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Connto Production and Exportation in Minas Gerais.

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Title:
Connto Production and Exportation in Minas Gerais.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
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Box: 1
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Connto Production and Exportation in Minas Gerais.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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AA00000207:00022

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Connto Production and Exportation in Minas Gerais.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Connto Production and Exportation in Minas Gerais.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00022

Table of Contents
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    Section 2
        Section 1
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        Page 2
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        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Section 19
        Section 20
    Section 3
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Section 4
        Page 1
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        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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Full Text

,A OS EU D I ERIACIOnAL ALGOD0


PROMOVIDA PELA
SOCIEDADE NATIONAL DE AGRICULTURE
SOB OS AUSPICIOS DO SERVICE FEDERAL DO ALGODAO

CARTA DE CONFERENCISTA ]

DO

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I CONFERENCE INTEIIAOIHAL ALBOI OEIIIA


PROMOVIDA PELA 8:
UU W U *UU
SSOCIEDADE NATIONAL DE AGRICULTURE
4 .


a reunir-se no correr do mez de ':

Outubro de i922
NO

RIO DE JANEIRO A
1 BRASIL -
.:



SCOMMISSAO ORGANIZADORA; "

41 < ESTATUTOS, PROGRAMMA







.$ RIO DE JANEIRO
Typ. Revista dos Tribunas- Carmo, 55 ,.
1922

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C0nler66cia international Alodoeira

promovida pela Sociedade Nacional de Agricultura

sob o alto patrocinio
de
Sua Excellencia o Sr. Dr. Epitacio da Silva Pess6a
President da Republica
e de
Sua Excellencia o Sr. Dr. Ildefonso Sim6es Lopes,
Ministro da Agricultura
e sob os auspicios
da
Commissao da Exposigdo do Centenario da
Independencia
e do


ServiCo- Federal do Algod.o
a reunir-se no correr do mez
de
Outubro de 1922
no


Rio de Janeiro
BRASIL


* *
































































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Conferencia Internacional Algodoeira

OUTUBRO DE'1922




COMMISSION ORGANIZADORA

Arno S. Pearse
Ascendino Cunha
Alfredo de Andrade
Alcides Franco
Carlos Julio Galliez
Carlos de Miranda Jordao
Domingos Goncalves
Fidelis Reis
Gabriel Osorio de Almeida
Geminiano Lyra de Castro
Hannibal Porto
Joaquim de Aguiar Costa Pinto
Juvenal Lamartine de Faria
Lourival Souto
Miguel Calmon du Pin e Almeida
Mario Spinola Teixeira
Miguel Faustino do Monte
Raphael de Abreu' Sampaio Vidal
Trajano Viriato de Medeiros
William Wilson Coelho de Souza




SEDE DA COMMISSAO:

ktiua 1B de Marlo, I-- 10 andar
Caixa Postal n. 1245 End. Tel. .


Rio de Janeiro BRASIL












































































































































































































































































































*'-


















Socidade Nacional de Agricultura

(Fundada em 16 de Janeiro de 1897 e reconhecida de utilidade
public pela Lei n. 3549 de 16 de Outubro de 1918)

-0 -


ESTATUTOS

-DA-

Cornmissio Organizadora da Conferencia
International Algodoeira


Art. 10 A Conferencia Internacional Algodoeira, con-
vocada pela Sociedade Nacional de Agricultura, sob os auspi-
cios da Commissao Executiva da Exposifqo Nacional e do
Servico do Algod0o do Ministerio da Agricultura, reunir-se-d.
no decurso do mez de Outubro de 1922, na cidade do Rio de
Janeiro.
Art. 2 A Conferencia sera organizada pela Com-
missao para esse firm nomeada pela Sociedade Nacional de
Agriculture.
Art. 5 A Corumissao Organizadora da-Conferencia
elegera seu president, cinco vice-presidentes, urn secretario
geral e uim sub-secretario.
Art. 4 As reunites da Commissao Organizadora se
effectuarao, pelo menos, uma vez por semana.
Ar. 5' Os intuitos principles da Conferencia sdo : o
estudo de questoes de interesse para o desenvolvimento da
producqao algodoeira no Brasil e no Estrangeiro: doenqas e.
pragas do algodao; a selecqao, o beneficiamento, a cassifica-
c;o, o enfardamento, o transport, os direitos fiscaese o com-
mercio interestadual e international desse product e dos
S seus derivadosi a industrial de fiagao e tecelagem; cooperate.










-6-


vas, caixas de eredito e bolsas de algodao; finalmente,. o exa-
me de quaesquer assumptos que aproveitarem a producqco e
ao- commercio do algodao, e indicaqdo de conclusOes a
respeito.
Art. 60 Serao membros da Conferencia :
a) os delegados dos governor federal, estaduaes e mu-
nicipaes;
b)- os representantes de associaqOes e especialistas, na-
cionaes ou estrangeiros, quese occupem da cultural, do com-
mercio ou da industrial do algodao;
c) os membros da Commissao Executiva da Exposiqo
Nacional;
d) os directors e chefes de services do Ministerio da
Agriculture, das Escolas Agricolas, e das repartiq6es de Agri-
cultura dos Estados;
e) os membros da Sociedade Nacional de Agricultura
e os representantes das demais associacges agricolas e indus-
triaes;
f) os membros das Commiss6es de Agricultura, Obras
Publicas. Impostos e Finangas do Senado e da Camara dos
Deputados;
g) os representantes do Centro Industrial do Brasil, do
Centro de Fiaqao e Tecelagem de Algodao, das Associacoes
Commerciaes, estabelecimentos bancarios, syndicatos, coope-
rativas e caixas ruraes;
h) os lavradores, industries e commerciantes de algo-
dao e os representantes das emprezas de transport.
Art. 7 -A Commissao organizard o programma dos tra-
balhos da Conferencia, effectuard estudos especiaes sobre as-
sumptos do programma para serem submettidos a apreciaqca
da Conferencia e esforgar-se-a por conseguir'a adhesdo, a col-
laboraqgo e o comparecimento A Conferencia do maior nume-
ro possivel de interessados.
-Art. 8.0 Serao recebidas pela Commissao Organizado-
ra, cor a convenient antecedencia e at6 um mez antes da ins-
tallaqAo da Conferencia, as monographias. memories e traba-
Ihos originaes a serem sujeitos ao estudo da Conferencia..
Art. 9. Os estrangeiros, membros da Conferencia,
que, nao sabendo o portuguez, quizerem apresentar estudos ou
memories sobre material do programma, poderdo fazel-o nas
linguas hespanhola, italiana, franceza, ingleza ou allema.
Art. o10. Com a necessaria antecedencia, a Commissao
Organizadora fixard os dias do mez de Outubro de 1922, em
que a Conferencia tiver de se realizar, dando a major publici-
dade a essa resolucao e avisando os interessados.
Art. 11, A Commissao Organizadora preparara o Regi-
mento Interno para os trabalhos da Conferencia.









