Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais - Report to Press. 1922


Material Information

Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais - Report to Press. 1922
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 3
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais - Report to Press. 1922


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Full Text

1, i ^ ..

introduction (Completion of TDrmwings)
Ideport of 'rips of investigation
Fazenda -odelo de Oriccao, 'edro Leoroldo,
1Ftacf o a -.eorm-nentpl vt TNeororo,
Tscola drc !.N.sC'uro reto,
Fazenda P6 de "orro, Quro Branco,
Instituto Induutria Pastoril, at Rio,
Posto Znotechnico at Pinheiro,
rTi(culhtursl Studies.

.Better 'ruit "tudios
a angoes,
., Avocados,
Li this
Young e"on of 'inar,

(Illustrated by 18 photographs.

\ ,

College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science
for the
State of ,inas Gerves.

To His ilxcellency,
Dr. Arthur da Silva 7ernardes,
President of the State of Minas Geraes.
Honorable Sir:
I have thhonor to present you a communication that has
to do with the establishment of the College of Agriculture ena Veter-
inary Science Since my last communication of Aug. 10, 1921, I have
made visits almost every day to the Department of Agriculture with
the view of aiding and developing the wor!'. The architect finally
completed the cdra' ings for most of the buildings. I believe the one
to be used as a reservoir for water was not drtwn but one formerly
drawn for a similar purpose was to be substituted. There are also
two hay barns of nearly similar dimensions. It was decided that one
drawing would do for the two jarns.
During the period when these drawings were being nade, it
was impracticable for me to be away from the city to study other sim-
ilar institutions in the country except for very brief periods as it
was necessary to visit the architect's office daily while he was mak-
ing these drawings. In this connection I wish to complement the
architect, '.1r. Dario Pernault Ooelho for his uniform courtesy in con-
nection with thec works

Report of Trips of Investigation.
Fazends .I.'odelo de Criacao.
On August 31, 121, I visited the Fazenda 'orlelo de Criacao
at Pedro Leopoldo. On the day of my visit Dr. Romulo Jova nne was not

., ". ** *-2- .
present, due to the fact that the Telegraph Comnany failed to send
promptly the message which hrd been delivered to them in asmple time.
His assistant, however, met me at the Pailroad Station and took me to
the Fazenda to see the animals ond the work that was being coi*ted.
They have a goodly supply of breeding animals as well as a large tract
of excellent lend on.which to develop extensive herds.
Horses. The horses were represented by two breeds: Arabian
and English thoroughbred. The animals of both breeds were in good
condition and suitable for the work in band. (bn. photographs 1,2. 3)

Jack. There was also one jack of good build and well !red.
(See photograph 4.)


Cattle. ?oth milk. and beef strains of cattle were present.
Probably the most interesting specimens were those of tT'e purebreds,
one bull and two heifers, of the I'riburgo breed. These are skid to be
the first purebreds of this breed in 'razil. "hey bad a number of the
lppresentatives of the l'rown Sviss, usually spoken of in publications
as the iwitz. These seem to 'e thie most inuular mill- breed for "razil.
There vlso were two bulls of the "ereford breed.
iogs. A considerable amount of ,,ork is beinp, done on the
breeding of hop,. 'They had three breeds nreent: T'Duroc-Jersey, "olnd
Uhina, Ond Iar-re Pleck. 'ome work was being clone in producing grarles
by the use of good types of the Canestrsas vs a foundation on the fe-rale
Live Stock Buildings' 'robtbly the most interesting nart
of the iszenda was fhe newr bnrns thet 7re being constructed for cattle
and horses. These were beinp projected on r prnnad scale worthy of the
tyne of werk that is being underta1en.

Cow Stable. ?hip structure va "s nearinp. completion. It was
built Tn the shape of aO-uadran-le, measuring forty by fifty icters.
withinn this quadran"1e is an opon once in the center of which it is
intended to lsads an immense silo. "he oroning into the barn is
through an immense arch in one side of the 'uadrangle. At the side of
this rrch ere located milk rooms, slee-'ing -uarters, and storo-'e rooms.
The 'stlls for a large number of Patfle are located on two, ard on
the third -idv are the stalls for calves. grert 00 olnce of water is
being supplied directly to the stlls. 'eprly all of tle stalls, esne-
cially tbo e for the large cattle, o.:n to-",,rd th- interior? The whole
barn has been built on a most substantial mid elaborate n-lan. Ample
ventilation is secured in all parts.

I0orFr .:-. .. t f-orial flor ",e hor.e barn -.wR? on V1., mi'i(l
at ':.. ti ,, -i .,-r,'.tion .,d !e, .,.le .crl ;'. ih,- :.nrer, I T Ffn

ofli"]' on U" i'r!J r ': -n'.r;: .Ct 11l f.]roul"'. a lmc e ;,rct'
*,,.'" 3 I ', : ",i.-,P .c. of t,:- -ire Itorf ,.i 4'onrLt will c a m out si,

,..:' ,-. -- -... ; -"' of ', ;- n 'art ,''" .-rn, will l !l s ifr .,-;

in e c ;.. le* ,:t .er ', r ;.. .. stK L r,' .'" ": trial o i.ii i,: in ".. -..vil-

-ion ... "-*- ': O .ry' i t'.'at f. -, i. -. 1 ; W... ll i.. "i.
.* of. ,: ,'i i. r"*:-.".--r yr. '. entire
,,', ci 'le will ,. c'o',:.': 'n I'r to *"A t it .. be :..- at

. ti of : -:.,:r -" :.' ,.: >. t el'. t y.
*.v-,- ri.or -rtion of .' ,j ,, --. ,n.- -., r ':.ts for
"" ?1" 'i.i ..... ** P.I "' [r!." * n : *r .; -' f :- '' *r t 1 -.! ,- "''" "r s ; .... !!* ' e

.-for L ir of -* ; -'
,. n, ', r for t '::-for-
-r', tor- -. .. for rains
"'-*" "'."'r.r'.r '"* -olan? for ''*

1 !1
*-*","' lOeati ,'-' e ".'., '".;io -'. i.,< ,* ,rl, '. " i.i '

.rrv. were ritb 1' 'li e wi. o .-. e nterei i
th e "*,t. . *-- I." i ' j. II ', i -.- '.

-~ ~ P.''.F. i'v!. -;',, ..]-,
j,. 0., ..

a .t '1-n n '' '

1~o 11c..
1 ' 1 "- I" .... .- . *. : -Ii!
**" "l".>- 'c vr '."( a - o o1^"rn 'nl
o -' ,',.: " .-r .m ip en-

r:' K ~-- tr '' on ,',;th i ..", of r'e

*i o r "' 'qi o f i'Y :-.- --*l -,-e
tI s t or. .,- of ft.. ,, .---" . -' ,. i'.-1. i-

t. erttle a-.:-.i".,f- "-, ly
1'r- '''*;" a j r.,- ,- t f 1"*,,- -- r ,ite

."-rc '*- ', r. of Pi rTi', it

is .'-,,, ible. to r-cLeW e tho m.', r- of p r- tes .t .c.-t '.:. f t t.

2, \ I C:- ,..,e-' t ooutf),'e, ks of isre: '." i,''- r. c li w.:c-
.... -i .i -/ ... ...*. t,,, u' ."., al aIan l-,:-.- te

s t vt-r. ,f i t n that I C. .* .'.".:* g -', I1 i P1,.m t t1i..11 i 7'iet -rs
-'out four v-.,t:' d" c, at it r. t It to0
..... .~~~ dou .a .t i -- t

nakje this deeper than the ordinary vat in cTdcr that The mules and
large hordes in passing tI-Cough may be cripletely subng. he
space between the vat a wall4is nearly two -eters wide, ':-.i.
it possible for the. o;,en ith the largest horns to go through without
Crop Production. A lrge -nu.FIr of c-ro-s for the feeding of an-
r.l., ar-.:. being produced. Experimental work in the besf r.,,,-:,ods of Tro-
duci.Ig these crors is bein- crri:-. on. As the c-,a on which JUc.oe crc,
al-,e& ing produced is quite level and the I !a rfiS81 s Vmlit: Ith a :; -:at
abv:'jf-ce of ..:ter it is possible to grow ].if, cropK yitli the aid of ir-
rigation that oThrvrwise would be i--.-.ible. A number of gras;.e ,/-ere
being tried, *;.i:ong them was Chloris Guiana, which rced very promising.
Two acf.,, of oats v/tre just beginning to moa.:e hea,,s and gave ,-'oi.'e
of a good crop of seed. Flax was being -ri-own for the seed to be use-,.-
in feeding cattle. This crop looked very promising.
Vegetables. A fiine vwe:etable garden was being grown. Thi

was due to the fact that abundant w:-ter for irrigation was at hand.
iaoring the standard varieties were cabbe'j,,e carrotd,and a number of others.


Istacao Experi!-ental at Peodoro.
The F&,eral CGovarnm'iut has a ler;e -re, of land located
within a kilor,,.ter of 1h'. Railway station at Deodoro. large a ,'i t
of .oi: is being inaugunated at this place. preparations -re bling
made for l-,a, extentions of agricul!;ral qc'ivities. Tihe various
branches of the Federal Depar',-,--t of iriculurc locred' here Erd
oentioir-o below t-*.ar to I'.: o i,'g Lnde-pel,,-tly of each o.7er.
The Vif This division of ttlv v'ork is loco&ted nearest
to the railway section -1'ifty-two varieties of 1-,' ts that have been
originated in various -arts of the world are bei-g- tested. 'his vi4b4
'hal been established lesf, !ion a year. The place looked Very pre-
sentable and the work was being carried out in a methodical manner.
If continued for a sufficient length of time and extenfled firc!i year to
yeo,- it ill be of great value to the nation.

An irrigation plant had been installed, mlnking it -.o sible
for the vines to .c diw-ing the dry season. A steep hill side had
been chosen for the location, ric-ing it nceeesary to erploy for of
ner. cing to obtain good re-.lts. _he variety known as "' rnr,' State"
was considered as the best by Dr. 7errctO. The sec od cst was kno-.n
as the "Brante". Both of ,-es.e aieties were ripe at the tliqe of my
second visit to ti.e niace, Dec.em.r 29", 171.
Porimr and Vtreiro. This is loca'e@l on the right 1--ni side of
the road, almost orffsite the vio" Considerable nu-ibers of fruiting
plants, mostly of citrus and ';ngaoe ;re producing fruit here. "he col-
lection is n6t as extensive as it should be even if it were only a state
inttitutiom. The pomat at the "`-cola Agricola Luiz de "ueiroz" is
much lore extensive and nore systematically arrange. In the case of
mangoes practically all of the reprodrluction (enxertia) is carried on
by inarching,(encostia). As a matter of fact, I saw no other meThorl
om"ployed for -i'goes. 'he citrus viveiro nus uch ,'r.e eyt:enFive and

on-rently, a .-..e quantity of hn!dderi c'lti... trees are sent out at the
ironer season of the year. (ee plo opT-hs 5 and 6.)

-'flfin.: ;,i fire t visit, .':ent. 17" I ,a able to hiiry the vnrie-

ties of cifr .. in .Tho -noriv.
.-r. T.. rm visit 'r. l it '.'" rofrsible to <0t
note-" on a 'trni r of v-rietie, of "i-tc.noeF. some of then !,.r! not yet

ce'li-un 1o ri,'en, r. .'jin it l>,'rccticeblo
1,o teit the eitin- qnp.ltties of to varie-

ties. ie. warinus *:roiipp -* belong-
u;'. to i'. i'Ec-r:-1 ci p;:vc the bc-,t -iro-ise
for .?I.-e r rietie5. 'hc variety l:n)n. ns
.of ,': .-,i.c in-rfrior lo 1bce best of ,.hi,
vnriety on '!, ,.,rk:t in Tio 1e J.-. n iro.
i')oFnr-i 1h rn. 7 slov.s a tree of the
K rtlot. v.hicli I ,.onf.. to .e Itamaraca
T. .Mi y. 1,1- ; .'," of ,,c -r,-., i^
v.r ietiep.
f"r Tr)r",, o ry )n1.itutoeieOsa 0' rico0a,
'..e-'; e^ler-l >.v7-r,:na.nt : tabliFhed here
a "-mll, rbou-,,ct, but exc-.-c-.iincly ell orrnn-
.-,d rl-',,rrnry for the study of ins"ct0 and ti
eFses -f vorioms aropFs ,'rC.'In'nPMqInt of

1the building i, umnuunlly '-.'ell -l,-nc'l. Dr. ?utfte- ir., ,0ho did the

planning, hns had Feveral years of experienT.e in this line of invetign-
tion. .', lnrre number of useful firiculturnl crops are being tested in
the paraen rcar the laboratory in orler that the varietieo most resistant
to diseases vnd insects way be .iscovere(. A Tgreat m.ny difficultieso h d
to e ovc-rvo.e before third s-r''ln coulrl be r.ed for ex erimental ,nrnoees.
It was necessary to drain 'hoe land :.-!n ?lo to c-,oply mrclerf-round Irainage
whih .o very l,.boriouf r1nq ey-,'enive 7h the absence of "roner -lr,,inage
IncTistrel Pastnril. 'Thip division if the government world is
located bet,-e.-n the o"',"rr ann 't-e lsbnr!jtory referred tc s'bve. 'ome
Vwhit exter.rive planS ere being m nle for houeirp nnd feeding the live-
stoc'k, TLipth horses .n- cr-ttle.
mn iy vipit-,-f 'ec. 20" the
horse bnrns, cow barnssilo
nd mEmnre nit h d been corn-
mfleted. :'l11 of these had been
Inut un in a --opt rubFNtntijl
iand c.-:rr'fil wafy.
-hotograph "o. 8 shows the
?fon in 'he field cutting corn for the silo.
In.truction- It is intended to give the students in the fourth
.year c.os, in agriculture in truction at 'eodoro inItead of at ^itcheroy

as is tf},e case at present. A smial buil-ing h r been ronft-ucted to ao-
coro'ate V h*t-.e clasr-es. It is r.o-'e".1ht difficult to underriand how this
can e carried on suecessfully. It wouP 'eeim !o be PO far removed from
the central intitution a Vif.cheroy aPs to mnke it very difficult for the
nrofues-Pra .,id Che students.



'seola de '"in.-:
n. O&t* 30" I visited t"r -.-iool of Aines at Ouro Preto.
":-';g! ',he kin,.e.:,, f O. h,,:,'r~inp, I hI d an *onnortf,nity of '-nteinq
cl. of theo CIoratories, is well as "Ie ,F(:um o4T' onlr-er ol]ectior.
Te institution is iii iruily -eell ,.;iiirnred. e1T inern1ol'ical

hc e!n'ect.G in; n institution of 1',. 7ind, un-. r., by thp ^j'oit ,tnte
of .'j-,, f T~r-. -t -,; -' ; , \" t .. ..: ,
0f ..IP a'r p. It -.t rnrw...t....- I 1 .7-o to Uin1 -, c'i
en i, collecti.r, of ara'. :.- F,, in tie i t is U

extr.iv- v "r,-. one exn cts to find i iih i.-.ti tIti.-,i of this k, -t The
collection of plants in ;P,' hLer!.. f, 01 f. on
tfl'' one IOnid ...'t.

