The Citrus Nursery Tree, P. H. Rolfs and C. Rolfs.

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Material Information

Title:
The Citrus Nursery Tree, P. H. Rolfs and C. Rolfs.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: The Citrus Nursery Tree, P. H. Rolfs and C. Rolfs.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00018


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A MUDA

DA ABVOBB MAE


DE CITRUS

SAO POMAR


por


P. H. Rolfs and C. jolfs

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The -itrus nursery Iree


Contents


Part I, Introduction.


The M.,st rigorouss Madas Produce "~st Productive Trees 2_


High 'riced Mudas Iast L~cjnonmical

Citrus Uraing a -usiness

Office of the Bud

Methods practicall and economical .
f

?3.rt II, The "-eciten. 6 ^-

The beed

Pulping the Seed b
6
Grading

The ee edbed

The bandbed Method

The Commercial oeedbed.

Planting with a beeder

The "umber of Seeds to Saw io

Locating the Seelbed

Drainage it

Irrigation H

Preparing the 0eedbed. / -

Diseases of the Seedbed. / 3

Damping Off

Control

Scab ,

.on t ro i



'?

--.









Part III. The Nursery

Selection of a Location is


ItL
Preparation of the Soil

Spacing .of the -udas

T ansplanti ng

The 'oot Lystem

Conserving the Fibrous Roots

-wetting out in the -Jursary

Alignment and Depth

Cultivation and Disbudaiag

opa.l Me thod 2-/

Time to Dud 2-

bud the -tock as 'oLung as kossioie -

Summer Dudding

The Mother Tree -5 '1-

Bud Mutati:n in Washington iavel -

iEceptionai ~pporetAnities

Hjrticultural Varieties

Transmission ofGhemical Composition

,titerdture on oud Lutation

Five Points indespenskble in a Mother 'ree

Bud Wood

Time of Year for Cutting Budiood

Size of ;udwood

Preserving Bud Sticks

Packing Material

How to Fack


Budding

Size of -took

Selecting budders

Wrapping Material

How to Make Waxed Tape


t.Lj







L.)-
-a-9 5





-25


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3,-

3~3
33


')3 /-,


Raffia

Wine


2_








Cleaning Up the -tQk

Method of Budding 3

Cutting the bud 3 4

Inserting the "ud

How to Use I' ine
5 1
Cooper..Ative 'uddcing

Full Dut inferLor jtock

The Dudiinig %nife

Height at "hion to Dud l 1

Testing the otock

Training the "ud

HRmovibg tile Uop of the Lnck

The Tutor

Decupi Ltati i:g 9 3

Care of th: ,,ursery L4

Irrigation and Jtai.ictg

Tiie .3ts ,.eei nir
_

Cuiti vti,)on

The "'e the Enemy of Citrus Mudas -
-----p~-- --
Diseases of the .ursecy 2 ,
'b _- 7- i. -- -L .c --
io t ', .... ,...,.


Mal-di -uomma

C trol

Gumanimiss v-

Contral

Wither-tip



Fungicides

Lime-Sulphur Paint -L

Bordeaux mixture ~( "-')
QnroS^'-oa









Part IV, Digging, Transporting and Planting to Pomar-

Preparing the 'kudas for Shipment y

Two Methods- of Digging

Tne California Method

The Florida Method
Pert4-AdbI Advantages and _isaivantages of the Tw Metn is. (ao

Ierri-.o or riotted bagao /

Digging for immediate c-anting

Planting the Muda

The (o va 3

The planting Loard .

Distance to Plant the "udas & '

A tmr for -rofit

cun-lght and antitii ti n .'e-'essairy & ..



Part V. The ditrus stocks

ua~erC-u Discussion

Influence f Loil, heather and Rtitude o f

Deiron v-' Vigosa x

.,tock Chosai t uit Climate and Aoil. oL

Compatability (Congeniality) of Stock and Scion. H-/A

The Choice of Stock
txperimeitai- C:m;arison

RougI Lem:-n y-

Zamba -----

Limb Ross

Grapefruit u-

6our range 7?-

oweet Seedl wings '

CJeopatra -

Trifoliata -9-

Other Stocks
^_aL





Part VI. Common and Technical Names

Joites and Photographs of line "inds

Leaves of Citrus, Fig. 27

Seed of Citrus, Fig. 28

Paradise Ohaddock

Grapefruit
f &
Za boa

L-ranja azeda

Laranja amargo-doce

Lim&o rugoso

Laranja d,--e

Tan gerina cravo

I1mio rosa
1VNninhp c i I i I. r1 .. r iL



Part VII. Literature 1
Bondar, Uregorio, OC C~Jdu d.. GQ. A.. ,1.- a 91

Andrade, Ed. Navanzo de e C.c ?

li tt C^^^^_L^ CacC ^^- (/

Anonym.vu s q

Moreira, Carlos Gu L ^ 9 G

Hume, H. Haroid Ti ,l.u' --- e'-' -- -

coit, biiot ,5.C .A)U Lt
Fawcett, Hiwari o. amd L-e, H. Athert.on,
QtPM.^ QJ+ IA.-lA j ciaL CIt. dtL -



Paifd-

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Lis t &. Illustra-E o
page
Fig. 1, Correct Position for Duddiing

Fig. 2, An Immen;i Seedbed

3, Overhead Irrigaiti.on for Sandy Soil

4, Cavallos, Bad and Good

6, Mudas Planted iJ x 4.1 ems.

6, Root-oystems; Good and -ad.

7, Cultivating ana training Mudas

8, Inserting T Dud

9, Pushing Eud into Place

1i, Lo)ping Lima-j nosa.

i, Lop ,ine Zamboa.

I, bor'dreux "isture, Dia'ram

lo, Ligging, Wra..ping, and D)xing Mudas

14, Mudas c-as sified ulnd Uaded.

15, b:'x of Mudas with nal' ready for- ranspiortatLof

16, A pranchsa L'-ad if Wudas

17, IdealJ Mua;t., Im.jrted

1_, uxr'j ntaining 65 "uias, F-rfectiy Conditioned for
Transpor tai on.

1., Digging 'Mud.a for woca- Plantrgg

EA, jh "ursery an Zamboa Ctock

21, i weet Orange otock and Lime nre not Congenial

-L, urowth of owset -range and kimo uo Pugso imared

L.o, Limio n~goso, othowing Habit of growthh

24, Zamboa atock and Laranja hosa are Congeaiii

25, ZambDa ztack and 'rape fruit are -angenial

L6, Limgo Rosa aot'k and oat3uma are ~ongeni.

27, Leaves of 13 Kinds of -itrus

2 oeeds of Kinds of Citrus.

2i', Fruit of Torunja Paraiso

0D, Grapefruit, E.o.a.V. N ..
31, Zamboa (PummeLo)
32, Laranja azeda
Sc, Laranja Amargo-doce
34, LimAo Rugoso
65, Laranja Doce (oerra d'agual
36, Langerinsa Cravo (Mexerica)
37, Limbo Rosa.




w


Fig. 1. More than one hundred and fifty able young

Mineirans have bean taught the technique of budding speedily and

0-3 without fatiLue. Lim&.o rosa stock. The professor giving personal
(20-_0
pls) instruction. b. S. A. V., 1Q8.
2 lines

SFig. 2. Immense citrus seed-bed in -tate of b9o

Paulo. Photograph presented by Dr. Felisberto Camrrgo.


15 pls 'Fig. 3. 9eedbed of -aradja -xeaa. .Overhea/d irrigation
1 linha
is necessary on very sandy soil.


v Fig. 4. Limbo rosa stock. Demonstrating profound

effect of different methods of treatment. -oth about ten months

after planting to the nursery. The cost per muda for B was less

than for A.

Ak.zoii prepared by band iabrr anc cuitivatea with a

hoe. Mudas show lack of air and moisture in the soil. Even during

light rains water runs Dff, carrying with it fertility.

E.'. coil deeply plowed three times and oulverised

with a diac harrow. before pianiting cee furrows were plowed out

and followed oy a suic-dor, pulverizing the soil to a depth of

aDout forty centimeters. cultivated with animal power. ;No hoe was

ever permitted to eater this nursery.


5). These men had never wjrke-..U in a

Mine rlns are justly proud of the -.ult.

with thirty ve varieties of i- t us in er six

ro.sa stock. E. Lo. iX6.


before.


,.,-rth 6 one

D,.-flrthless one


and B, e:;'ellent mi

and received same c-re.







S"Fig. 5. This nursery was planted with one meter between

the rows and 40 cms. between the plants. Budded 22 ems (uma palma)

high. No hoe every entered this nursery. Row to right grapefruit. to

the left Valencia orange. The man near the center is almost invisible.

3n zaiboa s-.tock. c.S.Y.V., M:y 1i;:8.


V Fig. 6. Root systems of A and b excellent mudas. C and

D worthless mudas. All of same age and received same care


/Fig. 7. Thee-. n d norkd r rybfe

S. Mineirans are justly proud of the result. Ts- experiment wsz=made

( with thirty five varieties of-e -t-is six thousand limo rosa.

S o stock. E.S.A V. 1C;6.


Fig. 8. The bud is inserted without removing it from.

the knife, thus avoiding infection of the cut surface by the fingers.


v Fig. 9. After insertion ir is pushed into place by the
aid of knife blade; making it ready for wrapping without the fingers

touching the cut surface.


Fig. iO.,This young Mineiran had never worked in a

nursery before. his first attempt gave live buds in 91 4 of the

1i .--3a stock. E. 6. A. V. /9,

4'
Fig. 11.^Each stake represents a growing bud. Many of

the unstaked ones sprouted later. One row of 2'O mudas was allotted

per person for budding. Demonstrating facility with which some young

Mineirans learn nursery work. 2 =e tC Ek. E.b.A.V., IC 7.


tig. 12. (1) e (2) sao tinas de madeira de 1 litros;

(3) uma Iuartola de madeira de'-'2 litros e (4) bomba para pulverizar.

De lU) e (2) despeja parties iguaes em (3o., mistura-se bem. Immediata-

mente despeja esta mistura na oomba, sendo filtrado por meio de uma

tela de cobre de malha final. Adaptada de "Circular N' 7", mstaci6n

Experimental,\ tS Lima, Peru.







\ '4 Fig. 13. Minas students prefer work that requires
3 linha thought. Preparing mudas for transportation. Two rows at right
5U -40
pls pruned. Upper right corner not pruned. One year old buds on zamboa

stock. E...A.V. 1928.


SFig. 14. Each variety has a separate place and is

graded according to size. Bails covered with rice straw to preserve

humility. Those in foreground were uncovered for this photograph.

E.S.A.V. July, 1i27.


Fig. 15. Citrus mudas this boxed arrived in excellent con-

dition after three weeks in transit. First the mudas were placed in

the box (.ee Fig. 15), the spaces between the bloeks filled with humid t$

terriso ana Lamped, and later -overed with rice straw which avoided dry-

ing out and also melting of the oiocks of soil from rains in transit.


/ Fig. 16. Citrus mudas on a prancha. 'his method will

serve for short distances. Tops should have oen surrounded w-ith sacking

to avoid infestation with inL-=ect in transit and exc-esive transpira-

tion 'f the leaves.


Fig. 7. rhis idea- mul. -as re -iived from the Ither siie of

the D.iuatJr in Ul:b. D=L.pite oeing five v.eks :, the voyage, very few;

of the fiorous roots were tJ-t. br plefruit -n- s-ur sto.k. -....V.


/ Fig. 18. o::- continuing 65 muJas o0 citrus, ;acked in

orida al.u received in igs in varch -L:5. Jne hundred percent of them

grew iand produ-e fitit. i-ae -L tJheil muar, i rprented cy ig. 17.

uize .f Loo, 4o x 45 x L- Lumi. The to is cover=di Ltha aniagem for

ventilation an.. to prLte.t against infection. r. very convenient method

out is not gent-raicy a:pplicaole in -iia-s, as it requires too much care

and skill on the part of toie laborers.


