Chaulmoogra.

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Title:
Chaulmoogra.
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Chaulmoogra.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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CHAULMOOGRA E SAPUCAINHA.


Alguns dados sobre sua adaptaqao na Escola Superior
de Agriculture de Vigosa (Minas Geraes)







(Separata da Revista de Agricultura)
Vol XII- N.s 5-6 7 Maio.Junho-Julho de 1937







PIRACICABA
1937 -











CHAULMOOGRA E SAPUCAINHA (1)




nlguns dados sobre sua adaptacao na Escola Superior
de lgricultura de Viqosa (Minas Geraes)


P H. ROLFS








O present artigo apresenta alguns dados importantes
relatives A adaptaQco ao cultivo, nesta Escola, dessas duas
species selvagens.
Inquestionavelmente a acclimatagco e domesticacao de es-
pecies anti-leprosas constituem um problema que requer a
maxima habilidade do technico horticultor. Os jardins bota-
nicos nho podem empregar tempo nesses objectives nem
mesmo disp6em areas cultivadas que seriam necessarias. 0
chimico nao p6de occupar-se de horticulture pratica, nem o
medico disp5e de tempo para cuidar de arvores. A Escola
Superior de Agricultura de ViQosa considerou, portanto, co-
mo um dever, tentar resolver esta parte do problema, e o
progress magnifico registrado justificou o tempo e a dedi-
caco a elle consagrados.
Cultivar especimens de arvores exoticas em parques
ou jardins botanicos 6 uma tarefa relativamente simples,
comparada com a de former uma cultural compensadora, de
rendimento commercial.
Mais ou menos no anno de 1915 ficou definitivamen-
te determinado em Hawaii que o oleo do Taraktogenus kurzii
(1) TraducqIo do original em ingles, por C. A. Krug, Chefe do Departamento de
Genetica, lustituto Agronomico de Campinas, Est. de S. Paulo.








--4-


continha um principio anti-leproso. 0 dr. J. F. Rock, bota-
nico na Universidade de Honolulu, foi incumbido de ir is
nascentes dos rios da Asia Oriental de onde provinham as
sementes commerciaes de chaulmoogra. Ap6s repetidas ten-
tativas, vencendo difficuldades e perigos, conseguiu final
obter quantidades consideraveis de sementes das selvas na-
tivas, (v. National Geographical Magazine). Parte dessas se-
mentes foi remettida para Manilha, outra para Honolulu e
finalmente uma ultima para Washington. Desta ultima par-
tida 6 que se originou nosso pomar. Em resume, a histo-
ria foi a seguinte: as sementes amadureceram nas mattas
de Burma; as mudas se desenvolveram em Washington e as
arvores estAo produzindo em Vicosa. videe fig, 1).

A CHAULMOOGRA
Em 1922 e 1-923, por occasiAo da grande Exposicao do
Centenario, do Rio de Janeiro, foram expostas algumas plan-
tas vivas de quatro ou mais species productoras do prin-
cipio anti-leproso. Quasi ao encerrar-se a Exposicao, o Dr.
Lamson-Scribner gentilmente cedeu quatro especimens ja im-
prestaveis para fins de exposicao, remettendo-nol-os a Vico-
sa. Naturalmente as plants achavam-se em estado deplora-
vel e tro enfraquecidas pelo tratamento a que estavam ex-
postas na ExposiCao que pouco se podia esperar de apro-
veitavel dellas: dessas uma unica chegou viva a ViQosa.
Respondendo A nossa carta em que relatavamos a rara ven-
tura de terms podido salvar este unico individuu, o nosso
prezado amigo, Dr. Wilson Popenoe, assim se expressou:
"pray over it and water it with tears" ("orassemos por ella,
regando-a com nossas lagrimas").
Em 1925, quando da nossa visit a Washington, median-
te apresentacao de descripc9es e das photographias tira-
das da arvore vicosa, a mesma da Exposicao do Centena-
rio, conseguimos persuadir o Dr. K. A. Ryerson, encarrega-
do da Seccao de Introduccqo de Sementes e Plantas (subor-
dinada ao Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Uni-
dos) de que a Escola se interessava vivamente neste traba-
lho e que possuia indubitavelmente um local apropriado










para o cultivo de species anti-leprosas. Elle mandou en-
tdo que se reservassem para n6s todas as mudas ainda
existentes, em numero de 93, sendo que antes haviam sido
distribuidas, As centenas, para outras regi6es da America
do Norte e do Sul. Foram essas 93 remanescentes logica-
mente as mais enfraquecidas, corn as menores probabilida-
des de vingar. (Na mesma occasido cederam-nos uns 40
p6s de Oncoba echinata. Um pouco depois recebemos por
gentilesa do Ministerio da Agricultura, no Rio, cem p6s de
Oncoba spinosa, esta ultima s6 tendo interesse por perten-
cer A mesma familiar das Flacourtiaceae.) (Fig. 2).
Nove das mais vigorosas T. kurzii, mandAmos ao Dr.
Felisberto de Camargo, entao encarregado da Estacio Ex-
perimental Federal de Deodoro. Algumas dellas foram tem-
pos depois plantadas em um terraco onde as encontramos
em b6as condicoes no anno de 1930.
Os restantes 84 mudas de Chaulmoogra que ficaram
em poder da Escola S. A. de Vicosa, foram plantadas em
um viveiro recebendo tratamento especial e ficaram aguar-
dando que se preparasse o terreno proprio para a formacao
do pomar.
Actualmente o pomar estA em excellentes condic6es, mui-
to alem da nossa expectativa: 600/o das arvores variam em
tamanho desde 112 metro at6 mais de 6 metros de altura,
mais de 400/o sao plants vigorosas, robustas, E' uma por-
centagem muito mais elevada do que se poderia esperar, pois
nem corn semente de Citrus cujas species t6m sido domes-
ticadas desde milhares de annos, se obtem tao b6a porcen-
tagem.
A conformacao das arvores 6 extremamente variavel,
existindo plants desde a f6rma de column ate as que se
alargam desde a base. Algumas arvores vigorosas possuem
uma copa cujo diametro 6 igual ao dobro da altura. Asque
produzem fl6res estaminadas apparentam, em geral, ser mais
vigorosas do que as que as produzem pistilladas; aquellas flo-
rescem cor mais precocidade e em maior profusao; cada ma-
nha abrem flores novas que duram at( o dia seguinte de ma-
nha quando murcham. Em 1.o de Novembro de 1936 havia








-6-


grande abundancia de fl6res estaminadas, por6m as pistil-
ladas eram ainda pequenas e provavelmente nao se abri-
riam antes de uma semana ou duas. Nos fins de Dezembro
de 1936, ainda estavam se formando flares estaminadas, e
nesta occasido nio se podia mais encontrar nenhuma pistil-
lida.
A arvore, procedente da ExposiQco, foi dentre as pistilla-
das uma das primeiras a florescer. No primeiro anno nio deu
fructos, apezar do pomar achar-se a apenas 300 metros de
distancia das arvores estaminadas qie alli floresceram em
profusio. No segundo anno, collocaram-se ramos florescidos
das arvores estaminadadas dentro de vidros com agua amar-
rando estes nos galhos da arvore vinda da Exposicgo. Em
consequencia desta pratica houve abundante produccio de
fructos. Toda manha abriam-se novas flores estaminadas
que attrahiam os insects que em seguida iam pousar nas
flares pistilladas; a maioria destes insects era constituida
por pequenos hymenopteros, incluindo abelhas e formigas
grandes. Estas ultimas demonstravam ser muitos habeis em
achar o caminho, tronco acima, e ao long dos galhos em
demand das flares; por vezes a distancia percorrida por
ellas attingia tres metros.
VerificAmos na arvore V: 5 que desde a abertura da
flor at6 a queda do fructo, houve um espaco de tempo de
19 a 21 mez6s. Durante este period houve formacio deno-
vos fructos em grande abundancia.
Actualmente, o Departamento Florestal da Escola tem
centenas de mudas da Chaulmoogra noviveiro e algunsmi-
lhares estio ainda nas sementeiras. (Fig. 3).