-7-

Art. 12.0 Nas vesperas da installaqao da Conferencia rea-
lizar-se-5o quatro sessoes preparatorias, presididas pela Cpm-
missao Organizadora, para o reconhecimento de poderes dos
conferencistas presents, trabalhos de expediente e discussao
do Regimento Interno.
Art. 13." Na ultima sessao preparatoria, e ap6s o reco-
nhecimento de poderes, ser votado o Regimento Interno pelos
conferencistas presents, elegendo-se, em seguida, a Mesa ou
Commissao Directora dos trabalhos da Confere.:cia..
Art. 14.0 Antes de encerrar-se a ultima sessao prepara-
toria, a Commissao Organizadora transferring os seus poderes
a Commissao Directora da Conferencia, que passarA a agir de
accord corn as disposiq0es do Regimento Interno, que tiver
sido approvado.
















































































Y















PROGRAM MA


DA

CONFERENCIA INTERNATIONAL ALGODOEIRA



A Conferencia Internacional Algodoeira,convocada pela
Sociedade Nacional de Agricultura, sob os auspicios da Corn-
missqo Executiva da ExposiAo Nacional e do Serviqo do Algo-
dao do Ministerio da Agricultura, reunir-se-6 no decurso do mez
de OUTUBRO DE 1922 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro e occupar-
se-a de qualquer assumpto derelevancia, que diga respeito ao al-
godao e aos seus sub-productos, e, especialmente, das theses
constantes deste programma:

I 0 Algodso no Brasil. Inquerito geral sobre
a sua cultural nos diversos Estados
e no Estrangeiro.

1)--Variedades de algodao existentes nos diversos Estados
da Uniao. Caracteres proprios dessas variedades, estudodas se-
mentes e qualidades da fibra.
2)-Vantagens e inconvenientes da cultural dos algodoeiros
annuaes e perennes, segundo as condicqes' topographicas, agro-
logicas e climatericas da regiao. Inconvenientes da mistura de
variedades numa mesma plantagao. Importancia da systematiza-
ao da cultural de uma s6 variedade para cada zona.
5)- Rendimento comprovado de cada variedade.
4)-Resistencia das diversas variedades is intemperies e
pragas, nas varias regioes.
5)-Precocidade e productividade das diversas variedades,
em cada region.
6)-Terras mais adaptaveis a cada uma dessas variedades ;
situaao topographica, exposiqAo, formacAo geologica, composi-
qao chimica e extensdo de cada regiab. Padres das melhores
terras. Condiq6es climatericas locaes.
7-Meios de produccAo em cada regiao ; condic6es da mAo








10-

de obra; regimen do trabalho a journal, parceria e empreitada;
precos das terras ; facilidades de transport.
8)-Estudo retrospective do desenvolvimento da cultural
mechanic (com animaes e tractores) em todo o paiz.
9)-Estudo retrospective da accao official e particular para
o desenvolvimento da cultural do algodao no paiz.
0)--Estatistica da producqao algodoeira em cada um dos
Estados, sendo possivel por municipios ; consume local; exporta-
o5o para os Estados e para o estrangeiro.
1 i)-Estudo retrospective do desenvolvimento da cultural do
algodao nos principles paizes productores.

II-Aperfeicoamento da cultural do algodao no
Brasil

1)-Preparo do terreno, destocamento, trabalho do arado e
da grade, emprego dos tractores e condiqoes economics dessas
operaqoes.
2)-Systemas de plantacao mais economicos, machines a
empregar. Epocas e processes de plantio, segundo as variedades
e a regiao. Replantio. Desbaste. Capinas. Arrazamento.
5)-Adubacao das terras pobres : applicagao do farello do
caroco de algodao, do estrume de curral, dos adubos chimicos
e verdes.
4)-Rotacao das cultures e necessidade de sua systematiza-
qao como meio de equilibrar a fertilidade da terra e de defesa
contra as pragas.
5)-Colheita, cuidados na apanha para ter um product lim-
po. Armazenamento convenient para evitar as impurezas e as,
pragas.
6)-Selecqgo das sementes, tendo em vista a variedade do
algodao e as qualidades da fibra ; praticas adoptadas nesta ope-
raao.
7)-Aclima.ao das variedades exoticas; vantagens e incon-
venientes.
8)-Estudo comparative entire a seleccqo das variedades na-
cionaes e a acclimacao das exoticas ; superioridade da primeira
pratica sobre a segunda.
9)-Poda; estudo dos diversos methods suas vantagens
e resultados economics.

III-Doencas e pragas do algodao. Servigo de
defesa

1)-Estudo das doenqas e pragas que atacam o algodoeiro,
nomeadamente da broca, lagarta rosada e o curtiquer6. Importan










- 11 -


cia dos prejuizos materials causados por cada uma dellas, na
qualidade do.producto e no rendimento das colheitas. Beneficios
auferidos pela accqo exercida contra essas pragas pelos Estados
que mant&m os services da defesa do algodao.
2)-Influencia das intemperies, da epoca do plantio e da-
colheita, da vegetacao circumvizinha, da variedade e das praticas
prophylacticas sobre a occurrencia das pragas e molestias.
5)-Meios de combat As pragas. Insecticidas, fungicidas,
sua applicacAo. P6da dos algodoeiros perennes como-meio pro-
phylactico.
4)-Expurgo das sementes e methods para esse fim ado-
ptados, seja pelo ar quente ou pela exposicao ao sol, seja pelo
sulfureto de carbon ou gaz cyanhydrico. Estudo dos apparelhos
applicaveis As grandes e pequenas installaq6es e ao service de
exportaqco; necessidade da disseminacao dos mesmos. Medidas
a tomar sobre a importaao de sementes de algodao do estran-
geiro e installaqao de apparelhos de expurgo.
5)-Plano de coordenagao da legislacao federal, da dos
Estados e dos municipios para que se tornem praticas e effectivas
as medidas de prophylaxia e defesa do algodo ; regras mais im-
portantes a .adoptar. Meios conducentes a acceitacqo e vulgari-
zaa.o dessas medidas, inclusive pelo ensino ambulance e pela
propaganda.entre os agricultores, proprietarios de machines de
descarogar e compradores de algoddo._
6)-Medidas que devem ser adoptadas, em acqao conjuncta,
pelos paizes productores, para evitar a disseminaqao das doen.as
e pragas que atacam o algodao.

IV-O algodao no Nordeste

1) -- Elementos de trabalho no Nordeste para augmento e
melhoria da cultural do algodao, e indicacqes para o seu aprovei-
tamento mais efficient.
.2) Terras cultivadas e estudo sobre a amrplia~ao das areas
de plantaqio, mediante a construcqAo de grandes aqudes. Estudo
dos meios de melhorar e utilizar as terras de irrigagao, as de va-
santes e as terras altas dos aqudes.
3) -Distribui'ao de agua para irrigaqao : regras a adoptar,
Smethodos preferiveis. Consumo de agua nas differences cultural
e taxas a cobrar pelo seu uso. Como se deverd proceder para o
rapido aproveitamento das terras irrigaveis.
4) -Conveniencia da cooperacqo de capitaes estrangeiros na
utilizacao das terras de irrigacao; como obtel-a e o melhor sys-
tema de trabalho a ser entao adoptado ?
5) -Alcance economic das grades obras de aqudagem do









- 12-


Nordeste e do melhoramento planejado de seus portos e meios de
transport.
6) -Cultura nos terrenos servidos por pequenos, medios e
grandes aqudes. Estudo das bacias de irrigacqo dos grandes atiu-
des. Possibilidades economics do aproveitamento da agua para
irrigalco nos grandes aqudes do Nordeste.
7) -Utilidade das estradas de rodagem em toda a regiao al-
godoeira; necessidade da sua disseminaqao.


