The Citrus Export Porblem, By P. H. Rolfs and C. Rolfs. 1932

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The Citrus Export Porblem, By P. H. Rolfs and C. Rolfs. 1932
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Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
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Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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3BRAZILIAN fJUSINESS November, 1932


THE CITRUS EXPORT PROBLEM

By P. H. Rolfs (1) and C. Rolfe (2)


Brazil has just closed another year of citrus exporta-
tion. It is therefore, an opportune time to take stock.
There is probably, no other country that offers equal
opportunities for developing so safe and sound a citrus
business. The great bulk of citrus fruit is produced
north of the Equator and ripens at the opposite time of
the year from that in which citrus ripens in Brazil. Our
earliest varieties mature when the European market is
bare of citrus and only a small .amount of deciduous
fruits will be found. Beginning with May and continu-
ing until October, no extensive competition will be en-
countered: Some eight years ago, the Minister of Agri-
culture, Dr. Miguel Calmon, sent a cargo of about 200
boxes of oranges to New York. We are told that this
was the first shipment of standardized fruit exported in
standard containers. Dr. Felisberto Camargo, 'who had
studied two years in Florida, made up and accompanied
the trial shipment. This experiment was so successful
that steps were taken immediately to establish a packing-
house and provide for crates.
Under the able- a.nd competent direction of Dr.
Arthur Torres Filho, the national exportation has steadily
grown from 162,087 boxes in 1926 to the enormous volu-
me of 2,088,893 boxes in 1931. Despite this wonderful.
progress, Brazil has exported thousands of boxes that
have netted a deficit. The writers are here pointing out
some of the fundamental causes and indicating the ob-
vious remedies.
Magnificent ocean liners with refrigeration plants
are making all sorts of concessions to secure freight to
transport. The logic of this situation has been perceiv-
ed by scores, if not hundreds of people. A large number
of packinghouses, some of which are the last word in
perfection, have been established. The Federal Gov-
ernment has a large corps of earnest and zealous inspec-
tors; The boxes employed are of the finest for such
purpose. The labels and wrappers used are superb.
In short, the cases as seen at the docks look as if they
were prepared "for royalty."
And yet, according to some of the daily papers of
Rio, some of these cases, when opened in Europe, present
"10% to 30% decayed fruit." Some of the crates were
so loosely packed that the hand could be slipped in be-
tween the cover and the fruit. Some of them contained
fruits of different sizes. The grade of the fruit was
sometimes different from that indicated by the brand.
"It is sufficient to say that while the United States oran-
ges are quoted florins 8.00 to 9.50 per case, ours are sold
for only 3.00 to 6.50 florins." (From an Editorial in Minas
.Geraes.)
Citrus, up to the present, has been grown in Brazil
as a "luxury" crop. The total receipts from abroad
would'not leave a sufficient balance to pay for the labor
expended and interest on the capital employed., Two
splendid packinghouses functioned briefly some years


ago and "went into the hands of the receiver." These
were the last word in perfection. Scores of other incid-
ents might be cited to show that there is something
radically wrong. A bill of lading on a cargo of oranges
is probably not a favorite collateral at the bank. Citrus
growing is merely an "avocation" and not a vocation.
In 1931 it.took over eight million trees to furnish two
million and eighty-eight thousand boxes for export.
Those readers who consider our observations hyper-
critical should read page 63 of "A Fruticultura no Brasil"
published by the Ministerio de Agricultura in 1932.
WHAT THEN IS WRONG? That is the question we are
attempting to answer, in part, in this brief article.
The packinghouse.In a sister state was constructed
and equipped as the result of high tension emotion.
Local jealousy would not let reason prevail. Some of
the most violent critics knew so little about preparing
oranges for export that they could not have functioned
in any one of a dozen places. Their criticisms, however,
could arid did, greatly interfere with the economic opera-
tion of the packinghouse. No matter, it functioned this
year and the industry has taken one step forward.
The senior writer has had a third of a century of
experience in North America and more than a decade in
Brazil, in promulgating scientific knowledge among
practical people. The writers are laboring under po
delusions as to the inertia that has to be overcome.
The fundamental. diffictilty is purely 'educational' and'
emphatically not racial nor intellectual, as is frequently
stated by some educated Brazilians. It requires a high
degree of first-hand practical knowledge; book knowledge
will not suffice to put into the. packinghouse a crate
of "No. 1 Brights." A considerable number of our citrus
growers have already initiated fundamental reforms;
by improving the soil; by adopting proper sanitary meas-
ures in their orchards; and by proper picking and
hauling.
THE CITRUS FRUIT BUYERS
There are among the citrus exporters a considerable
number who buy the fruit on the trees and prepare it fqr,
export. Their enterprise should be lauded. Unfortu-.
nately among this class of exporters will be found some,
who are parasites on theindustry, whose primary interest'
is. to buy the best fruit possible for the least- possible.
money., They- haye practically no money invested. i-
the industry., They care only for a "quick turnover."'
These "pirates" are the most vocal in the industry and;
protest against. any and all regulations. Before. one'of;
them goes into the field to buy, he spreads gloom arnd'
pessimism ahead of him so that he can buy at the lowest
figure. In this class is found the. "green frui'ter" who
picks, before maturity, colors the fruit- artificially; if need
be, and ships it before: it is palatable or nutritious. He.