SFig. 19. Dig6ing mnud;.a with a oa-l. The toi: soil has been

removed to upper side roots making it appear as if the bud had teen

inserted high on the sotck. he tap root has Deen ut. off 4- cms deen.

Five muaas to left ready to be taken to abrigo for wrapping aind grading.

oelecta on Lim&o roba stock. b.o...V., July 1Lt7.







SvFig. 20. nursery of many varieties of citrus on xamboa

stock demuns rating uniformity in growth of i2-d mudas. First row lar-

anja rosa; to b inclusive, various varieties of orange, 6th row,

grapefruit. E.-.i.V. ."i8.


,/ Fig. l. Lime budded on sweet orange demonstrates one

type of incongeniality. -.ccording to rrof. Hermann, this tree was

grafted twenty years before photograph was taken. Institute Agronomico,

Cam ,inas.


F" ig.' ,rranja rosa, nrtoly a weak grower, became

robust, the largest ie:vet were twenty tvwo jentimet.ers long. Z'jmboa

stock. L -. r..V. March i8.

(G-f ~- ... ~--- s/yv*^
Fig. Cmparative grwtn of iimao ea, at right and

sweet (.erra de agua, oranges, at left. Eleven months after .:,wing the

seed and eight m:.nths after 7i:_nting in the nursery. In each case only

first ;uaiity seedlings were seCecte, from the see.Ceds. nugust. i,25.


Fig. 24. Lim.o ikugoso reducess its fruits on the endls of

long orna-chs. he m: st ra, i gr-:wer and easiest to bud. E 1cellent stock

f.-.r infertile and sanay sois, 1.i.o for terra roxa. Ha-; not oe-n tested

ex.tLcisivey- in Mlirna r-. .t. V. 9.zA.


/ Fig. k. Grapefruit on zamb,-a stock grev. vigorously and

produced many perfe t m;iud. iMaae ormant by withholding cultivation.

Whmn topped onc:k to one meter t&ai -re in "rime condition for trans-

planting to pomar. Tut,.r., ur Lfns. tai. 1rote/ the fdrain:,ge furrow at

right in t--e foreground. c... V. March, li-t.


V Fig. C6. c tsuarn Uwari .on zimao rosa stock. Jne yer and

eight mrnthA. aft.jr planting out. Twv years an.i eight months from the

time the seed of the cav.dA-o wa a- .sown. E.' .-..V., June, 1;:' .


V Fig. U:7. Upper surface of leaves of teri eecies of citrus.
SA -
V Fig. L-. -pf-cT species of itrus. .. oralnja ,.
A
grapefruit; 6). Zamuoao 4). Laranja azeda; 5/. Laranja amargo-doce;

6). Limbo rugoso; U). Laranja doce; 8). Tangerina cravo; ). Limeao

rosa.









-Fig. 2S. Toranja Paraiso, I .,P'.t- l...L .


Fig. Grapefruit or ?jmelo. t.o...V. N" 5.


Fig. 31. Zamooa ou Pummelo (not omelo).


Fig. c". Laranja azeda (bzeda .

Fig a6s. Laranja amargo-Joce.


Fig. 34. Limgo rugoso.


Fig. 35. Laranja dotse serra d'agua,.


Fig. .6. Tangerifia c.ravo -.)u mexerica.


Fig. 37. Llmio rosa.

















~E CTTR3 S NURSERYd TREE


S----5--- -t-Economi.o Production
4 3 Its Production for--- Indus try
5- _.... From the Bud Tr.ae .to--the--Grove
S 2 --- --T-he-Gerirerstone of anm-ndu-ttrt
1 4 The Cornerstone of the citrus industry



. / /








FR F .- L',

iiiasj Uer-e.., v ilth her marve..iousiy )produc tiv3e zDis

ad iilncojm;i r oie i .i.ni te is. end ;JDv by n- ture t- t:r.edu ::e the

mapt p,.rfect f c-it-rus mc] s. Her ints.-.igent y:uing men hrve

*. lein ) ? tr-td t.-jaid ty f: r and s.oility t& :crodu:e resuLts

th- eqqal of thjse : reduced i.n any country and superior to most.

rie :' ri cr! cir ;:'ainfulily avwre of mmny im:.erfections

anr:d~ shrt comings in this work, cut have en.e-:vored to -et fjrth

in a. Luiaid a V1yj', the various Dpers-ti:ns ne.essery

to P r dj.i u ', ire L, t1, tr .I 'rtc,.ti n, : a nt t "erf'e- t

:Ltrus; m'.d ... ie : i, r .,:1i t=-" lic..i -i .: = than pusrter :.f

J ,nt 'ry -f r f-.jt ..- .. =. Lc' =: -, i'ei iC. in .itr'i,.u t-re

in jri'J.=. L-1s then he lha spe't ne..z -y tni ytes.r' in r tuLy

and work in Z-ina.. The jL.mi. '*:rite. hL .: or'-i c= cilul,

nfc~il -f tiL=; ic -i.'. ejr th i .'..* eme nt 'f tS Eai

pr f-i L ri S 'L-uLtur.

T, i e.g-= -. e e-t :'r .L.e'. f:-r u.uD i 2Lti jn ith

the .. -i = thUt they O .e >.f ..i .-.i i.ht r -. .ji: n-; e tL.- c;. m.:ny

en=[',us fri ;.I; L., iioSa.' v.,L .Ilv' Lt.iu: .-:' -arge.Ly tL



;.I r'-::.s fl mIV t he:.rt' y Lppr citLifn.


V,: ;i ..ir t e:-. -- gr-. fu.. ._ r-.:i:cia fir tii:

;..iJlly ..: -:,.-. -iv e :. irit mai lfes. t- i ny -ai :er at l. L.e -.. V.
S A

T"' i'f. J i o LDir e-tor ,f t- ins Lti tl-.iti.n, ih during

tifm--i..- -:ru.ti jn ye rs Ii':.L '- n, t -Thief tEngi ?eer,

m : ? it l t? i.n u .:r te -n.-i "-rry .;t -'...ariment., resu.' tS

:,f ..hijh -re here recor.Jed. L' L r. L. ni;li--et.:n, i r fr is :.r de

amtyinvui.ia ,ujn- mi i, for m:a-.i:ng the eati ve- frr IgLir-s -7 t. U3 7

Lic i..-.ive, T., Dr. M1umbert) .run.-, r fessoDr '.t. ir A ti..:, 1? H-rti -

:cu, tlu -ra e -omtir: : i tur-, Dr. L'i :.3 .*.. '.-s e ..- i j, )f-.ess r Liathe-

.ir t .'--o de "gr) .)mi Lm -L tDL c e' i'.- dJe i. _i Lr. 1'Fi di S

:..ves M,..h..o, -. rafetsor .1- -,t.zemr ti
)l1-).re T.ig be t.r-n.l' i .Ln F the -n.u.-ri t l.n i m.-
atiohs iin Uid .L;ZnuagCe *-. t avoid amuiguity iand I.ar- of 2:earness.


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THE 2-ITflU IIUim-A'

The nursery is the corner stone upon which the citrus

industry must De built. Foreign countries which have a highly


specialized citrus industry can give us much information, which :


if adopted will be worth millions of contest to us in saving time


and avoiding the costly mistakes they have made. The laws of nature'


are the same whether north of the Equate' o& South; in the Occident


or in the Orient. Jur tupesaa ancestors left us many Qitiatr


horticultural fetishes and Deliefs tat we of the younger genera-


tion have h-.d to disprove by painstaking scientific work.


We beg indulgence for the repeated references to


Florida, California., South ^frica and other foreign countries,


which constitute the strongest and most severe competitors of Brasil


in the citrus industry. In 1929 -orth -merica exported to ESrope


a million nine hundred thousand boxes of citrus fruits, much of"


which came into direct competition with the -rasiiian oranges. The


exportation from bouth -frica to Europe, especially to england, is


heavy, and is at the same time of the year as the Brasilian expor -


tation EF mPrX=, with which it comes in direct competition.


Citrus growing in several foreign countries is organized into

C
a well established industry. By'nmany years of practise and much


costly experimentation, these countries have discovered economical


methods of growing mudas suitable for producing fruit of the

highest quality t the lowest cost per box. If we at once adopt
h ;- -





and adapt their methods, we will avoid many costly errors. 2

THE MOST VIGOROUS MUDAS PRODUCE MOST PRODUCTIVE TREES.

Dr. H. J. Webber is Director of the California Citrus Experiment:-


Station, and has been for more than 85 years.one of the foremost


scientists in citrus investigations. In 1917 he selected three


grades of mudas, large, medium and small, to plant in a pomar


They consisted of three varieties; Washington 4avel f(Bahia;/


Valencia and Marsh Lrapefruit. They wepe all budded on sour orange,


at the same time and had received the same care in the nursery.


They were planted side-by-side in a pomar especially selected for


uniformity of soil and other physical conditions. Seven years later


the large mudas had produced large trees and the medium sized


mudas medium sized trees. The small mudas grew much less than the


medium sized mudas and produced some trees that were of "stunted,


poor-growing, worthless type". "Their yield records for the period


are in the same mmmmitm proportion; madhimm large, medium and


small".


t). Webber, H. J., Comparative Study of the eitrus industryy of
South Africa, Dep't Agrl, Union of oouth -frica, Bul 6,p. 37.
(1925). _


HIGH PRICED MUDA6 MOST ECONOMICAL. A very instructive

case is cited by Prof. H. Clark rowell (C), showing the necessity


8). Powell, H. C., Grapefruit Culture in the Dritish West Indies,
and British Honduras, p. 20, (1928).

off care in selecting only first class mudas for planting to a


pomar. The two pomars mentioned are each of five hectares (10


acres) extent, and located adjacent to one another. The first







pomar was planted to first selects mudas for which were paid


about seven and a half milreis (90 cents). the second pomar


was planted to second selects for which were paid about six mil-


reis (75 cents), a "penny wise and pound foolish" policy. The mudas


were produced in the same nursery and after planting out received


the same good treatment. being adjoining tra-ts of land the soil


was taaxxa as nearly the same as could be. In 1928 when the pomars


were about ten years old the first pm a-r was "more than twice as

are
productive as the other because the teees w a larger and aan


carry more fruit." It should not be overlooked that if the second


pomar paid expenses, the first paid a handsome profit, which must


be credited to the investment of about one milreis (15 cents) per


muda more than for the mudas planted in the first pomar.


CITRUS GROWING A BUiIN&O6S. The citrus grower of Minas


must keep constantly in mind that the ultimate object of his labor


is that of making money from his pomar Therefore he must lay


attde all personal preferences, as to variety, methods of propaga-

W
tion, or aay other personal consideration. He must produce that


variety and type of muda that the purchaser will buy. Likewise the


pomarist must plant mudas that will produce an abundant crop of


the kind of citrus fruits the market demands, and the size for which
- I, ..; ,,. t ," :
, SI. : / 'j
tae-h sthgheers-i-- -i--paid. Personal preferences must be entirely


subordinated to the dictates of the market tt e-pasL-wi-see--to


st-pply. Much has been written about supplying the foreign markets


-3-






3 1/2
with citrus fruits.


The State of Minas has sufficient area within ter

bordersto produce more citrus fruits than us consumed by all

Europe but she cannot hope to capture that market and hold it


unless we can produce .J fruit the equal of or superior to


that produced elsewhere. This fruit must be produced in suffi-

cient quantity to mkke exportation possible. Everyone engaged


in the citrus culture, which included the nurserymen, must


direct his efforts to produce such fruit.


However, Mineirans should not forget that the Dello


horizonte market is importing tangerines from Rio dnd Bahia

oranges from Sgo Paulo.