V Beneficiamento do algodao e dos seus
sub-productos

1)-Tratamento do algodao, desde a colheita at6 ao enfarda-
mento da pluma. Separaqao preliminary, por qualidade, e typos de
fibra; manipulacgo; descaroqamento; prensagem, enfardamento e
armazenagem. Melhoramentos a introduzir.
2)-Machinas de descaroqar; typo de serras e typo de rolos
e facdo, com indicacqo de suas modalidades e aperfeicoamentos.
Estudo da applicado desses typos de machines As nossas diversas
variedades de algodao ; vantagens e inconvenientes.
3)-Uzinas centraes de beneficiamento, segundo o typo de al-
godio, o comprimento da fibra e a importancia da region; condi-
q6es que devem regular a escolha das s6des das uzinas.
4)-Typos de prensas de algodao e sua applicaqao em cada
caso. Prensas para alta densidade nos portos de embarque e ap-
parelhos de limpeza da pluma. Entrepostos de algodao nos portos
de embarque. Typos de fardos para a exportaao e para o con-
sumo interno.
5)-Enfardamento do algodao e acondicionamento dos seus
sub-productos. Fraudes que occasional esses serviqos e meios
de cohibil-as.
6)-Sementes de algodao e sua manipulaqao. Condiq6es a
que devem satisfazer os deposits de sementes, quanto i recepqdo,
conserva;o e consume, para uso local ou para a exportacao.
7) -Fabricas de oleo ; estudo das machines de bereficia-
mento das sementes cor o aproveitamento complete dos seus
elements : oleo, torta, farello, linter e cascas. CondicOes para a
:boa localizaqgo das fabrics de oleo, tendo em vista a material
prima, as condiqOes de transport e o melhor meio de utilizar os
sub-productos. Seu valor industrial e economic.
8)-Refinacao do oleo sob o ponto de vista,chimico. Refina-
rias de oleo, tendo em vista a fabricaao de products alimentares,
como a banha, o oleo de salada e o de cosinha. A importancia
commercial desses sub-productos para a economic do paiz.
9)-Utilizaiao das hastes do algodoeiro e do liter na in-







-13--


dustria da cellulose para a fabricacao do papel. Favores is fabri-
cas que se montarem no paiz.


VI-Intensificapao da cultural do algodao. ServiCo
Federal do Algod.o.

1)-Propaganda da cultural do algodio pelo ensino prima-
rio, pelos campos de cooperaqao, pelo ensino ambulante, pelas
esta6oes experimentaes, pelas fazendas de sementes e pelo con-
curso dos poderes publicos em tudo quanto possa interessar A ex-
pansao e A defesa dessa lavoura.
2)-Disseminagao das machines agricolas e meios de facili-
tar a sua acquisiqao, pela importacqo livre de direitos e pela ven-
da ao preco do custo. ExtensAo desses favors is machines de
beneficiamento dos produictos do algodoeiro, as bombas, moinhos
de vento, canalizaC6es, machines motrizes, adubos e insecticides
empregados na lavoura.
3)-Concessao de auxilios para o beneficiamento do algo-
dao e seus sub-pro'ductos..
4)--Fazendas experimentaes annexas as installaaoes de be-
peficiamenfo, seu apparelhamento e fins ; seleccao e expurgo das
sementes, destinadas ao plantio, pelos processes mais effica-
zes.
-5)-Servico Federal do Algodao, seu apparelhamento mais
convenient para a propaganda da cultural racional, defesa das
plantaq es, distribuigAo de sementes seleccionadas e expurgadas,
applicagco de machines agricolas, e para a organizaqco da esta-
tistica de producqco do algodao.
o)-Auxilio dos poderes publicos e particulares na propa-
ganda da lavoura racional e combat as pragas do algodoeiro.
Necessidade da regulamentaao, por parte- dos Governos esta-
duaes e municipaes, de medidas prophylacticas e de defesa do
algodao. Fraudes no beneficiamento do algod.o, no fabric e em-
ballagem do oleo ; decretaqAo de multas para os infractores.
7)--Necessidade da disseminaqao de pequenas fabrics de
oleo pelo interior dos Estados productores de algodao. Favores
para a montagem das mesmas.
8)-Estudo da exportaqlo da torta do caroco do algodao.
Conveniencia de ser prohibida a sua exportacao. A torta na ali-
mentacao do gado. Premio aos lavradores que applicarem a torta
como adubo das terras.







-14-


VII-Classificacao do algodAo e formaqAo dos
typos commerciaes da fibra dos seus sub-
productos. Commercio do algodao.

1)-Necessidade da classificagco da fibra do algod.o para
facilitar as transacqoes de compra e venda, e da creacdo de typos
para regular essa operaqOes. Criterios para classificaao : a) o
grAu de limpesa e as melhores condiqSes da fibra, segundo a clas-
sificaqao americana; b) procedencia do algodio e distinccqo das
variedades,.tendo em vista o comprimento, a resistencia e a finu-
ra da fibra.
2)-Creaqao de typos padres do algodao brasileiro, subor-
dinado is variedades bem caracterizadas, ao apuro do beneficia-
mento e ao estado da fibra. Necessidade da cooperaqao dos pe-
ritos nacionaes cor especialistas estrangeiros, para a formaqao
desses padres e importancia commercial dessa organizaqao.
3)-Feiras e mercados regionaes; como devem ser creados, di-
rigidos e regulados em benetic.o da producCqo, tendo em vista a in-
formaqAo do preqo do algodao aos interessados pela publicaqgo dos
boletins de cotaqao nas principles pracas do paiz. A venda do algo-
dao em pluma e em caroqo pelo peso; aferiqao dos pesos e balanqas.
4)-Cooperativas para a produccqo c venda do algodao.
Caixas de credit.
5)--Bolsas de algodao, sua necessidade nas principles pracas
exportadoras e condiq6es.de organizaqco para bem regularem as
transaq6es de compra e venda do algodao e dos seus sub-pro-
ductos. Acqco official junto As mesmas para evitar a classificaqao
prejudicial ao productor. Commercio do algodao e inquerito so-
bre seus agents e intermediaries. Warrantagem do algodio e dos
seus sub-productos.
6)-Formaao de typos pa, a os sub-productos do.algodao e
sua regulamentaqdo, tendo em vista os seus usos alimenticios e in-
dustriaes.
7)-Cooperaqao international para o mrelhoramento e au-
gmento da produccao algodoeira: regras uniforms para regular
os dissidios commerciaes.

VIII-As fabrics de fiagAo e tecelagem e o con-
sumo interno do algodao, Exportac&o de
tecidos.

I)-Estudo sobre as fabrics de fiaao e tecelagem nacionaes.
Seu consume de material prima e sua importancia na economic na-
ciohal. Medidas praticas para promover, por meio de propaganda







- 15 -


intense no estrangeiro, agenda de tecidos nacionaes. Queixas rela-
tivas a qualidade e ao acondicionamento do algodao. Alvitres para
sanar as falhas observadas. Estatistica das fabrics de fiaqao e
tecelagem.Uniformiza(ao com as estatisticas internacionaes.
2)-Historico do desenvolvimento da industrial de fiaAo e te-
celagem no Brasil, das fluctua(qes dos stocks e do preqo da material
prima. Estudo dos meios de estabilizar as condiqoes da vida indus-
trial; influencia das tarifas de importaqao e do cambio. Necessidade
da exportacao de tecidos para a estabilidade commercial.
3)-Collaboracao dos industries de algodio com o Governo
Federal e dos Estados para o desenvolvimento da produccao, com-
bate .s pragas e melhor beneficiamento do algodao. Retrospecto da
ace o dos industries inglezes, especialmente nos protectorados
e nas colonies britannicas.

IX-Defesa economic do algodto.