',-.. librnry i? 7,t ".-iv.,", c'ntalning :...,rnbiy five 4;'oucv-,',,._ bound

avuu.n.c'' t- -e'' or th files f nearly aI !' ,. e,: er..t r.,-.,"i s-.: on ingi.-
ne ;'q.,rin. ,

sho,"& the old
S>hCnol of f ?r

v psrt of it I,-rv-

ed. :hto rph
S. rlhows a Cor-
ner of the mnin
buil.linr of the

prof-'CLt .
of *.in's.


Fazende P6 de Morro.

On Oot. 12" to 1", irchlsive, I h:d tT:e good fortune to bw
able to 7isit te f?--ze-,_, 1 .1e Lorro in comny with -"r? Arthut Vianna,
.l'' ho. I ;,.-), F v,"Ty .* if tlis
"0.., 6f 1this

0g-,o'" ^ ^ ^n .i<.. , it C.' n- 1: ':
cbeince to fec tle v.-crk r.1-L a
fEzen--se in i rtivt; operation.
Aspio ,i i:", the f"'inc ;..'.rk
ntc'-if ";.;'..r.-- ',.'in.f? cm-,;~r'+,rc-1 ''',,"';

faz nnr.t v'.'' -.- Of -"I' c :1. inr-
est to me Qr 1 0l fe('t 'it
it Y..,3 K ore tin, V-:,r,. a f''-
ter of FI] "ini.'. li., I ".Inn'ie, n.'. "'rn en irely ,. nh n,.:' now.
roo ;-r'.,h 7or. *re q'e.f nts t)t, l, i,,,rter. '-f the f;,.cnda.
*t tij- ti". of ou-r -,,-it the corn ',2 -n- I'h -i-i .0-,o hn
uee-! plonted]. 'e r- :."nt the J;,h, v:-- 'idipL',-" v.r ,,'.. .r'tnti.t on e-ncd
vi 2.-oI p ,? J ffer e,-rt .-.,* t .:,v of i .

!I 0 o ),
In 4fl "@iti'p. to the o.', r.T:. f.r,,, *-*. ImvGord... u ', 7rrrp1in c p yass.
h& b:rn pi1"..- for *Fture. : (,ftinF'" ';. all donrTr -'&1 rm nd
1.0V: T1170 'I t 1e r nr r4
gV\'- pr'ri?' of good r V-r t' fj tb.e ..-nrr.
"- ',oiv,'_.r L'n o ;', ..r,'',.',c r .:'.:;..., ^"vn , to tb". 'r'rv.ucti or

of sup-pr ep'ic


Instituto Indu]Ftria Tr,.-toril, st Pio Oe JFTeiro.
'n rc 'e~er "7'' I '..t t.o thi. i'-titute, which i- loco+ter] on
F.i: :tt 1 ,reo It is lorrted in bie bui'laing tl,.'t '-,re cnrntructe0.
for th1e I.c1oa ?uCrior e 1etecrlnri8, :-n.' which were !,m0onod --en the
".ool we trnanferre'l to 'itcroroy.
..v .necial purr,,ie i. visiting te in'titutet ws to roc f.he
_.-'/.o toric'- ,' n. to learn at first-i,'n*1 -n .':h, ?oil is doinr to nroteet
5ii-r'"-'lf r....in5 the i.,1t- '"iod action of ,*, 7* ,uS s ,1"1 ,*,I aise.rres, nnl also
to lj-rn "-h-f t is ',in r doe to protect h:r citi.-ens ;-inst fhe ,ijpve'-
i-,Ltion of i'-irnitfwy' "-iet. 'n r,.', .u fhr-i n office of P" iw.tittu-
tion, a youn" Taan by ti. nr.-ic of 1r, "oc'.yr.Je `oiiz. wos 1e1'tiled to eo-
co,'r"rny .e ,- e bnuildtn'-" 'nd rvr.T !I..c -.. nr .,: ortu.m:,ifely for -e,
Dr. .ouzp studied t".o vyi-I-.rp at o-,'nel! ".ivrvity, of t'.e t4;- of "-ew
York. 4e exr lined to no .-t 4 e buildir., h c'n r'ntly bi.nied
t,' :i- .enar*'-ent rn tfh,:-it some of 'e 1..-'bcratorief w-; not yret fully
en inrnod. In s',,e of Ar- la'ora torie?, i. 1,o -i r, nt D'fd '. n fully iv -
s lie?,, and t. m'.y ''ert in ru ni - ,Arr 0ou1tine ,'.,' c i." cron-
,T,.:cted !'h. equi,,r,-.rt in all f}. -',",retori'', -;--, to all :..r-:.K ,t in
;.re- t rihu ce a e inn illation of .:<,. e, eFt .i ':,', I..*-'n first ohnrs.
*v; i.., to t'e fef ct tli., tI,,, 1iiv i ,2d i 1'r, bee-i re-,-f nI ntel for
0.,.o:.. -r ",-ro--e, ',ie of the b.>cntorie. se-'-;cJ to lc too c;-. w^-,, k-
ii; it necec'r'ry to rl.,ce so:. of te omjir"' .'it '>.,ere d ".',oi:ld cnue 'a-
in ,rr'' out scientific -o0'K-. It -.- ; -lcin,: to e tfiat 1h-1
,Vc.. : F. F'ry in FOme (.,.cu.e of !ve. of flnds, ".rkim' it cco.sry
to ece r *..i r h in n:' rts of the building, ci., t.ble for -rt. .iin,- it
ra..,-r th.n in the -.i.ces v.lere it rord r,:'et m. fniertly 'v-, h e 9ut-
s.ide of t'he main buildirp a'-'. th" rounds of t' e ir-titite. ". a lorme
nmv-lion fm r,.;-.ttle* -'-ly about s t f dozen ,'- --, T ont, ,'1tho Iore
wrP ro'rom for fiftv or a he,.dred.

Photograph "o. 4e
illustrates one of the cow stea
stalls. These stalls are
e,:uipped with concrete mangers
and water troughs. They have
a concrete floor on which is
placed e re-iovable boarrd
floor, --nking it possible to Tash the floors and lreep them constantly
sanitary. In case thaO have been occupied by ernials with contigious it is pr,'s.ible to sterilize the st-nls. without difficulty.
A new concrete silo had been
constructed wnd was nearly complete. It
was of the usual type of concrete Filos,
about four meters in diie-meter, and should
have been a Tieter npand a half or two meters
taller. Photograph '"o. shows their silo.
Dr. Souza told Me that all' the
live pnimrls received from forei..n coun-
tries 'vill be disembarked on nne of +le
islands in the harbor. They horl just 'te-
gun building cnerationF on the island po
I did not take tiie to visit it.


Posto 'ootechnico at inlichiro.
On. Pecei'ber P" I visitedfl thiF --st an' bTad he pleasure of
seein- !I prrts of it, incluilinc" he l, renriLado. Mhir was the ori-
ginal Fite of tVie 1 -ricultural ColJ:,e. '"e :rly all of Ithe
bvcldin,,n were eontrumct,'l for h: -t institution.
lhe institution o.'mnr about ,'"' heYfiJrep of lcn<, six hun-
dred hc',- of c'ettlei one hiun(rlred he of 1,or~es ano riales, seve/nty
herd o' hof s *r'a twenty or thirty hc .-, If F'hcenpand goats.
Tlic P'-rounds rnd
buildia r.!,p are suierbly '`',-t.
?rtorh To. 1 shows a view

of tKc #rlnnis. The builinpr
ire spscioui rr.r well (nrOtedl
to eync.eriental :-rA i.i-otruet-
ionC:F use. 'here ire h.bout
two ,unared intfornafo, receiv-
inpr inmtirunction three days in
th-e week rmo worinpi -n lbo
fa.,nc threpoe days. food, clothing: r.-n hooks r-rf., Il freo to the
stTrlents. ':hey are all yoimp, me-n depirincr an edOur-tion but not having
Sufficier-t 'nee-,rs to ohtia n it. 7o stuoret )-nter sixfeer y.rirs of a -e
is ;,_riatted. Of %'e on'-s that I -,v: rn-e see -iea to 'e o,'.r" eighteen
yc-'r,, of a I!e. T wey wetr as 'fine a lot of boys sc- p,.e rou'i. c-re to oee,-
lively, -'ctive, -n, exr,'-i-ely well b!eh-',ve.
The classp cVrc splendidly arrsn.-per, well lir'hted nrl well
aired. T-,i appratius in t" e oil aber1--tory, -he hvhyics l-bora'.ory,
ent-} Ii'c' other clcsFp roo"iw that I visi--e .,. .uch ,. is i.iuKlly onloyed
for fiid ents rrcm-rinr for entrcmce to institntionr of Tiir1her learning.


afterr the Direcfor had shown me the class rooms aqn the
laboratories, `e d.-e;tilod .riiomo Carlos Tello Filho to Iloow -ie -he
rest of the institution. i vi.iteA four of fle be'lroonis oevu-nied
by t4'e irternrfos. Thece ".'ere of tike- ucrul tyone employee in 'uirone
in ry.-nrie rod school. of fhLt gwr.'e.
The building em-lo:,ed for cattle dalls is very lprp.e, ",'oll
airoeId .nl fle stalls much Thrger than -ISiial in institutions of this
kind. Ordinarily about double the num',c-r of rniriml would ,e acoo-
-lodte.? on the s',rie floor sivce.

'.he exterior of thivp bujirA.p is illustrr+ed by ',o01n"rinh
0o. I4. 'i. furtf'est en'd of 't is iPi;atrated by otorn.h .1-

s01o0-inp' @ Pilo in "hl' oroce.'P of onrtfrction. :',aepent to fli silo
is a :'-rnriidly e',iipned def)':rt-ient for *hc. mrakin.o of butler nnd cheese.
Unfortunctcely at the time of iy visit there- ,.'va insuflcient no,':or -ores-
elnt to .rer!it the institution to onerote t'.- .-reamory. It ipeP pop.ible,
bov.o,:v'.r, to cxa-nine thr-. ao, n'ratur n ,r. 'rimcli;-rv in dtkail.
::orsee. iese were Ieent in ab.il1inp rather sr'&ll6r and
les!: s-rcious than those ocfunie@ by ,he cttle, the ,arn is less
well ventilated and ldar':er. T0 -'ee thI ,-imc.l, it "aS recep.ry for

the attendant to t':e Ieic out of tf}e sl. --To fine Arahirn st.l-
lions were Bwrn heree was also an i-n-lish thoroughbred sti-.l1ion chat


was a hnndsome animal. Two especially fine jacks were nlpo slnmm.

CatIle. The cow bam ,,was so "'ell li.hte,' r-. so well ar-
rane d h'wt 'he' rnimpIls 'ere on perfect cyhibitionr at all times. 'he
main herd wis in thic rnnstiire but ainon. the special breodinpv stock
that "-'a present in the loarn mny ,c, mentioned .ollnd ?uernmsey,
Tersey$, SiTimenthal, Sw'r*pvs 2WIss, 'Yrhi'in, nrm COracu* Tiese are all

registered vhi-als nad ':(,pt for ;nneci'pl -urnoses. h r-neciens of
aeaey ,-evr' of rather inferior conf-or-ition. 'hr spoeimen of Jersey

tiFa unworthy of a rTIpce in !'fhe lera* Th' 'irhnmhp s).hirbm 1 eplc of gaoot
o on f ora t i on.
Tops-. Pure. bred Duroc Jer-ey, ,:'olan C'inas, ,rre ''.Tlacks,

and Berkhire, ,v'ore pre-,-t. All of these 1'1- l-3en oel for cross-
ing on theo native CBaeiira. Some especially fine Frcivenp of n.stiQos
vith Turoc-.cersey blood .ere shown.
Forare. considerable amount of snerimentation is car-
ried on with Tarions forrpe croons. 7'hooorsnh "o. 17 illus-r foes the
plots of diffc-rent sIfvlfa-. .A.P-'onio Carlos -ello. Filho, said that
thie seed obtained 4rom Texyas a1e the lrr:'st yield and made the -ost
Gsainfrctory rrowthl. The o-hotoprar1, wa,' t:en during, a rYin so *.oes
not show ,s sharply as it would hrve mn'lr a clear shy.


-ricul furpl studies.
,uyin.F my s tDy in ""in. : ,, .rc'p I hpve piven -he
closest o--ible attention to '.ho r-,riculturl :orkl as it is be-
ir'g develo"9e in the S-+teo- I C.vC rV',rte7oly e'. !urriscd at
the 'nn idrful productiv-ne.s of' s" oil m'll tiho ungini ficence of Ih10
live -triek. *ile enr-"ei in these studies i have eonetantly hcnd
in aind the lines and (direcions in which the -,rriculture eou11 be
i^rcvw-e1 itiout C.nt-.iling :nv j-ri'col nfes in the -r,.?ent -'-
t!icis of procedure. -hr ier.14! of every .-r.'iiculturasl stale *.,-:, n]s
pri rilv. on "-,. sourcn-s, the first -r- oi, thnft is Uu'V.,., e.arli-
eut in *evelornt is i-hrt of "ie liv. stock in.t res.Ft. C,.Aovern-
rent of is doing f re-it ('ecl + frO tli, dcvelomncrnt of a bctteor
live storlcr. Vari-',r o'':ri- ,vtins Pre vlso doinp a rrct i-- t Il for
thc iiorovc"',nt of il eattle* Kv- zebi .i. uno2c10tiorr-bly the frln-
a',tion stor-e for the; < te Cf r)-i: v'r; erttle c-7'unt-y j-' h..-
to or. il.I or some one or rrother fu' sT tiin fs'nei- ".I. of -],. i ',.;
countries like .'mo-tralia, .nth Africa, P n the '.feitl R% p h-,v
h-.l to -"o .irnnmh this d.'-:vlor.:ent '-'c. ,%T. firs step -,. tso.