:(1) Agriculture Technical Ad'viser, since 1929 to. the 'State Government of Minas Geraes. In. 1921 organ.ie
and has since conducted, the State Agriculture College.,.
(2) Assistant to the senior author since 1921.








SBRAZILIAN BUSINESS November, 1932.

cares little how greatly he damages the future prices or
how greatly he prevents consumption-of the mdst deli-
cious and healthful fruit. Before the' courts of justice
he is represented by the most astute lawyers purchasable.
Before the government he employs the ablest and most
persistent lobbyists to prevent the passage of measures
that would interfere with the acquisition of "quick and
easy money..~
The picture we have drawn here is true to life but it
was not taken from Brazil, we affirm most positively.
Brazil is simply taking her first steps toward a citrus
export industry. Some shipments have returned hand-
some profits on the investment for those particular ship-
ments, showing indisputably that the project is funda-
mentally sound.

OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

On August 3rd the writers were privileged to visit
seven packinghouses in the Federal District, and to ride
many kilometers among the orange groves, presumably
of average, or better than average, quality. The recom-
mendations which follow are based partly on observa-
tions made on that day and partially on previous knowl-
"edge.
We do not assume for a moment that every citrus
producer is in a position to put into practise all of the
recommendations we are about to make. Some of them
he can use to advantage. Each one must know his own
situation and adjust himself to it. He must have helpers
and laborers that he can teach and who will faithfully
follow his demonstration (verbal instructions are not
sufficient.)
PESTS AND DISEASES. To produce export fruit re-
quires an all year vigilance--) at the blooming time and
immediately following, the trees should be "fiscalized"
for thrips and anthracnose (lots of thrips marked fruit
was exported this year.) 2) When the fruit is nearly
half grown, vigilance for rust-mite migration to the fruit
is necessary. 3) Later observation for migration tof
scale insects and rust-mites to the fruit should be made.
4) Observation should be made about eight weeks be-


fore maturity for stem-end-rot and scale insects. (For
treatment, see Bitancourt, A., "As Manchas e Alteracqes
das Laranias, Como Evital-as." S9o Paulo, 1932, manu-
script.) (See Photograph No. 1, Spraying.)
SOIL CONDITION. -During the whole day's trip in
the citrus region in the Federal District, we did not see
a grove whose soil was ih first-class cultural condilbn'"
In fact, in nearly all, the soil was in so unfavorable con-
dition ihfat the trees could not produce export fruit.
No matter how much spraying, fertilizing or what vari-
ety is planted, if the soil ks not properly treated, no profit
can be realized. For the most part, these groves could
not produce a profit on the investment, on account of
lack of proper soil treatment. A few might return a
"labor cost."
TREE SPACING. All orchards we passed had from
two to four times the number of trees that could possib-
ly produce export fruit. A vigorous three-year-old tree
w-ll debilitate a citrus nursery as far as five meters
away. (See page 27, "Propagaqao de Citrus no Bras'l,"
by P. H. Rolfs and C. Rolfs). Not a single orchard was
- sufficiently spaced to produce delicious and sightly fruit.
The leaves are both the respiratory and digestive system
of a citrus -tree. Without sunlight a leaf cannot func-
tion properly.
The fibrous roots absorb the crude material from the
soil. The rootlets and larger roots serve as conducting
channels for this crude material.,Under favorable soil
conditions an eight-year-old tree will have extended its
root system to such an extent that over half of the feed
roots are beyond the reach of the limbs. (The general
belief that the root system of an orange extends only
as far as the branches reach is a fable, founded on mis-
information.)
S PRUNING AND PAINTING. There was a noticeably
large number of trees that had been heavily pruned and
the trunk as well as the larger limbs painted. That is a
gesture in the right direction, if gves space for cultiva-
tion and for spraying. It also reduces the top sufficient-
ly to permit the remaining leaves to secure light for bet-
ter functioning.
PICKING THE FRUIT. Only one field crew was