SAs was said in a foregoing paragraph, the citrus nursery is the


cornerstone of the citrus industry. It is more economical to


produce one healthy muda than to produce a dozen inferior,-a*asd

,-----f ones.A Citrus are among the oldest, if not the oldest, of domesti-


cated fruits. They are grown fo the production and quality of


their fruits, so thru long ages of selection, many of the most


desirable varieties have lost the power of producing a strong and


resistant root system. Hence in order to produce the best results,


these need to Oe top worked onto some root stock that is more robust.


office of the bud. "Na fructicuitura a enxertia ter por

fimn combinar o vigor e a rusticidade da plants usada com/ a excel-


lencia da fructa e a capacidade productive de plant seleccionada,


usada como enxerto, qualidades que nao se transmittem rigorosamente


pela reproducgao sexual pela semente." (.)


.J. Bondar, Gregorio, A Laranjeara no Orasil, Chacaras e quintaes,
Sao Paulo, p. 4J, (1929)


It is the duty of the citrus nursery, to dffer to the

public the most kl ty and exhuberant mudas that can possibly be


produced. As the roots of the citrus tree grow in the soil, this


must be well prepared, both for the seedbed abd for the nursery, so


that the roots can develop and function to the n-..- ar ansg-.


Under fmanedt conditions, 'probably not more than one citrus seed


in a million grows and proddies a tree to perpetuate its species.


By artificial means we are able to attain a much 4 gr 64 e
of success.





-4-
There appears to be no other cultivated fruit that is


so adaptable to varying soil conditions. "Varieties grow on the


sticky soils of Mesopotamia, upon the alluvial soils of the lower


lississippi, upon the fertile soils of the West India Islands, upon


the dry soils of Arizona and California and upon the almost ster-


ile sandy soils of Florida" (k).


k). Rolfs, P. H., 6ites, Soils and Varieties for Citrus FGroves
in the Gulf Qtates, U. 6. Dep't of Agri, Farmers Bul-
letin 538, p. 8 (1913).

To conduct a commercial citrus ~idurt profitably is


such a complicatkdn of art, science and business that there are


relatively few people who make a success of it.


The stoc# is a very important part of the foundation of

success dn citrus growing. It must be well adapted to the climate

and the soil of the region in which the pomar is to be planted,

otherwise the bud cannot produce an abundant crop of superior fruit.

Each variety and species has to be tried by time consuming and

costly experimentation. A knowledge of botanical relationship is

of great aid to the practical horticulturist but cannot supplant

epxerimentation.

METHODS PRACTICAL AND ECONOMICAL. The methods herein

described have been tested at the E. 8. A. V. and round practical

and economical under "inas conditions. Many minor details are

included in this treatise so as to clear up some of the points

that were difficult for our students and laborers to comprehend.

It is just as easy to learn the correct way as to learn a wrong
a
way. Once thn wrong way becomes a custom it is very difficult

to correct.









The *eed

Nurserymen must pay close a entlon to the healthfulness

and especially to the longevity of the parent tree from which

S-b- the seed with which to establish the nursery. In all the
nura"se. /- A# "he

vareF 4ttt of citrus that are extensively cultivated, there are found

certain strains that are unusually vigorous, some that habe medium

vigor, and a great many that are below medium vigor or even dwarfish

in haDit. If one selects a parent teee that is extremely vigorous

and sows seed from it, A' large percentage of the seedlings will


inherit this vigor. If on the other hand. one plants seeds from a tree

that is naturally dwarfish and lacking in vigor, a large percent of

the seeaiings will lack vigor and even the strongest will produce

mudas od only second class quality.


So far as is known at present, excepting in the case of

citrus canker, there is no disease attacking the trees that is

likely to be transmitted from the parent to the seedling bI means of

thi seed,. For the most part,,-bare=, the nurseryman either buys

the seed or relies on someone in his employ to collect the fruit and

save the seed for him.


It is not necessary to wait until the fruits are fully

matujed t use the seed- As soon as a small amount of yellow or orange

shows on the fruit, the seed are usually sufficiently developed to


produce good nursery trees. tn tests made at the Escola, mature






-5-

seed were taken from limbo rosa fruits that were still entirely


green, and planted at once. Later when the fruits on the same tree


were fully mature, more seed were selected and planted. The seed


from the earlier planting had germinated and the seedlings were show-


ing considerable growth at the time that the later planting was made


The later seed, from the fully matured fruit, took more -tr to


germinate than those from the less mature ones. similar tests with


other citrus fruits have shown quite clearly that for use in the


nursery, it is more economical to olant seeds as soon as they mature

seed of
even tho the fruit appears quite immature. If/ober ripe fruits are


used the seed coat is sometimes so resistant that the radicle has


m=ae one or more turns before rupturing the seedcoat, resulting in


a olantlet with a malformed root. C.-a 4ic^ LS^ i- r&AaktX-


PUEPING THE SEED (k). A very convenient way for separating the

1). See Andrade, Campanha Citricola, p. 49 (1929).


seeds from the pulp is to use a plasterer's sieve with one centi-

meter mesh. With a dull knife cut the fruit on the dadial diameter


taking care not to Injure the seed. The half fruit is squeezed


and rubbed on the sieve until all of the seeds have paased thru


and the skin then thrown away. Much of the fibrous matter that


has passed thru with the seeds may readily be removed by using a


sieve with eyes sufficiently small to catch the good seel. By


washing with plenty of running water from a hose, and rubbing







-6-

gently with the hands, nearly all of the pulp can be removed

The seed, with the pulp that passed trhu the first sieve may be

left in the shade twelve to twenty four hours, without injury

amd then the pulp will wash out much more easily.

The cleaned seeds should be dried in the shade for con-

venience in further handling- If dried in the sun, especially on

a bright hot day, the temperature is apt to go high enough to

destroy the germinating power of many of the seed.

GRADING. After the seed have dried sufficiently to be

handled easily they may be graded by hand, rejecting all small

ones. the imperfect ones will have passed out with the bagasse

while a considerable number of small ones will still remain. These

should be selected out by hand and discarded. We have practised

this method at the E. S. A. V. for four or fibe years. As a demon-

stration our pomoculturist, Prof. Bruno, has required the students.

to sow competitive rows with these rejected seeds. The percentage

of germination has always been very low and the percent of

vigorous mudas fit to set to the nursery varied from zero to

nine percent, always below ten percent. nX 3 i



ry jd n r VW%4_"





-7-


abw~ F, second grading should be mart by hand. A 11 the small

seedAshould be removed and discarded Where only a few thousand

seeds are planted, the band grading method will be found the most

convenient. Where hundreds of thousands of seed are to be sown,

sieves with the right sized eyes can be used more economicallyN

tu bpa L ..u .-La 3mll "-O. In this way anywhere from twenty

to forty percent of the original seed will be discarded before

planting, and so save a great deal of time, money and labor im-bbe





The Oeed

Here at the 6scola up to two years ago, the seed were

under a rpiadd
graded and then germinated/in clean sand, amtanxmdmr ad phmnihim to

which no fertile soil had been added. This obliged the seedling to

live almost entirely upon the ngtrim it stored up in the seed. When'

the seedlings had reached a height of about ten centimeters, the

most vigorous ones were selected for transplanting to the nursery.

The medium vigorous ones were also taken, but all of those below

medium vigor- which included in some cases as high as up to forty

percent, were discarded.

ne year
/For demonstration purposes, seedlings of each of the three

-classifications were planted in competitive rows in the nursery,

receiving exactly the same treatment. At the end of six months,


the first grade seedlings had Produced from 95 to 98 % Pe ct

pro~ued fom 9 to 9 Fferi t







NUMBER OF SEED PER LITER AND PER FRUIT. When' one

prepares to plant a nursery, it is very convenient to be able

to judge about how much seed will be required. A liter of perfectly

clean dried seed will weigh approximately 480 gms, varying some-

what with the dryness of the seed and with the species. Small seed.

like the limo rosa will weigh about 10 % more and large seed

such as grapefruit will weigh 10 % less than the average.

A liter will hold approximately the following num-

bers of seeds,- a). grapefruit, 1600; b). zamboa, 1800; c/. lar-

e)
anja azeda, 2200 (A).; d). laranja amarga, 2900;/laranja king 3400,

A). See Hume, The Cultivation of -ittwa Fruits p. 162, (1926)

f). limo rugoso, 3600; g). laranja doce (serra de agua), 4300;

h). tangelo, 6200; i). tangerina cravo (mexerica),7000; j).

S- limo rosa, 7600. These numbers are for seed th- in.

an <'. *--_-- I many small and inferior ad are
fA. A4449.
included the number may reach 10.000. Dr. Navarro de Andrade f)


gives 3200 as the number of seeds of laranja azeda in a liter.



ftg es from records made at the S. A. V.


There is at times a considerable variation in the size

pf the seeds produced in fruits of the same variety. The rough
under good cultural conditions
lemon seed grown at the &. S. A. V.Saveraged 3600 per liter,

while in florida, where the principal source is wild trees, they

average 6900 per liter.



J&A'BL I.k. **






AP2-


The number o seed per fruit is an inherited quality


and may be greatly modified by bud selection. For example,-


standard grapefruit, which was the only one generally known sixty


yeqrs ago, contained on the average forty seeds and often as

many as seventy five. By bud selection, strains (varieties) have

been secured that are seedless. A tendency toward seedlessness

may also originate in the seedlings. The writers owned a rough

lemon tree, a seedling, that annually produced enormous crops of


fruit, but averaged only three seeds per fruit, while the usual


average for this fruit is 28 seeds per fruit.







stock ready for budding. In a somewhat longer time the second

grade seedlings produced 70 to 90 % good sto c varying in liffer-

ent rows ,&that was fit to budt d The third grade seedlings produced

less than .ten percent of stack fit to bud. H.mmrammmmmammnemm

mhmrmmummmmmWfip These results demonstrated the already well

knawn.fact that less than fifty percent of the especially selected

and carefully graded seeds produced mudas thag were economically

satisfactry, even under the most favorable treatment.

THE SAND BED METHOD. The seed are sown under a rPddo,

ItasB are extensively employed in "lorida and California for citrus

seedbeds The rows are made ten centimeters apart and the

seed sown a centimeter apart in the rows. ffnhmimmmmnrmmtmnmaimmshi mim

iamNmmi ahftminnmnaam mamm The young seedlings must be removed from

i%. bed as soon as they reach the proper stage of development,-

-' 2 fifteen centimeters in height. immmmihamammmmm this method

i :- ; ficlent and is
y/advisable for the small producer, but is not practieqle

average commercial nurseryman. If not removed from the

L. i and planted in the nursery at the proper time, the seedlings
` 6 1 i o e o o..-o
hardened and stunted for want of food, and when planted

lirsery will grow slowly until they have recovered from

... ...". rvats i on.

J 'f COMMERCIAL SLED BED. Q uite a usual method for the

commercial nurseryman is to sow the seed closely in a seed bed with








stock ready for budding. In a somewhat longer time the second


grade seedlings produced 70 to 90 % good stock varying in liffer-


ent rows ,ha was fit to bud The third grade seedlings produced


less than ten percent of stack fit to bud. ff*mammiammmnmnkmimim

smbamnMa&mmaMnm These results C demonstratedthe already well


knuwn.fact that less than fifty percent of the especially, selected


and carefully graded seeds produced mudas thaQ were economically


satisfa cry, even under the most favorable treatment.


THE SAND BED METHOD. The seed are sown under a rpdo,


thee are extensively employed in -lorida and California for citrus


seedbedsf, The rows are made ten centimeters apart and the


seed sown a centimeter apart in the rows. fmnrkMnmmnimlimm"inim hinum8


amuiumam#hihntn=mmk u tm The young seedlings must be removed from


the sandbed as soon as the7 reach the proper stage of development,-


ten or fifteen centimeters in height. dnmmrammm Tnmmm this method

efficient and is
is htghly/advisable for the small producer, but is not practieqble


Sfor the average commercial nurseryman. If not removed from the


seedbed and planted in the nursery at the proper time, the seedlings


become hardened and stunted for want of food, and when planted


in the nursery will grow slowly until they have recovered from


their starvation.
--__.- --- ----
COMMERCIAL SLED BED. Quite a usual method for the


commercial nurseryman is to sow the seed closely in a seed bed with


S I




4es" *
-F' ~


A

K/









idnament imkidng te^ agec


(iAg the fi t Mde go.
ATc Mr; tp^lo at,. tile o




-9- .