ost<1. .s nt of '.r founln tio'-. snoe .i .' z iii-s m irl by the
intro.-lcti o0 of new .o dov.cof w of heef cattle in !1 couin-
tries br .-.., initial stc,:- of the live stock inustry. T"r:` the
'beef : ,'LI Oe stg,,?e e. s' b-.... d. vd-w,,o;,'ed, tl,. dr.iryinm' st,,. Cro.i' r r ,p
of ;n P are alr y t?.-ing- ur 1!hiD- t-r.c-e of 4hhe live siock inT-h'try.
03!o tT0];r. 1'0e ,'-h .ran\, ^wlSS are ,'i.~n] trt Fr.Ce (,nermeilly well
aiC-,pIer1 to t'e innugu ration of -his lihe of fie in .uFtry.
'rom the reDorts of rr.r 'rios of inve-Ftigtion it will 1:e
r.oen that I 1ove visited Pr Iny of te 'oor ,nirf i-tit a ld
,oo.,.b ir c".titule, ns -quid
be rc'che1d without interfering with the, ,nin p:-n of miy work. It will
.-.o ", econ .thft *1 hve .ive3 my rirs alfention to the live sock


development at these v; rious institution,. "he P-overnrment is going '
a preat niece of Work for the neonle of 'Yail in introdhcing ni',e-
bred of thbe better breeds.
0roses. For a lonr. 1i,:, to come 'Jer.ep will neod to
develop the PF',ill horse as is renreFOn .ed by e 'raObian r he n"-
2irh thoroufhbred. 'o".ever, I re-::r' ; i,' d,'-velop,:ent of her ,orses
c1i0 Pule': a-. of .econrory i-,nc.T"lncee to '1: dvel.r'ment of her cattle.
in all rvar.ncei .-riculflir.l couitrier 'rInse --ower has been largely
replnice.l by electric or .,'. drive-r' ''.e: -iery.
tUttle. .eit nn, olcr roxue1v' of nrttle cannot be kanlacod
in the r,-'e w.'v h .he orld will Pi.lvoy., Pvr-1 'or a Tare I'o.! odhtion
o0 rie.t an-' leather U. well .F other rnii'..l procluc. T, ra':il .nr es-
necially inin Gerc.e will :re cf- ll-. l'',-.n, for cr'ttle ar l cattle -"ro'iict
to ? !,.i-h lar-er ,x4.enr t '..-n ever 1'.- rore 1.'ien "u-j cre hep-inF, to r'cunerate
he'r 1:t ,Orcerp'th .
D iTy, '. In ?oi' i tion to '-.r.t a-n hi.les., >.n.f T.-,' (-'cQe
,vill hi -ore lar-oly in ' in t 'r ;'tre h n ever --fo,'e.
'ere is an ',n.,rtunity of v-ry r,"ct imp ,'...nt in !inss in the

butter vil cheese 'irorluctijQin -I ti' -,n' Tur.' e- 1 9ov4'" -T'ri
can M ettbo,0, for" t1' A.n, ,',re of iilk and -iilM 'rol'uts tlhi!'. lips, of
work can be rieaOily .]oibl,],A in t'.c course of a lec'ere. ,, r!aive 6ar-
& breed "i 'e, a go,'d fo b-',,: ti.,m, for tl-'. -, i ;:r.cvm:",t of t, herl. It
iteill i'-,b-tl..el -e.:uire F:o : ". o- ,s of train. in bof r t .r -::",,-r'.'e .1 ai-
rym3an will hn.e hir- fa.n.F c-' "uffici' Itly to nke it da'!irable
for h11" to keep no,.3.e,-'e, m, ils. r etate of '.-irf., Ser. cr. Should,
So,'"-,-:-r, l".r out in this ,,- ttcer r,' -<,n ceour-e ,.:' fore'-c, t ",iry en
in ever ible, e y i no' it ''--.-tic:-ble f, I'i
to pet,1 ir. ehred sire,. "rhi.s lie of ,-nrir"' sllln,' be -ioih 1re
greatly. trepere in the future 1,'1n it '". ,:7 n in the -9.t. '7 ,hou

learn from iho experience of other cour.triep that it is mur'h "ioro eco-
noriicrl) to i-poort the best breeds than to wait a hundred or more years
to .etelop a qoo.1 dnar r ow fro,, breerls thot were imnorteW a eenturv

or n1ore g ago. here ,rr-. l ny serious. ohbstacle in ,i.c- Wvy of
an ir;-t--rv-.te deiry indlu:try. TV: norim-ryv en fun.-laental oblRaclo,
hov:-ever, i" the lick of information by th oe who are trying to -.nrry
out e ..*nr'r., 'n many .,ns.O. the deimynn nct.filfly d!oes not know thnt
inu In -qp~n orsc. thefl
in thre ete of -inas Aerties we hvrF Fome reilly ,Yond ?,niry ani'ials,
or, putting it in another way, }:e dor. not know tht hi' ,pt !;- P 'ni"ials are
so -reatlv inferior to th1 best in Ih-e ?tte,\
"1o0s. Juidinr from6oboervotiins at flhe slpuphiering non e nd
from the ohorvrition ,:," ro'ot-chnirr PrtionF I an fijvTii, convinced
thliat the- former of '.i-.. Qer.;:1es ha mad r etter healway in bo'. pro-
duction thn in ;-v o'i.r of live sre'. rtn:rtely 41'1 % nastra
has ben. :-n excellent foui'-ation for irov'-nent of hoa in eh
.tao .,-e 1-Aies hetuThe, t-e Cnnetr' 'r -. atlort i.nv. one of the .ood
rnu:r,,reo nlrls nr,,.:u,-,-,: an ,ex r ,ely fi:v- hop" for '_, r, tyet in !nas,
he istiyorn produced by ,ro'ipL' the"Ir r.,.f1r r., t',.: .' irrn-..Turs.ey
aake extrei:e'lv fine fninlr, sI1,. r-' urli -. 'mare f;:vorTblyv wi[Yi 'he
hogs on b1-e b1. .-i- raarw-:etR in -Iw .r "
oultry. In n':,rl,'- all n"."' ri-,rI.-" e ,'1miltry is relalle '
to a .i>osition of reher trivial din'tance, Ac a J.tto; of firt, 1he
value of the inoultry iifei-evt to 11 * tl of 'inZ. C17rr' i 'pry ,
PT.relat If occr.r-.te statistics were ohpir.,hle, it :vou1.1 rroi'ebly be I-
shown that. it is of ten times as F-reat value to the te ap is nor.inar-
ily surpno.ed. -4iny fin,- br-cd. heve h'-'r, i.froluced anc a;iy flncTko if
good birds are \-ept. however, th .ret bNIk of 1lhe rout'y ^hnt ro7es
to the -arke*is of inferior ,nesirnle type. Thip i, ao.her
^n noeirale ype. ;hip. is nltorretfher

dvue to a hc) of r-luc-,ntion fmon,"r the chiTcken raisers. "Wlurlly the
old commron rdy stock hnil to pixeceed bhe splendid newly developeod
brceelr with h!eir superior .ifet rcn,' superior e.g -procluceing qualities.
In ell of the 20'otechnic station t.hnt I have visited poultry w,,
either not vrons.ler'e at all or given only a f.iFF in .crocst. And
yet it is my e .., whicl! I firmly 1 'li',.ve to be 4-rurc, 4h1 !-, -noul-
tyr of '.nS Gerse. is metu.lly.vorth'Dore .'oney today i,'rn her 1;orses
wi4 mules.

Pettdr Fruit --uries.
S3'tisticf" are not .ivaila'&le to plovB us hn,". nich friit is
bei.;;' p'ro,Te'-1 in "' i, &er;,'" ;o:'-'ver much he 1vy be rmo ieing there
is a great poucre of "e:.lth in fruit ,orot-uttion thr t e. .'i, i now -ne-lect-
;,;, not rPU1r*opely or intentionally, but soly becr.ipe of a c-.k of
knovwle,',,1r. of the situation.
.Or,~,n~ *' L (' ). In iusft 'n -ptr"T,., there -..ere
huirred of thounf of \":lor of orange. -ttin ) *n the. gron -i'c vithiin
twenty o,.-ee. of the city of Uio e *0o iro At the rte
I,);..,h ",f*riea was Mhi,,:ing million of 1 iorrets iteamshins ":o"n o r'i w were r.nrning with p-Pc
tic:'lly no "r..ight, rn-1 at a ti e of t1, r';" r "hen 'rr.'e "..ers Ihring-
in h t priceinn th',: Npr.e.* of 'ew brk. 'ith a :-.cry slight

r-co6rjusti-lent in lthe stnrhir,- million of ':ilos of crni-s -iht '1ve
beep ohi-nped to 'ew "orv City. Thr -r&1il ia -rornnfes riroen at a time
of tPio y:er "--hen here no ornner riin-nir. north1 of fi.. "'iuator.
The lhisj oranpro or 7.,iin:Tton '4,vol es it i- krown in fl,': Unii:oe
-tates is he bhasis of the orpnpe in'hiF ry iO0 C.lifjrriq, 7in
in a revenue to that st!ae of over '-"..o.O, ^(if^:^: 7)V vY),

--. '.,-

Thai .-ahia -iringe is so well 1-n,-nm in fT- northt h 'merinan Prv.'.7,t 'kat
neonle will buy it at sight. Orpn-m-,-' ctn be re'dily ,'ip'-,l-,1 1ro'
iio to ,ev, York. rhiF L',- 1-.,:e, r d(r,)n 5 trnf ol ren tc'q,-ejLy, ",'t 'o'
Rio to i;:w York, but by shi!roen!P from '1oth frican to T'opOon ov,-.r
an &b',.ort parallel route; by shii-,onts frr'ni- California 'o 'oi'!, 'hi-
n,? ii', to 'v,'tralia, amtli, lor.'-r r'i;te; : W-l also by shinr'-L ntq from
C.lifornia tHi-rnijphtthe Pnec4 n : n,.-C to '"ew 7ork.
& ca'i'gn of m'-l ti'inn P o':nD rr n growerss and Fome
\:ork ith the se.'! en-rvnliep to nroviee ,,'orncr sctn-o.'ntim'hs
P're all hr'nt are nenc.cry, arlhis is mT-" ,r ...'. -y fn.:k UeS-:UFe v.1-
the e:r.,it'ionp ree.P.nry for ncrfect tr5r,or*,ition '.rve nee.n '.oried
out in 'cih '-, cricc-.
A point of second try irpor1..-c.e but onoe fli,.t is so in fortant
thit it hm! !i.1, not be overloo1es by "i n.r Je'rel is tfit -,i,-n,'ver phe
ships >it rice, corn, hc.-,ns, .,nc otir r'.il of flI 1--inr, Oi well
-e, te vorirous in4:i of renots, ;he is roh-b-n' her soil of imense uan-
tities of feriility. "er irnF. are -till very -roilutive' -oever, it
is .,.,e ',r:tory of every e-yxrorti-rr country ',hnt sooner or later tfie soil
boeo',eE ,r'pcurperpted if exnortntion is continue. for a sufficient length
of time. hc'n, hc:'.:eve, we e.--ort frui,- butter, c.n-l su'rr, we are ex-
--ortin,-r a .iin.iimn of fertility, ."r -ict we do not r.einte the neonri-
ty of reptorinp *this -r-t fert-lity, but 11,e time will e"ce, as it hS.
co':w to every other active *;'portinpg' ni.tion -i.en .',e s hll have to re.nrf
to the ufe of cornrlrroial fertilizer!.
In coni-rction 'vilh the orsn'-e qr ntion, I' ". a .orefil
study !.f the v.,rieties, wnd al.o -f the met,1-'-d of ,.c-ir rroe7cti~n.
Z*ll of fhe o-ncrstionq in r,.n;:c orc.rr hr" 're'ely inefficient.
/ "n t' '. i o4.
Pr",-,-tioally no at',-ntion is c-ivon to fhe ta4-nin, of the frIit ... 'ido from

the ,-,intinr of tho treoo, .nd evsven theeo are not carefullyy ;.c.cted.
Inrect nePts Lnd dir-eses Pr, llo... to r1m their corirse. lchen the
'rit i oc'l it is nicked in n h r.. InI c,,-rele, way, In
p.n11 r, of all this' minap Cerre, is nrordei.p, r,-."e. quantities of 'ine
loolin-- -n,7 very rt',le ir;.'e?. If this fr"it "V'ere i .;-,r rly hlonn-
led *.1 nl.:.ce in proper boxep, ,,nir,,'rll transported i-Anoul, pro-
,Ouce a reenue of -.-my .J;l-ions of clri-i a,,muliy, "one efforts are
berin, .. de in this directionn **t it .,.A; l t 'r:;-.t deal of edu,',tional
orkl yet `',,fore ,nincs :.'ill i1r:' '.er nrop'r -:lce Yo 0-. or:orr.,:e -pro,3i]cing
state, Ior exPort to "',rth 'v',,-ricr the v.tietied should riren eveen
tiL, fV-'0't of nn,,ril and the first of *..umtl s .h-e V.ri.eti, 1 -no n as
41'u ""ia :*nd the ,-letl:: co-ie within thc.-e limilf.
In 7'r :.ilir n ..,in'',," of 'r f' r, ', -'e '., I l'-rv' an or' cle
on .';'s iruit F'n.r'rin-Tty." ',iP i'.nc;'r h. :.'(."iLn. uO..?evhat

at len.n'th ^.*., "'.,.-. so"'-'l i*pfii! '1?'"';, -j'im. of ih,:, op'-ortir'.itie for
"riei -Lr- ip the !in-l of -ublicity t-- t i er-.lcultc-d to ir" "ce
o',e e-ople to think, abon 1 the -,-ttero I M' fi.ic a cony of 'hi. g-
z in,:, 31 'ir,.-ith.
"'.".roe ( '.",.) l Tie ".nn.o ir the ".r' t ancient t fiit wea
:'rO.;n in rIs. It i';c, cr ltivaD-Pl in Ir-ia for 'Lnr, c''-,,ri-b I-forro
.T', .'",ristir'n era. 'he intriaiiction intoo th,, weten t e hei.her0gre Taes

biick to f'e ,.rrlier ex-iloratinns. soon ns colonization ,'*.'o' in .Thi
region 1`he -"an,-o r.'.. itroiuced. "'Th .rrlie-ct intro:ilcetion w.. i- by '-eans
of -,c'edv, l.:ter the var-lous colonij.:Ing nmim tries of i.Ynope introrluced
iriared (encotie) trees. 'h,'. trees of ovurse probic.efi rw'nrrior
fruit. 'lhie .eecl froi these trter .'m,-' '7re- for Cutther n' o,,r'n-tion. It
is a well nmo,.n fact thflc.t only a very r'-rll *percent of th( e, r-l1inD- trees
from i I r-hIedl frees ?roihuces fruit e'ual to thet of *he prrert tree. It
hef blcnime the pr: cfise in both 'rt. r' n nuth ."erica +r depinnte

those tiees flhct origiinnte F,. .eellins2 h the -'rme npne as f.ieir
I rent tree. -his ?iclIto(I of .*roce,'lurc. hs.' led to an enrileEvs confusion
in ,ic. dc-FifrnItion of v-rieti,'- .'.1 m-'. .',n'ne ..t te. rvc." ent ti..e
-- rimer of L-,rjt oes tm.t .'-.r , ):lit.'r l to <'-,r variety i'1 the rkiet

or orci.rrd r ai-i. little or , .hinf-l mo e i, f r: .-n .:', of vi-rr apng
quality of fruit. i-'. of it i. _'noe, q.v'ie of it :-,,iifY-rent, -n, sone
of it i' -uito '-.*orthlc'ss. ht' rlroreirr' of q. inrerirT .*i- mrV lEs
fruit on -i-ic, rket d:i-'troyv the SIler s-r1 fo-r 1,-1r: ze:<.llent
fruit, PI,-,c-.e by ;-.:. vsrie;al name.
:.;o'}Te roerLou difficulty is thrt f- its beloe'cmnI to differ-
ent f,-.ilie, of r-vn; oe.'' nre lmow i", the p-cme *.r",e, o 'li:. .'v,.W 'er,
:...rt.3: : .*rh. y s ,.e." t"'/ ,-.-- ,,. ,v,.r be e,.:rtaiu :'t c"' is .-..?t-
tin' ; .t he eCX,.c..
'" coi tion I 've d*'rie above hoF. 'en of :intolri 4rmcine
to ., -", rrv'inp' i in g.-. ere,., Of c-r' fr.e 1 I--r e .r not fhie

o ny s' te th. t suffers in t:? "P y, -~r +.'r' ", tri l ly sll 1'1. -e ionr...
tJ,; t I [,* visited fire e';,- i n'uti .u ti TV: ilf. .cre i, no uniform-

ity in the uri lity of f; ".-'.c, a .,-. name. C.i Ii..'ntly
re,'-, fv people will p rchaBe *ir'oe, '"ithot firt r.-.irr the 'o it.
"..' l.,, c f! condition -erv Erilf it will be i'nf,.Fible to I i 11ish
in Lnr';. i on a firm '`.-sis for ,-',i.rce. Irre eyrc .r cr,

