engineer to bhow ts.at mthtafnru-t i haoe bo i hold

ls th +an 36 dtp e greesF hre thro niht lhe entir:a

.-* a' .- ta e i t, a ,,e.,


f" : ,/' ine r to --o' ,%.
ej -- -L/ -- C/
.- .
p pZi then -







7). That when such shipments of fruit are received in New York,
accompanied b, the foregoing certificates, they shall be
accepted and the certificates regarded as prima facH
evidence that the fruit is free from Ifixaiixzx living
fruit flies, in any of their sta-es.









f
'4









The foregoing information whovs 4E clearly why Brasil desires that

tho port of Ne-'r York be opened to the importation of citrus fruits, under

such conditions as 71il1 entirely prevent the introduction of the l.editerra-

nean or other fruit flies. The situation as it has developed, makes

New York practically the ket to the opening of the ports of Argentinex

as the United States would have closed her ports against Aggentine fruits

if Argentine had not kiaix prohibited the importation of Brasioian fr-its.

The fact that it tares at least double the time to move

fruit from Rio de Janeiro to lINew York th-t it takes to move ut from Rio Cde

J!,neiro to Buenos Aires, mates the latter market immenesely more desirable,

and rakes the port of New York doubly secure. Argentine has had her ports

,ide open for 'fifty years or more, and yet according to the recent report

of the bet authority, the United States Departmentof Agriculture, the

oediterranean fruit fly has not become established in that county.







The United States Vir ually closed the Ar-etine Mlarket f

aga inst 3rasil.


1.) It is not expected that 3rasil -'.ill 1.:oice any large oxportatLions

of oranges to the United States. In the first place, her orange

-industry isnot sufficiently orjanised or developed to compete vith the

fruits of tie United States. In the second place, there is only one packing

louse establishd t S oncalo) ready to turn out a regular/ co=_iercial

pack and this packing house can deliver only '-000 crates mxplxy, at a

n.axium .per dayr. .... Brasil zxxx dishes is to r.Eke sone arrangoaaent -:.ith

the UnitedStates that will enable the continuance of her exportation to

the near-by park-et of Argcihtine.





2.) As has been shown, Brasil has enjoyed for aany years a lucrative

export to Argentine, in fresh fruits. During the visit of -1 iozenette

to Argentine in 1925, he stated to the I,,'ininster of Agria'.lture of that

country, that the United States would prohibit the importation of fruits

from Argentine, unless Aggentine prohibited the importation of fruits

from Brasif. So axxAx the Argentine IIinister of Agriculture issued

a decree, published April 16, 1925, pcobhbibng closing the ports of

that country against all B3asilian fruits except lemons, pineapples, cocoaks

and bananas.

The following telegram and correspondence have direct bearing

upon this question.







Gold Storcge Plants.

/I Th&aort 6of :io de Janeiro hs one of the fin.t, if no ue
\
'1 &K and moi-. modern r 2igerabi rn Planti', on th iestern\Conrinent.

It 7as but recently. coaleda ... a J einit.r.. ex-ort trade _,o refrigerate d

'TA %..o "fi i ora rig oration pla-DI ie octed', CJ. ;. ,5. ide on
*-.... o, .... : f_. ? fu..-.L r 2 oc.. :ide, on

the d:c)-';. refrigerated meat !.eves the refrgrat"ing compare ,'.,

by cicns oif u-ndrground, aatointic concuits, and is delivered aboard the

stc mer. l'r-- -

Refrigerated frui-is, iheno receci-.-ed from abroad-xiaro loaded directly ueon

rFilway cars and wiithout leaving t he docks, fr-.4it --Ielivered directly

to .uhe refrigerating p.anit. Iraiediately u-poen takin_ the fruit fro.e the

refrigerating compartment of the vessel and p ,0lac1 it uoon thi crr, *d- i
.* --e of 1^-. l. .T ^ ..^ ,'^t....( *, *.. o f,:
oa-r 2Y-o. -*" 2r. Ofee

-"' -.'". LSO protect m a -ainst !c:):- i'..slation. So f-r ar c:.;. .:.i

rou fr:1.&i fli's or othor iooc is o0 crned, r'O .' is little or no .ossi-

bbit-tyj t'i.;t 'yIe:G Lion. In thle first )lace th. re ar o : -g Ilats .

