Estacao Experimental, by P. H. Rolfs.


Material Information

Estacao Experimental, by P. H. Rolfs.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 4
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Estacao Experimental, by P. H. Rolfs.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Full Text


The timss of gre-rt stress, such; as the- present, offer

the" finest opportunity for the unselfish statesman to do real
the- e i an '
constructive work. Just,now, there is an opportunity for the

patriotic Mineiran to show that he has the capacity for leading

;;' _" ._
Sthe State to a higher and grander civilization. At this time it

Sis of highest importance that all elements working for the"

promulgation of useful agricultural information among our rural
_-,- .
Spopulation should procede as vigorously as possible.

T The great system of North American Agricultural Colleges

( .Land-Grant Colleges), was immmi founded and some of theZ

SColleges -f that system rere established during the great-Civil

S 'War, which vwas a more violent social and economic disturbance

S than anything Brasil has seen. Senator Justin Morrill, who

secured, the pass-fage of this act,.is better known and more famous

than'his co-temporary Presidents, Hohnson, Hayes, Garfield, A-rthur,


SHerbet 'Hoover, during the WorldStri-t, rescued thousands*
& "_. -
:of. starving children, to hi's--great financial--detriment.. UncanS.- ,
..'Lb-' : .,* 41 ,

*. ciously ~- ac0 zF, i'paved the way .-: eat er se.-ces which ..; '

S'-eadto his appointment aS. Secretary of. Commpnee and finally .
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-* ..,.- on m nat o-. .. .th. '0 7 progress. ... -....- ,,- -P... '

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:. :~ chtira prges..-s palo through he-: -- -

cooperate, in order to work economically

and efficiently, and should

r -

Campiass, is sending an experienced scientist to a foreign country

Sperfecthis knowledge in his chosen bfanch,.genetica vegetal..

. .- .

I disclaim any assumption of an intellect superior to

The Statesmen spirit Santo ha ve hadrcen addea three agriculturally

than they have had, are to evaluate the different elements

necessary for the development of a rational agriculture. My thirty

trained men to erupted service in the United States of America and

more than tizen years service Minas enables me to see these ro

""-": I disclaim any assumption of an intellect superior to

he Mineiran statesmans, but I are sohad a greinitmately associated

with the daily struggles that it is often difficult fferent elements

necedistinguish cleafor the development of a rational agricultural project andy trty

On the, following pages an Attempt has been made to point

years f u ninterrupted service iof an energetic policy for the betterment

more than ture. Attentionceas also beenables meted to see the fact that

,o ls o t blems esl:or-. if

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The .*:ine-ran statesman are so intimately associated

.1. .- *.-

o -
'- distinguish clearly between the true agricultural project and
SOn the following pages an attempt ha been made to point

7 out clearly the necessity of an energetic policy for the betterment-
: of/agriculture. Attention has also been directed to the fact that [*.
ll the establishfl~nfc of w. institution a~n insufficient funds is "-*..

-. .. ,-- f. .

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The Experiment Station at Bello Horizonete

This is a splendid project and a move in the right

direction, which should be carried out with all possible vigor.

a). Minas has a number of .scientists at Bello Horizonte who

need closer contact with actua J~V7*eaieee. We have almost no-
9U -- -- ~
scientists who are at the same time trained in the art of agricul-

ture. The salaries are so small that we cannot hope to attract

trained men from the outside. We must therefore adopt the 'Slower

and more costly method of educating our own men. This experiment

station should give% these scientists to test out the

recommendations before they wre, promulgated to the farmers. They

will then-know what knowledge gained from scientific literature

can be applied to the existing farm conditions.

b). These scientists being segregated under a more rural

-ambient will instinctively come to cooperate more and more with.

one another and thus make their work douoly effective.Being sepa-

rated from the purely routine clerical workman they will be less

inclined to be engaged in their work for only the hours marked

r';' -" ,- ,r --- ..... ..- -. .'
.. ::he--clck (clo.. watchers. .- '
t' %1t7

soil, plants, ttees, crops and animals.


The North American system (the Land-Grant Colleges)

owe Stei great strength and progress to the fact that ,asame

in nearly all of the States, the instructional, the investigation

(Experiment Stations) ard the ExtenSion (Agricultores Ambulantes),

ry- *rcZ' -."- -
--- ( in one institution. This arrangement brings together a large body

of agricultural scientists. They become mutually helpful and so
render much greater service to agriculture: It brings that stu-

dents in daily contact tith the scientific work (Experiment Station)

and the ExtenSion work (Agricultores Ambulantes) and makes every

one a propagandist for better agriculture.

One of the greatest weaknesses +SAMias for the promotion

of practical agriculture, has been that she established many small,

isolated and independent agricultural institutions.

c). I have viewed the property w!iere the work of enlarging

the institution was in progress. It is admirably located, occupying

Doth sides of a highway, it offers an unexcelled opportunity for

demonstrating methods of culture and the use of labor saving imple-

The land is more or less of an average for what occurs

around bello Horizonte, so that experiments in crop production on it

will demonstrate what can be done on tnat type of soil.

The location is :-dmirably adapted to demonstrate practical

poultry productbn for the farm. by carrying out a vigorous poultry

,.' campaign it can be made .to produce greater returns,.to-the farms in 1".a

fivey years than does dairying today.


-.'. -
d). I no.w come to the most critical and at the same time the

Most delicate point,- i.e. FINANCIAL SUPPORT. North America, South

Africa and many other countries have hundreds of failures of "ex-

periment stations". Primarily for lack of trained men to direct

'the m and secondarily- for Ywant of adequate financial support.

.The Experiment station should be Well supported'from the

ot: ate treasury. The establ-ishment of numerous independent stations,

by whatever name they are known, was in North America a manifesta-

tion of political weakness. Minas e= has example to the discre-

dit -of her'sfatesmen. The financial support-of these institutions

has been so inadequate and frequently the men-in charge had little

Sor no ammmihhtmapmihf knowledge of practical. agriculture ad---

e). One of the greatest impediments to the success of the

S- nt "a that the men in charge were technically weak and untrained

in practical operations. The mental attainment of. these men a

":- such that on being elev ted to the position they became extremely

N.., self-op-inlonated. .. syipathetic supervision i er .tt ,-r
1rs and hec
'r_,w e -t U

ars andhave h ghest espector hiS .. i cl

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*no a o acquire 1'

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and his ability to get results where any other ivineiran known to

mb /.uld have failed.

f)D The history of -agriculture in iviinas is oeing recorded

in the archives jf the Secretaria. V.'hen the historian of the

near future assembles these data he vill fL:d that the great State

of ,-inr s v.s very prolific in starting excellent agricultural

proje cts and then permitting them to gradually starve to. death.

This is ',hat is happening to the L.S.A.V. For the year 1931,

the allotment is.about eighty reis per capital per annum. How /

9ge can it be when the statesmen of thoe great state of kinas

allot orily seven thousand contos dq reis to her entire department

of agriculture ? This is less than one -n.. f cf i Lu id

ir hal t- to foster her greatest industry, agriculture. According

to the statistics for 1929 fr-m the Secretrria de Agriculturs, 91 I:

of bar exports originated on thie farm. I am informed that

Sao Paulo hes alotted more th:n half that much for higher education

alone (Escola Ouperior "Luis de tueiroz", am& istituto Agronomico

and Instituto Biologico.)

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