-not `-: -Ftnhlisherl on I'I- varic-ble quality of thiMF fmit :m', irnw pro-
Thor.*^ it *' 'ew "i'rty~o cnoverp in *"irr1" i!'.T'<- estrh'liphb'r a YIe'nnt.9tiofl
for hbemolves even in the irkets of so tVct they ,.-,v, of
their lbert at eoflparptively luer;five nriceS. 'h'^,'e few nen Bve
demon'i-rftea tfhst it is ro,-ible to ,,_r.,,:. n.'roc-r finp a rooa 'bu-inesp.
The trouble i.' thnt fhe ifnv ti' toun"l of TirrLpo prowcrs k1now
nothing of t ._ .:nderlying. -rinci-nlef of the production of exvlE-nt mannoesF


nor `1o they know ho": to pick, and fo.,ri' the fruit in 'uch shr-,e
that it will arrive at the -icrrk t in a srlevble nonrlition. "!nas Ceraes
is missing er,. rrnor! unity of -nr: lying this delicioii- nrm _-q* fruit
to ,:illion- &f o1,th -eric:'nF livinpF in colder nlimvteS, F Well as to
.lny t oupndl living in the 'mre nn-nulous eenfer., mall '. o"r ion
of the r:YU' ruits could al'o be forv.rrd-.` to `,rth 1.iericn -,nd to .urone.
At f1, ti.en of y-ar wheT, hthe i-e are ri e in "iaas they would b;e .rf, t
0ov7-.:lties in '!O'o 'plact-0 r 'T,. would l"rinc- prices con'iinrinur te with
tCe ,iffi1 -1.- ies involvW,1 in "-' in, the -:--- t.
,"nf.'-os, (- n:-, tes,) T,,-1 Pv orA'l' fruit is OuniFne in T.he vepg-
ehpTle '"n-.,.'' Its fno,' volhe is c',;,.l to that of-ict. IIE fat con-
-ent 1is c. -ul to lh;t of cc',. r,' of the vri-eties rwn rF i..h an
tx",pt- c1 '***', n t.-,,-, f: -fiv' ..,,. ,, t. *... ',:,t Klie fat c-,*1 .. ( j ,Wi j was
uS'e, i'p .-e-ly *ip a -liet for -';.ti-..ts in 'rr:-ttrria, v, i:-"a ntly its
cul ,ir- p:-,rl its conr ,i ;,n t''.' rr '.eer, very :''rtly tyfc 0,e17 'i' rcinri
of :'. "iOch "'" iffvy "!ertree in e.-jent -re -lnrn'.l to b,.,:,'! (1'mrbulin.oO
trees of a -in4le wvriety, In the nifte "r "fes it is t1 e ninr t 'iuhly
r ri;'-,,'1 fr.i t g .
.' oi;T a nal iv, of .'.:th Feric- it. fIfultr-e ,:: been extended
to all 'j'"1 !;icl regions of the ".-.. b, "'. t .crr, 1 ..e ,th r- :j n;is to
L, the cent of itr earlifcst distribution. It was in culefiv-tion at

the ti,',. that imerica ,.v bein C vx,.' ..," 'V _,.-., uronez nr.
-,'. time of rinenIntp fr'.!! of "',e iuator is fo'., Jul, to Jan-
uapry. south of the *.i.uator, the principal cen.on is bl.ecn J -.nuary
'* '., July. "Y careful n- -lection ;"p .' ,: intri'luction of new varieties

tlic sc-,on of production for the *r".ater "'.rt of '"-.r Gera,-o. could be
oY'f.-. T-iae to covor th' entire year. r .,- i",'.r:,'nt point, hrwover, in
thiS iF r4,''1. ,i i-A..t *lwring the n-1 tod frni J-niry tri July Vth avoca-
. o is t1c. .. i .liest pric-el fruitt on 1l(-e north n,-ic" m r ,'.;-c't. It is during'r months that Minmes Oernes is :'rorlucinp quantities of it. And this
production coulP le increef'-l e.isily to -any times v'.hi it is at -'recent.
Then too, there are the lTrppe South -'ricn markets in which the fruit
is hi-hly appreciated, brt in -o-e it is *racticslly fnoltsinable.
nbh educc,'tional .';orfr neeCs to ',e done here, ji' t as it hrd to

be dcn? in Florida,in or-.3or t:.t t tbe nvocoro rover M-iy aealize a suf-
ficient rico for his fruit to justify the -1 itioLal i-venr*ientF in his
avoc-do orchiard. (I know one grove of 40 icres,("ioout ?( r' c.rros',
in extent that-a"_ sold for 1 0 :. i,0 (r: 000-'C000.).

Litchi. (Alexia). }.hi, fruit is of C'-ine,-'e orcirn .r-1 is nro-

bvbly the -ost highly .-noreciated fruit gromr in thit rcn mtry. It has
*:-1Ty beor introduce(1 into -'ifl v'a suf icient nurnh.,r of trees
hnve fruiitd in inn. erf:es to )rove t-,-t it is r.nsible to Aevelop a
Irvcrc Pnr lucrative business in this line. millionss of dollars worth of
thi- fruit are produee rf'niplly in ,,:t;rn ) e O:iE.rf cities
r' eo;o.M.-ied a- fresh fruit, it bein-r most ...'-ec.tea in .i.i at.-te.
millionss of kilos of it are dried -i.?l chip-'efl to all r,'rts of the world.
'1ven in. io '?e Jrmeiro it is r',,ible to b-ny .ri-ed li.ei from 'hina.
In a"lition to Ihe drv fnit ey:ort com-id'er'ble '-r'Uiities of nr-c-erved
lite!,i are -,ent out of Cbin-p. This is said to be better than the dried.
fruit but "-ot eniual to he r-resh.
Th. production of this fmit i-- in !he incipient sfn,-e in
1inPS. Active steps ah',.ld be talren to disio-minfo the '1ert varieties
than- e-in be obrined. cm'3 nigrn of mn.ulieity will ',"l,.e it nos-:ibie
for 'TiP, Truit to c.e rinrer.cistoe. in th- fresh atft- C;-no' no "-c;-e it
nos.-ible for the ho4,)hol.Thr 8ry ld-, v tu;,ntities for l:.,-, use as

well o. for cOm'neroial pUrno'-cs.
'iie tree is -nerfectly -iv-pted to the soil r, -Ad clI"-;1 e of a

largo portion of ji.nas and the steady, even
tomnerament of her people is such as to make

it on attractive crop to produce. It is eso
pecially attractive sineo the piling nn, drarjn
ing of the fruit does- not invlove Vuch h:'rd.
labor as doer: the rising, of ordinary farm
crops. u-h, of this work eoiId be done by
vc mehi ]rn tw 11 rf n '' t-in. to 'l'.rnt
the incono for the ou, c'h.)ld.
7 number of trees, of t'l.ip. sB-noies
arc gq-owing -,nl -oroihicing nine cropp in el-
lo %orizonte, 'he mort of the People to Y.hem
rioc fruit on the braineies '-ere sT'own were
very rpoL!tive that :hey hDrl seon threm tnd
:th1t it ,-v- 8 native fruit of the cz-iro, It only shows fbfnt their
Horticultural ohlcrvations hive brer inaccurate.
nlOhof-r-oph lo. 1Y sho,- e clu-ter of lidblisx.

Younr ."en of 'ines.
in this report I hinve di{ciiwei somewhat at leTnF'h i' ni'el
breeding 'rom the view, -oint of Liins .erne., also frl7it ero lPqwtion,

but have saiid nothing about fnrn crons inil forgo nrno'hction. ,ot be-
cause "hose ,r,'* unirnoortnnt but bee.uiio it would too .roatly extend the
present nrper. Attention hnp been clle.d to 11,e im'c'rr-ioe of a number
of i-i;'iov?-)ents that need'to be -mdOe. '"ost of these irnr(rovsr:-ents con
be secured only throuFh the -ec-,ns of investigation ?r(d publicity. All
of fbepe -ubjects are of rreot irr-,.rt,-ee for +ie fdevelTrrenrt of our State.
It if difficult to gver c-timrte their ufti-vte r.oney volve if they ore
trken up properly and prosecuted with vigor.

C,1h or-t irporl. nt n- et .flr-' ',rp, !eOrnce. il-a;9 ,,o".' c r, is

her tens of hoiFr1,;'c- of y5.-jr- en who in V fe' yf,-rr will 1 4h- full-
grw. en. n 0cti torI y eveyn onec oT tl om I"EF" -1 P ;iition mn at- in to 0
o. Artfrable cirfo'n i ttmccib Cnd rh re..nPcted yt hi'.s eerf:u-i ly. hc only
vista o-.:.-, to n105t ot the, is t'&t of e n'PIng a .rj e d0-ctor, or
,oFr-Jbly ." r-`ool tre..-hcr. Thilc all of 'Ie lr i l' b. ble wri,.mtions,
it is well f-n.,m n f: ct t'- ,,t it ';.'-:, less t \-- five -':.ree.t of the Jm-. -
ulationn,-.f a state to en-,'r letely fill 0,e0p- ic, ".Tr rest of lho'.e
",''o '.:" to enter `h-se rnnks -iu.-t either .1il or live- ouit a --l .ry
eii;ft',' ^ t !1.' -.r-,.nt time it is not -o'-.ible for more th n five
or ten .,-"r', v t 6f th,, .,"1inc.' ,n:.- to ,f',t %'n" "'v .i']. irL lmni nF in tVe scAi-
of' '. of 1p'ricn-re. t- e rvy thouf.-rli are comn,,lled lbv force of circui-
stances to 'ot .+ieir ':now 1--cl':e of it fri1 -n i ri p'Hrs on, 1 e-,,?:rerinc,c
whi'oh is .Be :i t ,'--w!.ive .--ni diffi':ilt wny of loct,-irn'in. Yet it ip
within 1.r-c rea, of enor-ibility fonr -,rvy or 'io-t of them to l-.n1rn from
the",' of others, not only in own c.unrinlry but fro-i the
c.',:riPr e of t"thse in f'rcip. com.ntries.
A.oricultuire i_ the ol-est oernevtion of -,n7, u',', ,' th other

hv., tf;he ro'ec.t of sciences. Phii .oer-,.. tion inclu4er over sixty neorent
of our -o.-,nl'tion, main^ it r' ,n'-'- '.ntfier to enter the ranks ini at
the .,'.. tine colo rintirely si -nic to -ri ke a muccoes in it. very .ro-
,.;res'ive country in the tropics is no- '.wily unfT.-ed in ':.elooing
.-ore r". tico'ale l nd -rrofiftble (scientific) ,-*riculture.

The young men of jinfis Gernes heve a right to expect that the
loaders in statecraft shall point out the way clearly, ana also supply
the educational needs for carrying out the work. If we older men fail"
in mission we will fail in our life's principal opportunity. I have
pointed out certain and definite lines of improvement that can be mdcie in
the agriculture of linas. The improvement of the live stock, the

improvement of the fruit crop, and the i-rnrovement of the fari crons
are simply ,ieans to ,n end. The end in view if to ,i\1 of .-iinis -'eraes ,ore profifible, more satisfying, and norec attrnctiVe
to tlio hone builrFer. B ome fell P.n.t other nations dec.ved beocuise
rural life EnT rural conditions were 'irle intoloernhble to free Ahd
liberty loving people.

T2. "r r p

I. The d:irings of tie buildclin' for the Sscola :.Cvup-rior
de Agriculture e Veteriraria were co-ipleted before --.e serired
title to the lnd's.
7i. ,iits to th- various educ-tion'l and investirFtion-
al institutions show that incs hre' ;nB razil Pre evelop-
ing in the rirht directions.
III. A study of the Agriculture of 'inas Geraes biewvs
a great noeed of systernatic an, well directed educvtionrwl work
in order that not only 'inns, but `rpvil ns a whole may be-
come pert'eiently a most prosnerous agricultural notion.
IV. The young ieon of -in.rjs are her most iminortant and
valuiqble nsset. -he statesmen of "inas ,ve hpefore 4lem no
other tesk of vuch imTortance as the mnoner training of her
young nen in scientific (Nrraicticl) nM-iculture.
"lome fell when its agriculture dec--yed."

rnatinp. Ihht the alhove' co-.unir-ptinn vwll renmrpno i+-elf
to you-r .houprtful cronitceration, I an,

^< <, r -Jery reFoveetfnlly yours,
2^ ^ 7%

,, -ntroduction (Completion of trrp-'ings) 1
.-oport of Trips of investigation
aEzondn 'oeelo .e Criricao, ,.aro leoroldo, 1
r? cro ",mtern-IentpFl it Teooro, 6
scnola doe 3ii.S, .uro reto, 9
lpTzenrla '6 Th onrr;, 2nrn Prnnco, 10
bwptituto InThot?friti ?ptori1, a4, 11
Posto >ot ec',nico tt'?inreiro, 13
ricul ir.i ,l St t,;'! iles, 'Ion, 16
'U.res 1

Cattle, 17

'I'7 11, IF
,-teter ruit Studios

Oren ge s 1s

4vWCIarl ')S, `3
Litrnhiri "I
Yo-rng ..:en b'of -in', f5

(Ill-aftrtedi by IS ohoto.grr.nh. .


