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S. ESTAAO ETPL0I] .
The timss of gre-rt stress, such; as the- present, offer
the" finest opportunity for the unselfish statesman to do real
the- e i an '
constructive work. Just,now, there is an opportunity for the
patriotic Mineiran to show that he has the capacity for leading
;;' _" ._
Sthe State to a higher and grander civilization. At this time it
Sis of highest importance that all elements working for the"
promulgation of useful agricultural information among our rural
Spopulation should procede as vigorously as possible.
T The great system of North American Agricultural Colleges
( .Land-Grant Colleges), was immmi founded and some of theZ
SColleges -f that system rere established during the great-Civil
S 'War, which vwas a more violent social and economic disturbance
S than anything Brasil has seen. Senator Justin Morrill, who
secured, the pass-fage of this act,.is better known and more famous
than'his co-temporary Presidents, Hohnson, Hayes, Garfield, A-rthur,
SHerbet 'Hoover, during the WorldStri-t, rescued thousands*
& "_. -
:of. starving children, to hi's--great financial--detriment.. UncanS.- ,
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*. ciously ~- ac0 zF, i'paved the way .-: eat er se.-ces which ..; '
S'-eadto his appointment aS. Secretary of. Commpnee and finally .
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:. :~ chtira prges..-s palo through he-: -- -
cooperate, in order to work economically
and efficiently, and should
Campiass, is sending an experienced scientist to a foreign country
Sperfecthis knowledge in his chosen bfanch,.genetica vegetal..
. .- .
I disclaim any assumption of an intellect superior to
The Statesmen spirit Santo ha ve hadrcen addea three agriculturally
than they have had, are to evaluate the different elements
necessary for the development of a rational agriculture. My thirty
trained men to erupted service in the United States of America and
more than tizen years service Minas enables me to see these ro
""-": I disclaim any assumption of an intellect superior to
he Mineiran statesmans, but I are sohad a greinitmately associated
with the daily struggles that it is often difficult fferent elements
necedistinguish cleafor the development of a rational agricultural project andy trty
On the, following pages an Attempt has been made to point
years f u ninterrupted service iof an energetic policy for the betterment
more than ture. Attentionceas also beenables meted to see the fact that
,o ls o t blems esl:or-. if
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The .*:ine-ran statesman are so intimately associated
.1. .- *.-
'- distinguish clearly between the true agricultural project and
SOn the following pages an attempt ha been made to point
7 out clearly the necessity of an energetic policy for the betterment-
: of/agriculture. Attention has also been directed to the fact that [*.
ll the establishfl~nfc of w. institution a~n insufficient funds is "-*..
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The Experiment Station at Bello Horizonete
This is a splendid project and a move in the right
direction, which should be carried out with all possible vigor.
a). Minas has a number of .scientists at Bello Horizonte who
need closer contact with actua J~V7*eaieee. We have almost no-
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scientists who are at the same time trained in the art of agricul-
ture. The salaries are so small that we cannot hope to attract
trained men from the outside. We must therefore adopt the 'Slower
and more costly method of educating our own men. This experiment
station should give% these scientists to test out the
recommendations before they wre, promulgated to the farmers. They
will then-know what knowledge gained from scientific literature
can be applied to the existing farm conditions.
b). These scientists being segregated under a more rural
-ambient will instinctively come to cooperate more and more with.
one another and thus make their work douoly effective.Being sepa-
rated from the purely routine clerical workman they will be less
inclined to be engaged in their work for only the hours marked
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.. ::he--clck (clo.. watchers. .- '
soil, plants, ttees, crops and animals.
The North American system (the Land-Grant Colleges)
owe Stei great strength and progress to the fact that ,asame
in nearly all of the States, the instructional, the investigation
(Experiment Stations) ard the ExtenSion (Agricultores Ambulantes),
ry- *rcZ' -."- -
--- ( in one institution. This arrangement brings together a large body
of agricultural scientists. They become mutually helpful and so
render much greater service to agriculture: It brings that stu-
dents in daily contact tith the scientific work (Experiment Station)
and the ExtenSion work (Agricultores Ambulantes) and makes every
one a propagandist for better agriculture.
One of the greatest weaknesses +SAMias for the promotion
of practical agriculture, has been that she established many small,
isolated and independent agricultural institutions.
c). I have viewed the property w!iere the work of enlarging
the institution was in progress. It is admirably located, occupying
Doth sides of a highway, it offers an unexcelled opportunity for
demonstrating methods of culture and the use of labor saving imple-
The land is more or less of an average for what occurs
around bello Horizonte, so that experiments in crop production on it
will demonstrate what can be done on tnat type of soil.
The location is :-dmirably adapted to demonstrate practical
poultry productbn for the farm. by carrying out a vigorous poultry
,.' campaign it can be made .to produce greater returns,.to-the farms in 1".a
fivey years than does dairying today.
d). I no.w come to the most critical and at the same time the
Most delicate point,- i.e. FINANCIAL SUPPORT. North America, South
Africa and many other countries have hundreds of failures of "ex-
periment stations". Primarily for lack of trained men to direct
'the m and secondarily- for Ywant of adequate financial support.
.The Experiment station should be Well supported'from the
ot: ate treasury. The establ-ishment of numerous independent stations,
by whatever name they are known, was in North America a manifesta-
tion of political weakness. Minas e= has example to the discre-
dit -of her'sfatesmen. The financial support-of these institutions
has been so inadequate and frequently the men-in charge had little
Sor no ammmihhtmapmihf knowledge of practical. agriculture ad---
e). One of the greatest impediments to the success of the
S- nt "a that the men in charge were technically weak and untrained
in practical operations. The mental attainment of. these men a
":- such that on being elev ted to the position they became extremely
N.., self-op-inlonated. .. syipathetic supervision i er .tt ,-r
1rs and hec
'r_,w e -t U
ars andhave h ghest espector hiS .. i cl
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*no do2.it a o acquire 1'
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-- 1 i-il-)'-*i;UUI ILO~~iU~*ili~ i~*-~~~*)~~L~ili:iCll~i~ ~'~I.I*~ir*C~1UIYOL'(i~lTlii~LL*~l- IYT~YIIUY3~OYCIIYI
and his ability to get results where any other ivineiran known to
mb /.uld have failed.
f)D The history of -agriculture in iviinas is oeing recorded
in the archives jf the Secretaria. V.'hen the historian of the
near future assembles these data he vill fL:d that the great State
of ,-inr s v.s very prolific in starting excellent agricultural
proje cts and then permitting them to gradually starve to. death.
This is ',hat is happening to the L.S.A.V. For the year 1931,
the allotment is.about eighty reis per capital per annum. How /
9ge can it be when the statesmen of thoe great state of kinas
allot orily seven thousand contos dq reis to her entire department
of agriculture ? This is less than one -n.. f cf i Lu id
ir hal t- to foster her greatest industry, agriculture. According
to the statistics for 1929 fr-m the Secretrria de Agriculturs, 91 I:
of bar exports originated on thie farm. I am informed that
Sao Paulo hes alotted more th:n half that much for higher education
alone (Escola Ouperior "Luis de tueiroz", am& istituto Agronomico
and Instituto Biologico.)
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