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Bitancourt, Agesilav. Secretaria de Agricultura, Sao Paulo. Instituto Biologico de Defesa Agricola e Animal. 1932

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Title:
Bitancourt, Agesilav. Secretaria de Agricultura, Sao Paulo. Instituto Biologico de Defesa Agricola e Animal. 1932
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Bitancourt, Agesilav. Secretaria de Agricultura, Sao Paulo. Instituto Biologico de Defesa Agricola e Animal. 1932

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00009

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Bitancourt, Agesilav. Secretaria de Agricultura, Sao Paulo. Instituto Biologico de Defesa Agricola e Animal. 1932
Series Title:
Correspondence and Subject Files 1921-1943
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Subject Files
Folder: Bitancourt, Agesilav. Secretaria de Agricultura, Sao Paulo. Instituto Biologico de Defesa Agricola e Animal. 1932

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000207:00009

Full Text



SECRETARIAT DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO

INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE DEFESA AGRICOLA E ANIMAL


AV. BRIGADEIRO LUIZ ANTONIO, 100
TEl.: 2 A4117


N. 408


CAIXA POSTAL, 2821
SAO PAULO BRASIL


Sao Paulo, 28 de Outubro de 1932


Mr.
P.H.Rolfs
Director Tecnico de Agricultura
do Estado de Mincs Gerais
Vigosa


Dear Professor Rolfs,


Your letter of Oct.22 was received yesterday.
received mine of 25 inst.


I hope you have


I have sent you back the Quarterly Bulletin for which I thank you.

Our artist is all what you say about him and something more.
He is a good fellow and works quick. I will have his name printed under
mine in the front page of the booklet.

I will certainly follow your suggestion and send the paper to
as many citrus pathologists as I may find in the reviews we receive.
Besides I am in debt with a good many american experiment stations from
whom I have received a great number of bulletins.

I am sending you a collection of the Sao Paulo stamps. Allow me
to offer them to your nephews.

Yours very sincerely




A---gesilau Bitancourt
Assistente Chefe da Secqao de
Fitopatologia


Anexo: Um quadro recapitulativo


AB/W.


" /'V






Instruoeas cue Regulam a Industria CGtricola


Do Coambte as Molestiaa e Pragas:-

Art. 1l No seu proprio interease e para evitar a
infestuaao de pomaree visinhoe, son os oltrioultcres obriga.oa a con-

bater as pragljs a molestlaa existentes nos seus pomarea quando o fun-

oionario agronomo do 4brvlqo de Citrloultura julgur indispunsavel se-

melhante combated

2 0 agronomo do Servlqo de Citricultura del-

xara por eacrlpto o tratame:nto aoonaelhavel a cada oaaso

3 A nenhum Cltricultor aerI pcrmittldo export'
tar o seu produoto quando o g4u de infestaqao do sou pomar fr aol-

ma da toleranoia admittlda polo Servigo de Citricultura.

4'* Para as evitar a oolhelta de fruotos prove-

nientes de arvore ; at-cad a pela "gommoae", podera ser exigida a co-

Iheita dos fructoo emqu;,nto Immaturos. 0 sao cumprtmento de semelhan-

te opera dentro do praso que sera estipulado, fara inoidir o pro-

prietario naa penas quo ostabeleoe o presento regulamento.

S* JAs fruotas eahidae no pomar deverwo ter o
destino que indicar o Servigo de Citricultura. Seaelhante enear8o

oabera ao proprietarlo da trueta e nao neoesarltamente so proprieta-

rio de pomar*

.Da Colheits

Art.6 A colheita 0 o inicio do benefielamento.

Por esso dove o eitrioultor oolher ae fruotas male utifrmens, mals

coloridao e deixar a-uoellaa8 manohdas, verdoenga, e deseguaes para

a segunda apanhia.

7- -1 So serl permittida a exportaqao do nen-

huma fruOta iotrioa que nao satisfaga aa seguintes exieneia:-

a) um minirno do 50% de ooloraqo alaranjada ou

amarella.
b) uma relaqo de acldo oitrico anhydrido para

com oa solldos soluvels no suoco que obedeqa ts seg intes proporqoes


* -





-2-


minimas segundo a variedade e especieo
Laranja Bahiana 1:6
Laranja Pera sl 6

Outras variedades de COSinensia
enzertadas 1:6

Frut de a do arvore doe p franco 1 6

Tangerinas 15 5
Art* 80- Quando so tratar de uana exportaqao para outro

continent a ar feita em nav o o om prao ventilado e nao frigorifi-

oo, poderao scr colhdas tangerinas que apresentem apenas clnoo per
cento da ooloraqao oaraeteristica da fructa madura, conquanto que a
rIlaqo acides solidos soluvels antiefaqa ,a exigenolas do artigo 70-

letra b.

9** As ftrutas quo satilfaqam a exiuonaoa quanto a
relaqao aides solidos soluvels, mas que niZo apr sentem a poroenta-
gem de coloraqao exigida, poderzo ser exportadas quaano form colori-

das artifioialmente.
100- Flea prohlbido a ooloraqo artifloal de quaesquer

fruotas oitrioas que nao apresentem a relaqo minima de aoido oltrico
anhydrido para om os solidoa solaveis de conformidade orm o que wem

eatipulad no art. 7 letra be
110- Reaoonenda-so a eliminaqo das eepalas (estrelas)

das fruotns artifioialmente colorldas. Plea, por"m, prhlibido arran-
earem-se as mesmas do fruetos nio majeotoa a ooloraqao artificial*

1., PiFoa prohibida a solhetta, tanto para consumo in-
erno como para exportaqo, de arveres atacadas por umna das forms
de "gdeanoae" quando oa seus fructoo se apresentarea anormaea, secoos,

acidoe ou oasoudoae

15r- Nenhum ruota litrica podera ser exportada a no
ser quo apresente as seguintes poroentagens minimas de sucoo, obtido

pela extrqaego a mao ea tw eospremeder soonee de laranjast





5 -
-3-
Laranja e tanderinas 40O

Grape- fruit 305

Art. 14* 0 uso da thesoura de eolheita, de pont s bo-

leadas, e aconselhavel, devendo o operario oolher Im dols galpeas a

primeire, cortandAo o pedunculo comprido; o segundo, reduzindo-o de

tamanho, do forma quo fque protegido pola cavidade da ins rqgo pe-
duncular

aee laranjas de inserqio peduncular alta, como
a "Pera", reduzir a menores proporqoes o tr0qo do pendunculo, ou

colher por torqo, conservando as sepalas (ostrelas) da fructas

15- Ho so deverat effeetuar a colholta de fruc-
t-8i quando eetae o asharm molhadae pelo orvalho ou pela noblina,

Depole de umra huva, swoente s procedera a colhelta pasia. as doze
horas.

160- 0 ose da oaiza de solheit. quo e malor quo

a de embalagea, oa alqaa, dove *er goenoaliado. As oalxaa devem

lavar fructas ate um pouoo mala de dolo terqos( 2/3 ) do seu volu-

me: nunca enoher totalmente a oalxai

17r- As Oalxas de oolholet poderdA ser conduzidas

is oasas de embalagem em aminhoes, protegendo-se as mesmas can ena

oerados. Poderao ainda aer transportadas por estradas de ferro, u=a

ves que nao seja neocesaria a aldeagIo das oeaxas a quoe s utili-

so de vagOea ventilados. Quando o transported fr feto por estrada

de ferro, a aoonselhavel o emprego do ta-pas de sarragos nas oaixas

do colhelt se

18*- Fiea prohibldo traneportarem-se fruat a oitri-

oas esjam eam aixas de colheita, sejam aoondiaoonadus em oaux-s pa-
ra exportaq;o, nas estrades de rodagem em distanclaa malores de 25

Kap salvo autorisaqao per escripto da Direotoria do Serviqo de Ci-

trloulturae.3melhante autorisa'ao podera. am qualquer occastro ser
oassada, oaso as verifoiar quo a fruota esta sendo prejudioada nes-
as trajocto.




-4


Srt* 190- 0 exportador devera providenoiar para quo

ae conserve em bom estado a estrada sobre a qual sera transportada a

fruota destinada a exportaqao-,

,.20- Recosmenda-se faster "desoangar" a fructa

durante um period minimo de 24 horas depols de oalhldas o antes que

sejam trabalhadas.

21l Flea pzohlbid o empilhamento de fruotas

tanto no pomar camo na casa de embalagemo devendo as mesmas permanece-

rem nas eaixas de colhelta ate a oeoas ta de sere manipuladas.








Do Prepare e &mbalawem

A.rt 22- As operag~e que sof:re a laranja, antes de

ser embalada, sao: lavagem, seocagem, brunimentop classificaqao e se-

paraqao por tamanho.

253- 1snas operaqges *amente pedem ser excoutadae

quando em "Packing-Houses", ou em eases de benefioiamento dotadas de
agua corrente, serviqo do eagoto e seocadores meoanicos*. expressa-

mente prohibido lavar laranjas em agua estagnada ou parade, e enxn-

gal-as por procesuos manmaesa

5 Unico Onde nao existiLr eas de beniflclamento

e embalagem, dotada das machines ea enoiaes, o prepare da fruota deve

ser felto a seoco.
24A- As oaaas de beneftolamento e em, alagem deverao

ser ygilenicas, espaqoeam, bea ventiladal e illuminadaso
25- Recommenda-se, tanto na oolhelta como no pro-

paro da fruota, o uso de luvas de alSodio polos operarios, evitando-se,

por ease modo, ferldae no epioarpo, quo 8ao pontos de entrada para os

fungos.
26P- I prohibido a esataoionamento de fructas de re-

fugo, maohucadac, easoas etc., dentro ou em volta das easas de benefi-
clamento e embalagem.
270- Dove haver a malor vigilancia nas mesa de se-

paraqeo das laranjas, de sort que nao venhamr ter a~ mesma mesa fruetas

de tamanhos difforentes. Uma ma emb'laSem e quasi sempre consequencia

de uma an separaqno da fruetas
28*- 'oda fructa em uma mesma calxa sera de taman-

he unifoame, plrtenoendo a una so variedade.

29- 0 papel usado na embalagem dove tur as seguin-

tea oaracteristicaas peso de uma roama de 500 folhas, medlndo 0,60x

0,90, 4 k 540 gra. 5 ka 450 grS; resistenoia ao roompimento,6pontosa
no minimo.
Para que a fruota embalada tenha um aspect
atrahente e fire, e prociso que o papel seja bastante flexivel e re-









sistente para supporter uma torgao rapida e forte.
Art*30- Os tamanhos de papel usados commumente na
embalagem da laranja s;o os seguintest
Tamanho da fructa menanaesa do papel /

91 0,500 x 0,300 v
112 150 0,250 x 0590--
176 200 0,250 x 0,250
216 252 0,225 z 0,225
288 A menores 0,225 x 0,200
Art.e*-* Eaase dimenaoea tea importanola.* em se deve
usar am papel muito malor, nam multo menor quo o tapanho da fructa
a embalar. lasi trash serios inoonvenientes na corecqao da embala-
gem, pelo exocesa ou falta de omar do G aa eamada de fructas para a
qtu 1he faz sequenc ia
52- Floa prohibido o emprego de papel envoltorio
de fructas quo esteja em branco. 0 papel envoltorlo deve, obriga-
toriamonte, levar estampad a designaqao da varledade a a palavra
S.Paulo, ptdendo ainda serem indioadas a zone de origem, o name da
firm exportadora ser iaprsaso a marsa seoBaerolal.
Tanto os diseres coao qu Iquer dasenho que
for Impresso devaro oorresponder rigorosamente a frueta em quest o
Sa sona de origem.
533 0 papel envoltorlo para lar njas devera ser .:e
o6r roses on alaranjada, nao oonvindo a eor verde.
34** ~obrfgatorio que eam ema moema caixa oa papeis
envoltorios do fruotas seian do ama as eor, apesentando o mesmo
deaenho a disere..
355- A UxaM padrao, deatinlada embalagem de laran-
Jan tea as seguintes dimenaeSs interneas Op3OxOa 3s0oa60. A madel-
ra para o fabrale da aalxa deve aer elara, leve, ase oheiro aftivo,
sem nodosidade, de primeira qualidade, oompondo-se a caixa de duaa
teatelras, uma divla o o ao entrol sendo o fund, tumpa e lados da
easa feotos, oada u, de dua taboas, no minimo, para a neeessaria
ventilaoqo. A espesura da madeira das Seotealra deve aer de 2cm.,
bom oamo a divisao; as demais taboas devem ter o cumprimento de 66





-7-
ems., e a espessura de 5 a 7 mm., do aocordo com a r tsistencia espe-
ciflca da madeira. .Las taboas que former a bocca da eaixa, devem ter
as quinas mortasm no intuit d evitar mossaa da fructa embaladi. Nos
funds a na tampa, as caixas levarao sarrafos, quo pormittem a cir-
oulaqao do are
Art*36- A diaposiqo da fructa na oaisa, deve ser

firm e de modo a conolull-a em forma adquado. A flexa do arco, na
divitao do contro terse maior ou menor altura, do accrdo can o ta-
manho da fructas a frusta malor, deixando malorae vaslos na caixa,
exige malor altural a fructa menor, altura menor. A altura do prquea,
mento, no centro da oaixa, nao deve bor malor de 4 oms. e nao menos
de 12 ram
37r- 0 peso minimo par a oaixa de lar.nja lota-
da serl de 35sks 500. Sera considerada fraudada a oaixa com peso
interior so ostipulado.
380- Toda caixa de truet-s oitricas a eer expor-

tada apresentara na toeteira:-
a) rotulo de conformldade com as exigencias do decreto

federal ne de 1932.
b) em typos laros e bem visiveis, o nome da variedade

e o nmero e olassitfiaqgo commercial das fructas.
As indioagoes supra, quo nao constem no ro-

tulo, serao estampadas na ealxa em logr J imedlatamente aeima ou
abaixo do measmo
39 Na emb laoem deve presidir o oriterio rigo-
roso de technloa e honeetidadeo.ee o quo nao e possivel fundar e
desenvolver um comerioo vasto e duradouro. Quando o rotulo de uma
testeira indicar quo o sou oonteido S fructa da classes "Fancy" e
tamsnho "200*, deve-se dar a absolute garantia disao
400- Quando OS dizeres ou deaenbo do rotulo se-

Jam descriptivos tusa espeificada variedade de citrus, semelhante
deseoripqo devera corresponder a frusta quoe ontem a caixa.