1)-Intervencao da Uniao e dos Estados algodoeiros na defesa
economic do algodao, impedindo as variaqOes rapidas de preco.
2)-As fluctuaqces do cambio e sua influencia sobre os pre-
qos do algodio e dos sub-productos. Meios de assegurar a re-
gularidade dos preqos internos.
3)-Creaqdo do preqo minimo por meio de lei especial. Suas
vantagens e necessidade no Brasil. Retrospecto das colonies in-
glezas em que o mesmo foi adoptado.
4)-Reserva international do algodao. Estabilidade das
cotaq6es nos mercados estrangeiros.

X-ExportagAo do algodao e dos seus sub-pro-
ductos. Impostose fretes.

1 )- Conveniencia de uniformizar e reduzir os impostos de ex-
porta go do algodao e.seus sub-productos para melhorar o inter-
cambio e estimular a producqAo. Impostos differenciaes de accord
com o beneficiamento e grAo de limpeza do product. Estudo sobre
a substituicgo dos impostos de exportaqao por outros mais equitati-
vos e quefavoreqam a applicaqao de capitaes na cultural e beneficia-
mento do algodao. Extincao dos impostos de.barreira ou similares.
2) Reducqao do imposto de exportacao para os algod.Oes
limpos, prensados e classificados em typos commerciaes. Esta-
belecimento de multas para os atgodoes carregados de impurezas
e com fraudes.
3) Impostos municipaes sobre o algodao; como substi-
tuil-os sem gravar a producco' directamente, cor efficiencia e
cobranqa economic ?








- 16 -


4) -Estudo das vantagens directs e indirectas da interven-
q.o da Uniao para o augmento da exportacqo do algodao. Al-
cance economic da exportacao do algod.o e dos seus sub-pro-
ductos para a balanqa international.
5) A exportacao do algodao e de seus sub-productos para
o consume mundial os meios de asseguirar-lhe o crescimento pro-
gressivo. EspecializaqAo na exportacao de algod6es de fibra lon-
ga, como melhor meio de obter precos elevados e estaveis.
6) -Creaqao de novos mercados de algodao no estrangeiro-,
pela propaganda das nossas variedades de algodao de fibra longa
e cor o concurso das cameras de commercio e bolsas de algodao.
Necessidade de basear a propaganda no melhoramento e augmento
da producqdo feita economicamente e na organizaqao da exporta-
qao em larga escala, de conformidade corn as regras adoptadas no
commercio international.
7 ) -Transporte do algodao e seus sub-productos nas estra-
das de rodagem, nas estradas de ferro e por yias fluviaes e mariti-
mas. Estudo dos meios de reduzir e uniformizar os fretes respecti-
vos, e trabalho de cooperacqo necessario para se alcanrqarem
esses resultados. Tarifas differenciaes segundo a prensagem do
algodao e as distancias do centro de exportaco.
8) Seguro terrestre e maritime do algodao e dos sub-
productos desde a utsina de descarocamento at6 a entrega aos
consumidores.


























































6




















-F


























a






































4









t*



















<,,









e*















SPROGRAMNME

For the foreign delegates of the

; International Cotton Conplss at Rio 1d Janeiro

S'15th to 20th October 1922.


THE MEETINGS TAKE PLACE AT THE (ASSOCIAqAO DOS EMPREGADOS
N O COMMERCIO..' THE ENTRANCE FOR THE PLENARY
SITTINGS IS 12.0, AVENIDA CENTRAL, AND FOR THE SECTIONAL
I MEETINGS A' 40, RUA&,ONqALVES iDHIS.-- ---..---

: t. -L.
Ladies who accompany the delegates are invited to attend the:inaugural
meetings and all the social functions


Friday, 13th October, 1922

4 pm. Preparatory meeting in the library of the above Asso-
ciation, 40, rua Gongalves Dias (foreign delegates need
not attend).

Saturday, 14th October, 1922

8,30,am, Leave from 'Estadao Praia Foi'mosa)) for Petropolis,
return 3,50, arrive Rio 5.35.
4 '"m. Preparatory Meeting. Election of Chairmen and Com-
mittees.
(Foreign delegates need not attend)








Sunday, 15th October, 1922


9,30 am. Motor trip to Tijuca, Gavea lunch at Tijuca cars
will call prompt at the hotels.

9 pm. Inaugural Meeting of the Congress in the large Hall of
the above Association, entrance 120, Avenida Central.
Order of ADDRESSES:
1) Dr. J. Pires do Rio, Minister of Agriculture.
2) The President of the Congress.
3) H. M. British Ambassador, Sir. John Tilley, introducing the
British delegates.
4) Mr. Fred Holroyd, Vice President of the International Cotton
Federation and President of the English Cotton Spinners'
Federation.
5) Mr. W. Irving Bullard, on behalf of U. S. A.
6) M.le Comte Adrien van der Burgh, on behalf of Belgium.
~7) H. Exc. Gertsch, Minister plenipctenciary of Switzerland.
S--w----, .8--I fxawci.s~ S..and Ascendino Cunha on behalf of the Bra-
zilian Cotton States. -
10) Mr: R. Sampaio- Vidal, on behalf of the Agricultral, Com-
mercial and Industrial Associations of Brazil.
11) The Lord Mayor of Rio de J..ineiro, Dr. Carlos Sampaio,




Monday, 16th October,1922

j 10 am, Sectional Meeting. in Library, entrance 40, Goinalves
Dias.

i3 pm. Sectional Meeting, a D .

S9 pm. Banquet offered by the Executive Committee of the Exhi.
bition to the Foreign Delegates at the Jockey Club.








TLeQdgy,.17th October,1922 : ,.... -:-- rc.

10 am. Visit to the Exhibitorn '

3 pm Section Meeting in the Library, entrance, 40, Gongalves
Dias.

9,15 pm. Meet at the Station Praia Vermelha to go to Urca,"
where a Cotton Growing film will be shown.
Refreshments.


Wedensday, 18th October. 1922

10 am. Sectional Meeting in Library, entrance 40, Gonrgalves
Dias.
3 pm. 'Plenary ittin rf tlle Cksqs (Resolutaos'a. 12, e.-
i nllaa Lfentral.


Thursday, 19th October. 1922

10 am. Visit to the Cotton Sections of the Exhibition in the
aPalacio dos Estados and in the cCaes do Porto> .

3,pm. Plenary Sitting of the Congress. (Resolutions).,
4,30 pm. Excursion to the c(Corcovado (Estacgo das Aguas
Ferreas). (Tea).


Friday, 20th October, 1922

8i30 am. Leave hotels by car for inspection of aCruzeiro, Cotton
Mill ofthe America Fabril.









3 pm, Plenary Sitting of the Congress, 120, Avenida Central.
Closing Meeting.
9,30 pm. Leave for Sao Paulo by train.


Particulars of Sao Paulo Programme
Saturday, 21st October, 1922

Arrival at 9 am. Hotel Suisso.
Visits to the Exchange, Cotton Mill ((Santa Zelia, Kno-
roles & Foster, Seed desinfecting plant of Agricultural
Dept.
Sunday, 22nd October, 1922

Leave early for (Villa Americana) to visit cotton plantation
of Rarolinson, Muller & Cia. .
'.- -j l--itaternoon tLgSan a u '. 3-.
tion of Count Prates. Stay there overnight.

Monday, 23rd October, 1922

Inspection of Coffee plantation
Return in afternoon to S. Paulo city, Hotel Suisso.