A SAPUCAINHA

Immediatamnte ao se constatar a existencia do princi-
pio curative, os chimicos de muitos paizes empenharam-se-
com um enthusiasm digno de elogios, em analizar semen-
tes e oleos de plants tropicaes e sub-tropicaes. Logo se
descobriu que a nossa Sapucainha era rica deste principio
medicinal.










REVISTA DE AGRICULTURE


N. 5-6-7, 1937


Fig. 1 Frutas de Chaulmoogra, na arvore V:5. Madureceram
em Maio, e Junho de 19z6. O p( nasceu de semente obtida por
Dr. Rock, na Burma. Mudinhas com 30-40 cms. de altura trans-
feridas de Washington para Viosa em 1925.
Photographic por P. H. Rolls, 9 de Setembro de 19-6.










REVISTA DE AGRICULTURE


N. 5-6-7, 1937


Fig. 2 "Seedling" de chaulmoogra, estaminado,
6 metros de altura ; copa de cerca de 5 metros
de diametro; 10 annos de edade; ornamental e
vigoroso. Deve ser podado annualmente para pro-
duzir grande quantidade de pollen re para evitar
que prejudique as arvores que dio fructos.
Photog. por P. H. Rolfs.












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Fig. 3 Chaulmoogra, arvore pistillada (productora). A borbulha que originou esta plant foi tirada em 1929 da
arvore V:5. Altura: 4 metros, sendo o diametro da copa de 5 metros; de aspeerto muito semelhante a arvore
mie. Nota-'-e um frurto, no alto, pouco a direita do centro. Enxertada pelo method de borbulha ("Shiel method")
'n uma arvore estaminada. Trata-se talvez da arvore enxertada mais velha que existe.
I'hotogr. por It. H. Rolfs.
-J










REVISTA DE AGRICULTURE


N. 5-6-7, 1937


Fig. 4 Enxerto de Sopucainha da arvore n.o 1
sobre cavallo procedente do pe n.o 2, pelo Prof.
Guimairaes Duque no pomar de Silvicultura, E. S.
A. V., em 1931, Estas arvores se exgottam dando
enormes produc;Bces. Muitas das plants estamina-
das tem duas a tr6s vezes o tamanho da arvore
illustrada na photographia. Todos os annos de-
pois da tlorag;fo, as arvores devem ser podadas
para incentivar forte florescimento e para impedir
que prejudiquem as que dao fructo.
Photogr. por H. P. Rolls.








-7- -


Ao terms conhecimento deste facto, empenhamo-nos
na procura de plants em produccao. Em 1925 o Dr. G. S.
Jamieson do Laboratorio de Oleos, Ceras e Gorduras, do
Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos, pediu-
nos que Ihe conseguissemos especimens de sementes de
tantas variedades differences de Sapucainha quantas nos fos-
se possivel obter. Isto ajustou-se magnificamente ao nosso
project horticola, Para former um pomar, necessitava-
mos de uma quantidade consideravel de sementes, e preci-
samos saber onde se encontrariam arvores com grande pro-
duccao de fructos. A investigation foifacilitada pelo facto do
oleo da Sapucainha jA ser conhecido em Minas, onde tem
sido empregado durante muitas gerac6es como remedio para
toda sorte de molestias da pelle e parasitas. Ao mesmo
tempo, por6m, appareceram desvantagens, porque em uma
certa localidade, Jos6 de Aquino que estava nos ajudando
na procura constatou que os exploradores, na faina de obter
as sementes para extracao do oleo, chegaram a abater as ar-
vores mais productivas.
Foram registradas arvores e os seus fructos photogra-
graphados em extensas regi6es localizadas ate o Districto Fe-
deral e Rio Doce. A que deu a reaqCo chmica mais favo-
ravel, sendo ao mesmo tempo productive, foi designadapor
E.S.A.V. N.o 1. A segunda em collocacqo recebeu a desi-
gnacao E.S.A.V. N.o'2.
Uma pequena quantidade de sementes, tirada da arvo-
re N.o 1, foi semeada em ripado, germinando no decorrer
de poucas semanas. Muitas outras germinaram durante os m&-
ses que se seguiram, e uma pequena porcao at6 um anno de-
pois de semeada. O Prof. Jos6 Gumardes Duque obteve ap-
proximadamente os mesmos resultados cor as sementes
provenientes da arvore N.o 2.
Nos pomares da Escola ha vigorosas arvores enxerta-
das de Chaulmoogra e Sapucainha. 0 method de enxertia
de borbulha ('Shield method") geralmente empregado em vi-
veiros de Citrus foi coroado de pleno exito. Chaulmoogra
foi enxertada em cavallo chaulmoogra e borbulhas de Sa-
pucainha da arvore n.o 1 foram enxertadas em ,seedlings,










do p6 n.o 1, e tambem em ,seedlings> do p, n.o 2 (ver
photographias). (Figs. 1 e 2)
No primeiro pomar de Sapucainha na fazenda da E.S.A.V.
todas as arvores sio "seedlings" decedentes da arvore n.o
1. Os galhos das arvores enxertadas ficaram tio carregAdos
de fructos que tornou-se precise apoial-os. E' evidence que
o N.o 1 fornece ,seedlings, ferteis. 0 mesmo jA nio se nota
tAo claramente no segundo pomar, onde existem seedlin-
gs da arvore n.o 2 e enxertos da arvore n.o 1. Ha uma
grande abundancia de arvores estaminadas, mas a produc-
C
SUMMARIO
Os pomares formados de "seedlings" de Chaulmoogra
nao garantem b6as colheitas de fructos. Em parte estephe-
nomeno 6 devido a falta de pollinizacio e tambem A sua
constituicio heriditaria. Sob condic6es naturaes, as arvores
que produzem muito, soffrem a concurrencia das outras ar-
vores, mas productoras, estereis, e tambem das estamina-
das que vegetam muito mais.
Se o pomar f6r estabelecido em fileiras simples, 6 ne-
cessario haver sempre uma arvore productora de pollenpa-
ra cada duas fructiferas. Si se der a f6rma de pomar serA
sufficient plantar arvores alternadas em fileiras alternadas.
A Sapucainha se polliniza por fecundacgo cruzada mui-
to mais facilmente, Plantadas em fileiras simples, obter-se-A
uma b6a produccAo de fructos dispondo uma arvore pro-
ductora de pollen para cada quatro pistilladas. Em f6rma de
pomar, dara bons "resultados se se dispuzerem as arvores
alternadas em cada terceira fileira.




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ha o r *te -, v '
.*'. HE T-HAUL.LOOGRA T.E:
/ ( 'e ,AID ATDHO',: TO PL.JIT *iT. .


S r. P. H. Rolfs, Directir
Esoola zSujp zrior ,de Agricultura e Veteriu ria
jj Bo Estado .de 1Uinas Geraes
Vigosa.