(Photograph No. 1)

An economic spraying out-
fit consists of three men,
the leader who is also the
engineer and two hose men.
The spraying solution
should be supplied as a
cloudy mist. This requires
about three atmospheres
pressure. This grove was
spaced 30 by 40 feet
(9X9 *ms.)
(Dahlgren, Florida)










visited. Two men and a boy were noted throwing the
fruit into a single basket, often tossing it for a distance
of two meters. Most of the fruit was twisted from the
tree. This is probably the most primitive and vicious
method known since it provides a cavity for the lodgment
and retention of rot germs during and after washing.
The picking crew appeared to be without expert super-
vision. Five pickers were gathering from one small
tree, where only one picker per tree should have been
permitted, and each have had his individual field basket
or better still, a field box. As there was no supervision
over the hauling of the fruit, some of the field boxes
were over-filled, resulting in the squeezing of the fruit
in transit.
THE PACKINGHOUSE. At only one packinghouse
was fruit seen that would run more than 10% No. 1
Bright (See Hume "The Cultivation of Citrus Fruit,"
page 395.) In all of the packinghouses the fruit arriv-
S ing was of exceedingly variable' quality and very irregu-
lar as to size, showing that the orchards had not been
planted for export purposes. Squeezed fruit was
common. "Twisted" fruits predominated. Fruits
showing stem-end-rot circles, thrips marks, scale in-
sects and black incrustrations (Myriangium duriaei)
were frequently coming in, the latter two showing a
want of treatment for scale insects. In three places the
fruit was being wrapped while still moist at the calyx.
Water was used too sparingly everywhere. In one
packinghouse the brushes were loaded with scale insects
and other dirt, makilag it certain that every abrasion
and twisted stem hole would be inoculated with spores.
(See Photograph No. 2)


EDUCATING THE WORKMAN
To maintain a profitable citrus export, it is neces-
sary to have skilled and experienced supervision in the
picking; in the hauling; and in the packing; as well as
in the grove. Fine packinghouses are a great conveni-
ence, but do not preserve infected fruit, from decay
nor remove melanose and thrips marks. The ultimate


BRAZILIAN BUSINESS November, 132

consumer is guided first and foremost by the appearance
of the fruit and secondarily by its taste and flavor.
Success will finally be achieved. Either one or two
ways may be adopted. The first is through elimina-
tion by the trial and failure method. This is the one
that is now being employed and probably,the only one
that is practicable. Success depends almost entirely
on the attitude of the exporters; if they neglect to do
their part, little will be accomplished.
The Federal Government is proposing to establish
a course of instruction for packinghouse creews (See
"Fructicultura," page 48.) That is excellent! It should
be generously seconded by the exporter. They should
cooperate by delivering to the packinghouse oranges
free from all "manchas e alterawoes". That is, deliver to
the packing house only No. 1 Brights, or better, which
have not been injured in picking and hauling. The.
exporter who employs low priced or careless laborer
predicates his own failure and ruins the reputation of
the delicious Brazilian oranges. Everybody in Brazil
knows that our best fruit is NEC PLUS ULTRA. -The Eu-
ropean consumer will pay an excellent price for excellent
Brazilian oranges. This is shown by the large number
of shipments that have been sold for gbod prices.
The second way and by far the most economical, is
to employ expert technicians for supervising and direct-
ing all of the operations from the production of the fruit
to the nailing down of the tops of the crates. Such a
procedure is quite impracticable for a state or federal
government, especially at present, when so many nati-
onals are out of employment.
We have, however, a suggestion that will make this





(Photograph No. 2)

Grapefruit being thorough-
Sly rinsed before being pass-
ed to the dryer, and after it
has been thoroughly scrub-
bed.. The water is under
about. two atmospheres'
pressure. Close observa-
tion reveals that there are
more jets of water, than
fruit (Dahl.gren, Florida.)