1 fertile soil, giving- each seed more or less e square


centimeter of space. In this way the most vigorous ones suppress

the inferior ones and when transplanted to the nursery, only the
For number of seed per liter see
Dage section stock.
more vigorous ones are utiized.stock.

Were many thousands- mlqamdamma of seed are to be sown,

the most economical way is to use a hand or garden seeder. This

Sis more mure accurate and economical than sowing the

seed by hand. It does its work as well at one$ time as another,

while hand labor is extremely variable. The amount of seed sown


by hand is often fifty percent more at the beginning of a row than

it is toward the end, or it may be that when the laborer starts to

work he sows the correct amount of seed, and when he reaches the


end of the row be has doubled the amount he began with The machine,

on the other hand, has no volition in the matter and so sows the

same amount of seed in all parts of the row. Likewise when the work

is done by hand some of the seed will be covered with ten centime-

ters of soil while others will have less than one centimeter. Two

to four centimeters is the best depth of soil with which to cover

the seed, varying with the character and condition of the soil.

When the lowing is done by haxt me it is economi-

cal to place two, three or four rows close together, about twenty


centimeters apart, leave a space of some forty to fifty centimeters,

-K-
and then sow another set of rows. The wider spaces can be conveni-
^p ^ z ^ 4J-c1-eC, /9f^eZ^\ / sl -
ently cultivated by horse power and the narrow ones with a hand
cultivator.





-8-


stock ready for budding. In a somewhat longer time the second

grade seedlings produced 70 to 90 % good sto ckvarying in differ-

ent rows ,that was fit to bud.j The third grade seedlings produced

less than ten Fercent of stack fit to bud. fflmmilh mmmnmamlbmm

hamArdmmi mmumiM These results demonstrated the already well

known.fact that less than fifty percent of the especially selected

and carefully graded seeds produced mudas thad were economically

satisfactory, even under the most favorable treatment.

THE SAND BED METHOD. The seed are sown under a rdd ,

thvsC~ are extensively employed in -lorida and California for citrus

seedbedsf, The rows are made ten centimeters apart and the

seed sown a centimeter apart in the rows. ff"tmmzmdmf mbwrmmpmmw

amiamagametalmtaw stmm The young seedlings must be removed from

the sandbed as soon as they reach the proper stage of development,-

ten or fifteen centimeters in height. 6rmmmh ammmmnsmm this method

efficient and is
is h&ghly/advisable for the small producer, but is not practice

for the average commercial nurseryman. If not removed from the

seedbed and planted in the nursery at the proper time, the seedlings

become hardened and stunted for want of food, and when planted

in the nursery will grow slowly until they have recovered from

their starvation.

COMMERCIAL bED BED. Q uite a usual method for the


commercial nurseryman is to sow the seed closely in a seed bed with





-10-

The rows should run the long way of the seedbed. Too fre-


quently inexperienced and thoughtless persons place the rows a_


acrows the bed, which entails a great deal of unnecessary hand work.


When the seedlings have reached a height of about thirty


centimeters they are sufficiently advanced to be set out into the


nursery. Those below medium sixe should be discarded as worthless,


as shown in the demonstration cited aove. A very large percent


of the total number of seedlings are unfit to go into the nursery.


Hume, who has had many years of experience as a commerical nursery-


manirecommends sowing four times as many seeds as one wants mudas


for the nursery. In Minas there is a great abundance of seed and


extensive areas of unused lands, so it will be more economical to


sow five to ten times as many seed as one wants mudas for the


nursery. Then too, one must provide against loss from diseases


in the seedbeds, which the nurseryman of decades of experience


knows how to avoid or control.


locating the Seedbe


It is well to choose a rather humid place in which fertile


soil occurs. Where possible to do so, a deep rich sandy soil should


be chosen. The location should be well removed from where the


nursery is to be or from a pomar. To sow a seedbed near an old


citrus tree or pomar is inviting trouble and probable disaster.


Drainage. The first step necessary is to see that the

location chosen has excellent natural drainage. As soon as the




--11 --


ground has been properly prepared and artificial local drainage mus t

bed
be provided to protect the seed/against heavy mains. This can be

very cheaply provided by the use of plows and a disc harrow. If deep

furrows are made every five meters, with a difference of fifty


centimeters between the middle of the bed and the bottom of the

furrow, the local drainage will usually beadequate.

In the West Indies where the rainfall is about the same

as in Minas, the depth recommended for the drainage ditches is

fortyfive centimeters below the top of the seed bed. In Florida,

where the soil is very sandy and frequent irrigation necessary for

producing vigorous seedlings, the height is less. In California,


the weather is usually very dry during the period when the seedlings

are growing, so the best of the nurserymen plant their seedbeds


i. \under ripados, and provide facilAties for frequent irrigation.

IP" It may at times become necessary to water


thp the fact that a moist location has been

S..planted in the time of year when frequent rains

.,ed. It is generally necessary to resort to the ean-

uA I inefficient me hod of band watering. The amount of water

supplied by this method is usually very irregular and nearly always

insufficient. Many times such irrigations are worse than useless,


causing the superficial roots to start an active growth, only to


be fried off again before the next irrigation occurs. It is better

to give one thoro irrigation than half a dozen insufficient ones.





--11 --

ground has been properly prepared and artificial local drainage mus t

bed
be provided to protect the seed/against heavy eains. This can be


very cheaply provided by the use of plows and a disc harrow. If deep


furrows are made every five meters, with a difference of fifty


centimeters between the middle of the bed and the bottom of the


furrow, the local drainage will usually beadequate.


In the West Indies where the rainfall is about the same


as in Minas, the depth recommended for the drainage ditches is


fortyfive centimeters below the top of the seed bed. In Florida,


where the soil is bery sandy and frequent irrigations necessary for


producing vigorous seedlings, the height is less. In California,


the weather is usually very dry during the period when the seedlings

are IBowing, so the best of the nurserymen plant their seedbeds


, under ripados, and provide facilAties for frequent irrigation.

IRRIGATION. It may at times become necessary to water


the seedbed, in spite of the fact that a moist location has been


chosen and the seeds planted in the time of year when frequent rains


may be expected. It is generally necessary to resort to the emat-


teamaA inefficient memod of hand watering. The amount of water

supplied by this method is usually very irregular and nearly always


insufficient, Many times such irrigations are worse than useless,


causing the superficial roots to start an active growth, only to


be dried off again before the next irrigation occurs. It is better


to give one thoro irrigation than half a dozen insufficient ones.




)32


~fcju






A .............



M..'
A.L.,n.




--11 --


ground has been properly prepared and artificial local drainage mus-t
bed
be provided to protect the seed/against heavy eains. This can be

very cheaply provided by the use of plows and a disc harrow. If deep

furrows are made every five meters, with a difference of fifty

centimeters between the middle of the bed and the bottom of the

furrow, the local drainage will usually beadequate.

In the West Indies where the rainfall is about the same


as in Minas, the depth recommended for the drainage ditches is

fortyfive centimeters below the top of the seed bed. In Florida,

where the soil is tery sandy and frequent irrigations necessary for


producing vigorous seedlings, the height is less. In California,


the weather is usually very dry during the period when the seedlings

are vowingg, so the best of the nurserymen plant their seedbeds


under ripados, and provide facil-ties for frequent irrigation.

IRRIGATION. It may at times become necessary to water
/

the seedbed, in spite of the fact that a moist location has been

chosen and the seeds planted in the time of year when frequent rains

may be expected. It is generally necessary to resort to the en*-

#gu saud inefficient me od of band watering. The amount of water

supplied by this method is usually very irregular and nearly always

insufficient. Many times such irrigations are worse than useless,


causing the superficial roots to start an active growth, only to


be dried off again before the next irrigation occurs. It is better

to give one thoro irrigation than half a dozen insufficient ones.




-12-


k Before the drainage work is commenced the location should


be thoroly and deeply grubbed, and all obstacles in the way of stumps,


roots and rocks removed from the ground. After that, the area should


be deeply plowed, thirty centimeters deep if possible. At the time


of plowing the laborers should remove all obstacles that are encoun-


teredtin the field, fueh as deeply buried roots, rocks and wood, that


were not discovered when the plo* was grubbed. This plowing can most


conveniently be done with an improved reversible plow, drawn by two


yoke of oxen. When the plowing in one direction has been effected,


the land should be thorolywgrked eer with a disc havrow. In the


course of a week or ten days, the land will be sufficiently settled


and firm enough to permit plowing in the direction crosswise to the


other furrows, and the soil is again ouiverizes with the disc harrow.


After the soil has become firm again the operator will be


ready for preparing his beds. If they are staked off at five meter


intervals, a furrow on th e e side of the middle should ais be


thrown toward the middle, continuing this Intil halfway between the


two beds has been reached, thus leaving a deep furrow between the.


beds. The bottom of these deeper furrows should be about fifty


centimeters below the level of the beds, to provide the local drain-


age discussed in a previous paragraph.





1 ........




-13-
Diseases of the Oeedbed.


DAMPII'JG OFF (k). This disease is caused by a number of

--H) ..i -.-C i t -riA .- -p-m-. e ryrqp p qh vm.m _n a nm,-, f^- e^iuk fl;y-C .1U-l-t

Fawcett and Lees.-ack as=JCitrus Diseases and htfer -ontrol,7

w h ma o ..rchas.Led-um ChdLaraL 1 Ua uintaesg ia, Pr,11 "

different fungii which belong to the genera Fusarium, Rhizocto-


nia and Ocler&tium, wvich inhabit the soil. It does not as a


rule attach the seedlings until they have reached the height of


four or five centimeters. The first indisatinas are that one or


more seedlings show yellowing of the leaves and later wilting,


these manifestations becoming more pronounced aia snowing up


over the bed as the seedlings grow. When the disease oreaks

Add
out the seedlings are still young and tender, they fall ovei


sometimes even before showing yellowing or drooping. If a seea-


ling is examined at this stage, a portion of it near the soil, or


just below the soil level, will be found affected and having the


appearance of insect injury. When seedlings are oiaer, And the


stem has become more woody, they remain erect.


CONTROL. To control damping off, immediate and ener-


getic measures are necessary. The first preventive step is to


remove all affected seedlings. When the disease shows itself

on a number of plants, all of the apparently healthy plants

that are within a distance of fifteen centimeters from the dis-

eased ones should likewise be removed. This can be done very

easily when the seeds have been shown in rows.





-14-

The second step is to spray the soil thoroly with

Bordeaux mixture, especially that portion of the soil which is

in contact with the seedlings. After the spray material has dried

and the soil has dried it should be worked up thoroly with some

hand implement. ffltamm immmm mmmmtmmmmimnibmimnmpmimm1mmmmim ff
This will
am& destroy many of the fungii present, and incorporate the


fungicide with the soil> F Aru o avtOAJ c A C-r 4Q)

The third step is to keep the surface soil as dry as

possible, consistent with good growth of the seedlings. Watering

should be done only when the sun will quickly dry the surface.

If Bordeaux mixture cannot be quickly obtained, bta


the ground should be sprayed with a solution of bichloride of

mercury, using it at the rate of one part of bichloride to a

thousand parts of water. This is more effective than Bordeaux

mixture, but more likely to injure the roots of the seedlings and
rti s very poisonous to animals and human beings if taken internally.
0 0) jp ba b Not infrequently this disease breaks out in


the seedbed. The fungus tl only the young leaves before

layer
they have developed a hard iarJrv on the surface, usually when

they are only about a centimeter or so long.