'*y in ..s vicinity, and in the second pic.,!c, these docks receive and

discharge oly refri.g>raced .Laterial and othor ma-erials com,_lotely

rotected by casig in oter words, C- .- c. aeriais enter or depart

from these docks are completely protected a pd prepared for exort at 2

in: port.

It is jvell 'knov.! to those acquianted wvith the natt'er that Rio do
"G-u ,u eg t Lend
Januirc and Santos have among the rmo:t oorfect and up-to-dte eor .nd

hicor- fIl ities in the Vlestern Conbina t. -7rigereting plants as J

dosts .:-/ere conctrmcted as e.ergenacy me-sures during -- orld /ar to enable,

ttir4) I **A; -- ated oeats for huro-)e 9

Durin5- the yeo- s fro-i 1915 to 13,i th 1..ount of roefri.oert .d ;,.iet exported Za--nAA

varied front 3,000 tons to over 60,'00 tons, about equally divided bet-mreon t.o e

tv, pOrts. -








The 3Jover'nient of Brasil is e- ----- o export fresh fruit
-.--. ._,.' % o- exp r f e h r i

fro th;se t% o docks in such a nanner cad unr such protection G as .iC l

-e. 'i .; c.rtuain that no entai iui on fro0 the editerrantean r

flies or other -fruit- flies can. joss!bly1 occur fro:-, o to tire that the fruit

enters the cold stoaag4n-plant!until it is delivorud on the docks at New

York. 'he fruit. tiK.-1 be packed in the field -ck'- nous;s and transported

in expo-'t creates and then delivered directly to the refrigerating ola.t,.

After rc;n _ing in thl r-f rig., ting plant the required an'iount of tiioe,

the fruit -.ill be delivered to t ho Id of the sOe ocr without any rossi-

ilit y of cont- iination in tho Gran'Sfer.. Q ; -

." ''" ': "'- -", -. -. -.* i ^ ^ *- '^^ < !-
.. .. ; *, ,. .. t . .. -

,r- k. *'\
Fl ,^ ViC, .^- V r'
X:








f// Felisberto Cardoso de Camargo, Director da Ss agao de Poricultura

do teodoro, graduate of the z h.z:t: ri_ n lee of A ,ricultura
.....,,-n~x o_.e~eof A-ricultura

ioTSZ-' ---,; of Sao Paulo in 1917, with the title f' Agronomo, which h

corr esponds to 3. S. A. degree in the United States. Took Post Graduate
-.ox a th Flr d "Zrim ltural "ol-o1,
or:at th-e Flor da ritral Cl o T one and a ha if years during
'I
:o ca-lendar rears of 1919 ri,d 1920. In 1920 he scoent t,-'. months during

3the d, di in, season of oran- .;s, in ractical ';or -:,,ith the 'ikmaxaia

inter Haven Fz;:z; '.o.JaE. ciation Pckcing House.

P. H. Rolfs, D. So., President of the Agricultural Colloee of the

StL'te of l'inas Teraes, 3rasil. A y request of the lister of A;riculture,

jr. < guel Calm6n du Pin e Al-eida, the State of Uinv;'. eraes detailed

hi-i uo underta'e," the presenta-t on of this technical prol Hs has

been in the servicoof the State of i Tas :aeraes since Jan. 1, 1921.

In or der 'o locate, establiosh and conduct" an Agricultural College

on the North Amarican plan".

A Graduate of the Iova Agricultural Colleg- in 1389, received

a, po5tient a-s 1ntoiologist andBotanist to the Fla. "' ,oeriment Station in

1 d1, &-ilo yed almost co itinuously in sciontific a-ricultural rork in

;.orVida until Drcce b'cccSSoc Jan., 1921.



"7l







Oonditloncod Grovo2.Sanitati qin.