A great incentive to the planting and cultivation of the
* Qhaulmoogra tree ,T-. raltogenus kurzii, J:ig, has been given 'ya-2le results
1* has bebn n th",results
of the extensive expeiAments in .nITaii and iritishtLIndia in the treatment

of leprocy. The physicians in care of thi. work are confident that we

have'in the ethyl ester -(ethyl -haulnioograte) derived from ChL.ull,.oogra oil,

a specific for the cure of this dreaded disease. .,Up to 1921 over two hun-

dred cases were pronounced cured in Hawaii, These'patients, were released

from quarantine, but were required to return periodically for medical

examina3ti on. ,

This species belongs to the fmaily of the Flacc'ur,tiaceae.

Lofgrien in his "Familias Naturaes, Phanero ..as" (Imprensa liecional, 2io,

1917), states thst the, family contains sixty '.oe genera and more than ~0
.species, essentially tropical, only a fewf of them extending into 4dubstrop-

ical regions,. He credits Brasil' with 14 genera and.about 90 s-.acies-.. whilee

this family 'f -plnts is well represented in the Drasilian flora, none of

.ti'e.specie-a which occur in our country are closSl'y related to the 3haulmoo-

ra. It is, ho..ever, v ry desirable to inve tig.ate all oj. the 'Brasilian
species to see if;,any of them contain.,an oil fromi-'lich this valuable rem-

edy may .

There are a number. of legends current in 4rasil that recount
wonderful cures of, persons who were suffering rL!ii leprocy. ,Usually the
legend is of someone who has contracted'the' disease gad-thln banished*

hii !.-elf into the wilds, and after living theie for a period of years has,

feturnied,-to 'uiviliaation perfectlyy cdred. In all ca.es some ..ative 'herb

S or other plant is credited' with J1-y ing effected this .marvelous 'cure. Accord-

: ing to some legends, the Al:int was e-.tet by accident, according to others,

% V .,
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-2-
the remedy was administered by the indians'. These' legends bear a striking

similarity to'some encountered in the orient.


Identity of the'Chaulmoogra.

The natives of Burma and adjoining regions of Asia have known

for centuries that the oil obtained,.from, the seed of a tree called "Kalaw"

was More or less efficacious in the treatment' of leprocy. Unfortunately,

they had no knowledge of scientific bot'ay `nor of scientific chemistry, so

.they were unable to identify the species positively and also were unable to

make the-p roper separation of the ethyi ester, the curative aent. Under '

the circumstances, the nmterial- sold as "kalaw" was "a mixture of seed from

a number of species which more or less resembled the chaulmoogia. It ap-

pears, also, that many of the trees growing iin public.parks and called

"Chaulmoogra" belong to some other st cies. Even in more or less -scientific

publicationss there is some doubt'as Ito its- identity. The species was sci-

entifically described by Sir George King in 1890. In 1.900 Col. Prain disv

covered that the source of the tre Chaulmoogra oil'v.aa the sded of Tarak-

togends kurzii The British Iharmacopoeia, 1914, defines Chaulmoogra oil

as "the fatty oil expressed 'roii t he seeds of 'Tarakto genus kurzi. King."

Certain species of tne genus Hydnocaurus., closely related to

Taraktogen yield an oil very similar in chemical aud physical properties.

Priori to 1900 it was thought that Chaulmoogra oil was obtained from the

species Gynocardia odorata R.!Br. but the oil of this'.species is _:,i,'ically

and chemically quite different from-the true Chaulmoogra. oil. Bulletin

NQ 1057, U Department of agriculture entitled "The Chaulmoogra Tree

and Some Related Species", (27 pages and 16Iplates), gives a most valuable

botanical a!jd chemical .discussion on th ia subject. (It -also gives an

extended bibliography of the scientific works,on this subjectt) very '

fazendeiro in irasil who can read English ought to have a copy-of this
It ( I s, a *
bulblitin. The CoiLi6ireict.il Attache of'th'-e rasil' Ian .ibassy 2t '.:siisinftcr,

D. C. (E.U.N1.A.) can ,jurchlase copies at 15 aents apeice.



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-3-


Supply of Seed Inadequate.

The seed is collected by illiterate-natives living in a half

savage state, a long distance from the market. There is much difficulty

and great danger to life from wild animals in those forests. The seed

brings a'high price and even then the supply is far below the demand. The

people who buy the seed have never seen the tree growing and until recently

it had not been definitely known which species produced the efficacious oil.

It is no wonder, therefore, that the commercial article is quite impure

and even at times entirely false. As a result of the medical investigations

it was certain that the demand for. Chaulmoogra oil would be greLtly aug-

mented. lTo cultivated orchards exist and we have to depend on the unex-

plored forests for the supply of the product which has proved remedial for

one of the most dreaded and refactory diseases of the human species., The

su...ly from the native trees is entirely inadequate, and the crop very

uncertain. The only reasonable way to secure the millions of kilos of

seed that the world will need is to establish commercial orchards of

this species. Any country that can grow this seed successfully will z ..-t

prove a great blessing to humanity'and will establish for herself a very

lucrative industry. It is of the highest, importance that -rasil should

produce her own supply at.the earliest possible date.


Prof. Rock Sent for Seed.

After it had been definitely established'by the medical men

that the Chaulmoogra nut contained a specific for leprocy, the Secretary

of A,, culture (E.U.N.A.) decided to introduce it into the United States.

He was aware that practically nothing of a technical nature was known about

the habitat or physiological conditions necessary for the growth of the

tree. He knew also that there were very few botanists who had the requisite

technical knowledge to identify the species in the foi-ets, and at the same

time the personal bravery to undertake so'haz.,.rdous a taki as that of

securing the seed. He found in ther;person of J. F. Rock, who had been

*professor of ,yatematic Botany for eight years in the University of H-vwaii,
9 *





-4-
an able student and a daring explorer. Prof. Rock had the further good

fortune .oi being personally acquainted with the doctors who were carrying

out the medical experiments with the lepers in Hawaii. The Secretary

commissioned Prof. Rock to bring seeds fit for establishing orchards of

this precious species to civilization, and to make observations and investi-

gations that would aid humanity in-the cultivation of the tree.

A great many difficulties were encountered in -'inding the

trees at all and later still furt-er difficulties in finding three that

produced nuts. T-uch of the region explored was inhabited by hostile

natives and infested with man-eating tigers. (An exceedingly interesting

account, by Prof. Rock, of this expedition, with many photographs, occurs (

in. the National Geographic Magazine" for March, 1923.)

The amount of technical data regarding the physical conditions

of the native habitat of the Chaulmoogra tree i6 still very meager. ''e

knpw, however, that it occurs in the higher altitudes along the water

courses, and on the hills of the upper rivers that flow into the Irrawaddy.

According to Prof. Rock, it occurs in a plant zone known as Tropical Rain

Forest. The winter iis very dry, but the air is humid in the Tropical

Rain Forests, The temperature remains above 5 degrees Centigrade. During

the summer a heavy rainfall occurs. Our small tree at Vigdsa (:`'inas Geraes)

passed the winter of 1923 unharmed, without any special protection., (It

was one of those grown from the first shipment of seed received at

Washington. )

The fact that the species to which the Chaulmoogra tree

belongs is not known to occur in the fertile lower allies of the Irra-

waddy River indicates that either the low altitude or the rich alluvial

soil is not congenial to its growth... From the vigorous way in which the

small tree we have here (see photograp'h) recuperated after, the long voyage

from '.iashing-ton (D.C., E.U N.A.) it is quite certain that we have at

ltbf es a favorable climatic condition. This tree ,was presented to us by

-the Department of Agriculture of the United States, from the collection
9








sent for exhibition purposes to the Centennial Exposition. It was

planted in the ground at the Escola Superior on Jan. 4, 1923, and had

only nine leaves at that time. One year later it had more than twenty

leaves, and vigorous buds.