Tuesday. 24th October, 1922

9,30 am. Leave per moLorr car for Santos and embark at 3pm.'
.on; Almanzora. ,
Heavy baggage to be left in Rio & to be called for on arrival
of Almanzora.
Those who desire to see the cotton fields of the North-Western
States, leave the A Almanzora i- at Pernambuco, make
excursions from theze to the Serid6 district etc, :in train &
..motor car, returning to Pernambuco in time forthe Ara-
: guaya,"sailing for Europe on Nov. 12th 1922.






I
Eecola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria
do stado de ffinas Geraes
Brazil.



THE BASIC DIFFICULTY OF COTTON PRODUCTION IN MINAS

Mr. President, and Honorable Gentelmen of the Conferencia Interna-
cional Algodoeira:

I feel highly honored by being asked to present a paper on
cotton growing in Einas Geraes to the learned and distinguished gentle-
men of this organization. It is with considerable diffidence and trepi-
dation that I appear before you. My stay in Brazil of a little more
than a year and a half has, however, given me an opportunity of seeing
and becoming more or less acquainted with the cotton production in this
wonderfully beautiful and magnificent country. We are here today to
celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of her birth. Her hundred years
of unprecedented and magnificent growth have put her in the fore front
of the South American continent, and second to one only in population
and wealth on the V'6estern Hemisphere. The occasion is one that may
well call forth the highest efforts of the most brilliant orators. It
should also call forth the highest efforts of calm and impassionate
theses by the most profound scientists. If my small contribution can
be so presented as to receive the attention and merit the favorable
consideration of this distinguished scientific body, I shall febl that
my efforts in life have not been misdirected.
To make my discourse complete, it would be necessary to '
trace the history of cotton production from the discovery'of"Brazil to
the present. This, however, has been so ably done by the Honorable
Secretary of Agriculture of Minas Geraes, Dr, Daniel Serapiao de Carvalho,






i -2-
that this is unnecessary. (Daniel de Carvalho, "N.oticia Hiistorica

sobre 0 Algodao em rLinas", 1916.) In this pamphlet the eminent doctor

traces chronologically the different periods during which the cotton

industry flourished, increased, languished, again flourished, to lan-

guish again. TEuch has also been written of a scientific nature that

bears directly on Lhe cotton industry in Minas, It is impracticable

to even review that literature here,
Thirty years of experience in agricultural institutions

in cotton growing states has given me an unusual opportunity to observe
and understand some of the basic principles in cotton production. In

many respects there is a wonderful similarity in the experiences in the
United States of 1North America and the United States of Brazil. Econom-

ic principles are the same the world over. Like causes give like results.

I want today to present to you as clearly as possible the basic cause

for the wonderful rise in prosperity of the c tton &rowinh states of

North j.merica during the period preceding 1861, then Wnt out the basic

cause for the distress of the cotton growers up to a period of about 1912,

when a new epoch was evolved and in spite of the boll weevil destroying

bolls thatwould have made many additional millions of bales, the quantity

produced has not only been maintained but increased.
The same underlying principle which produced the wonderful

rise in prosperity for the Southern states up to 1861, and which, for the

lack of its application from 1861 to 1910 caused very serious distress,
and now being applied again is causing a wonderful rejuvenation in spite

of the presence in nearly all cotton growing states of the worst insect
enemy know, the cotton boll weevil. If this basic principle is applied
to cotton production in Brazil it will have the effect of raising Brazil
to the place of one of the most important, if not the most important,

cotton growing countries in the world. 3






-3-


Market Wants a Clean, Uniform Staple.


The salient feature that jeeps the cotton of any nation

on the wotld market is for that nation to be able to deliver a clean

and uniform staple. It is so easy and simple to produce and market

clean cotton of uniform staple that it is really a wonder that any dirty,

mixed and damaged staple is on the market at all. Te find,however,as

a rule, that damaged and mixed staple is offered for sale. In time of

abunCant world supply there is no export market for it. The cotton

spinner wastes no sentiment in buying cotton. It is immateriklAto him

who produced it, That is of ,the greatest importance to him is to be able

to spin the largest number of meters of fabris from a bale of cotton.

It is his business to secure the best grade of cotton that his money

will buy, no matter where produced. At first glance this would appear to

be a short sighted policy. However, it is not a matter of policy with

him, to live he has to produce a meter of cotton goods as cheaply as it

can be produced by his competitor in his own nation and also as cheaply

as it can be produced by spinners in a competing nation. In other words,

he is forced by the law of economics to buy his cotton as advantageously

as possible. Bor instance, it is financially suicidal for him to buy

an inferior grade of cotton from Brazil at the same price that he would

pay for a better grade from Egypt, India, or NHrth America.

Cotton is a plant that can be produced in almost all tropical

and sub-tropical countries. No nation or group of nations can monopoloze

its production. Whenever one region of extensive production fails to

supply the demand, other regions are immediately pressed into service

and come to the rescue. A number of times Brazil has come notably into

the world's cojton market with a large supply, only to find later that

she has been largely or quite replaced. The reason is simple Inough.






-4-

3ome other nation# or region was able to supply a more desirable product

Cotton growing in the United States had its beginning in

the early colonial times. It began in a small way and gradually increased

in volume until the beginning a the Civil TLar between the States, By

that time, on account of slavery, she had become the greatest center of

cotton production. Her nearness to Europe and the facility with which

the product could be delivered gave her a great advantage over the other

tropical regions which were developing at that time.
In 1861 the cotton growing states seceded and a war fol-

lowed. The Southern States plunged into the war in spite of the seeat

inferiority of numbers, They were certain that if the North interfered

with international cotton traffic, European nations would come to the

assistance of the Confederate States. However, the cotton exportation

was completely ruined. Many tropical c untries, including Brazil,

greatly increased their cotton production and exportation. -ven Minas

Geraes, and interior sAte, made a great leap forward in cotton production.

In the year '60 to '61 about two bales were exported, while in '64 to

'6 5the exportation had increased to over a thousand. This was greatly

increased in 1865 to '66, Immediately upon the close of the War between

the States the qu-ntity of cotton exported by Minae was cut in halt. This

was gradually reduced until in 1891 she is credited with exporting only

two bales. In 1915 and '16 the world's consumption of cotton af greatly

increased by its use in the manufacture of explosives ad other war m-ter-

ial. There again was a great davance in the cotton exported by Minas. Soon

after the close of the orld War there came another great drop in the

exportation of cotton from Minas Geraes.



J S'
*\ N







"uadro Historico da Exportarao do Aigod~o em Minas


de 1$18 a 1891.

Kilog6.


1818
1823
1829
1842-43
1844-45/
1849-50
1850-51
1851-52
1852-53
1053-54
1854-55
18 6-57
1857-58
1859-60
1860-61
1864-65
1865-66
1866467
1867-68
1818-69

1869-70
1870-71
1871-72
1872-73
1873-74
1,i74-75
1 .75-76
1876-77
1877-7L
1878-79
1879-80
1880-81
1881-82
188~-83
1888
1891


1,379,910
1 ,480,000
10S,000
4,995
19,125
2,400
5,040
10,710
5*145
3,045
3,c60
4,515
2,700
720
439
502,800
679,447
323,625
387 435
400,350


531,075
455:,610
508.4590
210,480
107,100
734910
35,310
15,047
12,520
3,t450
4:,)62
16,482
5,C76
1,125

750


-- "Not&cia Historica sobre 0 Algodao em Minas, pelo
.r ,Dahiel de Carvalho.FaIina 19;


Annos





-6-

Why Cotton Became King Under Slavery.