... College of -griculture ond 'eterinery Science

a e o S ," r,
for the

..,.*e .y.-c ^ '-i "" :{$ ;e ...."" ** ..r. ,' .*.


d .: r f6 r i '" .

to o with ibee ;' -, v." i i" e'. Cfor ., iof art .r ,,i e
d r fic ).ocrti '-fior ('mr ef f *i' rr -nvj sc

dl- i i t' +~ I i if he -n "
om~wet?;f .t~e'- 'drt~'-' np..-f'or "**"'*<^f tY^ i~ldi:^'rr^f. I bTl~evq f"1"^'.
to be Itc' eri'r for .t w r r r', 1 n
drvr v- 4 for ? .'i!"i hr ,,,.."o-, .,';:* to h~e '*".b .iitif1ea9 't,,',"' r .e !ho

two ,"e':'," h.rr" of "e,.rly'' '.i.-..nar' ,.,. r. .'. '- b t 0
o, r r:r" i ni g ;/':o f! .d o if

'.'aF" i-'nr:c1tict",-(Ie fr me tc'-,. awny fr-.-i ','h. rity *o ;Qt,;dv cther mii-
i1ar lstitutio'!TF .in .' con"""r- *t'et ',fr .r'^ h3-i, f n."-,-r : ite ".-
;/a^ Tbc't 0C'a:* 5^"r to. Vi~it I ''o ^r('bi 4 c.t c~'.'Ei e ^!r j v "'3 5 l h<* r.'".p''' nA'j
"inry t]L','*,', ('^,aT>'in :.. Iri" .'i ....S :'nr.t', ^ ....I' :'' ,.c '" l '""'*
0. e nnJil el ,,, r! *#-" r' the

PflF t1~ ci.1.inp'r. -
rt.i tc-ct, "r', TY ,U *C.,,^ rl.-co Crr Vi m'tiifo-r', r-prresfy i'i r'r'-
r:'c ir.n ith "o work., '

o. -por,, o:f. i f. Inve. P' i, ,crtiJ,,..: .

ii pn !l.1Wt 31,. I0-:!,.- v!j e ttee t e f.nd 'o'l d1e Crin&o
"t ,.oIro LeoorOl.o, On thi ry of' ny .viPit f r Nc.iulo Jov&anna wa. not

present, due tolthe fa6t thnt tho -elegraph Colony failed to send

proriptly. the ,ioqa, ge which bih been dclivered( to them in n-ile ti'ie,
S-D tnt, however, met e- nt the .r1lro' 8l ntion nd took no to

the F '*r t in the 'to sm6 "'Il zr m r '* linF cep : ly :. I -Off,-, .fT, o. E f) L re 10 r t

of' j'.JTen ; i .U d :ch to 0 *o F. t ', iv ( 1, 6s

L& '2 J IV .- bJ... ia"nJ'.. ia"
* ,'',; .' f. ..' -n 1 u F' ,r '.' \ " ? ~h '* ;

,',: : .o ,, ,i~t .'r ,,.'" , . t. .,: -- :, ',". O r ;'' : '
'. ,, ., i', '. % : ,.' ," t'. ....*. ; : '"*' ':! '. ,' :.' .. ... .... .: ,

D I e, fax,'* ''.'" -Il 1 r3 1' . .. '.'***

; 'Jf'c'k. ?beru '..a l one j&- .f ;f:i,.od build rr veil rod.
) i : o pboto Y rrh 4)

-34.. 11

Cottle*, 3oth milk. frnd eef strein. ofcttle were nrreent.
Probably the rmo, t intorcr.ting -pociaen? 'ere those of t"o purebreds,

one bull *nc.H t,;wo ifers, s'ef the ir burgo treed-. 'io10t ore w ,id to be

rail `of- ti 2iin -v rswil o' o' i
the '.i-cv t puroOreds of.r Jr .'rtj rIl n I O r'ro

; r,. t i e 1 '' K

of the zc ndam... is..p. ...i. to ..... t.-' b. C:* r t .'t':" -'lo r iV .r. .. .. ..or l.

t ," i k /
1,ltri i.l o,-;?; ''/c^ ll ^ h-." r 'or r ol

,, hi-- s.. L ., frti'1 .u i. !::,,r .\, f *b'-: r.1&1. -Y.n f '*r, :e-o ir'.. .. ;- "' in f. r~ p o f idr-,'-^e :cc' '". ^.^ r ir0 ; "i'a bp y 'Vi onthef'-:ol
: ,-^i T6 ** '. "er .-.- ,,, :. IN, I C. "

,..^ ; 1 .. .. i ' .......; (.h ... r ir0rys ^'r P r o b b l :'".' .t ,.,- .. : e ' ? '* '
br .i g

*.ihn o th i .,.:frvmr [e is *n onen 19. t; i n p! : .. pf W1C 1)e it, ..

intcnied to 1',;.; "n F* ..... ?" Le cnir,-u i r;T l4 p r
> .. . ''. ,'i c l / *' ,.r, ,- .

V-11 v
otf L-e -: o'k ,::' in d :o: ..o. ,',,.I .... f v. bt ii vt

"* *' ' "' ' '; . .. ,. i .- .,: ,<' '=

clz"-- r . cm n O1 "41. c A.
't :! .,: 'Co la'r'le- r);-,iF ._ ..r" c zt e v;-!'3~.:r<,loi i:;n: r'.'n~}ot p. :[,,e v,
*' ,ttliin this. "*^e is n n rr f r e .l. --', 0 -rb ,.J-:dch tot i.

o. Vri M.*41o

bernC1" 'a toc! j0ii.t nX 11 --w. -b~ ~L 1 ~.t Jm n
-throi-y n i.on r-1' : f: -.'--i t 1 n 1w td'.' t:0 .hl : .' r'; hof
td r':.h'o'^r, te-:-re inCl r, OMS
*TIIC' pt?'Slp~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ,'r l r I K ^l;'I"f'roT'c tl ^(*'i 73 'u 'IU ~'l!ie ^o
714.1ic, Stird pl i' ese on* ~ ll' o ^T**- *'',''-^ *' .* ) '/-t T*a
*fccsn^~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~o 'pisrlo..-,-p1'^*th'trl."Wl .l'^teilrp"
*- 01*:. cLqy, i o f o t 1 ^ s 'l < ~ ~ r o *" \t.;< *. .' *-i i i *^ ') w o
1,11 who i eL^b il f s'^:.- ^ i~ ta :l*s"le a *r .-l n l'nn e ''

. I'll ooi l o i ir c^ i ~ l f":' C& +*"*''*'* 'E 0 J,

: -,: ** ; _?. '. ; : ; .;',, .4 ., : '.
' ".ri1 *.,r t''i hose n n'rn wnq o.the orund
.. thE;. lt.ea' been elected end h erl plan'

oi- lireJ, c'll nh t.Li. x"i. i- n ne will I 't''T a Ifrre 11~
-. rof Ute '.'in'-ront rl be ^'vi sixtv
C "r t1 jwu 5, -
'.fi^..i.1 Il 17-itr, -o t.i" i -f ; i 'rrsnped
II :-IP ouP c- : I i le > two,.... L

in ir Cl? -.. ''." ,cg ,: Y"e'e '". p !"" '" ::vi "h r i e
1 0 1 1 l o f c oD" i ., ', s y b n ( o j - < s ; ( M ; ' y ~ < h ^ i : ' ^ / y

'.. *.' ii::' ;' r i tI -1( '. d tire
mi .i t or ci rcl'_ vi n :i b e o**l.*~l* fh 'ti1e." ^'irt it '-'; he '-t] ^t'
lo F,5,.

wnrin- *. *' p*
", C .' i- i : e ,f ,': Y E r ;, ., ^! -' rrn i 'n *'y 1 '
^ 't',rr 1 'i' c ti c fs!r .'" 'i *c''1 'l T' : .. ', ofr t! h

1. : a is F fcr. .'c *J- "o *r .- ... ,,.*" ,.' ',' '*
1' O '.', O ': tr. \ j" '.. ron 6r r 1 rn c, ,

"r .. ..Ae Or.r", A". M i
,,,,'-c r,_ ior 'in !-''n ;.hip'.- B li1-'-.'. '. ,: ro ; <^ "'i'""' *' "* .,- .^ '' ^ 2

'*J'. ci 11 wilbe 1 f'r tp t r f f Tho i 3i-
*t. r ,-' .:- .f .. & e i.,,..:i'i fo ,-r -,- f., . .... .
'. e '. r ;'.-?,' ", ",-.**'* r'2 p *t e r i v ..'.*.ly
....* th. .....T..' r7 .h.:' ,-In jr -JC' ,.WiY ,r, .f ,',vt f ,'-.'r ., ,".i""
"*. /'**".: f e r -." ......t .. ci- ', 0 :,.- .t.-,a.; wi ....' be i ,,,- th '; :-'ei ^ id-:,., .of f ,,. ,.''> The ', '-

f" I .' "' r ". "'T r f"' i ... ..
.. is povib1! to' re4uce The vfrr--r of ,,^re ,fn t '*i"*t >f'"t V" 3j'l
:'! and 4.hup nrevRnft 'ocmtbr ''*f r~f '^if' o':'? !; ::^*'n. the iV,. ,'"Ck^' ,
i'**l<:.* '* / -'*;" ""I' di''o n^ "v0t^ i. fc' ''.' -" i s a i i ? .'.T .ol .'ll'**'t .... 1 ''*;

struct;ro of this" ind that I evpr pen. It: if F.*Ub' irt v ters
long ri-if sbout four metar deep *a,'e't .* It i TefopF.ry to
ib t 0 '. '" '.' '" e. .*..t" ; * .* ** .hi- ** *' "

* I **

a I I I

rLr*' ^




I -


..'1 11

n.. ) third deeper thae the ordinary vat in on'er Oivt tWhe 'iles c-.nd
l'rpe timrAes in -poaring through n-iy 1w ," tely .ub'r- "T,
P-.u.c !-.tveon t"he at ir, flfr w1l, is nearly ,,o -wters ,i'", ',idg

it orF:.i ,Ie f;r 'h-, oxe G i!' ,:: 1 ,-h,<-- t r'o -m '.-,. o e p toL,,'-h witho1l

....r... x n cti.O. 'r':: Tina .1:r f c for the. fve1 i f an-
F c I o
M**7. j'. I f* yv- .i,. 1 _Na 1 : f ... o f riro-

..j !i ,-,h '.i. i.-" ..: r,,'' < '"v ."rri ... t o area '* T..ich I t>, '- -. cro r
d~(" tl.,Of vV71 .jcl1 .. i. "
i,'. U i:. :,^ .','/(;ice;., i :riii'c lc\,2 ,:- *** li(: I", ?, :.-.i, is su'a.'n .li ,l .... ^~ n

Of~~~~~ ~ n Frr-cn S-
sU .T -l]',.ce of v;'.'. c. it ij '- ible ..., .-, : '. jcr.. ith t:ie ii of' irt
tion ,l, c <' ... ', l: e would :rar-.",ible, 'A,,1 w,.2.'-T of "', .",-."*: w8ere
'b'.ii^ tri e ^........; *. hl r Is i :; v ii l *' .- ,",'rT-i" "'"l*** 'l**l c- ,

oi O' ,.- y f '' u -"a -"i : i '.' **i', ..,:w fw.,. h r- '.e ^ *n' -

in feo .!: t-- "', ; c-m -It ke" ... . *-i ,,
I,. L -rd fr a, -"
."jc- z'. t ,.c >.,,j, .-", 1taer ..r I. V-, ." ot: r '",. -.'; i

4. : d d. 'ie'i", were '.... c,;.. :v ,,t s .,"..'. of e'herp.

ls.tacfo Syxerimental at Deodoro.
the ~ ~ r ie:a~i oCrnnt n'r ^I'ro fro It I'nd 16 c e E-

within a kilometer 6 the ihiwy tiion 1t: *co Prxe wrouarnt
of oc'k is ?ir, i 8r ; rted at this 'i"ce. ?r"'r ore ng
?gade for I;ire ext. ntim of f rc itis e vpriou,
brf-nches of the .-,rail :ertnt of iiU' c' tad hero :
,:* .: ** ntioned belo,,,- to whe 'wor" n-1' ; e~e, .. a*t.y of -'.',,I" "t' er,
",the Vjdeirs., Ti,. dPiir .n of !;a t i-c j .". ncare-,
to U nto tuo rr 5lwi-.;y tc,-tion.- "ift -two v'-.f '.ties, r) a o-en tst ,- v-. tbeen

orij ina -e(.i in V'rious pairtg. of' .-v *forld are";, mtcc. 'j*is vir0i-
.rE had becn i.*; i.f!^ll if It.;-' 't):n ye ro. .e n ,,- lo ,-.: \'ry pre-
s en" ;- the f' "1 bc Iti, a 1, t i C. 2 '7'TrV ,
o' tomiinuod, for t.eic :i L.ifith (f tC ,i'.n,'c,1 .";" ,ar to
.yyear .it filt b."o' 0 e-,it vclue Ao 'I- I, ci on "

f r., the vines, t.o asr dktP" e 1';.
v b e e C c h o s e ; r .: :l oc:1, 1o n "'1 1 n, . n ; '- a?

bcr c c ]." r t .,,>c..{ t n, 1;
Ctz I,*: ,, bb.. ',Of~i x T e
mrA 2rCC raw 0 c~ F1K~~ I-
trcr'-"(ing to bbtci~i gm"/.; c5i

'>'i. ~ 'K lrb. ri of rZ c'e: r ?., 't }." w', "io "
3., r.:Q, ,li xid i er :i 1 -r.i o m,'.. o f fr iting
; n1,'r' i"-. of c.if "("' -ncc c .,.ro i
"' .,,.,j. *. d i- rc,- o"- p C 0" "Y ; I s
j;.;^~ it it fe '&n \. :.!-,.T '"" ..... i 3.8; :'co ^ *'*r -'l. "' B.d ,'or^T, o?: i. at

*:," .'170 ft c y. . c, .' ...rr r. d''n ofl n
S"1 rin. .,rr ip rl l .'t... ... ,nn r c r" ) i
*Srr;.-iby inr ,. ,iinpoo fr. Ah'e '^cjr.v f"ve.,o : riqi .... : "ina
, h-n 0c .g ,'vlwro -be p0p 'i rore exlensive, and

oppsrPnt.y iilnrge quantity oa bu d citrusi troeq are ptent m.f at the
n Rebon of th- yeiro''rSpp -hoto rrlh5 irr 6.) ...

ap r y 1 .
. 'c . h 5 ", : .

il i T nn '. ry, firf.t 'virit..e t -] ," 7) t; 17'* 1*^ e. t^h( -.i^ t f' v.-ie '
o f ei ti.-rF in fhe r. r,. : .. ..
*i : 1'i f.". W I-,' eop~ihlJ to p'et
notoe' on p.."i,: o.f- var ei e oE ;. f-. H.i rt vnt
be>ru.n> o .ri en, ii i *>.K< Lic::bi t t !.,CL t"' .*'t irpf 'ivi!1 ti'
P~ 'Po. ..n f... ...f.. .
^ o ~f t : o. ce .v s r U- i et e -, : f ,, P ,- :. r i n n ^ fer lo E-' : .f ,+ ;**." ,* 'n ,.^ -. + : n n < ,> lh, :,--i '- *
iig to 1 thr I 'r, ;'c -.V.. t b-fe t .'.om f r. -,.1 )cri :., ,.

ri+et.;y; on the Y"'-Wi. in >. V 'e "^ -r -

", v + .c ..

0 J
..'. "' "" : .". "l t ^ T i .l',L :" ,O a~ It; ....r w familD
'*' .....' Th 1*1 '...... c .. .t c .yrbr, l'., n O & r .. i'et.,'J ,t%,
:mtory efiS El

5 -,---, t e' + } f l
-" 0"; . C f o tv' r t 'ey
tm-' ran ge cn t fh b l r- y fir t1i c tu- i'ly Wof l
... .... ,. L 1 .. ...
\ '' 1 '*. i D r+ +,,- + T ,f 5 1 + *' o i ^ c c a 1
.. ':rr + i' O{f vTh CL 'GaS ..l ell
".+.y ., ; "''"'++. ..;: ++:+ +:''-,r, uge..+.o' "-,,t :.,f' the b uilding7 "i unusiui1 y wel

apsren! a inrre iuantity of buddecA (-itrns trees a re sent out at the
-or6ere'.eaon of t ,he ePr 'cphotorv f-)

.r~nvrivny first vit it,-et.. I"", iev at ,Ie o ^ --iv t7 vr.eie-
ti .of! eitrttp i v *he .,)r. .) '? m. ': " . : t,
:.,,* .. ,I4irin l ri;/~ l'l ;^ d-v i!.1 tcc-, ,i'9% .I, it ,' ? ;' r ih!e. t. .rct

note"os on a, r.ilm-er of va. rieti,. t .'. n .i of them v 0 not u e
r t o ri'i, ,v!r i- 4" .ry (..tble
10'to. t^'Ft; t)V. ';ti 7. R.c1uh tf.i 'e, o0 ,.t ae vrrie-
** 'iel-. f*'f 1 'e ; a r',I r s. ', ..e belong- ..

r. g to t!;e' G0 ra V thboct:moiae
or 4 "0 r;r't~e t '"'K *fy et -k~~ft a ..:::
foru or?

*r y' 'C .c' t q
',Ii ; O m h in...r'i" Y tc E ... h- ro f 6 i,

' .' ; :t ] .,: VniloS.r ,v e 'L.lo,: t./t.o.l. b !., !] : 19 y-- '.1. ':

., *.,* .* -" 1 : **^ I fi c _- |. ,. *;-,'r v ;1 1. *: '. ."' s *' *!

'* ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ *"' *. ** ,-* .' "'^ If' or o' ,^."... : 11 '''"].' :ei -^ 'r i oan-
l .i k .f ' , , ,- ' ; 3, 1

':. .. *. ": I r, 1 *"e s: ' rs r '.'!le n te e r

^ ^^^~ ~~ r-.r.f' o'' fti i^'^ nto p 'TGto and di

J'e ae's os v rin ous c r ops. "lie, 1rranlirhent of

1 '
the bui ing i] dmisim'llly 7fill 1lred. vr. -rF who 1i-I *h'o
pisrninf% .'cr seersl years of rexnrienriv in tFlis. lire of inveftip-
tionTi, rge mu-^,.r of 'mis..ul .,rgculturfl r"oF ri hoir tet, inP
tho mu 'r the 1.:,rntory in 'rier th.t ,,' \-'rietie. .'.t resistant
to diCea'-'efe rpi, .inse. ts v;,, be A: .. ,r. A ..:r.: <>nv diCffi;uiti: h?
to 0 ov rcc befrr" "h s.r ,". cilc b, ru.e4 f'r ex'-:"J' eb:nr piri.ore
It', +h .. n". ,n ,ra I....ii
It wg,' 1e:eice :. ry to CdrV1.n ,,, : ,2n, (n) ;.;lso o aip 1Z ,,:1 -'r o'n<1 f.ra f.l*:',.
whi:..}, '.is' very L'so,"iw3. a(,'in exensn'i'v, ..f h- ,nbp, *** *... .,* f r.-'.ce'***"r *'--'ria.-,:


1 oc~' ld 7' '^,. :*;r^n c Le "osV f' ih lfbn i ry 'C~irr~d to4:c .';*' 1<"'(
what exre;ii; jin 4'

b Z, .Mf e, Vj 'jf nC,'J:'

~r'O '~'1u pit h,01 ',
sltoc:. b LthI hefp-'. ,,d e;t le.

Ya r- ,' Itj. "1 t

f.e, 4e f. ".4 :. . u ,-,... f1.,,'islr l n t.he
* s cl;R <^ r )l *,,, . .. *; .T .* .: *.

.-:- tr-;d t *)*! 7, ,9At ;, me rut. "in r hc fo rth
3, !., : eX ,e n : c ". ;_ t ., 2,- o-ic Uf" < i >hc fb m rw

L.h,'r *, ,." t, ,, e,] tO .e-
-, o .I, 1. ', I.. '

:( *** '1( 1 14444. -^' ~ u h s- t c ** a : 4,-^ rc1
*, t O*n -,. .i '.i. "t. . .
* r, o,4, r ,,.l
e "pro- aso-^^ -, p L.

:scok 0 e .ina *O. O0,. 30" *i jvivi'"c the :-chool of !in'.!? at >iro Fretoo
?b1rouli tiv- kin.ine:' f i'r r'hrcin., Ii.hpd an onviorlini .y of p'.-ing

all of tile lrhororriet'F, P, ,vell vp 'ic. i,,,'ejm . otber ,orl3r'ti',.p
'",er inrrtitution i Fruly .11 el o .iiinre nloi'l

Collection is PF-Cciplly extensive virl mIli Fble "hir Tloii -P+1 rrlly
be c,-,ert1 in n in.'titution of' 1. Iinrl, 'un""r1l by' f r' 'it p...te
of 2inf ,? era:ec. It .. jw" 'hrt urnrising, h.''-eve', to ,ri1 '!-ich
a S l edi? collection of oainls m -','or in Jlhe FI Ir It S -,w71' -ore
extpi .ive thbpn ore :-ynoots to fini "*ith i-tittit1-, of thp -.n. ,he
colikclion of ,lrnini.. in 1'.r. her:.-,iciiui ""Tr./.'iro 'CYrv :n& "'ore ^Xto)
'-Ve ..1 I rr ...

than ', :' ovn]d expect.

*"' libfrpry i1. ex-xeoive ft.+fin Lnfr'-rohrbly Tfive, ,! n;. bound
*''w.ir1- torcfer 'r-th file of.',.rly t1-'.'"' cn.rre-t. a'dne on n-

,'e r''"".ring.* : '
,"otrnrt ph ^ :' "' "' : '

nh"ol 0f *,ee old .

Snart o 'f it. ; -

ed rnoto r'h'n
!o. 9 howss a cor-

per of lie main
buildings of the
prc-.l ent r hool
of i.. ..
N "

Szendio v de -'orro. ,

On. O& 1", to 14" inpoipive, Tl orhoim to bwi
vibl" to vi! it te ^on'h < 'e forro do ,r", wi~h :r Arthnr ifpv'?,
hiv.o. .I wcr. very, e-al-d 6f this
o rorrt.unti t3' it v ? me am
,tlince to. vec te,i, work on a
rt"endp :in ,cc ivo or.,ra tion..
4:si e from .the f,-riir work
.. r,,,tt .:m!" ,eging crnnducted, e .
Sfnzonqo' .was of U7msuFli inter-
est to me fr--. the 'vct thIt
it hi,'l 3t Ofl time b.'bn a cen-
' :tcr of go]d -inirg, Tbii, I believe, r-r he.r eentir.,Kly tl.:O.innrl 'i'.
.'o'oF rsirh :n. ? nrepre nF-nt thn',,.(1auarftrF of t'. '.. 7e ...

4t the time pof our visit the r1, r rl ".']ilh r. ot:t.:'. ",
bee- nlcnted. "e pent the three rla;.- ridir.- ivr V ,';. rr'ton -n. different *-,ortio:,,; of it. ,
In addition 'In thp c-enerri croa, Gordurs Er a
fci hbee i.r r f?:enteo for r-sture. "-'-e vr] nP' ,re al :omro ',-I l"d
.--'T' .rn-i'se of r.oo,1 r- ,t .r' for t v'' r'cr. ',
Cinoioer of "(:l fn',,,er- war L-:v-tAe o e ,r "r +),i' rtion

of t"pr ('Ore.

Instituto 'r~dustria 'spfcr-ll, Rtio'l ^rio
On TebcT"er?"'' Twet to thfrip h'-^itute, '.hic'y'ia ThwWt o
Kiw hatto I'"&'c1o. i I? Iftted in tr- 1m i n1th t werq Ionr C ciadn
..for the '..pc- i.' ^'* ,f.i r *v'ct'iirji i./'.. ..h. h .'* n rer, ,-. T; ,sh: ef vrh-e 1th e
Scho t , t.

b o . 1, o : ' , *

tIY fly~' -t* by c-^ "v^- '" oh~vFl tr rr t''Th iinWtti Ji?'t '^c 'th no
'7 'o tO layb'r01 C"i is' Io (.F' te 1 f v fr
fork the e- .f1'~~ ti!

* to !h'.c 'i .' ...\r *r'k n i.-TV >2* 'fo *" ''.< ' t he '" r *:" rc i '"^ ? r IC'"" T" 4'.th. ^il]Jy 1
i)q ticm 'ofd. ,I" t, *e;., ," I "'* 'ir; tp -1,1i jewY..

~J2~e ,i" .. v'e,-' ,,r ; ... :'eut;r. ,,r.." :e :n t t #~
Wr1 `h f b -.q -e lie
I hotio -,- 0r'C, c .,' ,. r.e t 1 t aG
t .r? ti r .. .t . ,

i ? nom -r y to ..v' re eo f I;, I,,',' .. ..; -,qr ." '' f: ne ..

yo icn* ^r:; t-in ^^ o t e'i^~~i lr*.;o}^-k. la'^ ; -r 1 tiT^ ~ 1-rw* :*c--ly*-t~int ^hi
D8~r. ce r In -. V! -m'i ~ f., 3k t~v C.m"I -Irp'it ~

"to ^r(,r',' v.'" , ,,-u ii, i r, rts Of the h. j !<' iitor ff 'n it it
Yrk.*.r ii id ti~ ToB 'r ~~ f~' m 'i t Iv -v:i 'AA

side of t? e ,win huiili midn otn the p-:.'mnu... of: t ;e :-f. W" P n _Thr~'e
to a -n x~lr-r A -e 'Tl "

'r pviiion for otte .11 ti .on *f I!'r.. first c -i. -...

Srr i tr 1A .,,1h0o:e", .
q. n t, Ir OT o arrested '*" ' t ":,.'.
*..:* "*o l c F'r Ty^ t e i r ,rt ^ 't e h I l, *;p it ).*e f r: *l i-in. t ..

sidfr o? {"'. Q ~ ~ L r^o b .-r- t o f^ '6ts *i-~ f ff '^ ^ e "/0^ '^rr

Iv i on' for -ifs,;-^ /nu ,h l^(n:' "-- ?.^fn ,^ ^
pa./ .O S ro r ^ r if y ;r L y*b n r d 01. t :' "' /"n mi 1/ *' nt* "ere "'* :' ..' *'i '''' ''


,*'*. .: , *,," I t Ci ^ ^p *n '.^1;. ^ .r >:,*,.v^ ^ -
Phtopxeh 0.:1

illustre tes one o the cow ' ....

BtE LL,.!! ,tlfne e s,.tt.i s ere :: .

;:*; uo :uiped with Ii conortu raw 'er ; : : :

it voteor trq j. y.e hv

,"., concrete flor wiiich i-. f o ,o

liced .a cJ, ,, cv&l.'brird
^ . . loor,: ,-m :.n ji ^or.~ .;:.'b e t '-".fi,, ,',: J'ioor,- ..y' fe .^ "t-

I..' ,-, .
:.. h */ ,'so-ti t;ee n e 1y ':' t',- o :,v:. e ,- e. n c f, '.: j c -. tv r '" r." ]$. f .. #,ont1.. f

x.t: .,. *..[.t.. A,,P C- 2. C iS .d:i *- v;i r ,. ....n. i t r
It ~ ~ .I flW1~ C~&; 7 1PWA for.

.' ** , '/ 1;: ; ,i. ,*A :n ^ w *^* : .' ,Jo .;^ ?" l cf ] ; "' ,h? m ." **' ' l' : ; .".'rf ..* :^ ':^, *:
flpC~Im e -'Iqp b-r'~i1r I f'

v&^' '^ a of. U: .us-'c I t c >'. of r.. te w -i.Lc", ,^ .' "'v-^"*'".. ''

-a: out ;io'j "w- i -tr. .ut ;'': 'er C'" c r1 12 ?] T

:.1 ^ h "v c o *i t i :--, ,.:.6 : , -' i- :i c r. : '. ', *. ^ T.: **.' ; s. ... '. *' l '" ";- '*

,; ' *;* i i.^ .. .. ..,"s% ; : ^ ?^ ) ; .': :. ..... ^.] .j f (.. . '-' ... ... A: :.<; ..' ": ^:: '.... .
h v, b a, b v ... t b 4 I T tr
tr1'4. **.llcrr* y- I i ih to t4 411 w 1) sV r r 4. *i ^' j rs c? it^^ ;'**'^**'' ...^ r^ ^ '1" '**; ''* 1:
U ,i -1

-II 1, '*.

irl.'*m 1in to*:: COV^ They2&1j rj;tto-

t bu.4 I 11W

/ 6


Pos to Z techmro at rnheiro. :
Sn. occ1r>Ff" i vi.e th -g'nst *e,. tI c Ixleare of:
0. s wn j e:)'.?f' c.8 le v i w V I-
sinK. site of 1ie N tionpt '.c7ici'l Co0 "1.,er'iy Me. r. 't
,ic~i o ,2, fr f, till ti. tr i
... btclSdinrT, were eon-'truco, O-r thwf: rtttltiM:n. .1
*le ;' in-itoti o abou h : ,. of ),,,I I, six r

d c.d': of e t. e, one n imc1 .E.d oe. ." V '[F, ",sJ-f ,
1hc,8 of rosc rn, twenty or tbirt* .bh. I f thirt ofh 1 0+ ornt, t,
', h rounds and
*I. !dinf I ,.rc .c 1. rly. k oept ,

*.-, ,,of c 'r.ins. a'l b i +
v o 'o t. " i I A. e ( 1 P 1

....o, ,-. p t ic . .' ' !. ..* ,: Y .

f- -L A 'n f

Is +1:
: "- .lcrf *ie.p T+ on re .: 'ro sboi t .,... ' *' ".*

: 1ies ^.L (ro n'"*"':'r*- ?I r' ret IT a r'*i 4 .'. ... -. ~ . ,
f7. in r uc tio n :-.:i o *i .,*,.*'" i, . ... .i

S* < 1, :
S.... jj -n -JiB e"'f, .. ' .*I 4. .o ,r .1 :r
(', ." 'i C C.. 'riT- ,.
... ,o pt. O"

"Wer f.I

'Lively,, hi Tre-novd

fo r pi. t G cr e. r- f s o t" i 0.. . F!
: .': O -+i 'i;.c ',:'t cVs. r. J" .i 4f
",, **' 7 ? v 'o -'*** '' v ^ *: ^ p ?;' ) '? O ^+ * -' ? *^ I } f -' : p .z

:" :1 , ,7 o.y ,c'f-.' v ^," ..** .*l c '-- ,., :. v (t *^* r. +'; . ,.'-, '* .. ". *: "'' "* n + i .. + .+ -+ "
/ .' */ ~~ f 1 ': ,:i ; 1 .F ^ '* ^ r T l t n .a ^ . ^ ^ .(* d ^ ^ r ^ w l *. *

.: : ar ,, ...c ~ p. boy ,: ,rl ? "o^ '^ :' ?* a inn*'*1 .+rr ".^1 r1" vi.!! ..,i, :..ln e,
,-:: ..... m t ff ie5...f- ,nr(?npri ... for ,",' 'r*.... n.,ce., .+ -5.. +t t on, o ., -,o ,. or mf".' e

7 .'+

afterr the Diroetor hba ,!owi, me the class. rooms qnd t.h,
;Iohboritories, ', aef tile, a.'rr in io 0lo. .r lh',ilho to rie the
rf-t nof the irititution. vi rit Qrl ou r v f r ;dro Ce'"o '"
by ').e irf1 mr.i t -,o ., e.c "'-er,;,'"* 'She v,'u il t\.n,, em-ni c; c in rE,'-o,.

n .' r-m j A oc i o t TI ; .1 i -, 1
e o h b nildi ,.-ng-n.-GeJ for ot'i V] 14 i F .e\jv twro 'e

aired. : r1, ft e ^i.'is .,"ch r er t),n 1',. l. YI irsti i -: .n' o 'his
k n
1r&.*-n^, .-,wi ri ly ,:'';, .t; double '-.' *v,;ri o 0" i"' ,: i "' C* u d ii pcco-

t Y, .