SArtl*41- Laranjas provenientes de arvorea de "p4 franoo"
serao denominadas "Seedling", term esse J! conheoldo nos mercados
consmidores. Fazendo-se reprodusir qualquer arvore de "p fra.t:co"

por meoo do enxertia e resultando ui type con earaeteristio defini-
do e different das dmnals variedades, reoebera easa varledade no-
me proprio para distinquil-a dos "Seedllnga".
42*- Ei caso de dv.ida quanto i dena inaqa (ou olas*
sitfloaqo) de uma variedade, prevalecera o parecer do Servlqo de
Citricultura.
4~"* Mes mo se tratando de "edli4ng dever-se-s o
separar as fruocas com oaraeterlstioos differentes, formando-ae lo-
teo independents,








Da ?Maota em Transito
Art. 440 As laranjas destinadas a exportaqao, serao
transportadas de preferenaia em oarros especiae para es e genero de
mercadoria, o lroulando, preferentemente, a noitoe
4l50 A disposoIqo das oalxas de larinjas nos carrots,
serd feita segundo a linha de miaor resisteneia das mesmas, isto ,
sobre as teateirns par:' ia oamada. A segunda camada do eaixas sera
sobreposta a primeira, tendo dispositlvo identicos As Oaixas deverao
ser seguras por molo do tiras fine do mad4hlr prgadas saobre as
meamas ligando-as uoa a outra em aentido transversal ao comprimen-
to do vagao' ,

0- Podedr so optar ainda para Ia dispositivo
quo substitua eatq sgunda oamada per duas eamadas de calxas collo-
o adas sobre os ladoes
A pilha de ealxas nao derad ultrapassar dois
terqos da altura do earro, fioendo 1u torgo par a o troulaqao do ar
46 Quado as fraellid:des para pao-resfriamento da
fruota m Santos pemoittirj m que esmelhante operaqao "sa felta cam
offioienoia, competira as Sorvigo de Citricultura tornal-a obrigato-
ria, determinand e controlando o period de permanonoia no frigori-
fioo, a aum temper ..tura e grau de huaidade
47 0 trabilho da esti, dispoaiqao dab oaixas
de laranjas naa oamaras de baedo, oaeo direetamente fisoalisados
pelo ServPio de 01trioultura.





- 10 *


Da ClaG1ifoasgo Coamer'oal
Art.48*- As fruotas serao elassifioadas em trees cl:,ises,
empregando-se para denamlnal-as a torminologia nglLesa, terminologia
essa ji multo ecaieoida nos meroados connumidores*-

la. Classes "Fan* frutas ooa todom os earactoeristioos da varie-
dade, sendo coloridas em hbeio isentas de qualquer manahn ou machu-
cadura.
2a. Classe Selected" fruotas com todos os oaraoteristeiso da varie*

dade, podendo apparenter pequeno defettos ou manchas que de nenhum
modo possam prejudloar a fructa a nao ser pelo seu aspecto externo.

laea manohas poderao attingir a 1/5 part da superlotle da fruota.
a. Claase 'Standard"* fruotas ocm S0 caracteristlooe da varieda-
de, podendo variar ligeiramente quanto a form, oar e tatMura* Pode-
ra ainda apresaetar manchas queo ao prejudlquea a trust a n0o aer

polo sou aspect externo e que nao altrapasmaa de ma. terqa part da
superficial da mbaamr ,

49- Fiea prohdi ida outra qualquer classifleaqo
quo n1o sOja aquella constant do art. supra*

50- Cabo aos rtseoes do interior vedar o e'r.bnrque
de truotas olassltieoada em olases duporlor a que portenoeom





11 -


Do Re istro doa Exnortadorse de ?rFot'U CitriLOasl

Arte 510* NGo oer licito a nenihma pes8sa export ,x frue
tas citrioae aeem que, co uma anteoedenoia minmia de quinle dias, ten-
ha dirigido requerlwinto devidmnente estampilhado comr estampilha esta-

dual de Rs. 2000, a Direstria do Serviqo do Citricultura, solicitan-
do a aua inscripqgo camo exportidor e o registro da sua maroea

0 interest tdo far constar o name da firm,
o endereoo, o e somente export dor ou tambem produotor, oa logares

do oand pretend exporter, oa praises portoa para oade s~ri desoina-

da a meroadoria e qaaes as peasaae ou firmas inoumbidae l a distribul-

q;o e venda da mmeanaDevVer juntar, se dupitleas rotuloe e papeos

envoltorlos da firms
a obrigatorlo aoa exportudores so regiatra-

rem annualmento*

A falta do re satro aejeitara aquollo quo pro-
eure exportar fmaeta a ctricas a recuse do oertitioado do embarque.




* 12 -


!a FLIoaliZaon o do Coierolo Do ruoEtag Citricas

Art.524 A fisoalisaqao do commrercio citrioola consta-
ra da fisoalisagao nas sonas de manipulaqV o da fruota e da fiscalisa-
qgo em Santos e em outros pontos de exportaqgo nas frantelras do esta-
do*
53*- Nas estradas de ferro o embargue do fructas
citric preparadas para exportaqao sera pcrmittlda ssmente median-
to apresentaqlo do oertifioado de e~arqui assignad. pelo cmapetente
fiscal.
544 Se~r negado soaolhante oertificado do embarque
* partida que contenha qualquer fruoto p6dre ao porcentagem superior
a 2% do fruotoa conrsderados trfc oa, lato S, olassifloados abnixo
da olasse "Standard"
$55' Deverto ser examinadoa polo fiscal um minimo de
2% das ealxas antes de ser prohibido o emabarque dEsa mesmas. Comtudo,
de o aousm aooio con o exportador. poda4 sor examinada poreenta-
inferior a 2%.
560 0 prepare a e mbalags dos fructose deverlo cor-
responder as domati exizencins do present regulamento-*

57r 0 exportador avisara ao fiscal quando preten-
der esbaroarum a partida por estrada de ferro co1m um anteodenoia
min'sma de vfate o quatro horas, sob pena do nao 1he ser fornecido o

certificado. Flear. o fiscal autoria do a near o ertifloado quan-
do vier enoontrar o V&ea4 ja oarrogado*
580- Partldas aprohendidas pelo servlqo de flTcalisa-
qao poderso ser repasa adas e apesentedas para novo exam.
59r1- m Santos. o fiscal de ombarques dar por escrip-

to so interesa-ado on ao seu representants os motivos da aprehenqao
da partida.
60*- Quando ua partida de fruotas condemnadas so
&ohar uAturado no mesno v-go com outra em boas condligos, o expor-
tador providenoiara sobte a devida separ:-. o antes que o vagao om
quest& entire para o caeas :








Art610- Ao exportador caber o0 direito de apolar contra a
deolso do flsoal em Santos* A reclamag-o sera feita por escripto
dentro de 48 horra depots da aprehen ao da partida, devendo ser di-
rigida so proprio fiscal e mando obrigatorio o deposit do Roe.....
2000000 ( dusentoo all roes ), page so memo.
A artida rejoitdar ser novementse inspetlonda
pro urna comnmssao eamposta do Director do Servigo do Citrioultura
ou oan reprseontante, do um fun ionario agranomo do ervigo do Vbr

gilanosa Sanitarla, do us representante da Soltedade Rural a do ou-
two da Assoolaqwo Paulista de AgrewaOta

SUI aie As despease do representmite de qualquer
destas duas entidades, *e.o cuettadas pole Servlqo de itr ioultu-
ra, nao podendo as mesras ultrapassarem de 100$000 per peasoa.
Arb t62 Sendo ureagda a deeolao do fteeal de embar
ques, o deposit de 2000000 sera devolvides Ri ease eontrarto, se-
melhante deposit oe er editado i renda do Serviqo de Citrteultu-
ra.
63- FPruetas eitrieas, em quantldade superior a
vinte oalxas, exportadas para outroe estado do pals, estaaro saJes-
tas a ldentiea fisoalisag~o qu aqaellas destinadas ao extranjeiro.
6ji- FlVea obrigatorlo netlfloar-se & Directoria
do Servigo do Citrioultura ooma uam anteeedencla minima de quaren-
ta e olto harass, do qualquer partida de fructas oltricas, exeodento
do vinte oalxas a qcu so destiny a ser export',da do Estado per ou-
tra qualquer via que aeo seja a do port do santos.
65*- Quiaquer peo sa ou firm quot-
a) exports, penmitta ao prooure exporter frue-
tas oitrloas do manelir a aootra iar o Pegulamento supra,
b) opponha obstaoulo8 a ur fiscal so dosempenho
legal do sea cargo,
e) recuse remover frusta aondemnada, seja da oa-
as do embalagem ou sus arredores, oeja da propriedado do estrada
de ferro ou Cia.Docas le Santos,




-14


d) reouse a asuprlr qualquer clausula do present regula-

mento,
estari ajeotl a um na alta anun superior a Rs.5001000 (

quinhentos mil rola), a Jtso da Direotoria do Servlqo do Citrioultu-
ra podando, no oaao da ntl relanidneta, sor ithe as aado o diblito

de esparotaqo do quaesquzr trustee durante anno vigento ou defniti


Art,66*" Cabe ao Dlrstoar d Sarytgo do Cltrieultura o

dirlto do modifiear e altearaw prasento reulaento no quo ooneear
no as oaustulus Sgulntaos-
a) a manolra a oe oaaO do e fazer o registro dosa x-

portadore ia,
b) a anteoednoi oe quo dmarAf ser avisadoa os fla-

eaea da hera da parida da tress e earrega mosgo da trustas aitri-
ams de hoa do ptlda do UM oem .r*riIPI!no do fLue8 oitfL-


a) a m an itra dso araramm as eoaime do oeportaqo

amaia ema tmbebm os papois envoltarois das truotas

6) a preasentage a dor osax.in.a do qualquwr prtlida
do truotas a expor'tr,
e) o logar e sondloea par o repasie do fruotas spre

headidas ea Santos,
f) an geral qualquor maddld quo venha totar matls Wo

feleants o pronsen r. g.nlatlm@o quo -lbhor sonsiga oa fts ml*v
tradoo.
Art.670- 0 Govmen estadoal mal estamr ausjeto a nsnhum

proaesso ou asqo legal, s nt Uda poal detaeuao do fruotas, pola
.dtoriwraqrg daS emomas a per quasaqur preju sos advldos em ona-
sequenlea do present raeglamato.





-15





rt.*68- Nao obstante o present regulamento, a julso da

Dirootoria do Servo de Cltrdlultura pod~o ser exportadas parti-

das de fruotas eltrioaa quo ao satiafoqam as exigenolas eatlpula-

daa, quando eatas as deat iam a fins experimentaeas
*











Art*14*w As esoadaft empregadas na colhitta deverao ser
do typo de tree peaI
1601 Fpea prohibido 0 emprogo de oaixas de oe lhtta
que so acharem aujas, devendo-se procadr a rigorosa litpesa das
mesmas nas vesperas de today safra.
















SECRETARIAT DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO

DO

ESTADO DE SAO PAULO

Directoria de Publicidade Agricola




DECRETO N.0 4.919 DE 3 DE MARCO DE 1931

ORGANISA O SERVICO DE CITRICULTURA

O CORONEL JOAO ALBERTO LINS DE BARROS, Interventor Federal no Estado
de Sdo Paulo, usando das attribuiqces que Ihe sao conferidas pelo art. 11, 1.*, do Decreto
Federal n." 19.398, de 11 de novembro de 1930, e em execucgo da Lei n." 2.356, de 31 de de-
zembro de 1928,
considerando a conveniencia de dar autonomia ao Serviqo de Citricultura, que vem
funccionando sob a dependencia do Instituto Agronomico;
considerando que esse Serviqo deve comprehender nio s6 as experiencias culturaes
referentes a producq~o das melhores variedades de laranjas e o fornecimento das respe-
ctivas mudas, como tambem o estudo de todas as quest6es e assumptos que interessam ao
desenvolvimento da citricultura no Estado;
considerando que urge habilitar o Servico de Citricultura a prover A fiscalizacqo dos
pomares e do beneficiamento, acondicionamento, typos de padronagem, bem como A clas-
sificaqco das laranjas destinadas A exportaqlo,


DECRETA:


Art. 1.0 Ao Servico de Citricultura, subor-
dinado A Secretaria da Agricultura, Industria e
Commercio, compete:
a) Fazer as experiencias culturaes necessarias a
determinacdio das melhores variedades de la-
ranjas aconselhaveis, attendendo As condi-
cqes mesologicas do Estado e As exigencias
dos mercados consumidores.
b) Estudar e aconselhar aos citricultores os pro-
cessos e meios mais convenientes para a for-
maccao dos ),pomares, seu tratamento e cultu-
In, iefema contra as pragas coi O coIncur-o
do Instituto Biologico, e colheita.
c Estudar e indicar os melhlires meios para o
Ieneficiamento. acundicionamento e trans-
o:'rte das laranjas destinadas a exportaqci:,
bern conmi os typos de padrinagetii e cla-si-
ficacao das inesmas.
d) Fiscalisar os pomares e a exportaCio das la-
ranjas, de acc6rdo corn o disposto no presein-
te Decreto e nas instruccqes approvadas pc-
I, Secretario da Agricultura. Industria e
Commercio.
e) Expedir o certificado de exportaqco, de ac-
c6rdo com o Serviqo Federal e cor o modelo
approvado pelo Secretario da Agricultura,
para o embarque das laranjas destinadas ao


commercio international, desde que satisfa-
gam is exigencias deste Decreto e das ins-
trucq~es em vigor.
f) Fazer o registro dos exportadores de laran-
jas, obrigando-se estes A complete observan-
cia dos dispositivos vigentes.
g) Fazer a avaliaqco das safras e o levantamen-
to estatistico annual da producqio de laran-
jas no Estado, corn discriminaqco das expor-
tadas para os mercados estrangeiros e das
destinadas aos principles mercados de con-
sumo internoi, indicando os precos alcanca-
dos pelas inesmas nesses mercados.
h) Fiscalisar os installados
pelo Governo. de acc6rdo corn o ajustes ou
contractors celebrados entire este e os produ-
ctores.
i) Promover a organiza;ao de cooperati\as de
productores de laranjas.
Art. 2." As estacoes experimentaes de citri-
cultura existentes em Campinas, Limeira e So-
rocaba ficam immediatamente subordinadas a
Directoria do Serviqo de Citricultura, que tera
sua sede na primeira das mencionadas estacqes.
unico AlIm dessas estaq6es, outras pode-
rdo ser criadas, de acc6rdo cor as verbas con-
signadas na lei do orgamento.


,l
-i
*i -a









-2-


Art. 3. Os trabalhos a cargo do Serviqo de
Citricultura serio orientados e superintendidos
pelo respective Director, auxiliado por:
1 Encarregado em cada Estaq~o Experimental
1 Chefe da Fiscalizaqco e 1 Auxiliar, no porto
de Santos
Fiscaes de embarques nas estradas ferroviarias
Fiscaes de pomares.
1.0 Este pessoal, bem comd o Director du
Serviqo de Citricultura, sera nomeado ou contra-
ctado, podendo tambem ser admittidos por con-
tracto os auxiliares especialistas necessarios.
2.0 Os vencimentos serio fixados nos ac-
tos de nomeaqco ou nos contracts.
3. Serio admittidos'como diaristas os da-


ctylographos, serventes ou operarios que forem
precisos, com os salaries marcados pelo Secreta-
rio da Agricultura, que autorisarA a admissio,
conforme as necessidades do serviqo.
Art. 4.0 As despesas decorrentes da execuqco
do present Decreto serao realizadas por conta
das verbas consignadas nas leis do orqamento
para o Servico de Citricultura.
Art. 5." O Secretario da Agricultura, Indus-
tria e Commercio expedira as instrucqoes neces-
sarias para a b6a e fiel execucio do disposto nes-
te Decreto, que entrara em vigor na data da sua
publicaqio.
Art. 6.0 Revogam-se as disposig6es em con-
trario.