Acclimatization of Chaulmoogra Difficult.

The fact that the Chaulmoogra tree hasasuch a limited

distribution nw*=Tsp.y proves that it is lacking in those adaptive qual-

ities which would enable it to thrive under greatly divergent physical

conditions. The orange, on the other hand, is a good illustration of

a tree that has those adaptive qualities 4islenable it )o thrive in

nearly all plant zones located within the tropics and subtropica.

Many thousands of errors have been made :.ihen valuable-

plants have been transferred to a new continent or t- ,- af w country to

be acclimatized. Ninety percent, or more, of the failures, are directly

due to the fact that the plant iL,-migrants are taken to regions unsuited

to their full development or are planted in soils that are not proper

for their growth. A very large proportion has been lost by placing them

at unsuitable altitudes. Another common error is that of attempting

to acclimatize a'plant from a region in which the atmosphere is dry to

one of greater humidity, or vice-a-versa. Human beings are not as a rule
a-
sensitive to variation in humidity unless the degree is great, but nearly

all valuable species of wild plants are very sensitive to this factor.

It is quite generally assumed that when a soil is productive

of cultivated crops it is likewise suitable for the growth of plant

immigrants. This mistake alone has caused the loss of many exceedingly

valuable species, and has cond-.,L..ed a country generally., in the minds of

the experimenters, as being an unsuitable one for that -... ticular species.

every wild plant has found a place in nature well adapted to'.its needs.

It is often erroneously assumed that because a plant grows well on a ster-

ile, bleak mountain-side that it will do equally as well or better if

taken to, )e valley and planted in a fertile, well watered soil.


~i~ """""""""""""""""""" _I~~---Y-C.i~jl*~C~


; .....






-6-


Cold is recognized by everyone as a limiting factor for

plant growth, but few people recognize warmth as of equal importance., There

are thousands of illustrations to show that A~mwe te and subtropical

zO p s fail utterly when transplanted to a warmer climatic conditions.

In some tropical and subtropical regions the rains occur

during warm (summer) weather, and-in others the rains occur during the

cooler (winter)weather. Practise has proven that there are a considerable

number of plants which cannot be successfully moved from one of these regions

to another.

Factors Influencing Acclimatization.

There are then, four factors that are known to have

limiting influences in the acclimatization of plant immigrants, namely:

(1), plant zone; (2), humidity; (3), rainfall; (4), soil. If any one

of these is unsuitable, the result is sure to be a failure.
Thousands of unsuccessful-attempts have been made to

acclimatize certain 13editerranean and'Arabian species and varieties of

plants in the Southeastern United States-, especially in Florida. Prominent

among these plants are the olive, the date, grapes, and lemons. Then some

of these same species or varieties weretaken to the Pacific Coast of the

United tastess they not only florished but have become great commercial

crops. As an illustration of how important it is to have the rainfall

at the proper season, we may cite the case of the' Bahia orange (known

in E. U. N. A. as the Washington 'avel.) This variety grows vigorously

and makes a magnificent tree in Florida but never produces enough fruit

to pay for its cultivation. Many hectares of these trees of bearing

. size had to be cut off aLd rebudded to varieties that would bear fruit.
0 (L0 h-bW- l ^^ft^4^^^^^^^ 0 /u Vu,4 "I^y ^ ^ ^J
In California, Arizona and ew JMexico (Pacific Coast sta tes) tis

variety is the main stay of the citrus industry. On the other hand,

grapefruit is of little practical value on the Pacific Coast of the.

United States, but is splendidly renumerative in Florida, the Bahamas,

Cuba antthe Isle of Pines.

^ ^ '..* '' '








-7-

The olive tree grows magnificently on the Atlantic Coast

even as far north as South Carolina, but fails to bear remunerative crops at

vt" while on the Pacific Coast olive growing/is a great money producing

industry. The Chinese and Japanese varieties of citrus and of the kaki

are generally failures on the Pacific Coast, but do splendidly on the

Coast of the Gulf of Mexico and in 'lorida. The above mentioned are only

a few, but are striking examples among many thousands In each case the

temperature is congenial to the plant, and the soil suitable, but some

other factor comes i to viciate the result. In the case of the 3ahia

orange, the climate of Florida is just a trifle too moist during the

winter and spring.

From the foregoing it will be seen that the acclimatization

of new plants with a view of making them a success is a difficult and

.exacting task.

Date Industry and Science.

Fortunately plant physiologists have, in recent years,

worked out a scientific basis whereby it is possible to acclimatize a

valuable plant without the necessity of employing the time consuming

and wasteful methods of former generations. 3y using the only method

formerly availablethat of t testing the plant in all the various localifatd ,

it would take from fifty to one hundred years of time and hundreds of thou-

sands of plants to establish a Chaulmoogra industry in Brasil.

SThe story of acclimatizing and establishing a date industry

in the United States reads like a romance. It is both interesting and

instructive, but we will confige ourselves to the brief tlinr. e-.i



When Hir. James Wilson, the most successful Secretary of

Agriculture was has ever served the iorth American people, was in office,

Congress voted a large sum of money to establish a date industry. The first

official step of Secretary ,'ilson in this connection was to appoint

9





-8-

Dr. W. T. Single, an expert in plant to make a study of-all

of the works in which were discussed in any way the temperature, hesoil,

th umidity, and the rainfall of all of the regions of i.orth Africa and

Arabia in which the choicest dates were being produced. This was a

difficult and laborious task for Dr. Swingle, since heahad to' search

through not only books and bulletins on agriculture .published in French,

English, German, Arabic and Sankrit a~ s. n other iMe languages,

but also to search through many books on travel and even some on fiction.

The 'results of this study, when finally summed up, gave accurate data

regarding the temperature, the altitude, the humidity, the rainfall, and

the soil (including the chemical and physical analyses) of these regions.

With this data in hand it was comparatively an easy task, by consulting

reports of the Weather Bureau, and of other tit bureaus, to determine

whether there existed in the United States areas suitable for a date indus-

try. Several such were discovered in what was formerly considered the

"Great Western Desert". Two of the most promising regions were chosen for

date gardens.

At the same time that this study of the literature was

made, Secretary '.ilson dispatched agents who, by the aid of the French and

English government officials, were able to penetrate into the interior of

Arabia and the great Sahara Desert to determine where the choicest varieties

of dates were growing. A total of two or three shiploads of suckers were

ibtC d and forwarded t7-ArizonZ.and California.

The venture has been so successful that for a number -of

years many tons of d.tes have been produced annually by the orchards

begun by Secretary W'ilson's efforts, although Dr. 6wingle did not make

tJhe purchase of his choicest selection of Oalm suckers dintt% Saraha

until as late as 1900. The quality oPates grown in North America

is so highly appreciated that,they bring double and treble the price of

the Arabian dates on the American and European markets. Even at those}

high prices the demand is much greater than the dupply'-E=f,,t'.







For mary than a century seed.had been planted and for many

decades plants of these palms had been introduced into the United States.

All of the hfvinaseffats hadthaee i tadecintth-- usaal.way, and as was to

be expected, the results were of little financial value. Secretary Wilson

accomplished more for date culture in less than four years than had bean

accomplished in the preceding hundred or hundred.and fifty.

The story of establishing the .and .j .f Egyptian cotton

in the -.... ,.+. is quite as interesting and instructive but space

prevents recounting it.