second method a practical success, that is, for the priv-
.ate exporter himself to adopt this method. The ideal
course is for the owner to plant the grove to standard
varieties with the view of producing export crops.- The
second best plan is to rejuvenate an old grove.- (A bulle-
tin by the writers, on this subject, is now in press, and
may be obtained by application to the Director de Esta-
tistica, Secretaria de Agricultura, Bello Horizonte, Minas








BRAZILIAN BUSINESS November, 1932


Geraes.) The third and most speedily productive me
thod is to prepare the trees now for next year's export
This is easily and simply accomplished. First
Employ a person who has first-hand knowledge of grove
sanitation. To produce a profitable export crop, propel
measures must be taken nearly a year in advance. (e.g
Thrips leave marks on the fruit about the time the petals
are being shed.) Second: Employ a competent person
to direct and conduct the picking operations. Third:
Employ a competent person to organize and conduct the
packinghouse operations. Foul h: Welcome and coope-
rate with the government fiscal agents.
After t(e fruit is nailed in the crate, there are still
plenty of opportunities for failure, but over ninety per
cent of the disasters this year were due to mistakes made
before the fruit left the packinghouses. Human nature
is much the same whether in Florida, in California or in
the Federal Dis-rict. When such a failure occurs, every-
body vocal has a favorite scape-goat-the packinghouse
-the transportation companies-the European mer-
chants-almost everything and everybody excepting the
exporters, who were the real culprits. The imprevident
exporter will gradually eliminate himself but at a dread-
ful cost to the industry and a great loss of prestige to the
fair name of the country.
Florida and California had to spend millions of
dollars and fifty years of time in self-education to pro-
duce and transport oranges in the present stage of per-
fection. Their successive steps were about as follows:
1) Production of a perfect fruit (grove sanitation);
2) Rigid selection as to quality (every doubtful fruit is
considered a cull); 3) Avoiding all injury, even though
invisible, in picking and packing; 4) Perfecting trans-
portation.
The development of a citrus industry in Brazil is
attacking the problem from a 'different standpoint.
1) The transportation is practically unlimited and as
perfect as science can make it; 2) Packinghouses are of
the most modern type; 3) Sales agencies in Europe
already well organized: 4) Packinghouse personnel in-
experienced; 7) Grove sanitation almost non-existent;
8) Standardization in its incipiency.
CONCLUSIONS
I. The exporter who buys the fruit on the trees
and makes his money by "quick turnover" is.the great-
est handicap to the development of a sound citrus in-
dustry. Among this class of exporters will be found
those who have no investment in the industry proper.
They are the fruit gamblers, among them unscrupulous
persons who ship green fruil, absolutely inedible; mis-
brand fruit; and 'slack pack." Here'as in other citrus
countries it requires an interminable struggle for the
industry to curb their greed.
II. So far as the government, whether federal,
state or cooperatives is concerned, the line of develop-
ment is clearly marked. The progress from year to year
will be slow but appreciable. Private enterprise will
far out-distance it. The government has a large number
of people who will have to be educated. Nearly all of
these will learn oruy by the expensive "trial and failure"
method. (Unless they are very different from Florida
or California citrus growers).
It is now almost a decade since the first consignment
of citrus fruit of standard quality and pack was exported
from Brazil in competition with North American fruit.
That small shipment demonstrated the practicability


MEMORANDUM
: ncerning Federal Decree No 22,033 of October 29. 1932
S providing for an 8-Hour Law for business
houses

Se law applies to employees of commercial estab-
lishme and commercial offices and fixes an eight hour
day or rty-eight hours per week equivalent to six
working ys and one obligatory day of rest (Art. I).
The da v work may be increased to ten hours pro-
vided the w kly limit of forty-eight hours is not ex-
ceeded (Art.
The proviso s of the decree do not apply to those in
charge of adminiration, management, supervision, nor
to travellers, repr entatives, or partners, nor to sales-
men, purchasers an collectors when doing outside work.
Certain classes of bu ess, such as theatres, newspapers,
etc., are excepted (Ar 6.)
A two hour interv for rest and lunch is required
but this time is not coun d in the eight hours mention-
ed (Art. 8.)
The normal weekly bas of forty-eight hours may
be increased to sixty hours paying additional com-
pensation. (Art. 10).
The exceptions permitted hb the Regulations of a-
permanent character must be appro d by the authorities
(Art. 16.)
Committees appointed by the e players and em-
ployees will supervise the administer ion of the law
(Art. 17) and the method of appointme of these com-
mittees and their powers is set forth in t Regulations.
A fine of Rs. 100$000 to Rs. 1:000$0 will be im-
posed upon employers who violate the law or ing undue
pressure on employees to obtain their cons t for the
exceptions permitted (Art. 31.)
Employers must pdst a notice showing the urs of
wdrk and keep regular books in accordance wi the:
Regulations (Art. 32.)
Reduction of working hours cannot be used aa
reason for reduction of salary (Art. 44.),