Palacio do Governo do Estado de Sio Paulo, aos 3 de marco de 1931.

JOAO ALBERTO LINS DE BARROS
Edmundo Navarro de Andrade

Publicado na Secretaria de Estado dos Negocios da Agricultura, Industria e Commer-
cio, aos 3 de marqo de 1931.
Eugenio Lefevre Director Geral.





Secretaria da Agricultura, Industria e Commercio

INSTRUC(;ES QUE REGULAM A EXPORTAQAO DE LARANJAS

ACTO N. 1240

O doutor Edmundo Navarro de Andrade, na qualidade'de Secretario de Estado dos Ne-
gocios da Agricultura, Industria e Commercio do Governo Provisorio do Estado de Sao
Paulo, de accord com o artigo 5. do Decreto n. 4.919, desta data, resolve approval, nas
folhas que corn este baixam, as instrucq6es que regular a exportacqo de laranjas.
Secretaria de Estado dos Negocios da Agricultura, Industria e Commercio, aos 3 de


margo de 1931.


PORTAgAO DE LARANJAS, APPROVA-
DAS PELO ACTO N.0 1.240, DE 3 DE MAR-
CO DE 1931, DE ACC6RDO COM O ARTI-
GO 5." DO DECRETO N.o 4.919, DE 3 DE
MARCO DE 1931>.

DA COLHEITA

Art. 1.0 Nenhum citricultor terd permissio
para exportar a sua producqSo, quando o grAo de
infestaiao do seu pomar f6r acima da tolerancia
admittida pelo Serviqo de Citricultura.
Art. 2.0 Sendo a conservaqco da laranja af-
fectada pelas pragas, mesmn o em traniito e nos
mercados, e reconhecenuido--e experinientalmente
que as pulverizacues incecticimas e fungicidas con-
servam a integridade da fructa, sio os citri-
cultores obrigados a fazer o tratamento de inver-
no nos seus pomar.;, con;tando de umna p tda de
limpeza e arejamento., e pelo menos. duas pulve-
rizacqes, de accord coin a recommendagao do
Serviqo de Citricultura. ..


(a) Edmundo Navarro de Andrade

Art. 3. A colheita 6 o inicio do beneficia-
mento. Por isso, deve o citricultor colher as fru-
ctas mais uniforms, mais coloridas, e deixar
aquellas manchadas, verdoengas e deseguaes pa-
ra a segunda apanha.
Art. 4. Sera permittida a colheita, quando
a coloraqao da fructa do pomar attingir a 50 %
da producq~o.
Em tal opportunidade, a analyse da fructa deve
revelar, no minimo, 1 de acidez para 8 de assucar,
isto 6, relaqSo acidez para solidos soluveis egual
a 1: 8.
Art. 5." O uso da thesoura de colheita, de
pontas boleadas, 6 aconselhavel, devendo o ope-
rario colher em dois golpe- : o primeiro, cortan-
do penduncuilo comprido; o -egundo, reduzin-
do-o de taianho, de f6rmna que fique prutegido
pela cavidade da iiinercao peduncular.
Na. laranjas de in ercaio pedluncular alta. cro-
nio a ,Pera, reduzir a menores proporg6es o tro-
go do penduncutlo. ou colher por torcao, conser-
\ando as sepalas (estrellas) da fructa.
Art. 6.0 O uso da caixa de colheita. que e
rgiiq qie a de embalagem, corn alas, deve ser
Xa a


-is 'I.


; *" .. * ' ',. -t.
BB ._ai.. .a. ... .. ... _* ,^ ... .. .. ,* *T-,it-te ffel .tf ', ..'-








- 3-


generalizado. As caixas devem levar fructas at6
um pouco mais de dois tertos (2/3) do seu volu-
me; nunca encher totalmente a caixa.
Art. 7. O citricultor deve evitar, o mais que
puder, movimentar as caixas de colheita, em be-
neficio da fructa e da sua propria economic.

DO PREPARO E EMBALAGEM
Art. 8. As operac6es que soffre kt laranja,
antes de ser embalada, sao: lavagem, seccagem,
brunimento, classificagio e separacao por tama-
nho.
Art. 9. -- Essas operac6es s6mente podem ser
executadas quando em , ou em
casas de beneficiamento dotadas de agua corren-
te, serving de esgoto e seccadores mecanicos. E'
expressamente prohibido lavar laranjas em agua
estagnada ou parada, e enxugal-as por processes
manuaes.
unico Onde nio existir casa de beneficia-
mento e embalagem, dotada das machines essen-
ciaes, o prepare da fructa deve ser feito a secco.
Art. 10.0 Recommenda-se, tanto na colheita
como no prepare da fructa, o uso de luvas de al-
godfo pelos operarios, evitando-se, por esse mo-
do, feridas no epicarpo, que sao pontos de entra-
da para os fungos.
Art. 11.0 E' prohibido o estacionamento de
fructas de refugo, machucadas, cascas, etc., den-
tro ou em volta das casas de beneficiamento e em-
balagem.
Art. 12.0 Na embalagem deve presidir o cri-
terio rigoroso de technical e honestidade, serm o
que nao 6 possivel fundar e desenvolver um com-
mercio vasto e duradouro. Quando o rotulo de
uma testeira indicar que o seu conteuido e fructo
da classes A>A e tamanho <200>, deve-se dar a ab-
soluta garantia disso.
Art. 13.0 Deve haver a maior vigilancia nas
mesas de separacgo das laranja., de sorte que nio
venham ter a mesma mesa fructas de tamanhos
differences. Uma ma enmialiageii 6 quasi sempre
consequencia de uma ma separaaio da fructa.
Art. 14.0 O papel usado na embalagem deve
ter as seguintes caracteristicas: peso de uma
resma de 500 folhas, medindo 0,60 X 0,90, 4 ks.
540 grs. 5 ks. 450 grs.; resistencia ao rompi-
mento, 6 pontos, no minimo. Para que a fructa
embalada tenha um aspect attrahente e fire, e
ircci-c qiue o papel seja l:astante flexivel e resis-
tenrte para supp:irtar uina torca., rapid e ifrte
Art. 15." ()s tamanhariLs fie papel u-.ai.j- com-i
niiuminierite na enimbalageni dte laranla ,-io os 4e-
i ii elei:


Tamanho da fructa
96
112 150
176 200
216 252
288 menoires


Dimensio do papel

0.230. 0.300
C0,250 ( 0,250
0.225/,- 0.225
0.225 x 0.21X1


.rt. 16. Es'.a-.s Jiiimii:.-i .e tern inlmportaucia.
Nen se dece iuar um pape[ muiio maiir, neem
muito menor que o taianlo 'lda fructa a embalar.
Isso traz series incoilm\eniiete, na correctao da
embalagem. pelo exces-o ou falta de cama de
uma camada de fructa para a que Ihe faz :e-
quencia.
Art. 17. A caixa padrio, destinada a emba-
lagem de laranjas ter as seguintes dimnnsbes in-
ternas: 0,.m0XO.m30XO.m60. A madeira para o.


fabric da caixa deve ser clara, leve, sem cheiro
active, sem nodosidade, de primeira qualidade,
compondo-se a caixa de duas testeiras, uma divi-
sio ao centro; sendo o fundo, tampa e lados da
caixa feitos, cada um, de duas taboas, no mini-
mo, para a necessaria ventilag~o. A espessura da
madeira das testeiras deve ser de 2 cm., bem co-
mo a divisio; as demais taboas devem ter o com-
primento de 66 cm. e a espessura de 5 a 7 mm.,
de acc6rdo com a resistencia especifica da ma-
deira. As taboas que formam a bocca da caixa,
devem ter as quinas mortas, no intuit de evitar
mossa na fructa embalada. Nos funds e na tam-
pa, as caixas levario sarrafos, que permittam a
circulaclo do ar.
Art. 18.0 A disposicao da fructa na caixa,
deve ser firme e de modo a concluil-a em f6rma
adequada. A flecha do arco, na division do cen-
tro, terA maior ou menor altura, de acc6rdo com
o tamanho da fructa: a fructa maior, deixando
maiores vasios na caixa, exige maior altura; a fru-
cta menor, altura menor. A altura do arqueamen-
to, no centro da caixa, nio deve ser maior de
4 cm.

DA FRUCTA EM TRANSIT

Art. 19.0 As laranjas destinadas A exporta-
cgo, seraio transportadas de preferencia em carrots
especiaes para esse genero de mercadoria, circu-
lando, preferentemente, A noite.
Art. 20.0 A disposiclo das caixas de laranjas
nos carros, sera feita, obrigatoriamente, segundo
a linha de maior resistencia das mesmas, isto 6,
sobre as testeiras para a primeira camada; as duas
camadas superiores serio feitas sobre os lados, de
sorte que a pilha formada attinja os dois tergos
(2/3) da altura do carro, ficando um tergo (1/3)
para a circulagio do ar.
Art. 21.0 O peso minimo, para a caixa de la-
ranjas lotada, sera de 32,ks.500. Sera considerada
fraudada a caixa corn peso inferior ao estipulado.
Art. 22.0 Ao deixar a casa de embalagem, a
caixa de laranjas, bem como o papel envoltorio
da fructa, deve, obrigatoriamente, levar estam-
pada a designacgo da variedade, sua proceden-
cia, nome do exportador, classes e tamanho com-
merciaes. Si o portador possuir marca commer-
cial registada, deveri exhibil-a na testeira da cai-
xa. em rotulagem condigna, nas dimens6es va-
riandu dc 0.20\0,20 a 0.25' :.25
.\rt. 23." E' .brigatorio c. pre-re-friament'i
da fructa. de' cind- a suai pernianencia -er. no mi-
iiniioi. de 72 h.ra. eim a:,r azeniagein fria. a tem-
lperatMua e hutinuiade determiiinatlas e ciitr,-ulada.
pelo Servico) de Citricultura no porto de em-
iarque.
A.rt 24." Do frigorific para as camara- de
bLi.rdo, ai caixas tIe laranjas -.erai' abrigadas da
chu\a nu do sol. duraiite o trajecto.
Art. 25." CO tral.alhi- da estiva e disposicao
da- caixas de laianjas iia camiaras de bordo:. se-
riu directa:mentc fiscalizados pel, Servito de Ci-
tricultura.

D.A CLASSIFICCA(.0 COMMERCIAL

S Art. 26." As fructas serao classificadas em
duas classes: Classe se dem as FRUCTAS DE LUXO: e a classes B,
as FRUCTAS DE GRANDE CONSUME.


.. *.. . : ...-.,'

...*. ...; .-W .. .. .. .
g-,'









-4-


Art. 27.0 Toda a fructa cujo exame nao for-
necer elements para se enquadrar nessas duas
classes e seus numerous, sera considerada REFU-
GADA. e impropria, portanto. para a exportaqao.

CLASSIFIC.\A(\0 COMMERCIAL

Classe A) Fructa de luxo

Fructas corn todas as caracteristicas da varie-
dade, bem formada, madura, textura firm, casca
fina. lia. colorida em cheio, isenta de qualquer
doenca. machucadura ou arranhio, de manchas
causadas por insects, poeira-, sujeira, ou pnr
qualquer accdo inecanica.

Classe aA) N. 1

Frucas corn todas as caracteristicas da varie-
dade. bem formada, madura, texture fire, ca;ca
final. lisa. coloraqco menos egual, isenta de qual-
quer doenga, machucadura (nu arranlio. de man-
chas causada. por insectii-, poeiras, sujeiras ou
por qualquer acqca mnecaniia.
Comno tolerancia na escala de colorafin, ad-
initte-se de 15 a 25 % da -uperficie da fructa, me-
nns col'irida. de acc6rdo com a variedade e o c'-r-
rcr da estac o.

Classe
Fructas corn todas as caracteristicas da varie-
dade, bern fornada, madura, textura firme, casca
levenente mais grossa e rugosa, coloraqio menos
egual, isenta de qualquer doenqa, machucadura
on arranhao, de manchas causadas por insects,
poeiras. sujeira. ou por qualquer accao mecanica.
Como tolerancia na escala de coloracio, ad-
mitte-se de 25 a 35 %c da superficie da fructa me-
nos colorida, de acc6rdo corn a variedade e o cor-
rer da esta~lo.

Secretaria de Estado dos Negocios da
marco de 1931.


AS FRUCTAS DESTA CLASSES E NUME-
ROS SAO CONSIDERADAS pE ALTO
PREgO E EXIGEM PERFEITA EMBA-
LAGEM.

Classe ((B) Grande consume

Fructa corn todas as caracteristicas da varieda-
de. bern formada. madura, textura fire, casca le-
vemente eugosa e grossa, apresentando colorido
em chei.:, com manchas irremoviveis causada.
por inectos ou acqfco mecanica, quando a fructa
em desenvolvimento, manchas que podem attin-
gir a quinta (1 5) parte da superficie da fructa.

Classe cB, N.0 1

Fructa com todas as caracteristicas da varieda-
de, variando ligeiramente quanto a f6rma, madu-
ra, textura fire, casca levemente rugosa e gros-
sa, apresentando coloraRqo desigual (mais inten-
sa .ou inais iallida), coin manchas irremoviveis.
causadas por insects ou accio mecanica, quando
a fructa em desenvolvimento, manchas que po-
dem attingir a quarta (1,4) parte da superficie
da fructa.

Classe cB) N.0 2

Fructas comn todas as caracteristicas da varie-
dade, variando ligeiramente quanto a f6rma, ma-
dura, texture menos fire, casca levemente rugo-
sa e grossa, apresentando coloraqao desigual
(mais intense ou mais pallida), corn manchas ir-
removiveis causadas por insects ou acqao meca-
nica, quando a fructa em desenvolvimento, man-
chas que podem attingir a terca (1/3) parte da
superficie da fructa.
As fructas desta classes e numerous, muito
embora alcancem preqos mais populares, exigem
perfeita embalagem, nao s6mente pela texture
mais frouxa e forma desigual, de acc6rdo corn a
tolerancia, como para chegarem aos mercados sob
a melhor apresentaqCo.

Agriculture, Industria e Commercio, aos 3 de


Edmundo Navarro de Andrade


cA





Dec.. 9, 9..














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-2-
His years of experience at the head of the Iowa
*Agricultural Col lege, in the agricultural bri ach, gave him
splendid preparation for this Secretaryship t Washington.

I think that this wil be the last latter thaf
I will have an opportunity to write to you before returningg
to 'lorida.
Very sincerely yours,



P, H. I'olfs, Consult r Technico
? : Cc inr.
?rF!C: : c '








SECRETARIA DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO

INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE DEFESA AGRICOLA E ANIMAL
AV. BRIGADEIRO LUIZ ANTONIO, 100 "-'
TEL.: 2 4117
CAIXA POSTAL. 2821
SAO PAULO BRASIL k '- ;, 25 de Dezeis) b :

::r. P.H.IRolfs.
.Diretor Tecnico de gricultura do
_i.-. de Minas Gerais







I have receive .1 t'.-j your letter of ". veer 19th here is
certainly some t'- ,;." vi our Post ce!