The social and economic conditions of the Southern States

during the slavery period were ideal for the pr.:)uction of clean, graded

cotton,-as the world then understood "clean" and "graded". Slave labor

,as cheap, and the fireman or superintendent was relatively intelligent,

making it possible to employ the best machinery, grow the best varieties,

and pick cl ;n cotton, unmixed with the dirty or stained product. The large

plantation s were isolated, making. it possible to grow a relatively pne
degeneration
pure strain free from degeneriation due to hybridization or crossing.

Cotton was the money crop so everything else on the plantation was made

subservient to it. However, the crucial factor in the whole operation

was that the producer of cotton was also the salesman who came into direct

contact with the agents of the spinners. If the grower's cotton was dirty

or un-.venly graded, this came to his direct notice and affected him finan-

cially. He had a first hand knowledge of what the cotton spinner desired

and must have. The planter sold his cotton to the agent of the spinner

at Iew Orleans, Uobile, 1'ernandina, Charleston, Savannah, Columbia, Nor-

folk, Richmond and bther large expcr ting center. xHere then was the close

and direct contact, or nearly direct contact, hwke between the grower of

the staple and the consumer. It is no wonder at all that under this sys-

tem the South E:-stern United States became the greatest cotton producing

region of the world. Uuch oratoric 1 breath was exhausted in the ravings

over the superlative climate and the matchless soil. Cotton was pro-

claimed King. All of this was ascribed to a special providence, for,;et-
n
ting all the time that economic laws are not controlled by soil or climate.

Tjhen the '.'ar of Secession excluded the Southern States from

the market, the spinners of Europe turned to other tropical countries to

supply their imperative needs, This gave an opportunity for a number of







-7-
regions to prove to the market that they ;,ere capable of supplying all

the c tton that was needed.

The War closed in 1865, the slaves had been liberated. In

cotton production, chaos and disorganization reigned supreme. In 1866

only one million, seven hundred and fifty thou. .nd bales of cotton were

produced. About eighty'per cent of this was exported.




(See Table)




-1-


Cotton production and export in the United States, 1866-1918

. . . . . . . ....@ . . . ..r.4 . e l 4 . .@. @


. 'evi York closing prices, per pound.
Year Production on middling upland.
* . . ... ...... . . . . .


December


* L......ow
Low .


. May of follow-
. ing year.


Ifigh Low .


. Domestic .
. exports,
* fiscal,
Year
. beginning.
SJuly 1.
* .


i+ rh


4 4 )4 4 4 4 . . . . . * *


Bales


1866
1..67
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875

1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885

1886
1887
1888
1889
1890

1891
1892
1893
1894
1895

1g96
1897
1 :98
1899
1900


Cts


1,750,000
2,340,000
2,380,000
3,012,000
3,800,000
2,553,000
3,920,000
3,683,000
3.941,000
5,123,000
4,438,000
4,370,000
5,244000
5,755,000
6,343,000

5,456,000
6,957,000
5,701,000
5,684,000
6,575,000
6,446,000
7,020,000
6,94, .000
7,473,000
8,674,000
9,018,000
6,664,000
7.493,000
9,476,000
7,161,000

8,533,000
10,898,000
11,l;89,00
9,345,000
1( ,123,000


Cts


Cts


33.5
15.25
24.63
25
15

19.13
19.13
15.63
14.13
13.06
12.06
11.25
8.81
12.38
11.83
11.83
10.25
10.83
10.44
9.19
9.19
10.5
9.75
10.25
9.19

7.75
9.75
7.81
5.66
8.25
7.06
5.813
S.63
7.5
9.75


34.75
17.25
25.38
25.5
15.83

20.25
20.25
16.5
14.83
13.31
12.5
11.5
9.5
13.84
12.
12.13
10.44
10.56
11.44
9.44

9.56
10.63
9.83
10.25
9.44

8.06
10
8.06
5.81
8.56

7.66
5.94
5.83
7.75
10.31


Cts


27.5
30.5
28.63
22.5
14.83

23.75
19.25
17.15
16.13
11.81
10.81
10.63
11.83
11.66
10.44
12.06
10.5
11.5
10.66
9.19
10.75
9.94
11
11.94
8 .83

7.25
7.63
7.13
6.75
8

7.63
6.31
6.13
9.
8.06


--


28.5
32.75
28.75
23.6
17,63
26.38
19.63
18.83
16.38
13.13
11.38
11.25
13 75
11.83
10.83
13.38
11.12
11.75
11
9.31
11.44
.o.0o6
11.19
12.75
8.94

7.44
7.81
7-38
7.38
8.38
7.81
6. 56
6.25
9.83
8.31


.Sales

1,322,947
1,69,527
1,2 2 .'6,656
1,917,117
2,925.856
1,867,075
2,400,000
2,717,205
2,520,838
2,982,811
2,890,738
3,215*067
3,256,746
3*644,363
4,382,009

3.4-80,792
4,576,378
3,725145
3,783,319
4,116*149

4,338,*15
4,528,883
4.770,065
4,943,935
5.814,718

5.870,440
4,424,230
5.366,566
7,034,866
4,670,453

6,207,510
7,725,572
7.575.438
,252,451
6,718,125







(Continued)


Cotton production and report in tho United t.tcts, 1366-1918

** *4. ** "**.. ***** ** .*.*. . 9** **t R Yor *** S**** .Cw v.ie .R.,.. .* m
S* C
* 'ae Y'ork cloinrg pricuo, por ...ound,


S *
SC
SYear.
,'ioduction


on wid A i
* .e...... ...*.. *................,, exports, C
*. fl local .
. c' ocboor "y of follow- year bocin,
. .. inc yoar. ...... t1 .i
* .. ....... ... .. ..... ...... .uly 1. .
SX. w Lo w . 8 o ,, i . . .


S-lo Ito t


9, >i0, :,
10,631, ',-

13,43 _
1071,





1 UX
10* 1 ,.
11 60*,(C


13 7j.
14,1 .6, ....


16 1^,C


8.
3.5
11.95
6.85
11.65

10.45
11.70
9.10
14.65
14.80
9.20
12.75
10.50
7.25
11.95

16.20
29.85
27.50


Cte

8.84
14.10
9;
12.6

11.25
12.20
9.35
16.15
15.25
9.65
13.20
13.50
7780
12.75

20. 0
31.85
33o00


* *.m m.in... C*..*~*~)+C.e m .m..m~ *


9.38
10.75
12.75
7.85
11.25

11.50
10.20
10.85
14.50
15.35
11.30
11.80
12.90
9.50
12.30

19.60
45.70


9.75
12.1-
13.90
8.85
12.00

12.90
11 o
11.80
16.0:
16.15
11.90
12.10
14.50
10.40


22.10
30.10


7.' ;7,'49
7,13,. 14



9,036,434
7,6333 997
8,o95,970
6,4133416
8,067 ,82
11,070,251
9,124, 91
9,521,881
8,8L7*157
6,1684140
*, L 47,165
4, ;2., 844


Yearbook, United St:ates Department of Agriculture, 1918,
pa e 531, adapted.


19 1


,19w '
1902
! 9o

1906
19 .7

191Z;


1912,
1913
19131

1914

1916
i9176
1917'
11]. ~







-10-

Free Labor and the Profiteer.