of the enterprise. The progress realized has been very
great and commendable.
The government is severely handicapped since
"emotions" will not permit the employment of experienc-'
ed persons for the work of supervision, and for training;
the native personnel. The private individual or com-
pany is not so handicapped.
SII. So far as the private individual is concerned,
the road to success is clear and easy. By following a
well-defined course of action he can produceeand ship
the fruit that will crowd out all competitors. In a single
year he can so establish his brand on the market that all
crates bearing it will be accepted at a premium.
Since "experience is a dear master," the private
individual will employ the experienced personnel and
avoid paying the "high 'tuition" that his competitors
are paying. In the citrus industry, at least, the cheapest
experts are the most costly.




Grapefruit being thoroly rinsed before

being passed to the dryer, and after it has been
thoroly scrubbed. The water us under about two
atmospheres pressure. Close observation reveals X)4
that there are more jets of water than fruits.
(AD40^^. PCI-4..





An- economic spraying out-fit consists of thred
men. The leader who is also the engineer and two
hose men. The spraying solution ji//A should be
supplied as a cloudy mist. This requires about three
atmospheres pressure. This grove iwas spaced SO by
30 feet (9 x 9 ms.). ( 10o. F C .)







mf CITauS fXPOIIT PaOBL5I
by
P. Haolts (1) and C.Bolfa (2)
Brasil has just closed another year of citrus exportation.
It is, therefore, an opportune time to take stochAWwea .s probably
no other Ai that offers equal opportunities for developing so
safe and sound a citrus business. the great bulk of citrus fruit is
produced notth of the Squator and ripens at the opposite time of
the year from that in whid citrus ripens in Brasil. Our earliest
varieties mature when the European market is bare of citrus and only
a small amount of deciduous fruits will be found. Beginning with
Kay and continuing until October, no extensive competition will be
encountered. BoSe eight years ago, the Minister of Agricultura,
Dr. Miguel Catson sent a cargo of about 200 boxes of oranges to
New York. We are told that this was the first shipment of standar-
dised fruit exported in standard containers. Dr. Felisberto Camargop
who had studied tw years in Florida, made up and accompanied the
trial shipaanto This experiment was o successful that steps were
taken immediately to establish a packinghoseantd provide. for crates.
Under the able and competent direction of Dr. Arthur
Torres Filbo, the national exportation has steadily grow from
168,087 boxes in 1926 to the enormous volume of 2,088,893 boxes
in 19a1. Despite this wonderful progress, Brasil has exported
thousands of boxes that have netted a deficit. The writers are
here pointing out some of the fundamental causes and indioatink
the obvious remedies.
Magnificent ocean liners with refrigeration plants are
making all sorts of concessions, to secure freight to transport. The
logic of this situation has been perceived by scores, if not hundreds


L). Consultor Teomhnio dseAgricultura do Betado de in as-Gerails
since vOi8E.In 1921 was called from Florida (A.IU..A.), by the
State of Minas-Gerals, to organize and conduce her College of
Aglc alture.
8). Assistant of the senior author since 1921.





-0..


of people. A large number of packinghouses, some of which are the
last word in perfection, have been established. The Federal Govern-
ment has a large corps of earnest and zealous inspectors. The boxes
employed are of the finest for such purposes* The labels and wrappers
used are superb. In short, the cases as seen at the dosks look as
Sif they were prepared *for royalty*,
And yet, according to some of the daily papers of Rio, some
of these cases, when opened in Europe, present 10% to 30 % decayed
fruit.* Some of the crates so loosely packed that the hand a
bef slipped in between the cover and the fruit. Some of them contained
fruits of different sizes. She grade of the fruit was sometimes dif-
ferent from that indicated by the brand. 'Basta dizer que eaquanto
a laranja estadunidense o cotada entire florins 8.00 e G.50, por caixa,
a nossa 6 vendida centre 3.00 e 6.50 florins.* -- < '"
Cit rusa up to the present, has been grown in Brasil a
luxury' crop. The total receipts from abroad would not leave a suf-
ficient balance to pay for the labor expended and interest on the
capital$ employed. Two splendid packinghouses functioned briefly
some years ago and "went into the hands of the receiver#. These
were the last word in perfection. Scores of otherA incidents might
be cited to show that there is something radically wro A bill of
lading on a cargi of oranges is probably not a favorite collateral
at the bank. Citrus growing is merely an avocagtin and note a vocation*
In 1931 it took over eight million trees to furnish twn million and
eightyeight thousand boxes for export.
Those readers who consider our observations hypercritical
should read page 65 of #A Frtticultura na Jurasil', published by the
Ministerio de Agricultura, in 1932.
WHAI THIS iS WRONG I That is the question we are attempt-