REC Ci iDATI OTS

The following recommendations are made after having had

.personal experience with the acclimatization of hundreds of varieties

of plants from many tropical and subtropical countries. And also after

a careful study of almost all, if not all, that has been published on

the climate and habitat preferred by the Chaulmoogra tree.

I. Altitude. At twenty degrees latitude, in Eastern Brasil; the

planting should be made at an altitude of not more than 600 meters nor less

than 300 meters. South of this latitude the elevation should be corres-

pondingly lower. North of this latitude it should be correspondingly higher.

II. Plant Zone. The plant zone selected for the Chaulmoogra

orchards .should be in a region which was formerly covered with what tbe

botanists designate as the Tropical Rain Forest. In such a region the soil

remains moist even during the dry season, the trees hold their foliage

during the entire year, grow to a height of thirty meters or even more, and

are well inhabited by epiphgtes of both herbaceous and woody nature. Vines

grow to great length and of large diameter.

III. Temperature. According to Dr.'Rock, who is our highest

authority on this species, the temperature should not fall below 5 degrees

C. The small tree planted at Vigosa passed the winter of 1923'without the

least sign of discomfort.

i


-9-







-10-
Raihfall.
IV.There should be a well marked rainy season in the summer
and a well marked dry season in the winter. Photographs taken during

mid-winter, in the Chaulmoogra forests of -urma show j$ perfectly dry,

stxefttpn covered with quartz sand. A photograph of another stream

shovwunmistakable signs that the water had been several meters higher in

the rainy (summer) season than it was during the dry (winter) season.

V. Humidity, The tree flourished natively in a Tropical Rain

Forest, so it requires a humid condition even iti the dry season.

VI. Soil. "The soil should be of a sandy nature, preferably

quartz sand. Perfect drainage is necessary, and undulating or hilly

land is perferable". (J.F.Rock)

VII. Planting.- Holes to receive small trees (50 cms. *all)

should be dug ab.ut 75 oms. deep and a meter in diameter. The holes

should be filled with ridh top soil, if dry apply water to moisten. Set

the tree so it will stand about five or ten centimeters lower than it

grew in the greenhouse.

VIII. Shading. Suitable shading material as a protection against

the sun during jiidday will be necessary for at least one or two years. In

the natural state the small trees are shaded by the larger ones. Palm

leaves cut into about two meter lengths and stuck firmly into the soil can

be successfully employed. These will also provide protection against dry

winds. A piece of thin cotton cloth (morim ordinario) about a meter square

nailed across a wooden quadrangular frame, is more expensive in the begins

ning, but ipore econouicicl in the end. If the frame with the cloth stretched

across it is nailed on stakes about 50 cms taller than the tree, it will

afford shade from about ten o'clock until two. Palm leaves placed on the

north and west of this shade during the dry season will keep the airndet

the cloth more Ihumid.

IX. Cultivation. i o trees or shrubs should be allowed to grow

within the orchard planted to these trees. The space between the rows may
S- *







-11-
be planted to a farm crop that will mature by the end of the rainy seaIson

but no plants of any kind should be allowed to grow,wiwthin a meter of the

trees -.lhe first year nor within two meters the ssecond.year. '

During the rainyseason all weeds and grass should be hoed off

to the distance of a meter from the tree. ,Thenever the surface of the

soil becomes dry,or hardens it should be hoed so as to ke p .t mellow.

A covering of dry herbage ices a good mulching and will prove advantageous

to the tree if vigilance is excercised to destroy termites and ants as

well as other noxious insects a.d'animals.

During the dry season t'he, soil should be covered'with dry herbage

to a distance of two meters from the tree. This mulching should be

removed every week:.and..the ground under it hoed thoroughly in ov'der that

the soil moisture may be conserved and that much of the rotting herbage

ixxz may be incorporated with the soil to supply the deficiency in hwzis.

X. Pruning. Do not prune!! Every sprig cut off and every

leaf pulled off means a retardation of growth. Every diseased leaf and

every half dead 6riiiseased sprig should be cut off with a sharpknife,

but the doctrine believed in sme quarters that pruning stimulates growth

is false and fails every time it is put to a rigid test.

XI. Distance Between the Trees. Set the trees 15' to 20 i.eters

apart each way. Some of the most profitable citrus orchards in the

world are planted at this distance and an orange tree is a pygmy compared

with a ahaulmoogra tree in its native forect. Then, too, we must '

remember that we are'not planting the Chaulmoogra tree primarily for

monetary gain. Every tree lost and every year of.delay in the production

of an abundantharvest means that we are guilty, through our carelessness.

or indifference, of inflicting preventable suffering and possibly death

upon fellow citizens.

Tihe highest authorities assert that in the i::Liediate future

the world will call for a million liters of CJhaul:ioogra oil to treat

leprocy. Japan, China, --ind 'India, with their teeming million of population,
.9




I.
-12-
are sadly scourged with this dreadful disease. These countries are
Sl9cated near the regions where the trees grow and will naturally have
an advantage over Brasil in securing what seeds are available. It is
more a question of saving horrible agony and human lives than that of
economising on land or saving a little money. We have an abundance of
land in Brasil, but only a small number of trees to plant, so we are in
duty bound to make every tree as productive as we arIelable in the shortest
possible time. Trees spaced well apart will produce more frait in less
time than trees closely spaced. Under natural conditions the trees area
closely crowded and produce one crop in about every three years, No tree
should be planted in a spot isolated from other trees of this species, as
it is not known if the tree bears perfect flowers or not, nor whether
it is self sterile or not.




///// / Here is the opinion dxx'g/lxa
#i/F // /}}f;/W/$/ e ^'/ ///M # of one of the Agricultural Explorers of
the Department of Agriculture of the United States, as to the value of
the chaulmoogra tree we are so fortunate as to have growing on the
Grounds of the Escola Superior de agriculture He tzaTw asknows
the ths and from haJ personal expdiences appreciates
the difficulties encountered in securing the seeds. Then I wrote
him that our small tree was growing well and seemed to like the climate
here, he replied,"We are glad to know that the chaulmoogra tree is
holding its own...... Pray over it and water it with your tears!"









"i':e first Ch.:i.Ll.iolra pl~ited
In Mian- C(eGra.a, and probably in1
Arasil, is g-.owig-: vigorously. L'._
seed w.as collected in the wil1 o.f
S -tem. by J.. .,oca; t'- spcr ted to
i-'ashi! .;tton; _.cr,,;itnted nrd gro-nm to
50 cL-,. tall. T.,w..seeJ. Linl Twas
exhib:i.;J for .luih n.L thl: -. ntcnary
Exjosition in -:io, wtts sent to Vigo-.
iaore 8't;.:d. than alive, and- tas set out
Jan, 4, 1923.




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THE CHAULMOOGRA TREE;
WHR AIN HOW TO PLANT IT.

by
Dr. P. H. Rolfs, Director
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria
do Estado de MlIas Geraes
SVigosa.


A great incentive to the pl.nting end cultivation of the

Ch.ulimoo&gra tree, Tarckraonos kurzii, :ing, h-s been 'given by the re-

aults of the extensive experiments in Hawaii and british India in the

treatiamnt of leprocy. The physicians in charge of this work are confi-

dent that wa have in the ethyl ester (4thyl chaull'Ioograte) derived from

Chaulmoogra oil, a specific for the cure of this dre-aded disease. Up to

1921 over two hundred cases were pronounced cured in Tawaii. These pa-

tients were released from quarantine, but were required to return period,

ic3lly for medical examination*

This species belongs to the family of the Flacourtiaceae.