TrOLMaet. Bordeaux mixture, when thoroly applied, is

a perfect preventative. Before applying the mixture, every leaf

that shows infestation should be removed.






0 Viveiro


SELECTION OF LOCATION OF VIVEIRO; In nearly all p4oinr


countries, he nurserymen made the serious mistake of locating

rernrso on anyApiece of land, no matter how inconvenient for


cultivation or how unsuitable for the young trees. As time was of

no particular value to these pioneers, it made little difference that


the stock required two, three, or even four years to attain a suffi-

cient size for transplanting to the pomar. Or, worse still, the

viveiro was planted in the vacant spaces between the trees in the

pomar, which is the peerest possible place for it. Here the young


trees hv to compete with the much larger ones for food material


and during a part of the day were in the shade of the older trees.

Infested with the
The young mudas became infected wir the diseases and/insects present


in the pomar and carried with them such infections and infestationsA


Thus the rnrseryman inadvertently provided the best possible means


of distribution and perpetuation for the pests and diseases of citrus

Due to the practise described above, nearly all diseases

and insects of citrus occur in EmazxU all the countries where citrus

growing constitutes an industry. The monographs on citrus diseases

and insects published in North America, Australia, Oouth =frica and


the West Indies, trerft( rly all the em encountered in Minas. The

more rational method of establishing a citrus nursery is to place it


as far removed from older citrus trees as possible. in the meundae
- s A modern pomiculturist will not accept, under any condition, mudas

carrying insects or showing affectation by diseases-
carrying insects or showing affectation by diseases-



































V


tr"?" UJ

vzwk^


-16-


nur-aryman, suh ineffliciont metbhod, ha'e had to bo abandonod-in


LTnii cutniLria-z whoro thoro isa ....u du try


ouIL. The type of soil should be such as will produce the


most vigorous and healthy growth. In Minas the high vargens that are


well drained and pes de morro when only slightly inclined, are good


locations, rarely being too sandy. A stiff clayey soil should be


avoided, as it induces slow growth and an inferior root development.


A wet vargem should especially be avoided, as it can be put in good


condition only at a large expense for labor, and the mudas are


constantly in danger of being badly injured by flooding.
e-
PREPARATION OF THE 6.IL. When the location has been chosen,


the area should be thoroiy clered as described in the case of the


seedoed. The plowing should be done as deeply as possible, not less


than twenty centimeters and preferaoly thirty. In couth -frica and


the Vest Indies, as well as in North America, where improved imple-


.ts are employed, the ideal depth is from forty to fifty centimeters.


.i- ndricksen (9) recommends for torto Riso that the ground be
', .


:2" icksen, H. Cr, Forto ^ico, Agr'i Exp. Sta., Mayaguez, P. R.,
Bul. 33, p. 8, (1930).
\ *:*. '------------------------

red ab t a year before the planting is to oe-done. *=


':reson kehat e -irrigated. To provide fertility,-


a. ,,uminous cover crop is planted which is plowed under three


months before the mudas are to be set out.
In France, in the best nurseries, the soil is spaded up,
seventy five centimeters deep
See, Fairchild, David, Exploring for Plants, p.tX. (1930).
-''m


("






-16-

"nPraoryman, su4ch inoffiCiont meth-rds hawe hand to beo abandand i-n


thsuCOMt~t~~shreti(p iA- -0P


SOIL. The type of soili should be such as will produce the


most vigorous and healthy growth. In Minas the high vargens that are


well drained and pes de morro when only slightly inclined, are good


locations, rarely being too sandy. A stiff clayey soil should be


avoided, as it induces slow growth and an inferior root development.


A wet vargem should especially be avoided, as it can be put in good


condition only at a large expense for labor, and the mudas are


constantly in danger of being badly injured by flooding.


'PREPARATION OF THE S3IL. When the location has been chosen,


the area should be thoroly cleared as described in the case of the


seedoed. The plowing should be done as deeply as possible, not less


than twenty centimeters and preferably thirty. In southh -frica and


the Vest Indies, as well as in Idorth America, where improved imple-


ments are employed, the ideal depth is from forty to fifty centimeters.


Mr. Hendricksen (k) recommends for forto Riso that the ground be


k). Henricksen, B. Cr, Forto ^ico, Agr'l Exp. 6ta., Mayaguez, P. R.,
Bul. 33, p. 8, (1930).


deeply prepared abdt a year before the planting is to be done. =


-a- .-h-m- =- "-; .- that c -an b -- iriatcd. ro provide Pertility,-


a leguminous cover crop is planted which is plowed under three


months before the mudas are to be set out.
In France, in the best nurseries, the soil is spaded up,
seventy five centimeters deep
See, Fairchild, David, Exploring for Plants, p..-'. (1930).


,7


.:
~



r















~: $




P.acrlgy ey rq esta
idaeyaynwotrlkv' P'




17

After the land has been thoroly plowed, cross plowed and


again pulverized by means of a disc barrow, the field can be laid


off in beds. Ten meters is a very convenient width for these.


They should run the long ways of the nursery.


When the land has settled well after the first preparation


it should be giuen another plowing and at this time the furrows


should be thrown toward the middles of the beds. This will leave


a deep furrow between the Deds, similar to that described for the


seedbed. Where this work is done by an experienced plowman, the


furrows between the oeds will serve sufficiently for a local


drainage system. Where such protection is not provided, there


is a possibility of considerable drowning out of the recently


Planted mudas, as was experienced at the -scoia.


lotPAOING THE MUDAS. The rows should be laid out one


a pv'. apart. This is the most convenient distance between the rows,


t. for cultivating with animal drawn implements and


the men to work easily in budding and in the


car -y.


The distance between the mudas in the row should be forty


centimeters. In Florida the favorite distance between the rows is


120 centimeters and the distance between the mudas 45 cms. In Cali-


fornia about the same distances are employed. In various experi-


ments at the Eocoia, in planting the rows one meter apart and spacing

the mudas




17

After the land has been thoroly plowed, cross plowed and


again pulverized by means of a disc harrow, the field can be laid


off in Deds. Ten meters is a very convenient width for these.


They should run the long ways of the nursery.


When the land has settled well after the first preparation


it should be gieen another plowing and at this time the furrows


should be thrown toward the middles of the beds. This will leave


a deep furrow between the beds, similar to that described for the


seedbed. Where this work is done by an experienced plowman, the


furrows between the oeds will serve sufficiently for a locall


drainage system. Where such protection is not provided, there


is a possibility of considerable drowning out of the recently


planted mudas, as was experienced at the 'scola.


o0PACING THE MUDAS. The rows should De laid out one


meter apart. This is the most convenient distance between the rows,


Being sufficient for cultivating with animal drawn implements and


also sufficient for the men to work easily in budding and in the


care of the nursery.


The distance between the mudas in the row should be forty


centimeters. In Florida the favorite distance between the rows is


180 centimeters and the distance between the mudas 45 cms. In Cali-


fornia about the same distances are employed. In various experi-


ments at the Escola, in planting the rows one meter apart and spacing

the mudas













.c.



:- L. .
Or '




ii~B~




1..
1.

s


-18-

25, 33, 40 and 50 cms apart in the rows, we found that the space


of forty centimeters gave us quite as satisfactory results as the


greater space, and produced stronger mudas than the en-se- distances.


Thus it happens that the optimum spacing at Vigosa agrees rather


closely with that for California and Florida.


'TRANSPLANTING. When ready to transplant from the seedbed


to the nursery, the rows should be opened up by piwmiom plowing


twm furrows, one in each direction. Theflfoldow with a subsoil


plow (sulcador) to beeak up the soilAdeeply. It is often necessary


to pass the sulcador two to several times to attain this result.


The best sized mudas to take from the seedbed are those


that measure twenty to thirty centimeters. The sooner the mudas


are transferred from the seedbed to the nursery after they have a


height of about twenty centimeters, the better. The taller they


sre permitted to grow in the seedbed, the greater will be the


shock in transplanting and the greater the delay from the time of


sowing the seed, as& securing mmtmam mudas/suitable for budding.


Some thoughtless nursdymenV permit the laborers to pull


the seedlings preparatory to transplanting, thus penalizing them-


selves heavily. In pulling the mudas almost aliO of the fibrous


robts are lost, and the muda must reproduce these agaA before it


can attain its former vigor. -The proper method is to thrust a


spade with a long blide between the rows, t~e g out a block of


earth which will contain the mudas, with all of their fibrous roots








K,


~--Le


j' i '


C~C


r"*~;t


r~ZCV~Lr/ LUhCC,




-.-".. .... .*-

f^ri AC i At z

THE ROOT SYTTM. The full page photograph Fig... (iimao


rosa stock)iiiustrates forcefully the importanc-e of c-irs of the rojot


system. hll four plantiets were of the saem age, when taken from the


seedbed. They v'ere planted at the bame time, oudded at the same


timbQ to the same variety of oranges. It took just as muTh time and


I labor to produce muda & and L as a ana J3. For :.antit-g to j:,ma-r ,e


se ectea muuda of the A arn D tyce. Jne ear for l8 (?;- dem:n-


straticn purposes we planted out a row of C and D type. This year, 5E:;,


t- the muoua of the and type produced according to Crof. bcunor, eighty


fruits per tree while the best it one of the C srind D type rooyced onny


twelve fruits. In other words it cost more thai- si.X times as mu.,h t:


produce a oDX of fruit oy utilizing the n. d D te mudas tnsr c.y


planting the and D type. If the a, nd D type bg kect in the nurse.;!-ry


f or two to Chree years they will. grow to the size that the n


type attain in one year and can oe readily sold. but a o:,mnr ciantea

4 to the stunted muda. is credestined td failure. Even the use of


"secF ones from among first class mudt. pr-.rouce- -n in r .- fithie


f \gn countries. 1See experience cited oy )r. Weooer and

......... -owell on a previous page. Tne wise pomarist wil not


';b: w ase mudas without knowing their age.


i n tlhe photograph only toe kax ske-eton roots are


Represented the fibrous ones having betn removed.


A. taproot cut off after removed from the seedoed as

., ..






A A

THE ROOT SY&STEM. The full page photograph Fig... limoo


rosa stock)iilustrates forcefully the importance of cir- of the root


system. All four plantlets were of the saem ege, when taken from the


seedbed. They were planted at the same time, oudded at the same


timt to the same variety of oranges. It took just as muzh time and


1 labor to produce muda 4 and L as A and J3. For --:nti -g to po.rar ise


seie>ted mudas of the A ana tye. jne ear -or :28 (?)i demin-


stration purposes we pianted out a row of and D ty-e. This year, ,~;.


the muaas of the --- and type produced according to trof. bruno, -ighty


fruits per tree while the best ft one of tie C and D type pr-)dyced nDrly


twelve fruits. In other words it cost m"re than Ai times s m' -h t


S produce a oox of fruit oy utilizing the Jnd D ty. muidas than cy"


planting the n and D type. If the and D type ob. ket in the nur ary


for two to Chree years they wil- grnw to the size that the .- an: c


Stype attain in one year and can be readily sold. but a )'m?.r planted


4 to the stunted muda? is oredestined to failure. Even the use of


second sized ones from among first ciass mudE.s produces an k nprfitable


pomar in foreign countries. See experience cited oy -r. Weooer and

-
Prof. H. Clark welll on a previous page. Tne wise pomarist wi;i not


purchase mudas without knowing their age.

/-- in the photograph only the kax skeleton roots are


represent ted the fibrous ones having oeen removed.


'' taproot cut off after removed from the seeded as


if;-.





















.': .^ ?s-
r-4*: '








.:.* -* Ito *












1- --" 0 ol


jo 1: 1







described Tis reSted irn multiple tap root and a system tlmst
1
qqua-L to that of L.