ing to answer, in part, in this brief article.
The pac inghouse in a sister state was constructed and

equipped as the result of high tension emotion. Local jealousy would
not let reason prevail. Spme of the most Violent critics knew so
little about preparing oranges wer export that they could not have







functioned in any one of a dozen places. Their criticisms, however,
could and did, greatly interfere with the economic operation of the
packinghouse. No matter, it functioned this year and the industry
has taken one step forward.
The senior writer has had a third of a century of experience
in North America and more than a decade in Brasil, in proamlgating
scientific knowledge among practical people The writers are labor-
ing under no delusions as to the inertia that has to be overcome.
The fundamental difficulty is purely educational and emphatically
not racial nor intellectual, as is frequently states bp some educated
Brasilians. It requires a high degrees of fat hand practical knowl-
edge, book knowledge will not suffice, to put into the packinghouse
a crate of N 1 Brights. A considerable number of our citrus growers
have already initiated fundamental reforms; by improving the soil;
by adopting proper sanitary measures in their orchards% and by proper
picking and hauling.
THr CITRUS FRUIT BVUZBS
There are among the citrus exporters a considerable number
who buy the fruit on the trees and prepare it for export. Their
enterprise should be lauded. Unfortunately among this 5s of expor-
ters will be found some who are parasites on the industry, whose pri-
mary interest is to buy the best fruit possible for the least pos-
sible money. They have practically no money invested in the industry.
They care only for a "quick turnover", These "pirates' are the most
vocal d in the industry abd protest against any and all regulations.
Before one of them goes into the field to buy, he spreads gloom and
pessimia ahead of him so that he can buy at the lowest figures In
this cUkss is found the "green fruiter' who picks before maturity,
colors the fruit artificially if need be, and ships it before it is
palatable or nutritious. He cares little how greatly he damages the
future pri es or how greatly he prevents consumption of thflost
delicious and healthful fruit. Before the courts of Justice he is
represented bp wura the most astute lawyers purchasable. Before the
government he employs the ablest and most persistent 3bbyists to
prevent the passage of measures that would interfere with the aoquisi-
~Lon of %quick and easy money'.







the picture we have dram here is true to life but it was.
not taken from brasil, we affirm ost positively. Brasil is simply
taking her first steps toward a citrus export industry. soee ship-
ments have returned handsome profits on the invesstent for those
particular shipments, showing indisputably that the project is funda-
mentally sound.
OBSERVATIONS AND RECOOMENDATIOGS
On August ard the writers were privileged to visit seven
packinghouses in the federal District, and to ride many kilometers
among the orange groves, presumably of average, or better than average
quality The recommendations which follow are based partly on obser-
vations made on that day and partially on previous knoweldge.
IWe do not assume for a moment that eveiy citrus producer
is in a position to pat into practise all of the recommendations w
are about -to maake. Some of them he can use to advantage. laeh one
mest know his own situation and adjust himself to it. He must have
helpers and laborers that he can teach ahd who wil- faithfully follow
his demonstration (verbal instructions are not sufficient).

PSTBS AND DISEASES. To produce export fruit requires an all
year vigilance. 1). At the blooming tie and immediately following,
the trees should be *fiscalised* for thrips and anthacneose (Lots of
thrips marked fruit was exported this year. 2). When the fruit is
nearly half grown, vigilance for rust-mite migration to the frait is
necessary* 3). Later observation for migration of scale insects and
rust-sites to the fruit should be made. 4). Observation should be
made about eight waeks before maturity for stem-end-rot and scale
insects. (For treatment, see Sitanpsortb A.B As kanchas e Alteragges
das Laranjas, CCom Bvital-as'. *0S Paulo, 1932, manuscript.) (See
Photograph& W9 1, Spraying.)