L'fgren in his "Familias N.-.turaea Phanerogamas" (Imprensa .acional, Rio,

1917), states that the family contains sixty one genera and more than
520 species, essentially tropical, only a few of them extending into

subtropical regions. He credits "raBil with 14 genera and about 90 apew

cies. While this family of plants is well represented in the -raasilian
fora, none of the species which occur in our country are closely related

toe'0t Chaulmoogra. It is, however, very desirable to investigate all

of the lrasilfan species especiallyy those belonging to the genus Oncoba)

c.to see if any of them contain an oil from which this valuable remedy-

may be derived.

i. There are a number of legends current in Birasil that







recount wonderful cures of persons who were suffering from leprocy. Usu-

ally the legend is of someone who has contracted the disease and then

banished himself into the wilds, and after living there for a period of

years has returned to civilization perfectly cured. In all cases some

native herb or other plant is credited with having -,ffected this marve-

lous cyre. accordingg to some legends, the plant was eaten by accident,

according to others, the remedy -vas administered by the indians. These

legends bear a striking similarity to sore encountered in the orient.

Identity of the Chaul.oogra.

The natives of -urma and adjoining regions have known for

centuries that the oil obtained from the seed of a tree called "kalaw"

was more or less efficacious in the treatment of leprocy. Unfortunately,

they had no knowledge of scientific botany now of scientific chemis~trys

they were unable to identify the species positively and also were unable

to make the proper separation of the ethyl ester, the curative agent. -Un-

der the circumstances, the material sold as "kalaviw" was a uixt.uro of seed

from a nuriber of species which more or less resemLblud the chaulrmoogra. It

appears, also, that many of the trees growing in public parks and called

PChaulraoogra" belong to some other species. Even in more or less recent

scientific publications there is some doubt as to its identity. The spe-

cies was scientifically described by Sir George King in 1090. In 1900

Col. Prain discovered that the source of the true Chaulmoogra oil was

the seed of 'Taraktogenos kurzii. The British Pharmacopoeia, 1914, de-

fines Chaulmoog&a oil as "the fatty oil expressed frum the seeds of

Para3ktoenos kurzii, King.
Certain species of the genus HyInocarpus, closely related

to Taraktogenos, yield an oil very similar in chBemical and physical




a -3-
'properties. Prior to 1900 it was thought that Ghaulmoogra oil was obtained

from the species Gynocardia odorata .R.Br., but the oil of this species is

physica-lly and' chemically quite different from the true Chauluoogra oil,

Bulletin NQ 1057, U.S. Department of Agriiculture, entitled "The Ch ulmoogra

Tree and Sime Related Species", (27 pages and 16 plates), gives a most val-

uable botanical and chemical discussion on this subject. (It also gives an

extended bibliography of the scientific works on this subject.) Every faz-

endeiro in Brasil vho can read english ought to have a copy of this bulle-

tin. The Comimrcial Attachi of the Brasilian imb-ssy at 'alshington, D.C.,

(E.IU.L.A.) can purchase copies at 15 cents apiece.
Supply of Seed In:-dequate.

The seed is collected by illiterate natives living in a half

savage state, a lcng distance from the market. There is much difficulty

and great danger to life from wild animals in those forests. The seed brings

a high price and even then the supply is far below the demand. The people

who buy the seed have never seen the tree growing cnd until recently it had

not been definitely knovn which species produced the efficacious oil. It Ia

no wonder, therefore, that the commercial article is quite impure and even

at times entirely false. As a result of the medical investigations it was

certain that the dem-and for Ch:iulmoogror oil would be greatly augmented. No

cultivated orchards exist and we have to depend on the unexplored forests

for the supply of the product which had proved remedial for one of the most

dzaaded and refractory diseases of the human species. The supply from the

native trees is entir'ely'nd the crop very uncertain. The only reasonable

way to secure tih millions of kilos of the seed that the world will need is

to establish commercial orchards of this species. Any country that can

grow this seed successfully will prove a great blessing to humanity and
will establish for hersel4a very lucrative industry. It is of the highest





-4-

importance that Brasil should produce her own supply at the earliest

possible date,

Prof. Rock Sent for Seed.

After it had been definitely established by the medical men

that the Chaulr;-oogra nut contained a specific for Ieprocy, the Secretary

of Agriculture ('.U.f.A.) decided to introduce it into the United 'totes.

He was aware that practically nothing of a technical nature was known about

the habitat or physiological conditions necessary for the growth of the

tree. He also knew that there were very few botanists ,dio h-'d t-e requi-

site technic:il knowledge to identify the species in the forests, and at

the same time the personal bravery to Luncertake so hazardous a task as

that of securing the seed. He found in the person of J. F. Rock, who had

been professor.of Systematic Botany for eight years in the University of

Hawaii, an able student and a daring explorer. Prcf. ocki h.id the further

good fortune of being personally acquainted with the doctors who were car-

zrying out the medical experiments with the lepers in Hawaii. The Secretary

commissioned -Orof, Rook to bring seeds fit for est-.blishing orchards of

this precious species to civilization, and to mancr observations and inves-

tig..tions that would aid humanity in the cultivation of the tree.

A .great many difficulties were encountered in finding the

trees at all, and later still further difficulties in finding trees that

produced nuts. ',uch of the region explored was inhabited by hostile nrma

tives and infested with man-eating tigers, (An exceedingly interesting

account, by Prof. Rock, of this expedition, with many photographs, occurs

in the "Nationrl Geographic Iigaazine" for Th.rch, 1i*)

The amount of technical data regarding the physical condi-

tions of the native habitat of the Claulmoora tree is still very meager.

Ve know, however, that it occurs in the higher altitudes along the water

courses, and on the hills of the upper rivers that flow into the Irrawaddy.





- -5-
According to -r.f, Rock, it occurs in a plant zone known as Tropical Rain

Eorest. The .;inter is very dry, but the.' air always humid in these forests

The w1viuer temperature remains ;..bove d dorees Centigrade. During the suma

mer a hZavy rainfall occurs. Our small tree at Vigosa (Jims Geraeu) pass-

ed the winter of 19 3- unh rued, without any special protection.(It was one

of those rowm n fro:.i the irst shiprint of seed sent to '^shington.

Thee ~ict that the spccie to :h'ichl tiAe iiL'laoogra Lree be-

loib s is not lnourn to occur in the fer1tile lo1.r v-allies of the Irrawaddy

River iCt.ic .tes that either the low altitude: 0o jc rich alluvial soil is

not c--.nge'ial to its b;ro.th. .:rccn the vigorous wa. in ;vhich the small

tree -ie lih v here (see Fihotot~~-l..h) recupier-'ted after thne long voy'_:ge from
7 .t; ivirgton,J.zC,,(E-...A,) to vigo^a, it is quite ct'.tainr that we've Xhve

lecre a f,-.vor.:ble clim-.tic coti:Jtion. 'I'list roe was r.resenred to us by the

De-rtmieLnt of .--riculture of thie Uiited. -t..-tes, fruei the collection sent

o.o e.hibiticn -,urc,o-eE to the Cer teniial positiontion It 'v.as pla ted in

the round at the .col-.a .:uj.,rior on J- .n. 4, 1923, id at that tiae had

onl; nine leave -s. One yo:r later it ht-d !rioje than t;enity leaves and

vigorous hute.