Sb.Japroot preserved in transplanting frjm the seeoaed. Ti-

c ammmauflk m mmmmmmidiairnmmmimasimbmmmmammmmmmammm mmmmmanmm tmmkm m inmm .m


m. aimmmmbmrtmflammmmammm muda has :rljued m-rny injre vigjrs -e rct'.-


than i .E a -C


C. TaprooDt doubled over due to it-.,te in .;:._ntini to- the

nursery. The cavail, wUas uini-e to furnish sustenanceri. to the ou: 5.,u>l


to A and I en'2e it was stunted.


D. The knot high jn the t )p r-)t wa.s ue t.2 urgingg of the


radit.e inside the seed -oat at time of germinati:n. Th= :.:'urs


occasionally in all kinds; ese.'ially .hen the fruits are _ver mature


and frequently in rhmima strains vith a-n espec.iali hard s-ee ass


coat. This cavailo should have ueeri rejected before oeing sent to


nursery. o- ca at e F y A,


*







uninjured. The block may be broken easily and the soil gently


S .." shaken from the roots, with a minimum of injury.


(!.\ CON6ERVING THP FIBRJOU ROJTS. After the seedlings are


removed from the soil theur roots must be carefully guarded against


sunshine and wind ne hour of exposure-to the sun or two hours


exposure in the shade is likely to kill most of the fibrous roots.

transfers
Keeping the mudas covered with wet sacking during all tamnsfers is


a little troublesome, but splendidly profitable.


After the seedlings are lifted they may be tied in uniform


bundles of from 25 bo 50 mudas, assorting them according to size.


At this time it will be convenient to cut off the tops and tap root s


of the stronger ones, cutting them to a uniform size. One stroke of


a large knife will do this work rapidly and satisfactorily.


1. ,
The bundles of mudas may be kept with safety for two or


.. three days if kept in an abrigo and the roots covered with wet sand


or sacking.


SETTING OUT IN THE NURSERY. In setting the mudas in the


nursery, great care should be taken not to bend or taie the tap


root. Some difficulty may ee experienced in finding laborers who
a-%
Sare able to set the mudas with the tap root p-rpendicularly in the


soil, and at the same time spread out properly the fibrous roots.


It is highly important that just as favorable conditions as possi-


ble are furnished for the production of prooc.r Thi will' -e o pro






v20-

fibrous roots, which if retained in transplanting will greatly


contribute to the production of T .s..-fe to.y mmnn -rees.

asce*t If the weather is moist when the transplanting from the


nursery is done, no great difficulty is experienced. However, it is


advisable to use about half a liter to a liter of water for sech


muda at the time when it is set out. This should be applied di-


rectly to the roots, before completing the placement of the soil,


so that the fibrous roots are surrounded by wet earth. After that


enough soil is added so the muda will occupy the same depth of soil


as in the seedbed. This last soil should be firmed with the hand.


In this way the roots of the muda are in contact with moist doll


Shile the top soil is drs the mud-,
Thoughtless nurserymen will pe t the

p p de nr i ~nd th-n apply the- water. n this way the r otspon the
uda to be set and then apply the water to the surface of the soil.

succeeding day will be as dry,as if no water had been applied, and


the mudas will be greatly injured, many of them dieing off to as far


down as the roots.


If the furrow for the row of mudas has been plowed out and


prepared accurately, in a straight line, it will greatly facilitate


planting and cultivation. To guide the laborers in setting out the


mudas, a lane should be stretched down the furrow, so it will be


exactly the same height as was the so81 level before the furrow was


made. Then set the mudas by this line, so that the part which grew:-


at the ground level in the seedbed is exactly the s me height a .


.'
:. "





-21-


the line. When all of the soil has been returned to the

furrow, and after one or twO rains the muda should stand at


the same depth it occupied in the seedbed,.


When a row has been set to mudas, the space between


them can be filled in by such an implement as a Flaaet Junior


with the aveica attachment or a fourteen tooth cultivator. (For


further discussion of cultivation read section entitled "Care

Al
of iArsery"). Such an implement will do better work and mordf


it than ten laborers working hMi S.

In the course of a month, under favorable climate and


cultural conditions, the mudas will be growing vigorously. If


the work of setting out was well done, the terminal bud dill


be growing most rapidly and taking up all f tia.c.- material












be removed up to a distance of a liitle more tan thirty centi-
a-. W-.1 ..a of
te b. somewhat
Ma.hm .AD MT.HjD. In F.orid. wh.re expert workmen have. ,





ove is t bthe betplanted. fo the growth the muda. They should
mters. This will ive a nice smoth srf in h h to insert




been developed, the sprout and for the nsery is prepr se a month before



beit is to be planted. ha distance mudas toe aedan tirty centi-







O1-





-21-


the line. When all of the soil has been returned to the


furrow, and after one or tw4 rains the muda should stand at


the same depth it occupied in the seedbed,.


When a row has been set to mudas, the space between


them can be filled in by such an implement as a Planet Junior


with the aveica attachment or a fourteen tooth cultivator. (For


further discussion of cultivation read section entitled "Care


of iirsery"). Such an implement will do better work and moraof


it than ten laborers working w~ hr-s.


In the course of a month, under favorable climate and


cultural conditions, the mudas will be growing vigorously. If


the work of setting out was well done, the terminal bud Iill


be growing most rapidly and taking up all of the food material


that the roots can supply. If the setting out has been somewhat


imperfecity done, a uman number of buds along the main stem


will begin to sprout and develop. The sooner these are


removed the better fot ehe growth of the muda. They should


* be removed up to a distance of a little m're than thirty centi-


meters. This will give a nice smooth surface in vhich to insert


the bud.


Malhinmah ADPD MtrTHJD. In Florida wh.re expert workmen have


been developed, the land for the nLrsery is prepared a month before


it is to be planted. WhFt the mudas are to be placed, a lino is








(!:r~:
':: 'r

4~E~




-775


7L,
1 Lots 1






-9.2-


stretched where the row is to be. Then two workmen, one with a long,


thin bladed pada spade and the other with mudas in his hand, set them


out. The spade is thrust perpendicularly into the ground to the


proper depth, on one side af the line, than bent toward the other


side of the line, leaving an opening for tne muda, V.which the second


workman places immediately in the opening, the spade is then with-


drawn, and the men simultaneously firm the soil, with one foot each.


(m). This is a very rapid and convenient way of planting out the mudas


k). Rolfs, h. H. Propagation of Citrus Trees in the Bulf States,
U. z. Dep't of -gr'i, Farmers' Duiietine 5e9, p. i ~il13)1


but I have mmam been unaoie to find laborers at licosa with a


sufficient cooperative spirit to employ it successfully.


Time to Bud.


There are three periods favoraole for Dudding at Viyosa.


First, May and June, for putting in dormant uds;' second, August and


oeptemuer for spring oudaing; third, midsummer oudaing, during a


dry spell in the s-immer 0.,L.4 4- ^ ^
\Rt r c .^ VcA a- .
The most convenient time for inserting the buds at Vigosa


is during August and Deptanver. However, we have secured good success


in ouciding during any one of the twelve months. June and "uly are


usually considered the most unfavorable months, but if cultivation is


kept up during these months, the stock will continue to grow and the


buds will take with great facility. Buds inserted in May, June, July


and the early part of August are likely to remain in a dormant conditi

.-








and "spring" when the warm weather of the latter part of August and


september begins.


However, bidding should be done at that time of the year


when the atock is in good condition and good budwood may be obtained.


The sooner a muda is budded after being set out, the less time will


be los tand the i-ii ... Ihe


stock may be oudded as soon as the oark is sufficiently developed to


make a strong layer, which usually occurs when it is no larger than


an ordinary lead pencil.


During rainy weather it is more armmmmamimmh disagreeable


to bud than during dry weather. It is quite .impracticable to place


the ouds when rain is falling. It is also disagreeable to work among


the mudas when they or the soil are we$. Aside from this, water is


likely to collect in the wounds made for budding and the buds be lost


from disease infection. However, so far as the receptivenesZ of the


stock is concerned, no difficulty will be experienced, even during


rainy weather.


bUMMER BUDDIiNG. Nearly every year at Vigosa, we have had


a short dry spell during the summer. -his dry spell may occur in


December, January ar february. During this time the fruiting citrus


trees are in the midsummer dormant condition, making it a good time


for obtaining excellent buds without sacrificing much tree eg=s~ h.
fIL~~L~-A





2- ~)II


The Mether Tree.


The greatest care should be exercised in selecting


the tree from which the buds are to be out. Fprmeriy it was


believed that every bud on a tree was equal to any other bud


on that same tree. When a daughter tree faLled to produce a crop


eq ual to that of the mother tree it was explained on the basis


of unfavorable soil conditions and later many people ascribed


it to the influence of the stock on the scion. Recent investiga-


tions have proven that at least in the Washington Navel (B8hia)


Vange b whgh cvrig te sahm- tmo trl, P 9m= 'nr
S...





_j, ,'" y _, e._ r--
da ., t e .i"i.h~ ,u i b wh i a : ...u v-


''






24

~.--Tti.' T rE J-Ri. ---. Considerable s-ace has been


given to this sub4tt because the recommendations here made are


quite the opposite of what is generally A ed ad contrary to


nearly all that was written up to about twenty years ago. Even today


many writers hold to the disproven belief that the bud reproduces


the exact duplicate of the parent tree.


Dr. bhamel and his associates had a t opportunities


for making tbir investigations. In the first place practically all


the Vashington Navel orange trees of California, numbering some sio


to eight million, were deriVed from two trees sent there from


hashington, D. C. in 1873. The mother trees of these mudas were


received from Bahia in 1870. In the second pA&ce the sour orange


is practically the only root stock Ased in California,. In the


third place, -alifornia citrus growers and associations S splendid


public spirited citizens. They supplied nurseries and pomars neces-


-sary for carrying out the de6aalln investigations. The federal


government cooperated by supplying large sums of $money annually


for many years. Dr. 6hamel, before taking up this work, had


acquired a national reputation as a plant breeder. The two Wash-


ington Lavel trees originally taken to -alifornia are both most


zealously guarded and cared for, so it is an easy matter for the


scientific horticulturist to compare the resulting progeny with the


original trees.





24 1/2

At the initiation of nmmmmmay Dr. 6hamel's work, it was


sr pleasure and honor to council with him in regard to it and also


to visit localities where the work was being carried on. f=am con-


vinced that the work has oeen done with mathematical exactness and


that the conclusions are trustworthy, although contrary to the


w stings of nearly all former wr~ees. The mmagrihma very large


scale upon which the work has been conducted has eliminated the


errors occasioned by the irregularities of individual tree/,kle'


Dr. bhamel and his associated found that after these


few years, comparatively speaking, at least eighteen easily disf"


tinguishable varieties had and all by bud propagation,


mrom tle two parent tree The fruits of these varieties have bse


distinct navel marking and are seedless. While the# general


characteristics are transmitted quite faithfully, the characters


essential to a commercial fruit aM. entirely lost in some of the


progeny varieties (estirpes).


One of -th most important conclusions arrived at is that


bud wood taken from a tree of small production or inferior fruit.


perpetuates these inferior qualities in the progeny mudas. It has


long been established beyond controversy that all varieties of seed


producing plants degenerated very rapidly unless care is taken to


select only the ht for propagation. The same law of heredity seem


to hold in propagation by bud selection. Eben when the nurseryman








selects buds from the most perfect tree some degenerates will

occur in the mmmmmmp. progeny. ie' in the finest breeds of

animals some degenerates are born despite the fact that rigid

selections have been made for generations if not centuries.

The eighteen varieties referred to above were analyzed

SDby
chemically. In thMA extensive and intensive chemical study/Dr.--'--


Y(f and associates it was found that the comical composition

of each of the varieties had been transmitted from the mother tree


to the progeny by means of the bud.

SMany people will like to examine the evidence at first


hand, so as to be able to draw their own conclusions. For their


benefit we are appending a list of tbe articles;






24 7/8


I). Chace, E. M., Church, C. G., Denny, F. E., Inheritance

.of Composition in Fruit through Vegetative propagation, D. S.