4-.

SOIL CONDITION. During the who1i days trip in the citrus
region in the Federal District, we did not se. a grove whose soil
was in first class cultural condition. In fact, in.,nearly all, the soil
was in so unfavorable condition that the trees could not produeo
export fruit. No matter how auch spraying, fertilizing or what variety
is planted, if the soil is not properly spnpa treated, no profit
can be realized. For the most part, these groves could ant produce
a profit on the investment, on account of lack of proper soil treat-
aenit4 A few might return a *labor cost**

TREe SPACING. All orchards we passed had from two to four
times the number of trees that could possibly produce export fruit.
A vigorous three year old tree will debilitate a citrus nursery as
far as five meters away. (Bee page 27, *Propagagco de Citrus o.
Brasili y P. H. Rolfs and Rolfa.) Not a single orchard was suffi-
ciently spaced to produce delicious and sightly fruit. The leaves
are both the respiratory and digestive system of a citrus tiee. With-
out sunlight a leaf cannot function properly.
The fibrous roots absorb the crude material from the soil.
The rootlets and larger roots serve as conducting channels for this
crude material. Under favorable soil conditions an eight year old
tree will have extended its root% system to such an extent that over
half of the feed roots are beyond the reach of the limbs. (The general
belief that the root system of an orange tree extrads ohly as far as
the branches reach is a fable,$ founded on misinformation

PRDNING AND PAINTING. There was a noticeably large number
of trees that had been heavily prdned and the trunk as well as the
larger limbs painted. That is a gesture in the right direction, it,
gives space for cultivation and for spraying. It also reduces the p
uffioiently to permit the remaining leaves to 8seere light f *
better functioning.





.6-


PICKING 2TH FRUIT. Only one field crew was visited. Two
aen and a boy were noted throwing the fruit into a single basket,
often tossing it for a distance of two meters. Ibst of the fruit was
twisted from the tree. This is probably the most primitive and vi-
olous method known since it provides a cavity for the loAdgent and
retention of rot germ during and after washing. The picking crew
appeared to be without expert supervision. Five pickers iere gathering
froa one small tree, where only one picker per tree should have been
permitted, and each have had his individual field basket or better
still, a field box* As there was no supervision over the hauling of
the fruit, some of the field boxes were over-filled, resulting in the
squeezing of the fruit in transit.

THS PACKINGHOUSE. At only one packinghouse was fruit seen
that would run more then 10 % NH 1 Bright (See RHue *The Cultivation
of Citrus Fruit', page 595.) In all of the packinghouses the fruit
arriving was of exceed gly variable quality and very irregular as to
size, showing that the orchards had not been planted for export pur-
poses. Squeezed fruit was common. 'wistedu fruits predominated. Fruits
showing ste(-end-rot circles, thrips marks, scale insects and back in-
crustations (Myriangiua duriasi) were frequently coming in. The latter
two showing a want of treatment for scale insects. In three places the
fruit was being wrapped while still moist at the cayx. Water was used
too sparingly everywhere. In one packinghouse the brushes were loaded
with scale insects and other dirt, making it certain that every abra-
sion and twisted stea hole would be inoculated with spores. (See
Photograph ra 2.)

EDUCATING THB WOBKMAN
To maintain a profitable citrus export, it is necessary to
have skilled and experienced supervision in the pickings in the haul-
ingy and in the packing as well as in the grove. Fine packinghouses
are a great convenience, but do not preserve infected fruit from de-
cay nor remove melanose and thrips marks. The ultimate consumer is
Iptded first and foremost by the appearmene of the trait and