.'cclij.ati_.aio of the '-ulm roorFa ificult

i.'he fact that th: Chaiul,:oo'ra tree hI.s nrtiur,,lly such &

limited distribution -iroves thl.at it is l1.ckin; in thoc udaJotiv e qualities

which would enable itto thrive und.ov greatly divel ent physical condi-

tions. The orange, on the other h-.'id, is a ;ood illus traction of a tree ths

has those ada-itive qualities which en-jCle it te thrive in nea-rly all plant

zores loc::.ted within th te ropics a;-.d subltropiics

,,any tious~ads of errors have been itade when valuable

plants have been transferred to a new continent or country to be acclima-

tized. Ifinety percent, or more, of these failures, are directly due to


thfr taen tfo reRione unauitad to their





-6-
full development or are planted in soils that are not proper for their .

growth. A very large proportion h:-s been lost by -olacing them at unsuita-'

ble altitudes. Another common error is that of attempting to acclima.tize a

pl-.nt from a region in %vhich the atmosphere is dry to one of gre:.ter ha-

midity, or vieotA-versa. Human beings are not a a rule sensitive to varia-

tion in hualidity unlesss the degree is great, but nearly all value ible lrJ mta

species of wild plants are very sensitive to this factor.

It is quite generally assuE.ed that when a soil is productive

of cultivated crops it is likewise suitable for the --ro7th of plantt iMjai-

grants. This mistaice alone has caused the loss of nr-.ny exceedingly valuable

species, and ias condemumed a country generally, in the minds of the 0emeri-

menters, as being an unsuitable one for that particular species. Very wild

plant has found a place in nature well adapted to Ats needs. It is often

erroneously asnuned that because a plant grows well on a sterile, bleak

mountain -side that it will do equally as well or better if taken to the

valley -.2d dlanted in a fertile, well watered soil.

Cold is recognized by everyone as a limiting fa-ctor for

pl-ant gr-owth, but fe-v people recognize warmth as of ,eual importance. There

are thousands of illustrations to show that many plants growing in temper-

ate or subtropical regions fail utterly vten transplanted to a warmer

climatic conditions.

In some tropical and subtropical regions the. raiss occur

during warm (sur4mer) weather, and in others they occur during the cooler

(winter) weather. Practice has proven that there are a considerabIle

number of plants which cannot be successfully moved from one of these

regions to another.
p. '-







Factors Influencing Acelc1tiz.ation.

There are tihen, four factors that are knoumn to have

limiting influences in the acolimatization of plant iLit:i;._Lanlt, na iely:

(1), pl:.nt zone; (2). humidity; (3). raiufall; acd (4). soil. If any

one of these is unsuitable, the resultt is aure to be a failure.

I'houi-:.i of LiisusC3s.: ful attoemi;te have boorL ...Ie to

acclimatize certain .,eiterranean .aul Arabian :;,.-oies and .varieties of

plants in the o eastern ited tes, e ..y in lorida. Pro-

Iiiinent .i..ong- thee -'t are te olive, l d;te, gr;..e .d leions.

Then Some of these same species or varieties were ta.;ken to the iPacific

CoaA~ of th-ie -United S;tates tho... not only flourished but L av' become

gre:.t cuoniiui'cial cr.:.-s, As .-n illustration of how important it is to

have the raiiTLall at the p.?oper season, ve :i'. cite the ca&o of t1Lh

h.rilia orange (known in the ;,,U,,.~A, as the "':; ,A i.n.ton auVe"L). 'Jii

variety gro\ars vi.-'orously and iike a ,i;l,.::-ificoi..L tree ia --.J.urida but never

produce.: enon-.'i fruit to pay for i'u cultiv.i.tion, L.:.Aj hectare e of these

trees of bearing size hf.i4. to be cut off :s.id rLbuddud. to vaxieti.es that

would bear fruit. iWhat would it profit us to introd.cc tho ChTAliLogra

tree into a region n 'rasil where it will grxe. mrnl:i'ificeintly, but, as in

the case of th'e B-.fia orange in ,'loriJ.a, produced. no fruit ? In Califor-

nia, Arizona, arni :-a Mexico (LP-:cific Co'-st Stabtes), this variety of is

the ratin stay of the citrus industry,. Grapefruit, on Uli othix h. and, is

of little practical value on the Paci.fic Coast of the iUnitd atc.,e but

is splendidly remunerative in Ylori'la, Cuba, the Bu.iIEn to,, iknd thie Isle

of Pines..

The olive tree, also, grows nmgnificently on the b-,tlxatic

Coast of the. United statess i ea* as far north as Jouth Garolina, but fails

to bear remunerative crvop, while on the Paoific Coast olive growing"im-




-4-

* is a great money producing industry. The Chinese and Japanese varieties

of citrus and of the kaki are generallyy failures on the iPacific Coast,

but do apl.endidly on the Coast of the Culf of -.-e:ico and in Florida. The

above Ientioned are only a few, bLLt striking exaaIles a.,!onLu many thousands.

In each case the tcr;,.:-_r-iture is conrjeniial to the plInt, and the soil suit-

able, but some otijer factor comes in to viciate LUe result. In the -ase

of the BahIia crangs, as mentioned tibovs, the climate of :lI.. ida is just

a trifle too moist during the winter and sprir:.

From the foregoing it will be seen that the vcoli.u-tiza-

tion of rinew plants with a view of 2:iL; them a success is a.nifficult

and exacting ; task.

T'ate Induty an:d Science,

rortuid.tely pgl- t ,ivysioloi.ts have, in recent years,

worked out a sciontific '..c. is a :heliCey it is : !j,sible to acclia tize a

valuable plant without tlhe neceujsi ty of employing the Z'inc. co.-tiau:tini

aniid v;,ntefl mi'ethodb of former .:e.nerations. 3y using; the only iiethod

formerly available, i. e., ti.ut of t'.ting the plant i:jn all the v.4..'ious

localities, it would take from fifty to or-ne ;iureid Je.:rs of time and

hundreds of t ou3-snds of pL-.uts to establish a uiiaal.!loogia iiiduitry in

Brasil.

TLio story of aoolimatisinLg and. esata.lihiing a date industry

in the UTnited St:.tes r.-,das like a 'r.o:i.:ce. It is both interesting and

inmtnictive hut we will Chnfinre ourselves to the briefest outline.

When r. James Xilson, the most successful Secretary ao

Agriculture '*ho has ever served the i'orth *laerican people, was in office,

Congress voted a large suz;i of money to establish a date industry. :The

first official :itep of the Seoretary,in this connection, was to appoint
Dr. W. T. twingle, an expert in plant physiology, to make a Stud of all






* of tie works in which were discussed in any way the temperature, the soil,

the humidity, and the rainfall of all of the regions of northh Africa and

Arabia in Ahich the choicest dates were being produced. This was a dif-

ficult and laborious task for Dr. Single, since he had to search through

not only books and bulletins on agriculture published in rench, English,

Geian-.u, Arabic and Sanacrlit as well as in other langu:t.es, but also to

search iirovugh nc.ny books on travel and esen some on fiction. The results

of this study, l-hen fin:-l Jy saUm2ed up, gave accurate data re-- riding the

temiape ,ture, the altitude. AThe humidity, the rainfall, and the soil, (in-

eluding the chemical and .i j;;ical analyses) of these r- :;io'n. With this

data in hand it was comparatively an -e; 'y tu.ak, by consulting the reports

of the "'eathLer Bureau, and of o-thlu bureaus, to determine vihere in the

United States there existed areas most .,ititjle for date owing4 Sev-

eral such T.ere discovered in what was fo':.urly considered the great t .lest-

ern iLsert." T,'Oo aif the most promisainiAi, rejiof were chosen for date

gardsiis.
At the sam time tlat this study of the literature was be-

ing mu'de, Scretay il :xn di,..titci u agents who, by ite aid of the French

and i.JEgtish govertacnt offici-ls, were auble to .enietrateiinto the interior

of Arabia rind the Geat 3Jaara !Deert to dete-ii.nc v.lre the choicest var-

i1tics of dates were rorw;ir A tctal of two or tl-e siilocds of sack-

ars were obtained and for Trrded to '.Yizona .-id California.
The venture has been so succeeDsfl that faor a nuibex of