At the close of the War between the States, the slave

labor that had long been under tutelage and restraint found itself free,

not only free, but a large per sent/j distrustful of their former makers

and their former owners. This was more particularly true of the younger

and more vigorous laborers. 77any cf the liberated slaves thought that

liberty meant lisence, and considered liberty synonymous with idleness

or worse. Oany*e relatively small number remained with their former

owners as employees. This was indeed fortunate as it made it possible

for a few to engage in correct farm practices and perpetuate good varie-

ties. The great bulk of the cotton, however, was produced by former

slaves on small areas. These slaves had learned the art of cotton pro-

duction but neither understood nor comprehended the science of it. As

a result, the quality of the cotton rapidly degenerated. The four years

war had exhausted the supply of implements and machinery. The transpor-

tation, railroads, and steamships had been ruined or set back forty years.

The new cotton producers knew comparatively little or nothing about qual-

ity and marketing. The former plantation owners and superintendents who

knew were unable to get a reasonable supply of labor. In other words,

the free labor was ignorant, uninformed, and unwilling to work methodi-

cally and consistently. As a matter of fact, the whole system was broken
war
down and the degeneration which follows every great war was rampant. Specu-

lation, gambling, graft and even robbery discouraged all of those who

attemptedd to do an honest business. In this disorganized social condition

it became necessary for the producer to sell his cotton to tho local buyer.

The local buyer knew little or nothing and c;ired little about staple and

quality. He bought the cotton for the lowest price possible and paid for

it in merchandise. !uch of it was bought in the seed and as it was bought







-11-


small quantities there was a distressing mixture of quality and staple.

The quality of the cotton that finally reached the exporting market was

scandalous. Europe, the "world's market for cotton, *Ws turning to other

countries for cotton and receiving it. In spite of all of this discour-

aging condition there were a fer planters in every state who had sufficient

foresight and organizing ability to produce some excellent cotton for the

world's market. During years of low production the prices were sufficiently

remunerqtive to enable the small farmers to continue in this business. 3ut

generally speaking, the selling price in the local market was so low that

the small cotton grower was most frequently worse off financially at the

end of the season than at the beginning.
that
The trouble of the whole matter wasAthe system from the

close of the Civil 77ar until about ten years ago was totally wrong.

The great bu4k of the North American cotton was produced by the tenant

famer. This tenant farmer rented his land for a stipulated amount of

cotton. In order to live until the crop was made he had to have a credit

allowance at the commissary owned by the landlord
To receive this credit he had to mortgage the cr that was still to be

gown. The average tenant during good years iDht produce a little more

cotton than necessary to pay this rent and living expenses. As these

were always paid in pounds of cotton it was of little importance to him

how .nixed the .;taple or how poor the quality. And if by some subterfuge

or dishonesty he might increase the weight he would be ghat that much the

gainer, hy should he be honest? Every body he dealt with practiced

every sort of legal and many legal subterfuges. lie simply delivered what

wpuld legally pass as cotton. He had no incentive for producing a uniform

staple of good quality. The local market would pay him only the lowest

price. The landlord and money lenders would be the ones who would profit

by his extra exertion to produce a good staple, Tly should he worry about






-12-

quality? Then, too, during the years of crop shortage, the prices went

up, sometimes doubling, but the price ever vent up until after the cotton

had left the hands of the grover. Under this vicious system it is really

a wonder that any cotton wa, produced at all. The principal and fundamental

reason for producing cotton under these conditions was that the millions

of slaves that had been freed knew practically nothinrbut to ,;ror cotton.

And these who did know how to produce other crops were not permitted to do

so because no one would rent them the land or advance them the living

necessities excepting for raising cotton.

Such a vicious system could not endure. It was self extin-

guishing. 1kny system of cotton growing, or, for that matter, of any other
zero
business where the "laboring income" is reduced to sers or nearly zero

simply extinguishes itself. The younger and more intelligent, drifted

away from the plantations, lEaving only the older and the more slothful

of the younger generation to .;row cotton.

very sort of law was devised and a great many devices that

were not legal were resorted tojin order that cotton production might be

continued. The plantation owner; the local buyer,vrho was dependent upon

cotton trading for his living, the regional buyer, who was a ;ort of middle

man; the bankers; and the transportation companies were all financially

interested in continuing cotton production and the vicious system. In

fact, all of the elements that were closely in touch with the law making

and law enforcing powers were personally interested in having cotton pro-

duced.




Compensating the Grower for Good Cotton the Corner Stone -

of the Industry.


A few of the more advanced thinkers saw clearly that a







-13-
continuation of this policy would simply mean the extinction of the

industry. "ost of those who were in power failed to trasp the situation

and others were too selfish to permit any change to be m ade that would

not be an immediate and direct pecuniary benefit to themselves. A few

ypung men who were far sighted and aelf scarificing saw the situation

clearly i'md grasped the opportunity, but it was a hard and long struggle

for them. It was no easy task to transform an old custom that had been

of more than a generation's standing into a new system that would correct

the disastrous defects of the old. It was an evolution rather than a

sudden revolution. The secret of the whole matter lies in making it

possible for the grower of the cotton to be compensated for his extra

labor and the brains that it takes to produce a unifor, staple of a high

grade. I am the last person in the world who would minimize the vw.lue

of cotton breeding, or who would minimize the value of combatting dis-

eases and insect pests. I have always been and always will be a staunch

advocate of preventive measures. P-'roventive measures, by keeping out

the boll weevil, could have saved the South Eastern United States many

millions of dollars annually. I am here, however, to tell you, my friends,

that all of these measures are subordinate to the one simple principle

of rewarding the grower of cotton for his extra labor and brains by

giving him a just compensation for a unfforn staple of a good grade.

I have studied all of the.literature, and it is considerable, that has

been published and I have been to secure in Brazil. Many recommendations

are made and all sorts of suggestions and good laws, but no where .do I

find anyone taking up the honerouslburden of pleading and advocating the

just compensation of the individual grower for the production of a uniform

and clean staple. Whenever reference has been made to this subject it

has usually taken the form of a critleism or arraignment of the man near

the soil for marketing the inferior and mixed stuff. Why should the cotton







-14-
grower worry particularly about producing a superb atricle when the local

buyer to when he is obliged to sell pays him the same price for dirty and

mixed stuff as he pays for a good staple? Why should the i;inner worry

about clean gins, shar-, saws and other appertainances when he gets no more

for doing a good job than he does for doing a poor ohe? It is perfectly

natural for the cotton grower to expend no more labbr on producing the

product than is neseesary to obtain the prevailing price. On the contrary,

pay the producer a better price for the superior article and immediately

it will appear on the market. Fuman nature is the same the world over.

Trlere good, honest straight forward l'bor is compensated, that sort of

labor is forth coming.

The spinners denounce the cotton they receive from a certain
region. The buyer of that region denounces the winners and the local

buyers. denounce the grower. But all along the line of this

denunciation you never hear a single voice that advocates the payment of

a better rice to the producer of good cotton. -very body along the

line denounces the grower for making it impossible to deliver good cotton

but nobody suggests that a better price be paid him for}A a better

product. While denunciation is going merrily on the industry languishes

and perishes to the nation. If the local buyer should be compelled to

or agree to pay a better price for good cotton than for poor stuff he

fears that he will loose the opportunity of grabbing a little more money

and here we have the crucial point of the whole situation,


The Principle Applied.