-7-


secondarily by its taste and flavor.
Success will finally be achieved. either one or two ways
may be adopted. The first is through elimination by the trial and
failure method. This is the one that is now being employed and pro-
lbably the only one that is practicable. Success depends almost en-
tirely on the attitude of the exporterfif they neglect to do their
part, little will be accomplished.
The Federal Govenament is proposing to establish a course
of instruction for packinghouse crewas(Sea 'FOtticulturay page 48.)
That is excellent I It should be generously seconded by the exporter.
hey should cooperate by delivering to the packinghouse oranges free
from all "lanchas e Alterac9es". that is, deliver to the packinghouse
only sN 1 Brightp,or better, which have not been injured in picking
and hauling. The exporter who employ low priced or careless laborers
predicates his own failure and ruins the reputation of the deli-
cious Brasilian oranges. Everybody in Brasil 4nows that our bes
fruit is ~E PLUS ULTRA. The uaropean consumer will pay an excellent
price for excellent Brasilian orages. This is shown by the large
number of shipments that have been sold for good prices.
the second way and by far the most economical, is to employ
expert technicians for supervising tnd directing all of the opera-
tions from the production of the fruit to the nailing dowm of the
tops of the crates. Such a procedure is quite impracticable for a
state or federal government especially at present, when so many
nationals are out of employment.
We have, however, a suggestion that will make this second
method a practical success, that is, for the ptmvate exporter himself
to adopt this method. the ideal course is for the owner to plant the
grove to standard varieties with the view of producing export crops.
The second best plan is to rejuvenate an old grove. (A bulletin by the
writers, on this subject, is now in press, and may be obtained by
application to the Director de Lstatistica, Secretaria de Agricul-
tura, Belo-Horizonte.) The third and most speedily productive method
is to prepare the trees now for next years export.






This is easily and simply accomplished. First Bmtploy
a person who has MA first hand knowledge of grove sanitation. To
produce a profitable export crop, proper measures must be taken
nearly a year in advance. (e.g. Thrips leave marks on the fruit
about the time te petals are being shed.) Second: Employ a coupe.
tent person to direct and conduct the picking operations. Third:
Eploy aooppetent person to organize and conduct the packinghouse
operations. Fourth: Welcome and cooperate with the government fiscal
agents.
After the fruit is nailed in the crate, there are still
plenty of opportunities for failure, but over ninety per cent of the
disasters this year were due to mistakes made before the fruit left
the packinghouses. Human nature is much the same whether in Florida,
in California or in the Federal District. When such a failure occurs,
everybody vocal has a favorite scape-goat; the packinghouse; the
transportation companies the European merchants; almost everything
and everybody ex 6tg the exporters, who were the real culprits.
the improvident exporter will gradually eliminate himself but at a
daeadful cost to the industry and a great loss of prestige to the
fair name of the country
Florida and Ualtforaia had to spend millions of dollars and
fifty years of time ith blf education to produce and transport oran-
ges in the present stage of perfection. Their successive steps were
about as follows: 1). Production of perfect fruit (grove sanitation)
2). Rigid selection as to quality (every doubtful fruit is considered
a cull) 5). Avoiding all injury, even tho invisible, in picking and
packing; 4). Perfecting transportation.
The development of a citrus industry in Brasil is attacking
the problem from different standpoint. 1). The transportation is
practically unlimited and as perfect as science can make itU 2).
Packinghouses are of the most modem type; I). Sales agencies in
Europe already well organized; 4). Packinghouse personnel inexperiene
ced{ 7). Grove sanitation almost non-exbstent 8) 6Standardisation
in its incipiency.







CONCLUSIONS

^ I. The exporter who buys the fruit on the trees and makes his
money by "quick turnover' is the greatest handicap to the develop-
sent of a sound citrus industry. Among this class of exporters will
be found those who have no investment in the industry proper. they
are the fruit gamblers, among then unscrupulous persons who ship
groan fruit, absolutely inedible; misbrand fruit; and Sslack pack's
Here as in other citrus countries it requires an interminable strug-
gle for the industry to curb their greed.

II. So far-as the government, whether federal, state or coopera-
tives is concerned, the line of developaeat is clearly wp.rked. The
progress froi7 year to year will be slow but appreciable. Private an-
terprise will far out-distance it. The government has a large nus-
bar of people who will have to be educated. Nearly all of these will
learn only by the expensive "trial and failure. method. (Unless they
are very different from Florida or California citrus growers).
It is now almost a decade since the first consignment of
citrus fruit of standard quality and pack was exported from Brasil
in competition with North American fruit. That small ship.Ent demon-
strated the practicability of the enterprise. The progress realized
has been very great and commendable.
The government is severely handicapped since 'emotions.
will not permit the anployment of experienced persons for the work
of supervision, and for training the native personnel. The private
individual or company is not so handi capped.,

IIIZ So far as the private individual is concerned, the road to
success is clear and easy* By following a well defined course of action
he can produce and ship the fruit that will crowd our all competitorey
In a single year he can so establish his brand on the market that all
orates bearing it will be accepted at a premiuns
Since "experience is a dear master", the private individual
qill employ the experienced personnel and avoid paying the "high
tuition' that his competitors are paying. In the citrus industry, at
least, the cheapest experts are the most costly.




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