S C.:ript. You can _. press to have my leaflet issued
as soon as -:- ble! I ha-e .' to the DirZtoria de r. ''..-L nearly
a month aZc L. it has no yet gone to press. it will be an : -. :lye -:'.'i-
ca+ij., I t t-.r they are in trouble "ith the ". Yowever, as the only
awauings possible now are the rust nite and the oil emulsion -,, and as t:.e
"crisis", the revolution .:.-1 what not have i-'... our citrus growers to leave
their r've%.' without ja.:' care, I thiLk that a little .re -.'.-r. will not matter
much.

Lafilet on Citni diseases. As I tl.l --:; prevously, I si wri+ttin
a chapter o:;:. it*: .- 1:eases for Dr. ,'.:-r"'s book on Citrus. The chapter was
intended to have some to "'" ., but I now I see ,'- what I am writti:L
will make a little 'r-L of over 150 pages. So I am Ir : i to publish a separate
S/little booklet on Citrus diseases and write a resm of it for Dr. :-'_1-ro's book.
S |This Twill allow me ~- write -.-: 'i. about the e-'.1-, of the diseases, --i _-
S ( \would be out ;f ,':e in t-: book.

Meew diseases on Citrus. In this book I will write about w .'":.ea-
ses which have not been t_-act:- at all by TFacett: .. '-:'-t. citri h_-&. which
causes a leaf +, and t iSL blight t.. is easil ":l with rnt'-:m:r~.,
"-.-au-: areoladas" described by Bondar in his leaflet "TaoZ-tos Lr-i _. e :-
lestias !a Laranjsira no, B jll (Bahia, Imprensa 'fi.iial :. ";:t,- ) p. 74.
Oijiu;. d e?-; *ibed by the some author, _d also diseases that I think 'ave- not been
:-*_L1,Bd .from 1Bra.l, as pink !,e;e, ,:.ia '.-., lime arthraeose, etc.

Manchas ."- :1,~~ : m' .- ia a very interest;l- leaf .:t. "_'. a..2..
has had the ''-i .: o to .--. ms some s *2'..me, ate my request. He attributes the
disease to T'.. ..~ ~ ria cl i--"l. Penz. and, ir. 'act I have f'-und, numerous -ori-
the-ia in the .-ots. 'I e made 'ir-lc ascus -fltures of the fTini..' -r'1 I intend
to make inoculations.

I think t'-t I have san the very caracteristie and beautiful zonate
-;.ta in the 'Ditrieto F:ederal but I '. ~v not found it y.t i: Sao Pv..io.

Oid iuf. In the same specimens I was ':.; :.,uJ to fi'~r the fun-us
which Bondar z.-crib.s as OliL-. citri. It is not a true -!.t'um as the nm:yelu~ L
is not truly hyalin, thera are no up:':.I:: 'l and no catenulate s-ores. The
L~atit, h::-rever is t.Lit of an 0iiumi.








Brazilian L...:-.: ..1 ", .'.-s. I think ou will be interested in the
^- lloi.., fact, if you have not already been informed about it. -..- reo.re-
from the fruits ~"^.. "i in the "T. ..'. market were dish*--':..-.r I.-." this year. It
was claimed that a heavy i.-rcentage of losses occurred de to various rots.
However, a f'ri- i.1 of mine from Rio .." me the -I.,1 explanation of the fact;
You '" -:- that the Banco do Brasil has the : :-l.y of :.- -- '-.rc, I have been
in a "--:ry T.: '. trouble to pay my reviews in "....... .- United States. -.1 :--.,,e:
exporters have to sign a *-.;-. le- with the Banco which obligesther to receive
the ,-., ".rt of .'-.._: sales in Brazilian currency, in *R ", t' ... . bills of ex-
.":-_ of the -. at the i -. rate of about 40 rilreis. "s. if the o. .
arrive all rot'. the -. 'omise cannot '- f: "led and the : t.:..* is not obli-
-. to receive money through the ...,. As .a matter of fact all of them reported over
6"'. rots ... in some case .",,. s the oranges were not rotted to such an extent
they were sold at ;..' es the eiporter negotia : his '-111:-" -.- .b1 in
Pio for over '' ilreis f.. the pound. You ae that one cannot he too cautious
in drawi' conclusions f--..: our statistics _:." other official statements.

7 ,-t n Sab. TIn a .. ious letter I s'.Jt: '" the "Sttifi-
ciall; fr::.:.-:" scabs were few (5 to C on each fruit) obut :.*_-" ". -", the inoci:-lit
fruits show a- -.~.t ....._. sall cbs that .- :1;, : later on :n most cases can
be ':.:.-a'. hed as hea Lon. I not sure that small scas are due to
direct infection fro art.l :al inocsvation as they my be -'-: to a sec.-'_r in-
--tion by the first .-.1 sc'as. I a: neow cw ar:'., the fungus rom swe.t orange
and -- -rine wi+l:- .: .' fawcettii seven 'i f-: .u:t hosts in ~:y--r in,
bouillon, -'L--'., ... rice ...- and I have not over some ""c cultures. There
i.: no .:'.'; whatsoever as tth "'" :-- between the two fungi. Vy inocula-
tions of the sweet c:-. .: "-. on '_ '.* are ccitive !r. Die ..--: told
me :'-u. in4:' -.' pass some 'ys in ':, Paulo by the ..... of this ..-**..::t. I will
be -':-- h..._:; to show you my cultures and inoculation.

-; i... r :.t. I have recei-.::2' a -'...:.t letter "- him a few :._s
ago. '., not yet received the --ens I sent hi through the U,.. '. 1. of
-_riculture, so he i..tin!el to writ e a detailed letter later on,

SPress '"'1'.:'. -: :, that has be dne by us in our laborato-
ries or "i:"' is easy nd ,- '-r- ac -'l-: more or less according to our
S. --; is of course because we k:ow more or less -' '-' P r we can
Sarry r- with our ordinaryme ._' facilities and we do not want to reach
:, the moon. ut as soon as we are to ask ".- the -,.: ...- 'loa of anyone "r:.- outside
it goes all ". :. I was a .'- to ^,.:-'. some -::. bulletins, on the lines
S which you -- So I sen to '- Diretoria 7* r' .-'i : a f: of them but two
t i.. r.. '-. 1. 2 bulletin *+ -..'2: to urge t.: ;-'...*-, rowers +: -- y
<, ^- their fl:12- against mildew .:" Alternaria was i-..: .l when the safra was alr:_
'". .rves ---, ThI s e: hap : -.--. with oil the other ones. 2- ry -i --. was con-
S.:..i' to be not good _. so words were .-, .--.. oere altered There
S'* T could '.r-'.., :'.-:_i...i.-. 'hat I '.' written,. r' course the delay '. the publica-
tion was due to the fact that it took a .: time for the scribe to correct my
1 mistakes. I will certainly write some wore of these bulletins as :I .._ them neces-
sary, but I will .. : to hae the.m-: I -. directly.

I avail mysel. of this o. .it;r to send to you and -'.-: Rolfs *my best
-ish':3 fo oa -..:-: Christmas a a very Happy Few Year.

Yours very truly


.__ -- _- T V _. : .. . ,- .
'tente Chefe da '+ e ac de
Fit. --:t :i a










Vigosa Mina.s-GEral.
Oct. ,2, 1l32.



Dr. A. Lit-.;cou rt,

S*o Paulo.

M.' d,--.- Dr. l.ta iicourt:

.o" Is.'::s of -.ae "til reached us on the :'9~ of
this month. *

-u t MrLte. T1hese mites must be -ouht early
otherwise only te. evidence will be found. What the Floridians
call "uss tti:- is ofte- not evident until te whole rust
mite pu'.ci hS .s ri ished. If the rust mite attack oc-
curs on f'uit tart are ne- rl i mt,.t: c" m tu?.', the progress
of the disease u-y be not,. from d to d.'. .t that stage
of develop: of the fruit, e ite mi: je ie dil obs-rvee.
On the illustration tai;t vousset us, t_ fruit d .. :. -c
ro:sid able sizs efoe the rust :.ite tt-c:. ..-
qvoid- the vertical s of tie sun during 'i- hot month s.
During t,:-. oiler i .t.. .s thiey a.r miof e-aly .Lt. ibuted
over th:s '1nit arnd produce whot r.': 'Cloridi ns call "golden
rusts f

.ult L-e .S. Aff section of fruit i, aefr':tive
spotting v: ... ies f'or <.Iar to year in ti. -:me a -rove. It also
v-: :es from location t location in the sama zone. ConsequentIl
th rmp. t m ust be egulate:. according to the field obser-
vations, I would have e:p-ct ced to f'in quite a different as-
sortment if inspections hid bern made t t e ma time in the
pa:i ; :L i.. es of 0". Paulo.

Aume t ins of t s M; u:nu:.- t. I think the additions
tht you v m- .- t, ,~te mr:_iuscriot ore .:e ::.-propii.te. TShe
dee -..-_ qu-. i.::- 0o. course is whetC.., you con convince your
sup--:io_-. acnd thie p"inter that what you have ia is really im-
p--t _nt. if I V;e .e superior officer I wvoul9 insist upon all
:- it :*in into tkh publication.

I.n our l* -;^g.-?f ,_ rcult;,rai Literature we found it
v.=.-, useful to ha -. rCn..r' ,d..dinrs. He iil 3 to have at least
one oi very print , te. This ~-epDs thce reader line' up vith
what; the -it' want.; to tell. It later serves :.l as an index
to t., sead '.he- he nts to sr; t' -: locationtion mo.:p c -e-
fully. M -.sug~,esion rouid be on page 3, line 5, tier e would
be ,o1wr -u..h heading as "S r:-rin:: for profit". Pecr' Jnd&s that is
not e: .:tl :orrec t ut I t'.irk you wit "get the id.-l,









As a heading on line 4 on p_.:-' 7, I would suje-e:'
"a-ject th e Unfit". (Thank you veu much ISo the '" gen. u
notice of "A Mud- de ..itrus").

On a ? 11i, on the first line, i use the .-ord
'"m'Lc' i,..'. ..-, tie idCea is some.' -.ti= in iV os ;e have made
direct no.iym of the infiitiv-' "to mulch". '..ave en usn.
t Yo:'. 'oiarl" as a synon-'m of th1s infi: itive "to aulch".
Possbl, you A:cn _ve us a :y8 8e ap~r opricte ion;/m.

S^ .-^.t 0:-J. ._ .....b The s',.u ies I have m ,~ e j.d ti-i
fungus is cert I-ly v .. ima:%ercti.n;. .ou s:.oul: not allow
negative re'::its to influence your conclusions '. :' tly.
'The: is a possitflity that one is enlcouni-.-A'in -:oLe condi-
tion .1I1 gLivs. n- ---tive -r,-.uts -.d yet is entirely unper-
ceived c the zp:? ~ isi.:ter. .In my investigations on wither-
tip fu..-i I ai record ed I::.:.v ne- .tive res lts of :ttamrced
innoculations. ..t.- Miss liih i -w a- assis and
msde te hcS toi:i~:: t '-, w- thout t wece identical conditions.
HEr ?:a; i9^ iet *. vee al oi- ;r -:.* e,':L .un o ..U sitive results.
Yet neith: .aP-us cculd .Yscert::in wnhat thea rT i bie factor was.
ilnotleiar sol 23 ..tt- similar iri.: .nue d:'.C-ui: c:, it er-tip inves-
tigations :as tn. discovery of the ;:Y.* 'it hecial form of
Coletotfric im -! eosp,:.loides. Tihis :a.5 made -imultan-eousl-
:y Miss Mc4iocli and ,. "Vct, Eo:;g... .'; five 'u.: ed
ailes .apn: ;',r ::o'e t: ,o e.-s e: haoi -an t-ir; too
. ixr:.uce ifi f'-arit fer strains orf ': 1 .':.- s to :....'o ce the
.- c:t orta, :'-t withoutt .o:ucces. l~ M.i. .*aloc.h continued
the o -Ak at :.-.Tni nd rc'. .n'ebtt more-:e or ies incid ntally
I, de c Wlsure of o-'tot i lum lSo ..io.~:- .. .eac i.,o -..:
the other. 0'..U hl 21 -:-i : u. .: ,-tea wat .': p e fect fo-m ,
wouldd loo like. -' of us cou"l ,:e l deb-: m h .i'nin-tg cause
:as .id iliTLy .et .e c: eu.tion S.suin Ii n t:t it was a C -
-'-.-rsiolo"-alc c.if .;cice I the o'. .-. mB us .. So j see the
rso: f a c-:oniion, not to eit he n!--tive r; zults
to inr.lu nce yo und ly. Of uc.r.es i' th.-- is a mo p:ological
or :a ,I siilo10:ical diff i '-: ncs *-, f tf t .m4 time, it a.,..s s'::ength
to i.'..- coni:sion.

M__. ._lt, .. ; ren't.y .re;- to 1i, i:n.1silv
s.re or; 1 so- :. th mn. si
..,es :ou ..-. to have :u.o..0S of I, ou: files, If not, let
us iow ad we will o nm;l;y r:; .u i. tem.

V- _i c< 1' j ois,


'i ur"
P 1 3, :,n:-". tord Te.:nico -.e
S I .',..,r .t-urf do sE.t "o de i.n .s-G-.'...is
PR. r:







SECRETARIA DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO
INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE DEFESA AGRICOLA E ANIMAL
AV. BRIGADEIRO LUIZ ANTONIO, 100 NQ 245
TEL.; 2- 4117
CAIXA POSTAL. 2821
SO PAULO BRA.L. S.Paulo, 16 de i'aio de 193 2

Mr. P.H. Rolfs f, 30
Consultor tecnico de Agricultura do
Estado de .iiw.,: Gerais
Escola Superior de Axricultura
Vigosa


Dear Professor Rolfs

I have received recently your leaflet on "Prop,-ag!o do
Citrus no Pra:il" for which I thank you. I believe that such a

publication will be a decided step for the progre':.s of Citrus
cultivation in cur cciuntry because our experience is that the

biggest hindrance is first that the average grower is not ins-
tructed in the A B C of citrus growing and second that our
increasing citrus plantations are with few exceptions made with
"mudLs" of very poor quality.

I have taken the liberty to send you under separate cover

a few copies of my "As -::nchas das laranjas, como evita-las".
This little publication is intended to be printed with illus-
trations, but I want to have Lome -Lir.neographed copies sent to

people who are experienced in citrus cultivation and have obser-
vations on citrus diseases so that I can have their crigtioims

and suggestions. The first chapter on "A hygiene do pour" will

probably suppressed or at least shortened. Fa:-cett's key will be
substituted by a shorter one with only the diseases mentioned in

the text. To the description of the marks, spots, etc. will be
added a few words, in small type, regarding the etiology of the

diseases. A few more diseases: exanthema, sclerotiom rot, etc.
will probably be added.(f ar having difficulty in getting good

photographs and drawings as our laboratory is now distant from
the photographic department to this Institute and this will pro-







J
bably delay the final publication which I intended to have conclu.-
ded by the end of this year.
I will be very pleased to receive your free criticism of
my work and any suggestion be equally welcomed.
With my anticipated thanks, I remain, Dear Professor
Rolfs,
Yours very siiIcerely


Age silau 'Bitancourt
S Assistente Chefe da SecqPo de
Fitopatologia










ViCosi, -in ,s-Gerais.