years Iaany t~un. of dates h:.ve -been produced annual y the orchards

begun by Secretary '..ilson's efforts, altlhougLh Dr. iw, inle did not ramke

the purchase' `.his -choicest selection of palm suckers in the Shhara until

as late as 19J0. The quality of the daaes grown in northh America is sB

highly appreciated that they bring, on both the North ,4merican and European

markets, double and treble the price of the Arabia. dates. veOn at these






high prices the demand is much greater than the supply.
Zor more than a century date seed had been planted and for

many decades suckers of thcse palms had been introduced into the United
States. All of these previous efforts had been made in the usual way, and,

aas as to be expected, the results -were of little financial value. Secre-

tary 'ilson accomplished more for date culture in less then four years than

had been accomplished in the preceding hundreds8achaifadrd. and fifty.

The story of establishing the Egyptian cotton industry in f*ls

bhtd E North America is quite as interesting a.d instructive but space pre-

vents recounting it.

IDECOLtMll.ATiOIOS

The following recommendations are made after having had per-

oeaal experience with the acclimatization of hundreds of varieties of plants

from many tropical and subtropical countries. And also after a careful study

of almost all, if not all, that has been published on-the climate and habi-

tat preferred by the Ch.ulmoogra tree.

I. Altitude. At twenty degrees latitude, in ..astern Brasil, the

planting should be made at an altitude of not more than 600 meters nor less

than 300 4etero. South of this latitude the elevation should be corresponding-

ly lower. north h of this latitude it should be correspondingly higher.

II. Plant Zone, The plant aone selected for the ChauLmoogra or-

chards should be in a region which was formerly covered with what botanists

designate as the Tropical Rain Foreat. In auch a region the soil remains

moist even during the dry season, the trees hold their foliage during the

entire year, grow to-a height of thirty meters or even more, and are well

inhabited by epiphytes of both herbaceous and woody nature. Vines grow

te great length and of large diameter,
III. Temperature. According to .r. Rook, who is our highest aiu-

thority on this species, the temperature should not fall below 5 degrees




-I--
Centigrade. The small tree planted at Vigosa pissed the winter of 1923

without the least sign of discomfort,

IV. Rainf..1l. Thcre should be a well marked rainy season in

the sunmner and a well marked dry season in the winter. Photographs taken

during mid-winter, in~l haulh-oogra forests of Burma, show the beds of the

streams perfectly dry, covered with quartz sand. A photograph of another

stream shows unmisttaable signs that the water had been several meters

higher in the rainy (su;lmer) season than it vas during the dry (winter)

season.

V' Humidity. The tree flourishes natively in a Tropical -akin

forest, so it requires a humid condition even in the dry season.

VI. Soil. "The soil should bo of a sandy nature, preferably

quartz sand. Perfect drainage is necessary, and Ludulating or hilly

land is preferable". (J. F. Rock.)

VII, Planting. z.oles to receive the small trees .(:. omrs tall)

should be dug about 7f eas. deep and.a meter in dieaeter. The holes

should be filled with rich top soil, if dry apply water to moisten. .Set

the tree so it will stand about five or ten centimeters lower than it

grew in the greenhouse.

VIII. Trading. Suitable shading m at-.-ial as a protection,

against the sun during midday will be necessary fr at last one or two

ears. In the natural state the small trees are shaded by the larger ones.

Pala leaves cut into about two meter lengths and stuck firmly into the soil

.can be successfully employed. Ticse will also provide protection against

dry winds. A piece of thin cotton cloth (canibraia ordinaria) about a meter

square nailed across a wooden quadrangular frame, is more expensive in the

beginning but more economical in the end. If the frame with the cloth
on stakes
stretched across it is nailedAabout '0 emrs. taller than the tree, it will

afford shade from about ten o'clock until two. Palm leaves placed on

the north and west of this shade during the dry season will keep the air







Athe cloth more humid.
IX. Cultivation. No trees or shrubs should be allowed to-grow

within the orchard planted to these trees. The space between the rows

may be planted to a farm crop that will i-r-ture by the end of the rainy

season but no )lcInts of any kind should be allowed to grow within a meter

of the trees the first year nor within two meters the second year.

During the rainy season all weeds and grass should be hoed

off to the distance of a mater from bhe tree. \ qhenever the surface of

the soil becomes dry or hardens it should be hoed ao as to Ikeep it mellow.

A covering of dry herbage makes a good waulching and will prove advanta-

geous to the tree if vigilance is excercised to destroy termites and ants

a well as other noxious in:;ects or .nimals.

During the dry season the soil should be covered with dry

herbage to a distance of two meters from the tree. Thlis mulching should

be removed every week and the ground urener it hoed thoroughly in order

than the soil moisture nmay be conserved and that mach of the rotting herb-

age may be incorporated viIth the soil to supply the deficiency in humus.

Z. lPruning. Do not prune!. Every sprig out off and every leaf

pulled off means a retardation of gro'.7th. Every diseased laaf and very

half dead or diseased sprig should be cut off with a sh.rp knife, but the

doctrine believed in soive quarters that pruning stimulates growth is false

and fails every time it is put to a rigid test.

XI. Distance Between the Trees. oet the trees 15 to 0O meters

apart each way. Sore of the most profitable citrus orchards in the world

are planted at this distance and an orange tree is a pygmy compared with

a Chaulnoogra tree in its native forest. Then, too, :%e aust remember that

we are not planting the Chaulmoogra tree primarily for monetary gain.

Every tree lost ard every year ofAdelay in the production of an abundant




-'3
rr $ -

Sharvest, means that we are guilty, through our carelessness or indiffer-

ence, of inflicting preventable suffering and possibly death upon fel-

low citizens.
The highest authorities assert that in the immediate future

the world will call for a million liters of Chaulmoogra oil, to treat lep-

rocy, J.pan, China, and india, with their teeming millions of population,

are sadly scourged with this dreadful disease. These countries are lo-

cated near the regions where the trees grow and will naturally have an

advantage over Brasil in securing what seeds are available. It is more

a question of saving horrible agony and human lives than that of econo-

mising on land or saving a little money. We have an abundance of land in

Brasil, but only a small number of trees to plant, so we are in duty

bound to sa-ke every tree as productive as vw are able in the least pos-

sible time. Trees spaced well apart will produce more nuts in less time

tian trees closely spaced. Under natural conditions the trees are closely

crowded and produce one crop in about every three years. NSo tree should

be planted in a spot isolai.ed from other trees of thio species, as it is

not town if the tree bears perfect flowers or not, nor whether it is

self sterile or not.


Here is the opinion of one of the Agricultural Lxplorers

of the Department of -griculture of the United States, as to the value

of the chaulmoogra tree we are so fortunate as to have growing on the

grounds of the Escola Superior de *.gricultufe. He knows the true worth

of this species and from personal experiences appreciates the difficulties

encountered in securing the seed. hen I wrote him that our small tree
was growing well and seemed to like the climate here, he replied. We
are glad to know .that the Chaulmoogra tree is holding its own... Pray.
over it and water it 4ith your tears! *




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