Since 1024, the government of Brasil has rmainta ned a Vigilant -

iispection of the grovesfrom which oranges hav6 boon exported to Uruguay and

Ar-entinc, no' only to guard against the exportation of fruit contaminated

-ith fr!uit flies, but also to provide certification against other citr,, pests,

spocia~lly Asoidiotus pq..,.c' ._ That these inspecction measures ha-

bceon unusually successsf is sho--rn by tha fact that no- a single shinmont

of ;;':8.Ilia:i orang'_r s 'o bCSc-:P 'cf-.&cd ,t.'-~mo .o Ar c.. .. .... : T. Yu r~

o: Lccou of tl]e presence of il ect pests or I. seases on he frui.ts. Tbonly

r onthat -b:t'i ,r!.silian fruit >Cw bcn denied eotrance to AKgentine

i -cca se ?S officer of -th S. DTp't of Agriculurn info m1e1 d 1oe

T'inisbor of Agricutiure for A 1..._a that th& United Stat ces of America

would- ri.-x, .. tbo accept Arg u.yinc fruit unl' S an e: barg( rverro l ced by

Argn 'bine on crtrai- L rasilics fr.uits. (Bee dispatch from "0 Jor nal '"La Macion"

:.i also tracts from correspondence if the 2. ..::,sador of .e Unit ed

of A'wrica4 /
(


~N $

-(-A

C


I. -*
( ~-

~Cc ~


.4' --



J,../4-c .
.-,,L- | A, ** J1 __ ,, / -,_ "i..-J- A-J


' ^v "a .. ,- ,* } D -,. .- ^f -4 .











/<
-- CA i
\77f 'f\^\ l, .S.*^- 0^ ^ ''^'
^ ^V j'- c- ^> *-^ --. 1 v~t 'F 1^ './ A,- -







Bureau f Plant Protection
(iolgic, de
institute t o MixxzaxiE Defesa Agricola)


The chief of this bureau, Dr. rJrlos Loreira, has visited the

" itd States t7/o different times in connection *:inth agricultural -.ork,
end to observe the Uehos oyed in the Unoed Staes.
methocis uraployed in the U -I ..

This bureau ias three principal divisions, l) Servico ds Vi il A

3-"idria 7c ore, /" under the direction of Dr. A. 7...1osta Lima, well

-nov 1 in Torth Americcn onto .logical circles, for his vrit ngis on

ento- logical problems. This division of the bureau corresponds in a

Several V-ay to the work and functions of the Federal Horticult ural3oard.

of the United States.2)//M-'

The second division is the Servico de Phytopathologia, under

to dir action if Dr. T;ienio Ranel, who is also well kznovn in 1Aorth Amer.

for his writingcs on parasitic fungii.

The third division is the Servigo de Into iologia, which is
direct supervision
at nrosent under the ckEig, ? f the Chiief of the bureau, Dr. Carlos Ioreira

The division of Vigilancia Sanitaria YUetal was or-"..ised in

about 1.920, when an inhibition w.as riade on the introducti on of coffee. plantss

and sugar cane plants. Since hhat time, theseplants could not be legally ,

introduced into Brasil without being inspected by an at fir;er of the Irntttuto.

Since that time, from year to year, other plants have teen added to the list

of t Vose that must be inspected before they may enter the country. At Hie

present timf, cotton, coffee and sugar cane are on the prohibited list. 2scze

can be imported only by the Eederal Department, and the Institute Biologico

ismade r. s.-Lo-.ible for their purity and freedom from insects.and diseases.

thesee .l s,._a-re planted only in slant Introduction fields, under the direct

charge of the Instituteo Bio logico. Pfivate parties, states and individuals

are not oennitted to introduce any of these three plants or seeds thereof.
of
Other e&oracSmR nts than y e three mentioned abovr are infected at the ports
os










55555 55. L .aaaL P aa a a 00La


a l' .acuS fJ )5. a- ^A -' ^, -





3f Rio and Santos, and if found free from noxious insects or & seases,

are allowed to procede to their destination. Thirty days thereafter a

seco d inspection is made by an officer of the Instituto Biologico.