Mey SS, 1932.
*


Dr. Agesilau Citancourt,

Institute Biologico de Uefesa AgricaFr--=

;0 Fau'dlo.

My dear hr. -Bitancou I

Y our letb. of y 186in !.is received by i.. on the 19th,

Tea ,-ies.>. d c.>ies ha uen r1civd two days
earlier. In the first pie?, .1 nt on:grtul.t you on
hi g. t- cou.s : out ;or in.ouscript rbfore pTubllsh-
ing. In tAi.s *v: you il. ?void c. rsi Vrpl iP.u)r of 1mis-
t.ke.s k..e u.: ...Ls3 o.l'i be incor-po-e- t&ed in su.ch an article.

Do Lot .e d.ie.ou --.gec if you fail to r-ite as well
as Fawcett, eoLor -:d i e, .-hu1. ''id thirty yev, r.e of e: ia ce in sc:i .: tL-i c icnvi :.i. ions and scientific v.ritings, Dur-
ing this time they have s.:. opli t:'.i::tt~ of corriUcting m-y
mit, th.- m..e. in t'.lt, e;.rlir puLiicctions. They have
attained their cresen-t eminrien-e t-,j-. h ,'-: ors ind d.iiLe;t
applic tbfion.

rGood. ipnoto g,: %ols an drawings ill be very diffi-
cult to obtain. n :J .y .ill '.e do it o lf. A
Sdepatan hoio pir .. i dem-rtiment i; Ctist is delusion
invented by iourocra~cy. ii ave l'? 1t ,or z i.,e in ll -. s and also
in oi n i o h a 'ficial" ohotcr...rpher expresS
what 1 .'asia '.3 s i thi-- hto, I: l ni t:.rn it 'ould -vre -tken
Lo do the worvvk iL.. Such Iar fo. c.fical1 rarely knows r.ny thing
LbPout sci-.n.e .nd r,..'el. c:-r s *' utfl.ing a :out it. ;y examining
't;catt. book, you vij. see 'hat rcalateively large number of
phoftograi'phe were C.: by him .t*'.Lf (or. :rc-c, p&.e viii, para-
gra&.h ,, line ..)

,On tihe firuat, p.ge of your letterr, line 4 from the bot-
tom, you mention exrntherns, I wonder how fr?-quntl'y chis occu s
Sin o raulo, i have sean no pronounced d case of it in brasil.
Those cases that i have s erm, quir~. export a.ttetion fo be
able to di.g-se th.,

iQThe tuiocript.

-. PAGE / &, 0 0L. -he necessity for sunlight andthe
S .. i-denc f onq tree u rAn :.'wth -i,.- tbc.'.har, is very
little, .:P- ,. t' EYeie If ,?;#, ,'-- 3--nd rasil as a








whole. PHOTOGRAPH NQ 1, that I enclose illustrates the effect
of abii9ihM shading and the traft on the nutriment of the soil,
occasioned by a nursery beingg planted in the vicinity of older
trees. These older tr-es were planted there only three years
before and are located in a north-w2vesterly direction from the
nursery trees. The first row in the .:Jr..-ery is tvo meters from
the older citrus trees. I'T* hurseery :."s are one meter apart.
1r. Bruno, shovn in the central portion of the picitre, gives
an idea of the size of rows Tyo and 'hree. -ill of these nur-
sery trees were of the same size when planted in the nursery.
HHOTOGRKPH B, on page ":2, of MA MUDA De CIT'-j3", illustrates
Ia-h W" a previous ours',ry on t he 'saim t-enth-hectare. This
photograph % ons i::t es clearly tht t.he quality of the soil
is not et fault. PHOT'GRiPH on page 31, is the -sam nursery
t ll iustr: at es on page <.h. he nulrs., represented on pge e 22
and 31 was au, :)uit ro sold some three z ars before the -
nursi'fi ilustrte,'d t y PHOTOT' .'H I J 1 was planted out..

Her? .r iIC t-t.e demCraonstrn tin that
citrus trees o nj.y four .o five old hive a very deliter-
ious effect .^ otiir *i t::uS b eS to ':) e dista-:e of six
met:-s. It V:a not M A-, t I t v a U -L a s t t d in t2 he
bo}'t-ogrh'., t : tJ Lt;-r'y r:a< book .n .- n,. rm1: s-.o ct. From
this you will see th, h.t our stf.!;.ont, -: "A t'JDA 1L CITiUS'",
t(hat -irse '' n v-c s kl. :td ;; _v;a-i ponar rows, or
in a pom:.r, is based on .xpy rie" c. This is not only true in
ina.sb, but is cl t:e ir :ia.

-.PAGE / / 0 ...R, Ve ::' ;Oo. Lss -on this subject
would not bo enough. TlE people do not yet urecimte the im-
porD..nce of e.it'e v Clci:: a.livtion.

PAL 4,2 '.J. '; C23 icus plan cd on ter-
r;.ces ti V.-^ta, for s1i or eig.it- yeas nojw. lhe e.':':'es were
so c0n.:i:tructe t .: t :. ur ..lu. >:.te9 co.ul. run off :7t the
loweri we dut i' . tall his. :Le VVe. nave aev'sr had rainfall
h for 'th wav.t t run of f of h thr-.ces, demonstrating
ver cle::. t,. t tn ? soil .i sufj'ic~'entl, absorbative to retain
all h1.i r,...1. en ,ho it be to.. ... ... as h. s occur'. V from
tiie b tie. The cuter riam Jf Ltt tr. as I has been high
-r'o-: to ; t' i9 .:.: from "j .n.. .ovr during the storms.
'h:'-r after the rainy spll lrSd assed, the water was gradually
absorbed into P:: ::il, .1hsr- it m -rC,-e to be utilized during
th-? di:'. s a. -,ii.

PA, 5, LIE; 6, we find. the vord GUMMOSIS. This
should changed, tc t! "-.-DIrGC,". If Jo3u will search in the
library for the Italiian publicGti'L, on. this dis -:e, raingi
bot- an c,,_ 'l~IrcSely advoidc the conclusion
that those *.l..!t pstholoi.Vts '.:re d....ling wit i. .t the Flo-
ridi2nn- call "P':.ot-rot". On p ge 66 :; 68 of "A Mud. de
Citrus" we attempt to give a popular exosition of how to dis-
tinguish betreal "Mcl-di- Goi,(a~n and-" :.".:,sis" q re:.-ding
fa'.i'etL ri'ther caresi'uy, yo. r.ill get e a. rath-r clar ide of
the differ ; .. ti.Ci.ons betEv'E th....-. diseases. J,1--- B --- vn\







of : I".. epoch in i.-L.., ;tholocy. Frit ) ho k, :*t fing in L. '
m, Lrka th .eQining of citrus ecology in t.sil. At t '- t nI,
p;actic.:.Lly ting ;.c -non v .a )out citrus p-1 thoilo. -. The rico-
scolo3 *^. z t'O .>nly c.-djunct those Priml tive 2 t;u ents in pl;.it path-
o:;1 couuL. rGa!I u on.

GL 5,^ .' i. Folio,.ing thUV first ISrce nce,
tij a shou.l ::e a 'in ter. ^ 11:; tion m.hidc c;:1S li .ctention to' tfhe
.f t.-;b Le :c::ci fartilii:rs c ^otf be pori ?.;ly *. loyc.
// i. ;-"r" t' t 'v;V. besn ,_.:i .ai ted 2" t 2soil. :. thz l.t tny
b.I., ta :; ;lzCi:. co of : ro er cui.tiv..cion, .5o- th:t th./: c< t:.:, it
cjce: or:' ca. ;r:ct f;oruSit s:rots s" h ;.as y.. ; :. ai Lc i i.L g in._ 1 j;1 r


I t~ ;: t ht; you should .so col; :.tt :.ion to the f-ict
thr;-,.t he 'oi c~.op (adubos v.-rde.;) should be -',>n duing ...-"
.?ainuy *l.i 0 '*okaed inlfto the soil. t the oLa-L..... .g of i.e
-.*y e:;,n. Feijo ,: porVc, is not an icdi~l c,'Qn i"a' .. it. is
nho ''^iv.tns ;:.oic enely dicti'buft a.ng che, citrus .:o_-'.ists.
Its d-ict 1.i in th. .t It is a pe. -;-1, A.n cJ..:.u;ntly t tie

th soil -. t deC: of 'oiture. r F 7ij1o soja, roparly

S'PAGQ t it W .;. h.'ou rect:~.;... "Luv. t c all : icas
.nicih ::-re ie 1 s. t ,i::uc for di stributiinr in:~cul ti,.
the tr ,i t liff:.n' ty:s .of gumi is: Ss *- r also
idei for oducin Lnui.ute cic trices on :*hid v scale in-
seccts e:; sily : te t leCnselves. I an: of ctu;o:" '- "erring to the
scaie insects tn:.t noimE-Lly ar~ loce tec on ttie coarser barc of
the terjun, A .sett;r r:_ L .... .: t iich.n .nd, OS-. S to
use d double st ,th -ordeaux mi~xure ad in thi hrili. of ex-
poD'ts a c, .;r -'-.te t:" .uio-n is ve: chea .s :d va:ry 'cc O.i-
c-,. Of couare if 'ordeaux mit::tLe iS. used on0 tih. trunkls of
. -.j,, it ;:-,..,L ::es folio :.. by :n u;lie '.- ion of insecti-
ci-:'- t ,. ; tr.croy the sc..i .

it is doubtful whether a fungicide should evc~r be
applied duri; the i,%nta-r tir:;.o.

I tlink y;'. ).uld include ,t. chapter on b'l:
Seffict of -neficia:l f-;oiii on COItilI.i::., sc:.le i:soectcs :..' r".;"
enclo..i; you r *hot.o;.' .,1. maia 1./ Dr F.Iucott, illustr.i.;- his
expert. ar' i in tC"e uSe of -'or' 1 ;-L: ;!re 'Tis experim t was
of course~ for otl:. :' uo. --, but the pho';.;.-, .h:. shows thli re-
suit :t f'it 2'..t was .'r-.ic of the trees z '- j-:1 vrith -ordacux
;.:... t-i e & r cd ..Ir.J of tl ,' trees tha t . no St s '.. :ed. ihis :.to-
grav h sho,.'-. vsry strikin.1. houthe eneficial fiinii cont.o.I
sc.l in Istation,

/;.L 17, LJ LD. Is vry common in citrus orcha.'rdsr
t'-rou-':out the t, tDe 'of iT-o P u'lo ind "inas, robail: els':--l.cI'e
in oreC rVL.i ;itre t-.erl- is a .ii:h lumidit/ noCd low v- .tfil. t i:n.






-4-
In nearly every orchard that I enter see from one to a
old, munied fruits hanging in the trees. These are nearly con-
s. ntly gi-',. off *".tres, .thu.s l ."ecting everything that is used
in th. .,:rove, e.pciflly the ~loves nid clothing of the people
w4io picak the finit. Li.,, PLel'. bo:0':a, anid picking bags are
nearly alv:.. reeking fll1 of thc,-e :,,o's.. Thie -.r.. king house
is usually r,. trruu-hly infoete, ith 1 ". .-.' th arly
C.-. 511ht nsqrly
evjbr fmit th'-t .: beer i-.j-rod car:. infect. Tness molds
r: a 2:.. .:e of great )rejUoice to the citrus inJustry in its
initial. st:, ea:.
P;GE. 18, 3LACK %OI'S, YS. n." anLuscriptt follows more or
*I:.- t dictum otf the '--orthl' Ari,:,ic. authors of to-.y most
of the writers ~e to 'Cin o ,. .; i t ths large
.r.o n t of d; -- t t -::-, t~lk rots did for:.:;erly t& North
... re.n-- :i it r, rasil I t;irl: it would be
d- ir.-.- ii e 'n treit t1.- bl.c!- r.-t- vith :,or E r :;.e-ct,

P!i. 19, i; G lI:D T.O:T Li;t- 7. Before internso"
I'.?-ild o cc9r :1 ? i:' d t? P.d-:-: i 1 :1 I ,

PA't;O.19, 1 1ii ? f).'' fh?;e bo::..;s --, ot c he an;' of the
. C---., .< rt ** r' nlr;l,?rly +"- re trgee ***^ch contain c- tay s;-rll

F' -c tt '.V*'.: e t" --.'" c;-e :. : *e;LetraM. .o uy.
o : isid< i: to 1.1.'-."- .:- .. .t ;it t t tranded. lT ese
.-ycelia '.-e le of -.' -..ii, ..:ii. :'f the spri.gg for several
. Ltd :: ?r i. .er o* t:P'ine th r.l.t th" .' th neenuncla.

'r<: !i> i:. i. o rid .';: :vf ..; kij;.g a p'actfis&
c.f :wh t t.: .i o : ...i.., 1 U i iu.tos. The button. is that
otion *f h e '" '. -'- orti .r. of t'he peduncle left
t : t ., t b n fll. off
-:*.!. : ' ..rf- ,":: ':erab _hle .;[...- ear.t i '1 o f by :.ui' a


P .. . ,e of t c .. .. t effective vays
of t> : ; -1 in b 1-:.i;- ig L.vr i to -:xine out thoroly tlhe
-.ff 4 s fiL. 11 1 ;prigs, liabs
.:... !e. v .: 1: t, r a t... "'*' ir r i.rr, twho wYa s on or

S*...r. ei .. of : .. i- .' i :.! .J. '.tural ocLety, used this
r e | :, ."' .. .ly. I e .' r : el siv:.!'- in nurseries
in Viqo; -: f ,-.u i. v.,, ..' .- ri C. C ict.LV 1"U; ethod has on(
d( .ct ?' 7 r v tuiir8 &vr a spraying
jib to a 'ic- st:-ni- r' .r or wno u I.iC '.1 l:.oprer- reading ouL
i '. c' ,* *J'rr e- vrn to an inexperience
la.borer. M',y -. it: .- $ lh th rsuS t '" .' thli-" had cma.plete{
-. :. -,,- -:.. ,; wa? --:,: c:;._ lly -,':: t -. reI .h'-d to .o back repeated
to reinr:s: b the numir.pel .*:i t' ie ..riie t,' ,. d finally ha.d to
fi:.i:- j with : -' 'n,~. i'h, 401il b..ni.fit from B e labor-
ers work \;.- that t---. . *:., ,: ~" ,;.- "- foi r m; to CGO







5


* sc El y p -i ..:1 .i; : .., -':o. (.-..io; -ces)
> .: 4 i ri ~'. ? .: c. L ]. t S ,
nLK .* i o r is ..:y '.. i L. : .s 0 t e fr its, ...;t

*i:co L.;. .j.. y. c:. ; ic ti .-. onb tha ,rat.:-nc:. of t].i 3j t on t'1 -
fr-itif ,, tree c .u..i.." / the "L:' d. fru b iJ g co. .... les l :'-..n it
*v if to tr h. i .: oo .: *i. -.. all 1'rIr-


:2 son th fir .at t ,.o as? .-.o -.' t.. i. sea-4
Sn .. in a el-" ,l: t ,....r tiv:. j,'. bS
S : . .. :.. .U . tion. t. . . . .. -..r

y i e 1 h.. -.-/ iL t e
; of .; e is uit- '- t .. iv f
i.. ...... 6 su i.hur i< .L ,. ._'. icien't- 2,.. ;:2 .... tl.,'do 1 t Jrk

s" '"- ' of .: h v russ ts . .--. uI'.
t . . I h^v c t : :t . , ... . ..... .... o f
1 . t hie . I. t .t. Tht f ti
:..!- . .4 .. . 4. 4 . L "' .--. -
** ,b we lrv5 iuch :'.. .t T'..it ," -.. r." to -* ic'. c,.U --

'. .. . wor


,.. 6t -:.0u '. ". I -
I. i l i0''


.. in U.. =. ci, ,s '/ ,l-'.er v .. -w-.- '-- --t
- -r i - .= n - 1 ".' i :'1 a / t 'E t :..... .. . .
"' 'i . . .. i c :.Ok . 'l s t' .. .. e. .. ,.^ '.". e: :: to0
1 t :> L :. ( ., .tiv, ti of itru.
'u )
I. v L) c
.r i t I.... ,' r '/ -
I v -




"-. '--' i- ." .
i A 'it i
Y, l ..J '. ,. : i L.- '. .itas
S. r: s r.!' ~". I ,:.'b t i . '..2 5i t. r in i:i

1. 44-. i L . .* v r,' .4 t e. :.1c : i -'.':Y .. tU : 0.1. i-
! ...... ,. L i.... c if :C i.. . i *. ...'