Dep't of Agr'l, Department Dulletin N" 1255, 41924).

II). Chace, E. M. and "hurch, C. G.,Inheritance of Compo-

sition of the Washington Aavel Oranges of Various trains Propagated

as dud Variants, U. S. Dep't of Agr'l, TechnicAl .uljtin, 163, (1930d,
4
p. 21.

III

0, Shame, A. D., Scott, L. B. and Pomeroy C. S., Citrus improvement, '
A btudy pf the Washington Navel Orange, U.S.Dep't Agr. Bul 623,
146 p. illus. 1918
jf, Shamel. A. D. Pomeroy C. S. and Caryl R. ud election as -*
S Related to quantity Lroduction in the ashington Navel Orange.
Jour. Agr. Research 26.319-322, illus. 1923# .
2n0eanhtr^s@ Bud Selection as Related to qualityy of Crop in
<-the Washington Navel Orange. Jour. Agr. Research. 28.521-526
h 1924
^nmp mithr B"d-Belecio -ba-te-afihingto- Nae .. -raft
.. Progeny Tests of the Thomsnn, Washington, CorrUgated and
Golden Buckeye Strains Originating as ijimb Variations in a
Single Tree. Journal of heredity, 16.232-241, illus. 1925
S f f. Progeny Tests of a Dry Limb Variation, Journal of
Heredity 16.299-306, illus 1925
d-3. Progeny Tests of the Australian Strain. Journal of
Heredity 16.367-374 illus 1925
7 4. Progeny Tests of Limb Variation of the nibbed train, I t
Journal of heredity, 16:415-422, illus, 1925
/ 5. Progeny Test of a Sheepnose Variation. Journal of
Heredity, 16.449-455, illus.
T 6. Progeny Test of a Dual Limb Variation, Journal of
Heredity, 17.59064, illus.
7. Progeny Tests of Swo V*ilations -in Shape-flattened and
Pear-Shaped. Journal of Heredity, 18 155-142, illus.


/O
-. Bud election
Hededity XIX,
*




1-




i) 1J! -Utifc


in the vashington Navel range, Journal
p. 476, (1928).


A?


(. ~F~U ~UU- -L~ c~~





cv*~ ;1 ,25


In

selecting the tree from which to secure the estacas, the following


points should be rigorously observed.-


First,, he tree should produce an abundant crop in succes-


sive years. hose t)Yrees that produce a heavy-crop in alternate


years, nearly always producee their abundant crip in the years when


the fruits are cheap.


second f- li of the fruits on the tree must be of uniform


size and shape. If some o the fruits are large, others small, s -


rough and some smooth; some oblong or pear shaped and others shper-


ical; some ripening early and others late, the tree should oe rejected.


ouch variations indicate that the buds on the tree are in active muta-


tion and among the mudas budded from such a tree are likely to appear,





Third- The fruit must possess the highest commercial quali-


ties o+-that variety. For example, a Bahia orange should have firm,


meaty flesh, thin skin, a small amount of rag (oegasse), abundant


aroma and a very small unbigo. A Selecta should have a thin skin,


abundant sweet juice; very few seeds; aounaant aroma and -practically


no rag (oegasse).


Fourthj-The tree should be healthy and vigorous. It should

which
oe remembered that a tree/exhausts its energy in producing a large


crop of fruit annually-






-26


cannot make the same amount' of growth aS=- sister tree which


produces a crop biennially or only occasionally. Hence has arisen


the erroneous belief that the most vigorous mudas in the nursery


grow to oe the ess productive a6.


Fifth,-The size of the fruit should oe such as will con-


form to the market it is destined to supply. The lorth American


market prefers fruits that range in size between 7 i/ to 8 cms


in diameter (176, i5, and 126 sizes). The -uropean markets are


inclined to pay better prices and accept a larger prece!tage of the


smaller fruits,- the Lngiish and Uerman markets, for example, often


pay the best prices for fruits that run only 6 i/< cms. in diameter


(226 size) or even smaller. -n Brasil oranges that range in size


between 8 1/2 to 10 7/10 cms in diameter (11i-46 sizes) or larger


are admired as curiosities but not much sought after commercially.


If therefore we choose for the standard a fruit running from


7 14/100 to 8 cms (126, 150, 176 and 2.J, sizes) we will nd err


very greatly. L u... g toazcr Laonbthatare espe ;jl_ y ....orcble


During seasons that are especially favorable to the


development of the fruit, a greater percentage of larger sizes


will be produced than during other seasons when the trees are over


loaded, or when the weather conditions are unfavorable. Usually


the sizes of which a smaller percentage of fruit is produced,


obtain the higher price L 4A.S4-





27

Andrade on page 89 of "Citricultura" advocates that buds

of purifies strains testirpes) be imported from "orth America,

where much smmh has been accomplished in the last thirty years, to

reduce the tendency of a variety to produce commercially unpro-

fitable fruit and also to eliminate strains of low productivity,-

This would save us much time and expensive breeding work.

Bud Woof.


Time of Year for Uutting Bud Wood. The best time of the

year for cutting budwood at Vigosa, and undoubtedly thruout a large

part of Minas, is during June and July. At the beginning of August

the branches are already beginning to be filled with sap and con-

sequently less desriable than during June, provided the trees have

not been cultivated, and are in a dormant condition. The earlier

date gives sufficient time for the curing process of the buds after


they are packed.

Size of the Estacas. Small twigs about a centimeter in


diameter should be chosen, preferably those that are growing in a


part of the tree where there is an abundance of fruit. Water sprouts


(ladrores) or other vigorously growing branches should not be
chosen.

Wood that is flly ripe and with bark entirely green is the

most desirable. The end of the last growth is likely to be quite

angular and consequently a little more difficult to manipulate than
buds on rounded twi6s, but these buds can be cut in such a way ax

to prove fully as suCcessful as those on the round wood. Twigs that

are no larger in diameter than a small lead pencil are good except-
ing that they are more difficult to manipulate.





-28-


Sticks of fifteen to thirty centimeters in length will be


found Iay convenient si 1-,in+gt. Sticks less than fifteen


centimeters in length contain so few buds that the operator wastes


a great deal of time in securing fresh bud sticks.


reserving Bud Stifks.

Y Well matured budwQad cut during the dormant season whether.


in winter or summer, can be preserved for months, at Vicosa, f


kept undpe proper conditions. In 1928 we cut budwood at the Escola :


in July, and used the buds in December. In.Florida 4 received bud-


wood from Mesopotamia, and used it successfully. As a matter of fact, -


budwood #ept madin properly gives better results two to four weeks


after it is cut than that freshly taken from the tree.


When budwood has been properly packed and preserved, small


callouses will be noticeable in from two to three weeks, at the ends :


of the stick. These callouses increase in size with the time the


budwood is preserved. In six to ten weeks they will be very large,


and if one desires to do so, the "estacass-" Ad-i-e rnsiy ret4 in


an lestufa". If no callouses form, it shows that the budwood has


been kept too dry and that growth functions are not at their best. .


If kept too wet it will decay.


The first consideration in keeping budwood is to see tht


it has constantly sufficient moisture. The second is that it has


sufficient air to continue its life functions. The third is that the '.1
4..i




S -


29


material in which it is preserved mau=hsase considerable antiseptic


qualities. 't must be kept at as low a temperature as possible


under natural conditions in ainas.


b'PACKING MATERIAL. The ideal material


budwood is sphagnum moss. Unfortunately this is difficult to obtain


in Minas. At the "scola we have experimented with several different


materials and #Ad rotten begasse, commonly called terrigo, when


free from clay and sang, a good substitute for sphagnum. Fibrous


peat, which can be obtained in some region of 9inas, also has


some Aseptic qmafmmaimm properties and when only humid is suffi-


ciently porous to let in the air necessary.


. *





-if-

moss. Unfortunate t s is difficult tAobtain in Ias. At

the iscola have experim d with several ferent materials

and found rotten egasse,-'eoEmonly I terigo, when free from

/ n Ptmabi good substitute or spha um To determine when

this contains the right amount of humidity take up a handful

and exert u- ii .uL open the hand, and if

the mass remains without breaking and leaves considerable moisture

on the skin, it is too wet. If on opening the hand, the mass

breaks into many small pieces, it is too dry.

A convenient receptacle in which to keep bddwood is

a small box, having interior-dimentions of about 50 x 5u x 20

cms. By havingwblall cracks a c6. bried between the boards of the
4
top and bottom sufficient air is likely to pass into the terigo

to prevent asphyxiating the buA sticks.

B' HOW T00 PACe. Place a layer ar~ ewt 5 cs deep of bAW

-t .- tL terigo in tht botto- of the- box, then press a layer of the bud

sticks into this, in such a way that the pieces do not touch each

other. If"he pieces touch, there J- left sufficient openinglin

the terrigo for the development of germs of molds and disease

producing fungii, thousands of ihick are always present on all

budwood, and are only waiting for a favorable condition for

development.


On top of this layer of budstics, Place a layer of







terigo, sufficient to cover all the badstiksa, fit the terigo

with the hands Oa small board. Place on this another layer of

budsticks and so on until the box is filled.

On top of the last layer of budwood there should ba

Wis a layer of terigo about 5 ems. deep. In filling the box

the budiod should be firmed well with the hand to exclude all air

spaces. A top should be nailed on the box, m- -Ahis wi_ prevent

the top layer of terigo from drying out.

It is very important to mark on the side or end of the
i~th a carpenters pencil and date of cutting.
box the uauk kind of buds it containsVas well as the number.

Thislcan easily be obtained by noting the approximate number of

buds suitable for use contained on an average stick and then multi-

plying by the number of sticks packed in the box. Lhis data will

avoid confusion and uncertainty later when the buds are to be used.

Finally, after the box has been entirely prepared, and

ready for storage, we found that the clay floor of an abrigo was
2-
abaket the best. location, selecting the coolest part of l=ebtabto.o

The boxes were covered with terigo, thus avoiding excessive drying

out, and yet giving sufficient opportunity for entrance of air and

the escape of carbon dioxide. If the buds are to be kept two or

three months, it may be necessary to sprinkle.the terigo with which

the boxes are covered in order to prevent drying outt.c *- .





-' ;~ ~ "-. -;i^ f~




1 wf l S* S V *


32


Budding

Budding is a very simple operation to thos3 who are


accustomes to do the work, and yet there are some very


intelligent people whD made about a hunJreJ p:rc-ent fail-


ures of their attempts, while other people, eben beginners,


not any more intelligent will have a hundred percent success.


The intelligent young Mineirans shown in Fig.. 7, 10 and 11


were astonished at the vase with which buds took in good


nursery stock. They had regarded bidding as a sort of


mystic art, enshrounded in many secrecies.


.. -.. ~i ....:..;. .; .;r.;...~;.~i r.-.


r
. ......:~~




. -AI


. --,
'4,


r Budding


Budding is a ve simple operation to those who are accus-


tomed to do e work and yet their are some y intelligent people


who make about hundred rceet fail res their attempts, while


other p ple not any more tligent ha a hundred percent


access.


This point was well illustrated by a group of twedve stu-


dents from the Vigosa @ymnasio. -he entire class received exactly


the same instruction* bud"wood from the same-tree and stock~ t
m A

Lmjo losa under exactly the same conditions. The work was done fur,-E


ing the same two hours, so there would seem to be E reason for


a j difference in the results obtained- Yet two of the f! scored


100 percent success, and coincidentally two scored a hundred per-


cent failure. The other eight had4(varying degrees of oeues between


these two extremes.


SIZE OF STOCK. In six months after planting into the


nursery, the stock should be sufficiently large to receive the bud,


and budding should proceed just as soon thereafter as conditions


permit. The sooner the stock is budded after it has reached the


proper size, the better. Smaller mudas are more quickly budded than


lirge ones, and much less growth l be sacrificed when the top is


cut off. .
*Es *14414
--e-p Zfca-*


* ,r 1


Stock that isxa year old be ye it reaches proper b a. ,:.