*~~~~~~~ rh9 or te .I 'r v :'e

r r'' ill nfd .I rl-int ior n of b17 tc-r1 r 7 nil
I F, J r"I
.,. -,rfor. 1)lr -ntcly_, ..f- *t ,e (.j, '. o r '" i.T i fi 'tT,,,-,; .:' .**;;c \^ y^^^^.;^ f ,-'. e" 'nrep-

e-n.. t o tr;t r* fl it tVe i c. 't .ij .. 'to. c,:r--. h **, .- e ., it ,,- -n'' ible,
v c-

0 S1 "F pci- t 011.1ic fr- tpo-. np is le- q
. well v'n, Irted d,, '-' : "- ji :" 'n q -,.. "i ry r( r ir
: t-e yltf ,d:.nt. to ta4 e fe i o t of mh ", 0"fine ST )l-

lons vecre feiwn' '*here was sIo n-','jijh .orcnfl'hb red stalloin ht


was a handsome anial. ewo es'oeietlly fine Jticks were nIpo 'hown.
Cattle. The cow r.rn wn. o 'oel listed snd io well ar-
ranged that ,he c:ni'als wr'e on no.-rfoc eY:&ibition it P11 tines. The
main herd wrp in the pstfre but roonr.- the Seciel boreeoirg 1rock
that "1 -11. ~Ti 1 nY tn I'n tho 1bern **;-;.7 : r-,2nti~lorc-e^*n I ^'l''i*':'-ir^
I: "All'
^cnsyR, ".I 'f. : r t 'n* :n. p i'-I r .f l '. f.r er" -sc"':i ,.i :'r ," es.. r ft of

A ~ ' flr
---* .. . ,., .. .. ..---I

-~~ ~ 7AV-' V .... ;r~f,',e," ii ,.~':,I ""~ ~~~e~~'?o ~
_:. Of 0r .... *::, o. 1'n on ir'"- n
:,or. .... .1.. *" '. Or ~e'1 c o '. .r TOpf 0,n'...; OF' ''g-" i' "'' "Js-.- OP.'; "p i^ Ch t"'( '-' 1.'* ^ Q ''
',' '**i)''h "l''1 '" "" 'i-,,- -f '' ;H '^P ,"" i Ua h ".^ b pri : ;1* '*l .... <'T!" 3~

rig n''T. t-he ". t'iT'? o.:,4!p~rr,, '".* es'-,fr~o ai v +in, ,,. :;'l""'- of -"",^f-iQos
r:ith *^i ^'^O W-,.. *** i~r,.*c*i**b]e ,'1r1^1':m of :+,:9 n~ri..,,t'+f t! on i.a ovr- .

rieJ on w,'i4, v, r.1 y/: frl r,',p"- o-i 4
pjlot + S a,1ftre.-t .- ali-. '.^ o," ', e ". I 'lt,,, ilr! that
'e .fe *sbtair 1 r'r i ." "' *'io, h'y' i* ::"ld n -o('.. the -os t
?'ti'fsctor:y re-rc.- ?,, ?h6' .rc ,h vi: tl-,.cr ;u irl a rfpin a ^ *.
nrot >0ow rs R,.-:prly it ,'i-1 !i,.v- V;.' r c Rr -'r '
-f '{n 6-n

ol1p !p'.'tcn n.o r>, hriuiirJ ol : o it is be-
i eg yfX ~ a .1 '. ^ '''' 1 e. ^v vA p'o *or,;ir, I v t n r.> I t,' st *
r,1the. r cn''er$ifu. .ro.'V UTc" .r h r'' i I ti fl ri-ce *of r) i !
live .t p *'Ir: q "h lp 'f ?e i n *th1^ it,:fs*^ n ?^ ^'r l *
4 C, P

p ti'eiy r' o t 'i;.ro (-v- i" o "ov

nt;,. or' er7r:! }i 'Ic ",,' Ox h, 1.cI ;. t I'h;, r. :h (cvcfI.'.neet o' t or
tho ''. ".*nd .'" *"."; . ar _d -' i.* ^r; ,, .^ .le .' "hr s h i. n"'l P .'.or.^ .t'- .' ^ j-

S7 O r S o... .'t ? w, < f 1' (tr-;;v I i" :"01 e F"
the ' *-. ' e ,. > i, i *
L~O' ck o ~~ # i. ,,., .: r. ,--" yV ,.

to rlr d or pc,, e r 1, n x .-f',ic "'r '" "
Orny f ift 'p .".",t t *- *. >( --- f, ">r t- -""v.,.. '[. <".-*,.! *" *.- '-.. ,-ii '1.h,"r r J. 0 I

""i ^ '-- s; ., r' .. i ,5 n U ) "*.-r' ,' ,^ ,: '- V A r o hy h 1 ^* *
Ttr a-11 c n -. .

rid' t,, Fr
tnrt!rod'nctlon 'or o",, h] *'. "' o c-T ?olo .et-.T-, o.,' .''* f *''e In F~ r-i

trie p.f h;"1? be'" .... . ... < i. lt, -- x-,'-e *", t c "ro- I ,i ,, :'

:'~"n pT "..
* dao~r,, ^"n P, v' e 't r.'v''* ,"""- 1 '. ' '' r -* * *. ... + 0t 1 117 1 f t +

...1 o, h ,. rrn6rf-' &, n'i; ri r f : ' o- ::'i! I ': :.,:
*"' .. ,';' ; .' "; ... .1 *'1* . '.. 1 *.,. :,,. .. ' *'; .*'

":'l gen i h? .wrn i ^ K.' -frnr,.v ,,'i '^ t T.*. :, *, v.',;'*''
yooit fh,"t' I ^.nve *vSF'i ?1' ?! -T" o*f'.'fT ^.. he^.iu" b^ *h.*.i, t^na.F 'u d l>:i*:
bc rt.Lched iit~iout interfering 7,itb h ,v-in ,'-7, ,11 .
S o b COnthft "I ve riven vy firpt f Ittent.-- :1te 1 ive &i -.

d3evolopmeont pt these v.r mis institution.- "-hbe oveinmwert is doing
a -,p i ,ce of ":o'.I for t; .,,eoDiio o"& 'Y"r i] rr nr-

bre.:l n)111% of thw t,.tier breedss.
.' n ',- o ,"-. ': ? ..
h, t ,.n z
dk'.V,._''l .on re L go, '''. ,, if-' i .'i -.s to .; r 'by .',e "T e." .-. :n f".'1 ^a" "Y':, ':-

1"ih toCr b rcc ev.or, A rerd ;rd t'. r evII o, .of 1-.?r t' r -'.
.'a nd "' C ,o rc: f:% r d of:&* *** ,;r'y t,* o h "e 0 "< *>? "'" f" I'^ *.

? l 11 ........ ........... I.urY,. eci -ti c: V ".or:'2 ". *- bru 7 l r Uel ,

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AA nr, c

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tO ,!C t i.".n{:3 ,r .,:''1 r n .:.>?< ,'ll ""' r h :'^ e r O ."i 1 'T K.'. t^O.n '"''1,'.. i .... 2tl") -'


Te lort 1i;* 't

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..- % 17 r 'tl C 'f....' ft fl r f 4 1 h IC,

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c!.';'n "* ....'.ir "r (F '.;*>*in^ (*.T :"'""h *i l1' m '-, -':" r)'- r .-ro : t. th-' *.. lino f o<

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f:v i f i :; .,
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h 'o e '0 r/ '0h7n "' ":",t~ 'T. & ,, f"*r' :*i( f- ,,,i;-: ,,x -" ny^...,. *, ^, -! ;~r/t-<

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1. **C ''* T ,'*'',- 1 ,. ;T.;, r ",,: ^ *l; r; j .c :" y / .' "^. l',, t-. f .-,- T^ ***

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- I

1 cl vcarn i '.o 'h ( c k c: 'f~ iti i they e;ine5 r.' i f V
}'n i.r c"! !" '*o .T '^ O T *. ^ *'"' "r1 1:e ~ I ^ '."r enc P : .t 0 ""w i t^ # .^.~l"> o p *' (

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on rore of .... ,,r Tr'?n* rs"' a* -'

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be 1 iT r .-n1. ,," '" c r ,crn r (Ie, s' i ,r ..
t;o e Pillt'. ." :iei.o r.' *: r "'K 1

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..; "h, ; ...... ,o n F T th ^ ,' 5,: :t>" r '. ^.f^ .',i, th"e *'' ",, ' ,)/ ] .., ' i- i: '

to P'e 71' tr ... Oil 0T
'rod tn~ ifi'I *ye Ti i om ~e
: *' *. o l / .., r .i '****fo-n -n' 1O F^ '"v 1p f1 f'ri'!l' '
o f;* 'vl i n o 1.n "r 'r vi .^:?' tf (.a. *-. j- v ltc- of '*t t? po *l' f~ ? ir )tF t ljYi~ . *<. ."* f r' 0..e p ' n-w /"* ,
A io ~ .f^cn.t s+p l tp -wr ^ p '-l r.w -;. -~ 'l e .'
'1 B p r r. h ~ iV i l p\ & t e n; ,' IO F a * o ^ v ; ~ ^ t ? t ''; i ^ 5 m r ,; '
l "~ pie. -"fn 'fr.-:*b~ep,}*; it'"ni e*~o~~. her'^ -'i"^ f/
; *. ^ *''b rdpfi^.^cl~t*.,.i** ^ y.^.*t -Tet bu3 -f.t^ ,r~o^4 ^^: ^oALs,

ue to. tn .of e ,. ion amnr the chic.:en riser" ''vtiraIly tthe
old co'oi-jrdy.f *t.`.k *i,,:lo *r.c-_.. the &,n'e ,.^d newly develoo.
O.breo'rr f. `r';ji r *u pe ri Qr -.,at o,.l 1- 0-'. io r I ;eg p pr (I i* '. [' 3 +, r1 of ' *' c: ic' r I fi t 'l V V ; aitod poultry w "
i. .oit cr nrot .crVn fl 114er.. n'. il.S 07,., y T i re *v
,yet; ii is ,'**u.-'n p, wr)! i .'h .' .', : 't f;'10 'onl-'
S t-yr/ of *,,71iP aI ri'L : .is ,tu. r or '1 ro "ify t'^U'v h *'ier .1,,-l.t ; ...^d r i ^ * ^ . .- .* .r* .; , ;'< e ."
. ., .. !* .r; u 1

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..a .i"8 "-''r '.r f we inb ru- n : ,'?9 r.t-

4'". : r'^ Io noTyr~ ose.lV or iw, OY-n ~tinn' 11}.: tir Fo~cy *l"o'^s ,f jI'.K''3

h*'.. ..' "f *t "e r-vf' "' 1 "; '" t 1 ', .,. .'Or 1 : ; : *' it
j I, I- L T.
^ )4" **";.. }hunfl rod". "o f *!;h ''>^r*";.nr1, ^''. .. -, .o. .fi *,',f ( -*" r '- .tot'H ns '... .. *cr .e 'P ,.C. :','il '"*I thns'
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becn~ ~~~x ; if`-, 6n i n 'm ~j~r pr&' T.~~~ in

1':' ' 7r. .' fer **'e ""iQ-'e r r r r r, p f

-" > '>'" -, '.> ", .' .. .. .** ' *: K iK :*: ,. ,.- . ,,,., . .. ,'
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ei' 'n>

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.. t" ',.. t, if.jhir orf n,.e nr ,.."mn'n, e ,'l-, i.+ a t .T. .. ir, ,. ;
** '. < ", r.**i, riv.'' O*t ..r e' t .o* ,. ~ c.f. . -7. ,:.. ; i ,., ",O v' 'O"" '' .?

... Y' :: in :- to" thait =,- "*, oo o ar. '?0,"' "^ 'C .({l : :0,'v-'-
... ,. ..,,,r., :C n, -ve .. C.- ., C,

r- -

Th ,'Eahia rrv"ng is .o well kon in the "'orth Anerican r1etkt hat
people will buy it at sight, Or.nnes con be renailv .ir...' "ro
?io to "ew York. This. hfF' been -emonnptr.ted repeatedly, ,Tt froi
Tio to New Yor{k, but by .hiFen I fsrom -outh Lrri anto ori01on ever
flront palel route; by ohipnets fron 6if i o"oiouh '.hi-
* ns nnd to r tralis, a r"luc1 Ionwer rou te; i'f l oJpo Is o'by's'iC eP fron
' Cliforni thro-fhtthe fnana Canal to '.,. ,or1c.
S**' carpi^ in of e ation ponf +heoranim nve roer "'p ss o'ine
work v'ith the st.eim-hin c to provide nr'oer ecoo6n01.-tionns
ore ?v I thnt are necessary.' Anis i -her rn en,.. tns-: P,-i.'nise all
tho cor.ditionF necepsp.ry for nerf'ect h7."-'r11orP~ntion I I ve nece .7or'xed
out in Sorth '--ierica.
: ."A noint of e ondrfry iimnortainco but one r ht 5 so i'prortant
that it rhniPldT n t be overlooires by .in, .,aes is that vhencver she

sh-is n.)!, ric, o, can or, )nd other rtorials nf this I in!, nis well
as the. vrriou1 K11 dnO of r'eeta, -he i- ro1b'binr her roil of ini^enFe -uan--
t titles of forti.litv. er .2pnO. are s til ,T:.v 'ro'iwtive. %oevr, it
is the history of every eynnrtinr vourntry throt soorer bor Ifer .e F;
becocev * eauper.ted if ex rortftion is corei-P for r Ffficient length
of tie. -hen, ho- ever, we eyr ort fruit-; Wbitter, cd nvpar, re x-
nortinp a minimumm of fertility. ."h uet we do not LTnreciate tliT neee.--

; ty of restoring fhis 'Tnrt fertility, but the tite will co'e, F. it ham
come to every other active exnorting'ntion '-hn we shell }rv, to re.hrt

to the use of comT,.,rcil fertilizers.'
T ;Ini conrfection with the ofrnp. .ue rtlon, P? rvr -.e6e a -nr.e ul
study of the vwritie's, and .lso rf the ietho- .dsf their Tr: ic'1n.
J All' of the oneration. in orrrw orchr. or. ex-relev ire^icient.
SPractically no att,-ntion is s-iven tb the taiinn of6' th'e fruit i:!. fro-