- it ..t r .: ?' .n ..v. i 1 .. .. .ry.
S. . t i i t.. .-

i .. t ', L c : h-... . L iv :. :d :.''..
.. -...* &.. ... il s.e t:.-. :-.r .i ..j '. r th: C' rni',:.1
: :y . . C.. 1 i .- io '.' ; d .ouri
":.'i *t .. .,' .. i. .h4 r ... .Un : .. ; .. '' j ''.- .--' th ....at
:...., . :- i .,".: h* ., of ii L .. a f , -i . i' c; n si' -
S :. :. .Ji'- > . C v ;. . .5 i' tl.i i;-:. of co. r
.*; :;. 10._ r .t.- ;. t.;.;, ii ,- si se e,... . '.. tch- .;* '. ,' r: ..u 1 ,.y
-. ; .:.. '.. ,n is t- ;.. c-)m -:'eu v .i it.





HrJ








Test & os of the ,r.. ipitate oe CS '-.. ter, then
a.t terval: : of .n r or .o for the n.:-t ei .'' ten


tl I
uon some '.1.. . lii'. 7, ot1 *:iso yoo:lill. :u .. to :. ch time
f :. th e ".t. ', .' v :. n i I

fres.' is anoth r one that*'V can :.' on yo: r gov- m.nt
ti:.e, S the 2te-e ...ould pay for tbi.b a' i.ent. rTaie a 'n -.I ::z r
uh ro. use an! l:y ic as i sp ; rcc'ie. PI ce
I i .tomleri sufficiEnt lord-ou:: mixture to cover the / pe
.:... L~c: o L;':i en u. t enbt cil '.;s ieves. io tsis for t f fir.t;
time L t1 fc au'' the BLor .--.ux .-: '.':-3 h s b r de, ,-.,i.;.,,.
Ssec., t; oa entyi leaves .':V hour 1 i' it ..' : m loot
of o:.- u i:.bu:r used for tce f L'.'t l s. ,
.eori:int s ,y .L: as as it 1: c., vsni *.t, givin- tvo ','."
inxi: _s. e n-.t / i; r:e .*.3.. r : ie o ion of j ...u
.1 :t-" f-r f ,p .., t.e -C r.; b fore .. I e.t this th e ':.c d,
'-l rZ. ev Q. 3 .jL th u.?

. ..s ... ci .:. :LL :. t 3 for e or t Dwo, tha
piL c t: u>2 '2 a .rik:! on the I:'. cor. f )ut as
S r L: .it t~ l.-' i:-.: r is cony ..1 .i't. fc:: r inolu h tcr h' s
r .-- on 1 ts to e.C l ,.-'.. t :, five timeter r:inf.ll,
7: b ... .'.'.1' ive o r ; '. .. . .- T.:'. .
r' sult^ t :- ,

-i.r his srtificisi r:i 11, ~- to i.: t :-J-~.ux
t. o ~ ith .t t3 '- or ; .. ; t L..c.
ats :t h: t ens.

..,i* v.ill. doubtlc ss o 'Lv ; : ::' T rc ., .roprietlt:ry
1 .. ici s. .o. 'of : 17.i claim t "a -ii, .i:. >: .r" for
tohvir" ci,:.e. c *y n. iZLng C I ,n-; ti tiv t t :en ror-
dau= : ir u cide, L. coiic tE
soon :;K th kno cout '.itr ..,i .: . n :ine


fi. it. c c i ns tru~ cion .


.. : c ; : ... '. .- .. t ine .oeL ~th.
S h :,.. ., :. ..t .. r ... .L, i .



.: ..* I C . 1. . : . t i. f e: -. ; t




it .. -. i ..;t c ts


L . .: : .o f L. r fin t ol s,
:hi. -t. . ..- .l it not I. Ic o ur i. 0 .. : c : y .
"''" .:- ici "..* o ^.o. ;iJ 'ic'-.: . ;.. : .. Lii / n '. -
-' r':-',. .. ..... F. c'-' t, il l- : :, ',L : L .ii;-t v ry .." ..'-
1i.L'..L. . ; v . . y ue ir ,- '-,u t : t .ic : .- ,'-i inlclu.,ied



i .c 1. 'Iu c::S.i.en u i ti- tu d.
'. i OL ;.. ". u ..'l :.... .'-, o ."' uo sp.n ."'tents*g
i ni .* '' ..vi. . ,ti i, '.o en stud 'i.\-, i I -'-. c, '^!.r. ,ook or
; r,.o.' '. -*, v" .ote us ,-i t *; '. ,s u. -. i .' t', i ndi :.c *.fins oil"
'-,/.;" h. .... in < ,io, tl t he h; .:. tria-. -'..r ,. :1.-.;:. I :',i., --ring
*het t-.r t .is r.. ht not al.so occur li ~o .:.ulo. It :..y ;jS thi.1t
1 .f'.i;1 .il. .';uch ,: E is use-d r.'i c""'.> '.,e ::..: tituted.
1 1 o"i... the:- use ;. re, t ,:,o;-l ol ;)-rv" fire il for h.-ting
^ ^u*^*^^ .ufI.n > .____.. ,.I:







w


,.. .,_ ,.c ,
)KL(.U:66 '.L,~- B '.,


IL : J. .. iv ,;' tt:. :. oi .: 1.- t 1: I
:' t ., e: d. .r vod


+.. .. .4. ,,,.. olin*. o .. .0 t. e ,rin i l
tn .. -, v~ : .. e o L:
(3. ..U.. .
', t L- a
OL-


t-, ^. I th i'. YO i
..: i > t *e '
3..+ .. fI tL




C iI'-' ... 1 OU.+. o Hr- : ; :
.. e l / +,++" 1 > l

. .... 6 .. :i l. r.: i'.'l 1::: '.? . c
.a.. 1., ; t; :* 1Lr




Co t t :f *
On .;e t t .
i t<*- :- *
t 1 ^ o1: ** I;,.o M I ;.33d Eu-, .. t a:





:tion or J+*11 "' .h.. di;. .. ..s t.at c, -:
@ t -... ,'/4 ,- ,V ....... .i .. S .+ r.. i

o.'l i .. +;: in the f- '"i,. t ?+:'' ." -ir ; to +.? t ,
$ / 0 .... '. -' ?S .. ..
po.t : <> u + 'it,3 +" .. i', ,r ++-


LO.B tb':;re is too
. ,, C 7>i ) i ucis+s
uib th?.'t ':. iv C. at
;' ', : r '
^ b o the c-.i0 l

Srv; .t ci
^:" .- .f_ th .e

+ or :'.- t :; nly V
* .- + a .;. n o'+ ,+





-i I ? : he "._t .
. i: : the
t'"?: -r... : ns ..;:.d f0
,ou;e + .n;" to '*'-y ti .-




-*ic-+t. i- +".*,*y :raised
5 .. ge :;..


: ur,,u.e.. i: _-: : -.i i ;?se L--. : in che oCd of the


t + n h'c t'.212 12h
*uulic..tion, -,c then us:i tlhe umi r r' s+ ... -.:*; *:trnio sis, at th
clo: of suc : }h,~ or: af.in ..': .ing, +ou ill ir,-r
S.I. ..ured t r.:t hh "'e. e. .on ecti s u.- h c ytu tJo -,y.


... .. ... -JSA ... T O"'.' DuL, et a "re en-
c V1i. 3 *' -uil :i' of t2 F. orl. t.o -0 14- -c .

.: C . i .stin 'f-*-;'y . led : if such e
-rii "i i f i ... Li o u It V C;. .. o.ly o Ci t .,
hav .. l li.-. our .: -
:+ hJ" i,, le uL r. r-: -. t;-.: su o n

t. .. . .. '. . ..itr: .* f -. i :. a . i. ;, '.. L ,if / i:" the
.'. V '. -. + ::: s c t ......1 ;... -n ce

a .'. ...;... .^:: ... L .' for C "..- i '.-. : a.. .; -li s. rice
in t.:. L t; i, -~"0 1.10.


.
.!'

:i
-.

( r
Ij';LL ~





-8-


Th;e co::m!;,sion ::t:tionid on v. :e 159,w ere in 19I 9 t::e
L*st; :ubori is in or!h .: ica for citrus s;r:yi;l 3y
follodng tleir ricomn.. ions you cannot go f-r wrong. 1if-r-
rig fto t ;;:> 160, iu would seem thaft i:. column 1, iteraji 7, 7, 8,
, in 1.0 Ior t'he only ones you :lend bo .;y ,a,_.,.tion to at; the
ent. In c u e he red s idsrs rf rred Lx:
tc::'e att.,c. onl Lhe foli: c or 90 infroc:uently do Lh:.' attCck
the fuis t t lhis deed not consi:ler-cd. '> .r-stoins is a
oorut of ,oiucr trm ihnich bby Ib the re'. t...;.t effect of rust
:.;its or of fungii, out t' c: a. e Irneall2y uiLt visible !han the
f':lits is st1il i mui: Zture.

Column 5, time of .A Ic' Uion, l.i n -nd some c ::ful
--r e:,.'l~: on your i..rt. In this column a",-,;1 7, OCC '...he
v.ords "in ." -. ..is may be droQ c,( out ;:." the rest.o it 1-:2t
aS it is. In th. s-rae column ou-ur the :or--, "probt~ly in S9ep
tfr:r or Jctcobr, cert inly ;be-fore '.ruzary it." 1i '.. -. e
of ;:...i'- you cmL substitute, "Just b--fore the frPuits b_ i:. to
color". 5:lo-' in the saxlm column occ-..,rs the words s taovember and
J::nuar'y. ir. thee i of these, you crn :i.;1 e, '.:i L-:, fruit
h es be un: to color", or "'hen it is fully color.c'"


Conclusion.

Publish lL i-.. State iAll .-r..'..t you :r. all that you
ci.n g:t ,'.-u' s.r:,ior o;1fic-:"- to -uthori:- for you. ".rite can-
st:.ut!ly on orchard :-: "iene ,nd on o.-.h :d s nifL tion. The-. re
al in tohe 't g;:' t v .:fnta s:s th' t :.re ItsttLr. ie' flr-om orch -rd hygiene and s.:-:i-
tation. It is for J;o'e ;~,-'fit.tblee to kec-: a tree he6l :h; t:- n to
c..':; one :fter it is sick. i~s plant patholo ist who t-:- chSs
t':e citrus culturist tho: to k p his t:-..s fr-_ .c.)omin dis:.. -'
is f:r ore v:lu.a.bl to the Otate than the-one who cn diagnose
endri. cc.:be for every knovT di:':: e after. it oc.u:.. in the or-
c',: '. u will h-ve to t:.- p&aole oy:r ;.,nd over -,in .-.h t
th. iust do. i fazncy thatt Ir hd ket tcck of"i, it wouldd
be -,o t: ta;th : n t fhousndc tires th, t I h v-: to ld ,o .,l . how to
hak4e -ordeaux :.tisture.

.." ideal oplant patholo ist is a mtian who is an -:x rt
on -. -tiliz -'ing, 1pac:i.. -n on tr ..:.ortation. The ideal l-.-t ,, thiolo. is
for.? the t.: to of .-o -aulo is one who pr 'ants his :0ori so cl;-- rly
a.nd":. acc:urL,.t,.ely that h-:. citrus srower. is i:m. .elle to .k.-,; ise
of it. i.-.: !.oft economical and useful .. of diss.:';.L." ting a:l, nt
pa tholoiical info"-. tion is o printed n tter. This prin te' matter
should be copiol.J.l; illustrated, *:.i f: photo-hr; .h:l that tell the
stiry the olant p; ::. lo ist ish :: to i':l tv.-. r.:. ue:r:t Cer...!in tre-
tions in the L'rove .'; in 1th pEc': .ine house are a ,: t : id in.
convincing the citr;:s ;ro,./er t:. t t.h-.- -i1' t .thologist r.'- ly
kInows 'h.. t he is t 11:in about. Ti.- qui cl.,t '~ y to :.in thL:
cn-ifi :ence 1 scientists .:3;i r citru:i- _'o. is to become the
ultim t.. t-ut: ority in ,onr- '-. ,ticul er liice.







F -s-;
Thore l ing o little work dwone in ;l.t :.:tholo;0 in
ail, or i x.,:" better say on ci...-...c int holo th. .'
shoul I1: ve no difficulty in i-. 'yourself t.:l oist infor.f ..
on citrus i. ;.;3s: in -r.sil. hlile you 12.re .oi oX) : gaing fhre in-
form>ti on tih;.t cu.n ?s r.in: ':.'.. your .'. d:c ssors, I. .h:ve
an o0 ,or,:unity of 1kc.-li.in; i .n- :stuyLnv a, ftsn. thi)nif.. th.'..t are
'culir' to th e b to o". o coulo. I cG not kn: of e:r.; .*.
v;hiie.
S2 (nuscafit you rh:ve sent is v 2:y client. I ai: sorry
i do not have ,hoStog::;phls to ilLusTr:tfe a numuy a f tthe;.: aiseases.
--L of tCos h:: ve tai in r Ail h;ve eanX of quite a C'ifCj.-e
t: ype. iC:' ..e not ai lo0. th C criticisms vsi sE mde on jur iL.. ..y-
scri:t to ...- ...s you. I' r.-vise ay o:'n r .'.uscri ts. uch m e r:ic l-
ly a. i. uci ao! -t tverely.
It p sure receive your :. script and I ::, d
it as an honor to be I.skrd to reed it.
V...'y sine. -.-l y :" '.. s


Hi. Uolfs, cnsuLtor Technico
.. ^griculLt. do Estado de "-i.-;.t
iHR:C C

SP.S. Come sv to Vigos: Q.: .. .. nd
we Vill t;Ik nothii else but citrus .isess' I!