,' "4. .- ."-.: .
_; ,.-.*i \ ..^---\ ^ .._, .:* .-;. ., ,' '-'.-. ... ... .. ** __.'** : ".. "* ^ .s.-. S._ -?' 4 >




1-U,

-33-
', 'et.ed is economically worthless and should be destroyed. A muda


once stunted ma hamm Hmmimp is never thereafter as vigorous and i

satisfactory as it would have been if it had made eat4i 1Freey

growth. For this reason experienced orchardists,zE in those coun-

tries where citrus growing is an industry, refuse to accept mudas

unless the age of the stock, as well as that of the scion are guarv-


anteed.


SELECTING BUDDERS. Generally:'speaking, young men be/-


Zween the ages of eighteen and twenty four years, who have had no


previous-experience in budding, learn the proper methods most

C.L high JA
quickly and have lkgzm~rer degree of success A The nurserymen


will have to exercise a cpnsidFabit amount of executive acumen in


order to select the most successful ones, as .narble. = -.


tage of those tried will be found to succeed 4ery poorly. Generally

speaking those-intelligent young men who have a special'geito for

farm work are the ~st successful.


WRAPPING MATERIAL. Any wrapping material that will press


the bark firmly over the bud will be founduseful. Budding tape


which is made of strips of waxed cloth, a centimeter or a little

tS in width and t a long, is a material that will give


the largest percentage of buds to take. The cost of the waxed tape


and the lownesss with which it can be used, makes it more expensive


per bud than other materials. In ~eaksBa d T it is

the most satisfactory material. ---
:.'* ''. "' .. .. .-...' :.-.. . '. ^ .i ./ l: :. d : *







533 1/2

How to Make Waxed Tape. Make the gum of the

following proportions, resin 4 kilos, beeswax 2 kilos, tallow 1 kilo


Break the resin into small pieces, cut the beeswax and into small


pieces, and place the tallos on top. Use an iron kettle over a


very slow fire. When all is melted and well mixed it is ready to


be applied to the cloth. Thin bleached muslin is the best fabric


to use. Tear the cloth into strips about $/ fifteen to twenty


centimeters broad and wind tightly around a atick about one centi-


meter square until the roll if four or five centimeters in diameter.


Immerse it in the melbed wax for two hours, when it will be thoroly


saturated. Remove and let cool. If the wax is allowed to become


too hot while the cloth is immersed the fabric will be greatly


weakened. It may be necessary to remove the fire from under the pot,


but the wax must be kept constantly melted. (k).

iv). See Hume, H. H. The -ultivation of -itrus Fruits, p. 176 (1926)
kxmaznxxu

A more cumbrous way is to tear the cloth into strips


15 to 20 centimeters broad, pass it through the wax and hang up to


cool. When cool wrap into a roll 4 or 5 ens. in diameter.


Another way that is useful when only a small quantity of


waxed tape is needed is to spread the fabric tightly over a table


top and apply to it the hot wax by .-means of a paint brush. After


ths Wax has cooled the fabric may be torn in strips of convenient


bredth and rolled up.
'.xjx. Kxl In employing the tape, a strip a cm pa cm and a half
.... broad is torn from the roll, ard wrapped tightly around the bud.
"*' ..,:,_ _,. :(,".-' ': .: .:i ., _








ifi.a is *ethrw material that is used to a very large


extent in budding work, and is the best text to waxed t for


securing a large percentage of takes. Baffa is applied in the same


way as described for the cotton wrapping twine.


Ordinary white cotton wrapping twine skwe as may be readily


obtained from grocery stores is the most largely used and is the most


economical material, in humid regions such as Minas.


In 1927 amxzr a class of ten students was given raffia


with which to wrap the buds and the next day another class of


twelve was given twine for the same purpose. The final results were


mrmmihamwmmhmua only three percent in favor oa the raffia,- a dif-


ference smaller than occurs when two sections of the same ckiss


use the same wrapping material.

a
CLEANING UP THE STOCK (Fazendo $ toilette) Shortly before


beginning the budding the stock should be cleaned up tk by removing


all leaves and branches up to at least ten cms. above there the bud


is to be inserted. This is especially important where a great


many side 1r of the stock have developed as a $result of


faulty transplanted or lack of good cultivation. The younger


branches can easily be removed by hand but the larger ones must


be ctt off with a knife or shears.


,1 *
i:J












owfj
I"
5
I-<'


.* i.'l' "' ` r`''': ~~I '''~'' '' r;
*


J.1


- I







METH3D OF BUDDING; More than 99 % of the wDrk done in


nurseries today is by the shield mst3("T") method. It can


be so economically employed and so rapidly executed that it


has superceded all other methods.


The operator seats himself on the ground, along side


the row, with his legs stretched out and his back in thz


direction in which he is to progress. He places his left arm


over the stock that is to oe budded and chooses a smooth place


at the height indicated by the nurseryman,-usually about twenty


cL-timeters from the ground. First a longitudinal cut is made,


some two or three centimeters long, then a cross cut near the

upper end of the longitudinal one. In other words, "T" is
upper
cut in the oark, which is then opened and the bud slipped in.

Figs 1, 8 and 9 illustrate the proper position. To do. the work
few
efficiently, it is necessary to make just as mmma motions as

possible. The average budder makes about twice as many as are

necessary, thereby reducing his efficiency to about 33 'percent.

After the hands and eyes are trained to .io the wjrk accurately

then they can be trained to do it speedily.

During rainy weather, whom much moisture is resent,

it is advantageous to make the cross cut near the oottom of

the longitudinal cut (an inverted "T") and push the bud upward,

beginning the wrapping at the bottom and wrapping toward the

top. The cross cut being at the bottom, to some extent prevents

moisture from an tiring the wound made in budding.
5u c'h
At budding time the stock should oe in/vigorous growth

that it is necessary to lift the cark with the knife, sim-

ply making the cross :ut in a s-lnting way and twisting the

knife blade outward, to lif te. two flaps of the bark


, sufficiently





-36-


for the entrance of the bud, which is then inserted and pushed in.


As it enters it easily separates the bark from the cambium and


remains neatly in place.


CUTTING THE BUD. The budstick is held firmly in the


left hand, with the bottom part tapermost, for the "T" method.


The knife is then placed a centimeter abbve the highmt bud and


pressed into the budstick in such a manner thatonly a small


amount of wood is cut from the budstick. (The wood on the bud is


an impediment to its taking). The knife is then allowed to pass


downward and come out of the budstick about.a centimeter below


the eye. Without removing the bud from the knifeblade, it is at


once inserted and pushed into its pooper position with the knife
blade.

In the case of the inverted "T" ct, the budstick is held in


the same positioning which it grew on the tre., in order that the


bud when inserted may grow in its natural position. Bu.s inserted


unside down will take equally well but after they have begun to


grow are much more likely to break off from the stock.


U INSERTING THE BUD. It is of the highest importance that


SV '-. d be cut and placed in its permanent position as speedily as


.: .. -* .3 ,'":,.' i nsert between fhfmmmmmffnrm pfmm


per J -- -
.... .. : .... M.. .... .a ...


per hour will have a larg- -- -' .





-36-


for the entrance of the bud, which is then inserted and pushed in.


As it enters it easily separates the bark from the cambium and


remains neatly in place.


CUTTING THE BUD. The budstick is held fArmly in the


left hand, with the bottom part tppermost, for the "T" method.


1he knife is then placed a centimeter abbve the hightt bud and


pressed into the budstick in such a manner thatonly a small


amount of wood is cut from the budstick. (The wood on the bud is


an impediment to its taking). The knife is then allowed to pass


downward and come out of the budstick about.a centimeter below


the eye. Without removing the bud from the knifeblade, it is at


once inserted and pushed into its proper position with the knife
blade.

In the case of the inverted "T" eat, the budstick is held in


the same positioning which it grew on the tre:, in order that the


bud when inserted may grow in its natural position. Buis inserted


unside down will take equally well but after they have begun to


grow are much more likely to break off from the stock.


9) INSERTING THE BUD. It is of the highest importance that


the bud.be cut and placed in its permanent position as speedily as


possible. Expert budders cut and insert between immm-mmdBmmf m

5
10 and 200 buds per hour. One who mmt puts in fewer than 100


per hour will have a large percentage of fa ilures.
2.**









u~nd n
.5he6Ve illbe dvote~to
n~itg of thef i t d1





-37-

Old man who learn to bud and some younger ones, for that


matter, insist on taking the bud in their fingers after it has


been cut from the stick thereby carrying dirt and germs that are


adhering to the fingers to its cut surface and introducing them int


the cut. bpores of Colletotrichum Gloeosporoides are e l-m't


omnipresent in citrus groves. Mal-di-gomma and gummosis germs are


also frequently present. It is needless to say that then these


germs, as well as others, and dirt, are inserted with the bud,


it will fail to take. The person responsible for such failures


always lays the blame myVfea where it does not belong.



SHOW TO USE TWINE. Twine should be cut into short


lengths, ten to twenty centimeters, in accordance with the


diameter of the stock to be budded. By tieing fifty of these


in a bundle, they may





r














V42


be attached to the shirt of the budded or wrapper in shch a way that

one may be easily eeat d when needed.

Immediately after the btd is inserted, it must be wrapped.

If the "T" Itt is used, wrapping begins from above and proceeds

downward, in such a way that the twine presses on the bud and

secures it firmly against the cambium layer of the stock. It is

usually best to have not less than two wrapS of the twine ageaat

the 4 of the bud, one wrap immediately over the eye and proceed-

ing with the wrapping downward, to as far as the bud extends.

A very efficientI xazzxs rapid and satisfactory method of

wrapping is as follows: 1). With the right hand pull a string from 1.

the bundle. 2). At the cross cut of the "T", place one end of the

string parallel with the stock, running in the direction of the eye

of the bud. 3). Secure 6bout one centimeter of the string with td

fft.t b. 4). Wrap the string twice around the stock above the eye

of the bud and over the string secured by the left 4"mb drwaing it

tightly so as to secure the end of the 4a 5). Continue to wrap

until the string is nearly used up. 6). Pass the end of the string

under one of the last wraps and draw tight, then repeat the same.

By this means both ends of the string will be tightly held in place

by means of the-wraps and no knot is made. By passing one of the

wraps directly over the eye of the bud it will be secured in direct


contact with the cambium of the stock, giving it a good chance of

being nourished.


-38-


riY~\P~,!





-39-


COOPERATIVE BUDDING. In Florida it is the common practise


among nurserymen to have the man who inserts the buds followed imme-


diately by an assistant who wraps them. This is a more speedy method


than for the same man to insert .nd wrap. Two men can insert and


wrap 1R to 2=. buds in a day of eight hours; whereas 600 to 700
/yoo / oo

buds constitute a good day's work for one man alone.


Expert budders grasp half a dozen or more budsticks in the


left hand, use all of the buds from one stick after another and then


secure a new supply. In this wat they avoid wasting time securing a


new stick each time one is exhausted.


RULL OUT INFERIOR STOCK. At the time of budding, a few


or many of the mudas will be found to be too small and dwarfed to


receive the bud. This may be the result of improper selection from


the seedbed, which is very likely to occur with inexperienced nur-


serymen or it may be the result of improper planting or care in the


nursery. From whatever cause, all dwarfed cavallos should be pulled


out by the man doing the budding, thus at once relieving the nursery


of an expensive impediment.


THE BUDDING KNIFE. The best and most practicable budding


knife for the citrus nursery is one that is less than 18 cms in


length, single bladed, the blade thin, but broad, with the back of


the blade straight out to the point. The steel in the blade should

be of the finest quality and very ard. Knives with a curved
be of the finest quality af and very hard. Knives with a curved




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