The moment that the local market pays the producer of
cotton according to the staple and the quality he produces, that moment

he begins to produce superior stuff. I know, gentlemen, what I am talking






-1 -
about, I have had some thirty years experience in a cotton growing

states. I have been out'on the fore front of that line, My duty,

as Director of the Agricultural work in Florida, put me out on the

firing line where I came in intimate contact with the cotton Zno

the ginner and the merchant, I know from personal experience that

the year the local buyer begins to pay the producer in accordance

with the product he produces, you have the beginning of an evolution,
had
The laws of economics are the same the world over, Brazil hasAa number

of opportunities when she could have become a principle factor in the

world's cotton production. The short sighted policy, however, of the

local buyers and others along the line has been as disastrous as such

a short sighted policy is in any other country, This short sighted

policy threw the United States into a slough of despond. -ut for the

fact that it was made almost impossible for the cotton grower to do

anything else, the industry would have been practically obliterated

and some other country might easily have taken the position of the lead-

ing cotton producer. It is with no feeling of pride that I recited

to you the condition of cotton production in the southern United States

as I lived through it, but I have recited it that you may see the close

parallel it has to the situation in Minas Geraes, and,I dare say, in

practically all of the rest of Brazil. How easily such an evolution


Oouza, Eilliam !ilson Coelho de; "A Cultura do Altodoeiro no .:razil,
1921, pg.94.

can be brought about is indicated by an example which I will cite you,

DIuring the #70's and '80's the iEnglish cotton spinners were sorely

pressed for securing long staple cotton to make fine thread. They
established a connection at sfmn Gainesville, Florida along about the

close of the '708B or the beginning of the 80's. This project was so






-16-

arranged that a fair compensation was paid for producing a long staple

of extra quality. In a very few years it was possible for Alachua Coun-

ty% to secure the first premium in the world's exposition of cottonen &'t

This Bounty became the center of a great long staple region, from which

even seed of the long staple was demanded and exported to other regions

growing this cotton. And Florida as a whole in her best aye was pro-

ducing practically one half of the worlds, supply of long staple cotton.

IKow, gentlemen, I have dia nosed the case and have shown

you how simple the remedy is. It is easy of application, If the remedy

auA-u U applied this year and continued for a period of ten years there

is absolutely no question but that orazil would be the strongrest coipeti-

tor in the world's market i'or cotton and lTinas the great center. Like

every other innovation, you will find that the men who will be most bene-

fitted by it, that is, the local buyers, will be the ones who will stand

out moet strongly against it. Their short sightedness makes them believe

that ti business would be ruined the moment that the cotton grower was

being paid a discriminating price in favor of good, clean stuff. The

immediate profits that the cotton buyer can make from buying a few bales

of good cotton at a price far below its value forces his cupidity to

seize the opportunity even when he knows that it will prove disastrous

to the business in the long run. Too frequently, however, he does not

know that this bhort sighted policy is aiding and abetting the destruction

of the industry.

Inaugurating Ma New Era Through Education.


You will naturally ask, WAre we ready for this next step

in the evolution of a big cotton industry?" I will answer emphatically,

"Yes;" We have the knowledge of how to breed the best varieties of

cotton. The principles and practice are simply awaiting application, not








-17-

only by the scientist, but also by the grower of cotton. The principles

and processes of producing.a Aniform staple and collecting a superior

cotton are well established and are being ractised by the most advanced

cotton growers. The knowledge of how to gin, bale and forward tha product

is well understood and ready to be applied. It is already being applied

by those to whom it is profitable to do so. Luch splendid information

is already extant on the kxmtr methods of combatting insect pests and

diseases. This information needs only to be brought to the producer.

The government, cooperating with the states, is making an earnest effort

to prevent the introduction and dissemination of dangerous pests and

diseases. The method and purposes of this splendid work need only to

be elucidated to the producer to secure has hearty cooperation and

L:of will. The establishment of cotton breeding famrs by the Bederal

Government makes it possible to disseminn te the best varieties into the

localities where they will do the most good. You may ask, "Will the

small producer, who grows the great bulk of the cotton, accept this in-

novation?" He will accept it most gladly, but do not blame him if he is

a little wary about the twma ttn.situation. He has been imposed upon

so many times that it is only human for him to look with a certain degree

of suspicion on what appears to be a philanthropy. To bring about this

evolution most rapidly would be for the spinners, the Federal Government,

the St!te Government, and the local byers to see clearly that the estab-

lilsment of a great cotton industry in the country is dependant upon a

coordinated and combined effort. There are many minor problems that have

to be solved, but these will find a ready solution the moment it is recog-

nised that the principle in cotton production is the same as the principle

ktht in the economic production of any other material. I have already

told you how the spinners succeeded in making Alachua County, Florida, \






-18T

the center of the finest 3S Island Cotton growing in the world.

They also developed the long staple production in Egypt to such a

degree that the growers of long staple in the United states became

alarmed and secured the imposition of a heavy tariff on it to keep

the domestic spinners from importing long staple and thereby ruining

the growing of long staple. Thesc opinnor. have al so ugzmented- th-


The State, through the Agricultural Colhge, can perform

woniers in ;he way of instructing and educating young men and the

growers of cotton, and also in giving instruction and advice to the

local dealers. The Pederal Government is able to supply large quanti-

ties of the best varieties, feee frow diseases and insect pests.



Conclusions.


(1). Cotton production in the United States during the exist-

ance of slavery became a powerful and all important insudtry, The

basic reason for its rise and perfection lay in the principle that

the producer of cotton was compensated for his extra effort in produ-

cing a uniform :3t:iple of high quality.

(2). By the abolition of slavery the producer of c otton lost

direct contact with the market, through the intervention of the local

buyer. Then cotton production languished and nearly extinguished itself,

because by tiJs method, the producer of cotton was really penalized for

the efforts of his hands and his brains in producing a superior article.

(3). As a result of this self eliminating process other tropical

countries, notably Egypt, came in as large factors in the world's cotton

supply.

(4). ,razil, and especially Minas Geraes, has a magnificent




919

Opportunity at the present time to become a wofld'e center in cotton prodaution.
We hawis saperabundanse of magnifioent eoil, a superlative climate,
and a teeinag peopaatiena There is only one thing lacking, and that 1i rease-
nable oompensation of the grower for the effort of hbs hands and brains to pie-
duee a superior quality. urMing times of die need, almost any quality of
cotton will find a ready mazeat. In tiese of abndant world supply, only the
article of superior serit finds pla y7 AlV at living wage to the producer.
S() It I maantei ly iape9iLJs fpr the average grower to plaoe his
indiTidal prodeation e ~te sajp~- t aaoat. it i maseary for him to sell to the
local bayer. This lo al lowPr 4AlwS& be .Mldat~sdso pag fbol~btfber price for the
cotton of rit'fei stape a Ae44S r'iado e a 4a Ar eowly grown and amied cotton.
(6) tre pt the tton nsi W s tLa s eABon the plane of an industry,it
is imperative that the gxpftw *.PIf am bm i4L a pxsee for his superior article
4 that will justify Mhi ad4Lt .sal Laboer aud te ample aent of his brain.
(7) i f sHt t 1 se t t ie oa tate, to the Lation, and to
the cotton spinnerm that a gpeat erttae industry b developed in Minas. T6 this
end, it i* necessary that there be a united aat aeordinated efbrt on the part of
the spinners, the Nation and the Sta Oe.che AegPultural College, through edu-
oational mean, i that ba uL -
(8j) o oAtt ka wing a an be made a persaneat industry, only through
the adauetioh of the masses sin the art of cotton growing This *an be effected
only through a boBad and thorough eorse if cotton growing in the Agriculture
College to produee a large number of leaders in this work.