I
Fi;u L ..... illustrates the untappreciated value of our
._:ni.- friends in combiattii scale insects. The u 'er
tht..S faru its :.were selected as i ,icl for the section
of th,: pomrv.r s '..:.: with Bordeaux mixture. The lower
tILe..: were sel.:ctee. from an untreated seocton of the ;'.rl ..
This illustf',: .t; s te im ort: cee of combni-i1i an ins-cticide
with roraeaux mixture even in pomars "apparently free from
scale insefts. (Photograph by i. tC. Fr.wctt.)




Fire ....... iillustrates the dele t-rious effect produced
..; lar. citru tr:.-s on a citrus nursery. To the right the
citrus trees l;'nrted only thr- ye:z.rs b fore the nurse r-
(to the right), ,;;s pl..nted. Previous cropping d mon strsated
that th: tenth hecttro ?L-.t. to thel nurs-..- had a uniform
soil condition. The first nurs:-T- row is t -j meters f;Jm
the rov", a itrus trees; the sec.w :, three; the third, four,
etc. iiot until ie re.,ch the fifth row, 6 meters a'.~y, ere
the nursery trecs of .oroci growth. I., cth'sr ords, citrus
t:--:s only three ye:r!s hintedd produce so much shade; draw
so vi orously on the soil moisture; and absorb so much :latnt
food, th.t m'ld-s four mrter's a.;* de less thin half the
normal growth. l is is on hi h v=-,:;em soil, d..= -I ,ep id
and well cultivated. I'e photograph illustrates hov, n.ees-
sary it is to pl nt tr-:-s much fourth, apart than is our
cu t.',m. ven Et a dist nee of 7 x 7 meters, the t:.es inter-
fere -vith endch othr afterr four or five ye.ars. 'Iey im .i-le
each others wth by are ing on the .:il moisture .:_ by
sor'.ing. much pl~nt food. Th?"- reduce ventilation, which
favors the production .-i "manchas" and facilitstes th:
multi :lication of p:E.-ts. (Photogr; -h by . a. itolfs, E.S.
r.7., ~igos Minas.)












) i- de 18C.


Dr. Agesilau ;itincourt,

City of 'o 'ulo.

Dear ED:. -it.ncourt.


lour iiae ua o01' recen t cate, and t h six
co i-sC of '.s ni 3 e .ter-;.SU-s cas L- r.: jJ; s
a bomo uvi b, l-;;'s", h. vq ccPme : ind. 'h:nl you

mu
Ju. : .: E D cs r :-). h Liirne, Ih LI
ri you a. ; t;- t e public tiL., n.'. 0 t :'1- e ,
kli r.d. JIst at rscnt, he is ..
micist OS9 t t.:: :_;), ;- ti.' : of a booiils't, -, o it is
liely Si ? ,i s before hie con r- s;. -is
no e is' : ,; to i ,t you kn6. th;. e '. r 1 ..
o 5 -. cosiVs oi. tl9e ,

V- t uLy yo ur
*V? rlywur '. ,.


. :'. fS


i A
,1


0 *


;I
.00


.4ffi


I,.a 8


4




4 5


J ,




-.* '*" ' -2-


As qualidadea extras ozigidas polo meroados inportadores de frs-

maos see o as eguilates:

11) Unifozaiado do tamho

2) Unfibmidade do o0r

83) Confaqomao rzegaar

4*) Asenasla omplet~ d4 qualquer mau&i

Pod*-." afllar quo o bo*mpaladar ao 6 mias ltaprtante do qu qal-

quar des qualiddads enumcdas aoim.

A unitibmidae do tmaanho 6 obtida fteilm t nt plos apaielhoo olassi-

fisadors du tlartalaqosa mwAlems ds aoMas "amsu aes laranjas'. 2 preciso,

*ntratanto, a.o oaquaoor qup pare 8se rmanmdom, a oultua do lamanjeia

deo forseeor lanaajr qaeo J =j, noedia, do tsmnho ooniertal quo saerw pro-

cura elontmt am -rMedes eoopzrdores. I preeiso tmbe qua a variaqgio

toras deft. adla sJa a amoor posoivL. hB outras palarms, o oitrzcultor

alo dweo ooantuatr em a nuibamitade do pro dto ass e*ais quo exports

mrs, iglalmato, sso aroroes do lamjal. I sbido quo taftls entoe as a0ms

nlamajas u geralmato do tammko superior A sedia qua aleanga o aeI hoso

przgos. A1l diMuo os oams pemas products laraajs do todos eo tmashes,

haremdo mo te toomaat am ez esh9 i*flateaq o, paa npr gar o taIB4 to-

oatoo mite prejfdiaal sob o peoSt do vista eoammrel. Mles tlasoaraleu-

taa szsro woital4d pala sor Ie de boabulbas, tiredas exelausimaste de pglke

quo apresaten o temame o a unifomixado do fratas quo spoapsa da produa



A uifoer dado da or*, outro factor de elevada Importaneta, arose

ignalmaser a..aj t to dos sitrieltores porquO, devide as oaams aoadiqoes do

alla, a mBtangl flsiololoiOa qua seaqpl aloangeda qusaod a lamaqja

alsda ast de eor avero. A eolo*enag artificial zeolve an part esat pro-

lam ms ba alida i ena3moRae mlte qua fae.r so omaatato s eoleo do

bWorbalbs para obtcago doe atua9qo msal complete a uaifoem.

A reularadae 4e eoafomagQo pode seo obtida pole selo do borbr-


























































"-I
,il' '


lhaas Todos aabe, por exzmplo, ua a nossa laranja Baa 6 maior, main irregu-

lar, male variaael quo a Washingtoa Navl quo tola prova. Um ambigo emsal.-s

vo S um defeito eoem a nosaa BDaa qu deproela o ser valor oemereal quo

razamste sa oaoatr nea WamhlsgtoU Nmvel, oonsteatemate aslhorada peaels -

qio de borbulbes.

fialmato aauosemea em plota de qualqumr mamse on alterasqo da fra-

ta e obtida pa molo de euidedos e tratos espoelal do pmar, que soro smlun

eloaobmate expostoe no presente tvabalho. t iadiapemsavel w ooeja relisada

a aespaba a ais partiaJs ooatm as abasis o oraens abmardas quo eiad pro-

vTleem lateliat te, so miomso e ossmu agr altawe relativumente a ases

dofeitoe da frutaus mmeetivetls HW ignoraneia qguaa ecpleta des paequimaa

realiseas e nMtiaa part" do made, a malotl doe nosse eltricultores satr-

bue S oemeaa as mals diverse as maseha es deprestm os sou prodatose

Geralmemt pafthb eemmSa obse as -auai a""o be latinrvamn hman possivol.

fsta macuha devita ssoaol, eatl a oeta a eho a, outas stada d amea, etre. i

eams tiptoo o dE muemt do asum on "fteriugm' que xoee do moaso plaa-

tador a exoplIesaaom u nmal doeeabidas quado boje Sm fto eoaheeoodl4

sheo ear et defte to produdsAe per ua ealauIo a a l M sears, o equal

poda asr fteeolmat destmlto por ua siapls pulviarasea oportum do ealde

mslfo-ealeisa. uaade o ao ro aeltrieltor a o env ar m ado quo as prime ipai

masbhas quoi almnac o vales do same eolbeitt podn asr perfeitmenta vita-

des por moea da aplioaqe dae ungideldas a lasetitedaa ole osta apto a pro-

duxir fates pe rfust, e vex qua rsae arreorm ejan do bes qalidade, isto

6, pioduem fairta de boa eaPtemQaie

SAntes do aboadar o asmaate de at trabalhe, deojo deiar bae elates

dois poatos do gamdae tpartae ea relatlvos so lado eoonemlos doe treatments

destiasdoe a evitar as msmas dass lanmajas.

IN praisize lgar o eltrioultor precmaa aeber qu o fin prinipal do

todae as plverralseqeo at trataammto iadiaedos no praeemt trabelhe, 6 evitar


"-s J
r,
r
%




-4-


eota raamabas. Seoundarlmeato ese tstme tbam mt agoe efielente oon-

tis as diver dosrqas a pr es p a laraj eia, ms osts nao o priznlpel

fi que vim. Ha, portmto, eoas ea quo eita tmatm 8toe Ao deasu.sne-

rilo, uao ama totallddeo, polo moos m part. I o quo seod, por esmplo,

- pomaies dsatiandee ao eoeam partitmle r do famendeioe, oua -mm aos pOam

ro alt extleas qe pioda nt fruas dostilad a so Nerado iatewo, meaos

e zgepnt ou m I msld'r.

0 oatro poato mze m mmoideraqgo alada maii atentit pOr part

do altrieultor o atraimio dIe larmaji es em o ft espep alt doe itar as

mahebas dea IiaJso S obsolutmmate mt -omB tlem pmares do traea pro-

duib oa de paodoag 4* qallste laterior.

A Maio dieto e"t ao ftto que d~sa la suale do mmO port, pore

de produq ao mite dtver asslooita da em l p anttlded do liquid pulvoerie-

do do noeam tuaW G trdbelhb do opeielo i alverlamder. Ors, a Pas podtsm

olaoo sen mis do qoe a ontam, e0 uste d palvorltrnio por larenja sor cin-

mo Teso maRio puma a ultim. Dlfersaga do po dua o dome ordom aio eo ae

entro aBe, rido pEinipalmate d ftlta de ,slgo de bibutba. rlTdtemint,

r tatimteo mite t imae dr m- pomer d alta pwod ts pode redunder m

voramdelo tfreame, do poate do vista eesaamlso, -m- pm'r a pTedaqo btela.

Paoouato, a pilvorisaqoe do alara Jtings potra riter as mehas des

friats, a6 nd esr te s amtdah paaos bm tratedea, planttdos em axvore

do alta paduqae de ftutas aaprWlese. Rates ultlass qualidades o tricll-

tor Sao amw ni4-las daes plverYlem. pole, alo be trafsmets inseteioda

on, ftagloeia qu* oalga maltlpller por olbsO a produaio onu meborar a con-

fbra aqio da larajaes

Aateo de tnrete das aumoeas oataes alttoxqgm dam larajms d

ladiear o mlos mles p ta pa Iot indisapnesave lEmbrar

a- algmm uileasqals rwealdm, a masiren por que so doe tatter a pmar

para ooasegasi a proedutqo elvda Wm justitique as pulvtrlasqIom aoeoselhadas.










3Bt tritmeato do lajrajal eonstile o qu, par analoga oam o homm e os

uaimn' poens obamwr a 'Wilae do paem",








*











Vigosa Minas-Gerais


2 de Novembro de 1982



My dear 1r. Bitancourt:

Your letter closing the "Qua.i-o Re FcpAitivo" is at
hand. We have also received th. copy of the "Quarterly ..ulletinK.

I am enclosing ti-er'~Quaro" :tah .-me asugg,-.ions for
simipl.ification and emr-nd-'tion.

The "'uadc.r" is it is, is very convenient for the eeiCn-
tist to reifr to. Aster more than thirty years of ,pi-erice, the
scientific writers ith the 'lorida Expertfent Station, have found
it necessary to mocdi th" dispotition of the entri-s in the "Qua-
dro". We foui there that the people for ,,rOorm the hr dro was pre-
pared did not use it because too frequently it was misinterpreted.
Our Quadros followed e:'rct!y the type as set forth in your IurE.ro,
If you had before you ecopy of "ulletirn t, you would see how it
has bein simlifi'. Mr DeBu.-?k has had more than thirty' years ex-
perlie;.ce as a propag....c-ist of cit ru knowle... e -..mi.ng the citrus
Sgr.o3rs lnd ;3 -:reecrs.e -on untly Ills Pe ri n c a-ertou- b e of .great
vi._Ae to :tl re-t of us.

r..e ".,iiro" as you have prepar-ed it must be printed
on a large sheet and th; doubled into the oublic:tion. Every
time that the man in the iIeld or in the prckinghouse, wishes to
.-s i i t, 3 u;,; cemut e a t,el.? or other place on which to place
it before he can read it, cornsluently he must neglect to do so
a _'-: t many tiL..c. If the u.i,u.. is printed on t'he re-gular page,
and printed in the regular way, it avoids this inconve:.I~.nc9. Bt
may require a little more pape aid it may also reu ire a little
more patienee on the purt of the scientist but ii.L-is the man we
scientists vw wish tot ( heEiE-DE_ emen t-ild or packinghouse)

The i~uL~stijns t, t 3I Zl:n r: ,a-d to the ,uadro.
should De accpt_'a?' moualy as _ugtjons. 7'ter thlat you must
*ieT -our o.' _ITtgemo w'L-ther unnj !r .u:. c 'nditTous- bLe
suggestions are usefu- or riot.

1). In the first column you have the words disposed, in a
direction .t right azglcz to th" orthe9 words. This mai:es them
difficult to reod and inconvenient. Xhat can be avoided by plac-
i : tsem as head .li:.e, for th e secti:ans of the qm'dro.

2).In the second column under "n.ome there is nearly always
some unoccupied sp.:ce. You could therefore tr.aiufer the causaa" to
that column. By writing the nomee" of the "c.usau in italics,
snd3 the nomee vulgar" in full capitals, ti2, will be readily dis-
tiL ui 5..i. :-.nd qi.:kly und:.-'tood uo; .kll*


L ..









3). That disposition of the Quadra( will give you sufficient
space forusymptomas"and treatment, to permit the FJj04/$ Quadro
to be printed "right side up", instead of sidewise on the page
as otherwise would be necessary. This would be accomplished
without reducing the size of the eype employed.

4). It seems to me th-1t, "oodridio peduncular" should be
entered under "Manchas DeprimiJ.s" and also under 'lanchas Razasl,
since it is in one or the other of these two stages that it is
most frequently encountered in the field and in the packinghouse.

5). The author of any "Quadro Recapitulatito, should not
e:-:pct to mak: it i;:rfe:t, ot"rise he will be v;i much dis-
appointed. It is merely a handy reference, a sort of index to
What is being discussed in the ;.:blication. A sort of a resume .


We are certainly very much pleased with how well you
are progressing witii t::.is publi-rA: ion. We cannot emphasize too
strongly the importance of early publication. In the "Minas-Gerais"
for Oct. 28ti, in editorial, iV is clearly i idic:ted that bra-
silian exporters have encountered serious inconvenience during
the past shining season. .'a shall have to takIs mie:~.ures imme-
diately to prevent these aisappointmants next year.

Fibrous Roots of Citrus.

We are -?;nilosin you a photograph in which-I know you
will be greatly interested. To obtain definite information as to
how far the roots and tootiets extend from the tl-unk of the tree
is a. rather difficult p oblem. Only occasionally when one has a
citrus tree groi. in L. sufficiently isolated condition, is this
at all possible. In nay experimental "horton there are growing
some citrus trees that h;ave give us valuable data.