-*' *

the planting of the trees ;and even these are not cnrefully s'locted.
Insect nests and diseases are loved tQ run their course. hen the
fruit is -nroduced It i. nicked in n haphezard wa# careless way. In
spite of oll this, Geraes .is oroducing .rae quvantities nf fine

looking Pnd "very palatable Srongses. I.f 'his, fnit were rrnperly hand-
led Qnd olaced in proper boxes, and ncrorerly transported iti:would pro-
duce a revenue of miony millions of sr.nuslly., Someo efforts ere
being Mcde in. this direction but it.needs a r'rea dr-sl ,of ed'f.,tionel
'.work yet before ines will fe her oper rclco a an or-r.e nrodncing

stote. ,or export to lorth Aerica the vPtietied should riren between
the first of- i JnIo ist
the firt of April PH the first Of tst. 'he Varieties known as
th0 Phi ndr. the Pelectc co'ie within ihese lirnits.
tn "Prazilien Bhisinesp",of 'c'oter, rr*ge ?F, I 'rve an art^le
on "Br1Eil's FrnUit Ornortunity." hi.'khi, discupses the cquet ion rn-e,.hat
a* length ond makes. sone helpful piuRes Iions of the opportunities for
Braz il. hic is the kind of nublirl.ty thrt t is. elculated to inruce
; some noonle to thinly: ,bout The "istter. I rm filing copy 'o- this Vn. -
Sine herewith. s ... ..... .
noes. (,lnpsi. .he mn go t is e nm ort nnciert fnrit ,e
grow in ,'.in's. It s r-ciultivr, ted in 'reia for rnyr certuri-. before
the Christian erae. he intriduction into :he western hemisphere dates
hbackc tothe earlier expIlorfations. Ap poon rr colonization ,Pi.on in thif'
region the mango a, introduced. he earliest introduction ws by *feans

of Seeds, later the various colonizing countries of .'urope introduced
; inarched (encostia) trepe- Thesd trees o. course producedd rnperior
fruit. The seed from t'ere trees ar F e(ed for furtther "nron-p.tinn. It
is s well kmown fact thr.' only e very 'w-ll percent of the Feedling frees
from inarched trees produces fruit e-:uvl t-o het nf Ihe rC-ret 'tree. It
has become the prnctise in both corth rP'3 2oumh ,ericn to desiunpte

these trees that originate-as seedlings by the rr-me nnme PF their
parent tree. his ncthod of nroceduro has led to in endless confusion
in the designation oP varieties smonn "wonwoes. -t the nresent tie
',e nemer of mqnnoes that ore s)unlied to *'be variety in the 'iarket
or orchard menns little or no'hinr more than ain isF.e'iblnge of vrartIng
quality of .'nit., oe of U i'-, good, rOc'e of it inaiffcrent, -n oe
of it ir unif worthless. T.he presence of this iinerior ard wort'.less
fmit on T'he -narket destroys t-he svles nrm demandrs for the excellent
fruit, since unler hur system goo-i0 bad, r8nd in'iffor nt frit all go
by the tvee vniiotnl n ano'her serious difffuculty is 4h.' 'fr' its belontinp fm liffer-
ent *fnilies of 7n1.cnoes mre n nmn'. .by the r'nm nhme, po the purch aer;
-unless he i.ctunlly *eC- th ruit .'-r never ,. cert in 4rht 1'" is Pet-
ti'n wfhr t hr'e exncts. *' : .. '
T ie con.i tion I hve des.cribe,3 ebove has been of unt.ilrl dero.r-e
to iingo 'rowing in :ias Ueraes Of couriie 'nrv 'Gerpe, is not the
c. nly toe th0mt s-auferm in trs way. throughh Proctically -l1 the regi :ns
that I hrve visited the eame condition pervails. -here tk no uniform-
11y in the quality of "`1ngoep he nri ng v certain name. Conpe.-uently
very few people wil1 nrchspe innnpoes v;ithout first seeinip the fruit.
A5 long FS this Pooition rervils it 'Till he impo'pible to es*?nb1ish
vmn:'o grmwi'nm 1, a fir.., fo.r i'.erce. AIprge einort trfle fr -3
not be ctahlirhed an the v'rible qunlity of bhi trit OF w-e Imw nro-
duce it. ew nrnO ,m-roowers n hiv n .st'b1ihbed a remnutation
for themselves even in the markets of .b o that bhey con d impose of
their be:-t 'fr;it'at no.mia r iveev T crr rive nrirces. ,here few men beve
demonstrate d tht itsis riossible tf .c1' `1gro^ rowing a good bus ines-.
,he trouble ip. that the .vny m cusriyn of mnngo prowers know.?
nothing of t.e underlying' rinnle. hf the nrofduction of excellent manroest

k- ow 4" th f* i t, in 'rc ; n

nor Ao they know how toP ick, k .ck, and forwvnrd th fruit in ouch
that il will Prriveet'i.he f. rkir.t irin sn.leble Ie onritlon. 7na '- rses
is nssiinpr' tn onnortunity of Fiunlying tliis 'eliciou?0 mra l-,olepo'v fruit
to millionss 'f 1ou-h ; 'erican, living in colrr el1mres, Is wOell as to
njn.y tI:._n.d living in fhi, ore innulou:'C cqiters. i' n1,ll portion

of tfe 'e6'0 fruits could elpo br- forwTrd's.-1 to T nrth '"ieriu-.i ;n. "'urone.
At th te tirio of year wen these aro rip9 in ,inas they oilrle "be great
.ove2ties in fhooe p-p2ces? V'h Wbult baring pBces' con-ieirm- te -ith
the ififieifies involved, in -r'nching 'he 41-r91-et.
Avocodlos. (Abecates.) The avonldo fruit iP unimie in the ve.-
;.. eoab!e kingdom. Its food wolue is e(iial to,. tbt of met. fiF fat con-
tent is ecu.l to that of crea.. ?ome. of the varieties roun P, '.- h asR

Stwenty. 'n even twenty-five p--rcent rhl. att .tA ore .i1e. .t Was
used largely as n diet for n;,tient? in ..,ntteria. .ore .r'cntly its
e. uo, .re (I its. consu'motion h;-ve boon v,-',ry rr-ently exte';1eie d. rr
of es much a.' Cifty hect rm in :,xtenttore -lnnted to buldded ',rbulio'
trees of c ,ingle variety. In th, e 7-nir.ed .Satesit- i. the eot highly
nriz fruit .t n. .
-, Though a native of ' e rtria its culture h Leen extended
to ll tropical regions of the -!zobe. northernn Souith :.rica .een to
b, the center of itS :earliest distribution. -It ,'.ais in cultiv.ti n rt
the tf.-e thnt ericaia wV-, beinr- ex-lored by te -urone;-n,.
"Il'he tiie of ripen .ng nor* of the anutor is from Jul* to aan-
uc-ry, -outh of the Tquetor, i: prince ipal season i, between J -nuary
Snd ly. .y cruoful, flec'ion rnd the introduction of'-vw va-rieties
,, the: sei.on of Lrodctlonr, for thpi tr Iter njrt of '" F .Gera u he

...etenried ,to covTi the entire yecr, -he im-oortnt point, _however, iu
... this plr'rrfoh i. tht during the period from .Tpnupry to July the avoca-
do i the highest priced fruit on Ihbe orth Americ.n merlet. It is during

t-lj,' -, thp tha+ -I,,- ,.r;.e," is .or mduclnl, o mntitier, o' it. his
-Ir.'o portion of ninim ;.. the sotrwy, ,,.
PWotulcti on cou.'" in"re," er ily to r,. r -nny times it. tnt.
'orieraiment of her repp1e is Fih m, to mke
h-., too there tre the l]rpe '.ou,:. ,h ieric-.n r"es in whichc h the
it n aittr vvxtie cro, to 7 rouce. It i; e")
.i ;,, ,ri;,cl, but in -ole it iFr -ortc i iC 1y inobtFiT.l)ble,-
i. c< 'cc. 1ttr YOcive Fne the 'cn r '2rj "
e) t t f n i n r ~ l f ni c,,i n p n !r Tjr
fH w fj nlt work need' Ic c.' -ne here, jiuft "F it hr. 'fto
in1 tbe fu it 0 oe ,nt. vnvloe -uch "qrd
b, done 1tnlorcja, in obrer tr.. the vor0o '.'er vry realize e n -
loaor a, does ,e raicn. of rr-i n' ry f''r-'
ficient ',riee fr his froit to i--tify the oiaAi'tio-1 v 'nt in 1s
erons. ch of tDhS *orr ccl"0 be one byoTnhi bu ?e
zivo,' o orchlrd. (I :-:now, one ,-rrnv,. of 4^ ',res, bout 20 Ic'e-'rs,
women fdQ 1i(3ldron ,,n,'- to ,...,'-r-,.h'dt
'!I. extent t''!o-.. -'b
Cj,"- income for the .o .,hld,

Siu"i'^'r of tree of tbhi- r-ne:ies
*icihi, f.'-]exig). hmiv fmrui st i f, Chinese o -
zore t.,'!i!g nd r.'!icn -ni'c. eron, in el-
b-b.N t no't hi.... .T *p 'ecjpt(' rf ,it #ro. TL"n in 'ourtrv. t
1o norionte, .,,: ;'-0t of the nconie 'o whe
rec-Qe t been inti o.. e n'o ,, i n1 n vfIci.rt ri v 1r of . t 5:.
ripe fNi.t on t!h!0 .,.,. 'ere shown .-ore
In-ve f'; ited ip ,inLic f.,:.upc5' to rrovce th?. i -; i" ,-,o sible c to ev eo -, ,
vC c r -itive fhC 1 1the hol reen fhem -nrv
-, C.'. lucrative U ine in... I, hir i. e. ',.. ..1j. of oliars o .orth of
f. t ,.a C native Ifn it of the ',-, o -. .,niY rqos tn ther .
a,,,_ rrn o &ic-1 rr- l-l v-ill*
i b is f ri 'i t L.i'r D: p o ,^ c e f] '--,rii; '-] ,ly .ir .,o'! ;.".; *' 1.. '^ h irrf tir : ,- iyojn t le f V
hort .1,, l a ,' 1 .. v r t.onp hrve ",'',n in er1: -ateo
are co"n'c-: fre""h fmit. it minFt ---r',,.te3"-t iro '1 f '
-'-,o"rr1f'rp0' 7o. 1c show,- r ethster of Ii'eip "
millionss of '-io" of it w *rire. -.- hir A-e to r.11 ,.i- r v of 'lhe r d. '
vcn1 in 1 io ae J.'*f'iro i 'I ,'sibhie to ny ,ri.,1 litehi fc'- "'1 h:inj.
Aoil *.'en of 7in .
In addition to the Idry fruit e;-t eot con: Aic'rtble 2 iwntji iP, o f *,ere;Cd
1n thiI report h'ive djisi'-c'2 r" o-ovi'L at r at r r1r"rp '
-itca. ?rc en %1it q1t o.f Chinp. "his i"n .id o le tVer ".n te dri,.:d
LP iq u t b at 1 .a .L : .,. to h i ... .. *h *
i r".."VO~ p( id nothn1 about mcr crons T,- f'por'nro lic-t;ion. 'to, he-
he '. n Tor 0 thi ? o-n it i n incfies'rr, ,t .;-"I' in
,-c r .F.. ..e .r :Lniloor.ant biut us.p: w e it v'm;nn too f I'-rlv .'-J-1 thi
.j 7,,r. i ve s- .. houlF. !-.: tII-,O 'o dis ,min tfe tw' Vep1' 7,iLetie.
0 .1-"t *per. rT V If on ".P en c., ic to . e i',. r. c of a _-1n .f -i r
''t1'I 'c o h red. i-.~ino 'jp) n of ih ieity iT7 Ic it prn-,ible
... .e n aI n... o -.. ",. ". o- t o.f these i.-lr.rov--.q -.nt5 [rn
,r. (hi n.t ~ e r. re 'iat,,. imn 'he >-. rh thtse ri. ; ;ke i .
C, s.rc.n, trhinn the,.-:.. of ive: tiftion ,fln pnb]icitv. All "
'61j,:;!! frJ.t h.Tirehcn21r to Irn Irr-or mrrtritier "or h'," ,e Ls 4
-. .... stlor 0ei, ore o r a i.,'rttnce for the dv,..,-,w'. p .t of ,r .t_ te."
.* u,- t. to 1'e S es I te teir tii te ", ,?e if t,' re
.t,,, .e C. .teeIF r ,rfeel f iy Q ae to t' soil c te o0 i
t icon up properly nA pro:'ecu 'e viith vi'or..

The nopt important asset tha4 '"innr Oeraev haas,however, is
himr tens of thousands of young g- men who in a few yerr. will e- th'- full
uuwn nen. Practically eve-r one of them bav r rbition to attidn to.
comrnfortrble circunstrnces and be resrected by hi. .nnr-iunity. rhe only
.vista open to most oi then is that of beco,.nng 2 aw.r- a doctor, or
-oosribly Fs school Tihilo all of the e are lvdf7ble- on'Tpations,
it is f well :no'vn fact that it leef, thcan five recent of t'.enon.-
ulationnof a state to completely fill t1.esennffices. The ret of those
who try to enter these ronks must either fail or live out a dreary
existence. Lt, the nre-zent.tifne it ie not ros-ible for thn five
or ten rerccnt .f the yoing men; to rct fbnilamental: trninr in the sci-
ence of agriculture. !"any ;houstndp pre c.nallode by force of circuram-
stances to ret their knowledge of it frnn :har. n'ronsl re-erience,
which is theo mnot oxnensive nri1 difficult; way of, lnrni.. Yet it is
within the realm of Posibility f Oi inny or mo0t of them tx) 3e:rn from
t-ie exn,'rience of others, not only in ..their ov. n .iintfry b4t from the
experience of th'pe ine f.orei countries.
Agriculture i1 the oli. t .cc(inption of -in, ra., nn tfhe other
hand, the newest of sciencee' !',t, occrni tion iTenludes over sixty percent
of our population, making it an oasy miat t.or rto enter the ranks n.nd at
the sanme time con.nrasively si"nple to -n'make SicceMS in it. Pve-y pro-
gc'rosFive country in the tropics is no'. busily engaged in developing a J
more practicable -nd norofidtble (scientific) nt.rieulture. '
? h e y ',ri .fn o f, mr.? '"cr r,:, .' .r .i:-., to '--c t t $h e
lc'er i P t.-.tecrft ,hcll- noint out. the w ry clearly,. '. o r F]c TT
the educti one ,r.-e: for (-r .,ou. : 'e '. I wolr n \
O-P- r n; v. hr-ve
in I'S. si ion ite. m ill f>; l" in ,r I '.re nrin.i .., o '"rr r '-v. I have .

rnini'eOA out certain "il aefinite linr o' i-.rove mt thart omn 'i-Ae in>
the c-'ricultire of ^inas. T i ,,rovcrnt of the, the

/ / **

1i'oveent of the fruit. crop, n fi' i-inTrovtle1nt of th i i ermnp
... . . . : ..." . . .. . ,. ... .. ...- : **.- .'** '- .
r,, fr ]'uily ,.. to tn rmn'.n,- e in view if to nTe he f rrnl lin e
* * ' ** f" * ; : *
O '::IT w ,('i' ., '* f' ".ore .ro t.h *, rr. . .. . .
t . o .o c'r .o-i .. .. ... r n -tionr-' ,:ecreel. -: ve3
V' rrrr coc.i,.ionm ..'-' "r Vl-,oler.hle to "ree ,.hd
:.:li'b.(? ^- .. n il*'^ 'be .:; p o ,

'" I ,', 9iifior. n of febuiTilni-fi-. the "s, olp Cunerior.
4. c iwe tir "etN .rr ian were 'e 'c e,' L "ore -e ec,,ured
title to the I p.a -
,-'." .' .1.*.. *!'i~ t O h' Vi "r:,iUS tI'o:3 tion?'l r Ol i:'l',e',tt,,-Ii: n-
:1 ir ti :utionRs ow 1r' r'r -n F" nx "- 'I 0 -rf. r 'Ton
lit, n i . IX. ,4' I ro

* s e. t, need I*f ,T.y te -ti c e ,, .,- 3 e I,' o'j. ".' o 1
"*:1 in nrl o 'r:.4 i.t 'not oiv. flv'., 'i.,nrs t r;r,- i le Ttile hSe-
,,r f ,

.'',.'r.g S,.n' i n :l.;<(, { nr nt o .C.,- r n "--, .h(.... le n
^'''*! v1 'v gbi1fb' 6 ~ *'^ fot *** 0*..* '^t ^ -o f*'.Ir/--*' cF hof ri : 'e~m n.''1o
S**' '' oi'h'oth r *t.^!^^]k *o~f ~-*'.,*" jii**^-~t'.*~^*'' rf sf or'r-v *trfirn ^.(-:,cr "** r *
~'f~rlh ii n-- t~jQ~ f'j T f~e rc; ~
fell W I I
'i' ..h": '. v i;'2v'cti t'.f .t.Peo r',e've ,.,>j..l., ir- tifn.,-i. ^om e, i e]f

*': *".,o you r thr". tful .;( i l.,,.dr,.,ion. ,

"'1 "1'. *** 1 '/'*' ** *. : 1"2, v~ 0en ft u l yo rs ,...