During the last three years the Instituto Biologico
N in the locality and particularly
ias been required to mske frequent inspection/cf orange grovesfrom which

it is proposed to export fruit In this %vajtljo fruit for export is in

a 1-rge measure protected against the inclusion of fruit'affected with

fru t, flies.

















i)














t"







ON BOARD S.S."VANDYCK'.


^WLJ~^pp5/&7 cvX^Iw^*
I/I/JL mw 1-1/tht











1). Time of xhidmxx imporbations.

The' dates of inpoorbe{ion for the rasilian oranges'-- be

limited bo from June 1st to Octl. 1st. Theso dcoes correspofd to the '''

rniLi, n production of oranges in th JUnited Sta- iT -,ched f :
a d. e ranoefruisit
__ s .ows the movementt ofthe oranges' in t--e Unitred States for the

years 1916 to 1922, inclusive.This indicates hat during the .month

of August, no oranges are shipped from Florida, in Sop't same small.

shiocmnts beoin, r:cachin tblhe peak of shipments dur ,'n Dcceibor a-Il

Janoiory, then gradually decreasing unt i L the lst of June.

3^refraph^ilus ru.tes. tho movemen-t of oran es fromn
shipm: ats are
Ujalifornia. This ind.icates that the p .dxiknaxi rapidly diiio2hing
their
dining the ionth of J'l.-ird reach ,s ioin.um in Seoteob-or, -/.hen the

average for the s ;ven years was on.;.y slightly more then a thousand

car JP:rs.* *
//

The period of ripening for the 3 rasilian orange s o o posite to

the period of ripening for oranges in -the United States. The 'Washington

Uavel begins to ripen about the first of LIay. The late varieties,

which correspond to the North American Valencia, begin to ri en in

Augustand September C',1 the North American oranges are ripening at

their best, it w=-ld no lon. r be .rtieal-i to ship Brasilian oranges

to the United States. The late varieties find a very profitable,

market in Argentina. 'fiC principal period of exhortation is between

August 15 and Decaiber 15.








2:.: N 2.

.ulletin 640, U. S. D. A. p. 36.

0 ,o1d Storage T ..-,, t r ,. .. y oJ ^t7

Gold storage temperatures do not lessen the jo alreai'- done

fruits byI larvae within their, but th--' :. become of inestimable value in

guarding fruits against further attacks while in sto *-r. or transit.and in

~f1fn-'..:a 2 -',..fr.i. -ci ;z i : .- .1 :' :r's of the fruit fly.



It seems reasonable to conclude that sooner or later the certifA

cation of properly f',igeraited fru.t. wi .1 be pracficablo. an

association of fruit gro Kersr, or a people, find it finai cially worth

the wThile, ie'e is no reason why they cannot o `e a central :frig-

oration .. L under the .. revision of an official ..hose reputation

shall be sufficient to guarAntee all fruits .::-t out from the plant

t be absolutely free from the danger as carriers of the fruit fly.,



Journal Agricultural Research, V7-i V., N2 15 (Jan. 10, 1916).

p age j!'.,:. .. .:

ee
J. below

eggs hatched in cold sto:'^,, if held at a t. naturer e below

.0 degrees.

A temperature of 32 :..:rees .".'. 1.l'.ly fatal to -*gs. A total

6,77 c were under observation. No ,'- hatched upon removal from
storr._ after t!e ninth day of rofrir.?:,ion. Oi.i.y one :o hatc..,: on the

ninth day, and but two out of 2,327 removed on the seventh, eighth and

ninth I -s. After -'.l. te,.t, to fifteenth r'-r of refci i .... :, 2.Ji:l

e .".s were removed to warmer t p.., !.",r, u ,.:1 .-tohUd. .:rtali'L

increased rr--.idly ai'-' cr the fourth of refrK,:'-.ion; thus, on the

fifth .-':, only 15 out of T :. hatched. (See 1'.....- .)"




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