The enclosed photograph which h is about one-fourth
natural size, shows some exposed rootlets, eight and eight tenths
meters from t fc trunk of the tree wh8 ich grew these rootests..

A '..igo.l trnch, had been dug, to the depth of about
thirty centimeters, but neithe:- the trench nor the soil that was
thrown out revealed inrything very definite. However, when I. took
the garden.hose -and applied water under pressure, so as -to wash
the soil a-way, we found abundant rootlets from this tree, to the
distance of eight and eight-tenths meters. We found the~ even at
more than nine meters away butt not sfficiintly niumeous to make a
good photograph. From the '-.otogr7.ph you will see that the roots
were buried at a, depth of about twelve to fiftsan centimAters.
De eer down in the trench there were still smore fibrous roots but
these could not be exposed to view without more work than I con-
sidered justified.

The seed of this tree was planted about eight years
ago, and the bud was inserted abuut six and a half years ago. The
tree has a spread of less than six meters, so you see the old idea
that the spre.-d of the breaches indicated the extent of the roots







is a fallacy in Orasil as ali as in other coutri a I 2
Another interesting obsrv.tion V.t th; s-ma time was
that the r:'ootlets from"limiao rosa" and fpm "serra de agua were
intimately intermingled ..nd battling one another for nutri-
ment. The limao vasa was six meters away and the serra de agoa
three and a half meters away. Both of these trees are gr:r'.rng-
in our "horto" which was established a little more than eight ye. a
ago. There a. s no gre:t difficulty in distinguishing bet--en the
rootlets of serra de agua and limo rosa. Tao of our professors
readily distinguished b3t- a tha odor of the limit o rosa At the
serra de agua. ThIe others who tested the odor were not certain
ar spoke in the affi.-ativp in 41e wayi to le:d me to :.eliev that
there was some doubt in their minds.

Both Og thie trees are very "heavy choppers' and conse-
quely ha e not made thea ost vigorous ,oth, but urging .11 of
thOit time they have had an abun dance of nutrient natural to the
soil and plenty of spac in i.hicho to yrow. /

TZLis simple danonstation has scon c ae to convince
our professors and the studeint-, ia the Curso superior that the rootr
lets of citlus tree. get the riri cipal p,:rt of their nourishment
beyond the reecla of the limbs. (

kI neglecaed above maentLon that t.hea8i' a very dis-
tinct diff-iren.c bhet _n, the rootlets of liiroo ro,. ,nd of serra
de -:gu,. The latter are straig:)ter and more robust. The differtee
is quite as distinctive as i.- the Jiffir:nce betveai the leavwsp
but since very few people see the rootlets, s-h do not have any
definite fte!m for dscribing thm. )


Stamns
M Au~..htr wishes Liit you would let us know the cast
of the stamps. Lt was certainly v-ry k/b4 of you to gett thae for
us, we could not expect you to '.-er the expense pf paying for
their. The trouble of getting thae '.as suffLciaet. We know that
you had to pay for t'iem a great deal more (two or three times)
the face value. Stamp collectors are making every effort to get
a set and conszequently tnb price has gone far above their face
value.

Very sincerely yours,

P.B.Eolfs, uonsultor Technioo de
Agriculture, do E. de Minas-Gerais
PHR: C










Vigosa, Minas-Ger-is
Nov. 19, 1982





Dr. Agesilu -"itancourt,
Av. Brigadeiro "uiz i ntonio 100,
Sio P. ulo.
Dear Dr-. -itancou't,

UVur letter of November 9th came to hand this morning,

Please acuupt our di..nks for the stamps which you so
kindly secured for us.

gporidSes e ManchalS. eur reasons for continuing
thesa two entries separate in the "Kuadrol are ex:cellant.

Citrus toots. It would be very interesting and ins-
tractive to "was1 out the roots of a citrus tree, as you suggested,
It would, however require a grea-t 'eal of patience, time c-nd pro-
bably a considd.bmblo iaounot ;?V imon'- to do so. I doubt whether
thellr is any one among us w o ias the courage to do so. If there
should be someone who h-is the cour;-.ge, the opportunity will doubt-
less be lacking.

Citrus Ocab. owur experiments of this year have given
you sufficient experience ro car-ry out the work w:th a certain
degree of finality nex:t.year. Thcre is jut one work that I would
like to say in this connection. The unpublished experiments
made by Stevens end O'Byrne indicated vsry clearly that the
period for infection was of very short Qura~tion. And that in-
fection occurred only under very circumscribed conditions. ..hen
one stops to think about it, this must necessarily be so. Many
thous, nds or vien millions of spores ar- produced for every one
that actually infects the hbost.

Mnnuscript. Let me urge you to push your manuscript
al8ng with the least possible delay. The information should be
disseminated aron the citrus groi,,-s at the earliest possible
date.
From pr-scet appearences one would judge that only
the best and most peltect fruit will show a profit on the European
markets next ye:t. A good manyi people are already discouraged.
That is not of serious import..nce. They would probably not pro-
duce such fruit as would bring a profit. The experience of this
year will have taught a good amny exporters that it is not easy
to "get rich quick" by means of citrus exporta.tion.









Sntomokenous Fumgii. I do not think it north h the while
to try to cultivated ond distribute Aschersonia. Thv razz-s;on for
putting i-i the "Yellohw khaet", was to illustrc-oW a means of dis-
tributing useful agricultural news. TAis "Yello'v Sheet" has beea
published 1we.kly ior a.otut t enty ye;irs. It is distributed only
&o nei :,n-apers. So each of he newspaper, knows th.t the 5xperi-
m--t station is not competing t4-h thaem for distributing the
news. It sems'to me th,;.t if you prepared short. Articles, say
of 75 to 150 wordss at the proper time, End diAftributed these to
all of t'he newspapers in the citrus a port region, that they
would be willing to copy tfia news. In this x.ay, 'you could get
before your reading public the informa-tion vhih they neAd to
have. In your c o.., it v;ill doiubl.ess be necessary to sZnd it
out as muitigraphed ltt:rs. It was ,:it a 'good deal of diffi-
culty and some opposition t e'-:t 1 established the weekly news
service ("Yello'i, heet"', btIt in less than a, y,-:rs time, it
proved to be so ac0ept;.bla that no one would have thought of
doing i-ithout it. The fact that it is still running after
nearly twelve y.-':rs of my absence, indicates that the idea wvas
a good one.

Very sincerely yours,


P. H. Rolffs, Consultor Technico de
Agriculture do ,. de Minas-Ger-,ia
PHR:C










AB/W.


SECRETARIAT DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO

INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE DEFESA AGRICOLA E ANIMAL
AV. BRIGADEIRO LUIZ ANTONIO, 100
TEL.: 2-4117
CAIXA POSTAL. 2821


NO. 456


SAO PAULO BRASIL S.Paulo, 9 de Novembro de 1932


Mr.
P.H. Rolfs
M.D.Diretor Tecnico de Agricultura
do Estado de Minas Gerais
VICOSA


Dear Professor Rolfe.

I have received a few days ago your letter of Oct.29 and to day that
of Nov. 2. I am modifying the Quadro according to your valuable suggestions.
It will take three ordinary pages and although it is less "synoptic" than in
the previous form, I think you are quite right regarding it being more conve-
nient to consult.

Referring to Podridao peduncular, I believe that while the symptoms
would really indicate its position among the "manchas", it is preferable to
\ leave it among the rots as I wish to establish a clear distinction, in the mind
of the citricultor, between "podridoes" that proceed in the destruction of the
fruit after picking and the "manchas" that remain in the same conditions- until
they reach the consumer.

Citrus roots. Your photograph is of extraordinary interest. I remem-
ber to have seen photographs of the roots system of alfafa. By opening a
trench diagonally near the place where the plant stood and then applying a jet
of water, the earth was totally removed and the roots exposed. The root system
in a medium light soil was developed at 4 meters distance from the plant that
was less than one meter high. In my University times such an extensive root
system was considered a characteristic of leguminous plants and these experiments
were made in view of enhancing the highqualities of this crops in modifying
the properties of the soils. I now see that Citrus trees also extend to a
much wider area than the branches. If our growers could have the exact idea of
the extension of the root system in Citrus plants, they would probably un-
derstand better why we are always urging them to plant their trees far apart.
I think it would be worth while to do with an orange tree what was done with
smaller plants and show in a single photograph the whole root system of the
tree by opening a large trench and removing the earth with a water jet.

Sweet Orange Scab. The results of the inoculations in sweet orange
fruits, are:


Sphaceloma fawcettii
(from seven different hosts)
Sweet orange fungus
Strain I
Strain II


Inoculated
41


21
15


Fruits
Dropped
29


15
-


Positive Percentage
0 0%


50%
100%


Of course I do not lay much streets in such a small number of ino-
culations, but these preliminary experiments will enable me to draw good plans
for the 1933 inoculations. As the inoculations with Sp. fawetti were made


1__ -Z








exactly under the same conditions as with the sweet orange fungus, these ex-
periments show at least that the last is more virulent to sweet oranges than
Sp. fawcetti. The artificially produced scabs are few ( an average of 5 to 6 on
each fruit) but large and preeminent. I have made 35 inoculations of the sweet
orange fungus on tangerine, but it is too soon to draw any conclusion.

Manuscript. I do not need the pages you have kept. The paper is
Ready to go to press. I am only waiting for a few photographs that I have
had made at the Instituto's laboratories. I would like to include the pho-
tographs I have asked from Prof. Fawcett but I am afraid that if I wait too
long there won't be enough "verba" for the publication this year and you know
what the delay will be if I wait until next year. May be they will allow me to
include the photographs later on, while the printing will be in progress. Any
how, Prof. Fawcett's photographs will be utilised in the chapters on Citrus
diseases I am writing for Dr. Navarro's book.

Agricultural News Service. I am sending back the leaf after taking
good note of the useful hints on oil spraying. Dr. Drummond, my assistant has
isolated Aschersonia aleyrodis. This fungus was some years ago disseminated in
Florida orchards through pure cultures furnished by the Experimental Station,
I think with good results. We could do the same here, but I wonder if "white-
flies" have such an importance here as they have in Florida. Do you think
it would be really worth while to have a few hundreds of these cultures dis-
tributed among our citrus growers. They could be convenientlyYin a "Flit"
sprayer, I have not been able to know from our entomologists if white flies
are such a troublesome pest as scale-insects in Sao Paulo. The ordinary
entomophagous fungus of scale insets: Podonectria, Myriangium, Sphaerostilbe,
etc. are quite abundant, but Aschersonia, specific to white flies, is rare.

Stamps: I did not have any trouble for getting them as for a few
mil reis more than their face value, onde could get them at once, instead of
standing for an our or two at the post office. So, and because it was such
a small expense and a pleasure to me, I pray you not to mention it any more.

Yours very sincerely



silau Bitancourt
Assistente Chefe da Secao de
Fitopatologia.















INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE DEFESA AGRICQLA
E ANIMAL
Herbario da Secqao de fitopatologia NO 506


Ezanthema

em laranjeira da Bafa: Citrus sinensis

Est.Brigadeiro Tobias, Est.de Sao Paulo

6-6-32
Coll. Serviqo de Vigilancia Sanitaria Vegetal
9Yz~ eu
*~ ~~ C esir.f-t /3^z^^>














SiuL i, 1kE.a .




.1 1: t
J 1 nL;1 (7, O










.- 21. p: C-r .. L i t- 7 tt
.I:=.t:; ,. of f-cuc l l :ict: d. : r. f s ;.. ... ico--:,







Ir sma ti i e

.e t o 2c L m > . .1i1. 7 t 1
1 t; r -... -i l.. .. a c? Ii
*c:i. ['= n iuit) ;,- ,ileal r '._ r-. ;.tOlv-s,_ o~f this dis ase.._ T u:-



r 0- 11 T'.
lintc. t one -o' ? ._ae 11t l .. 1 *.t-v". tire soil
.i .... .. .. ... ... t ..e fiv **r ;si, 7^; r Id :.y not be
lrrr t' fchan its istst r tre-es .: re ;-t t'':.o o;r '-*' .'et -*- .'s of
,. .. n-. / v 1 2 i -". *o'. .th





on L0 V1. 2l 0'
v~ien co3 .' S,._atfe irS a:ppiiec to th;'" s.;il, or v=!en the trees
,: ...... s d ?'7 J}Ord[< lx EiStir'9 i Thiir r '.:trion tco I-or deu x
.:'xtu:e ^.ur7.! us for a consic:r:tfile numiuw>^ of ^?r's. r t







..; ''e :.. t .. L til of t .c ior simi ar
-.i: 'v ', "."" apoli d to th". l.. of iio fn :ss.



in-',': tion of multiple ,. b .i.. b, .t 1'o m ,) bs.

It. *.0 s irjt unti.l.2 2 .2ff;-r o a0isccr.ule' umb 5 of yB..rs




o.f :nv~~ !;.i.: ti (. s mi licer-ftu' by. F ), thmaof toyt mwea
Ole? rni th.o b eOyLrm. t m lti2ple ,,1 ,.. >l. 2oc:ebs 'lcd l "5
". .,:p, brin hlsbs u:re iaan fostrtio of .. t i'- or similar
**.1- sio!o losl _"sturbano ce.

In ur 'sf script; you a '' us to send:" "A% Muda de
Citru to rs. ,,.. .:aivs: ;:-^ 'im
t ., we .... e '. .*> do so, bee... e the small i'-tr,''er e;.-=
author's rc''iv.r:3d. h- be i' ","?s-.-t t+d.. e G ii the n:'::b '.-.rt
'*-'.,. -. exentf ;,i'.rp a ..-tice of .here they nay ooftain a co--
f.om EOll hook O tOre.


*.














1?..


r .
M'', ~iy:.*


'.I on s .in t .u lib on t"
.ltie t se before.


Visit .r" m
$s to find s:.v : .1
voceSdo, hiich "


If in t~
i. v ,


be of
S.


;future, i"t spe.rs '. t re ..
* t o 'no1' he'a" it' bt to call on i

c _;^ o.a;.l r ; n.' o I .m
f t;;,, J~


:c- M .i20~ tQe


..i.. ,L t,


;ii i
" iC"i;iL:r~r.l"~ S L,


rPs ?










Vigosa, Minas-Gerais

Oct. 22, 1932.



Dr. A. Eitancourt,

Institute Biologico de Defesa Agricola

Sao Paulo.

Dear Dr. -itancourt

Your letter of Oct. 18th was received by us last night,

I think it wlll now be entirdy safe to forward the
Quarterly Bulletin.

bulletin 10 <;S by Rhoad:; and De Busk had a much better
spray calendar than the one contained in the quarterly Bulletin.
The combination oi authorships in that Bulletin was a very happy
one. 3hoads is a vear high grada Plant Pathologist and DeBusk
h.a naa some twanty ye.& S ~C m'or' experience as extension
Akent, (Agricultor Ambulante.) -4b

I, beli-eve your publication of the calendar would be
more acceptable if you cal.,ed it a "progr-am" rather than
calendar. Program more nearly aescr:ibes what you wish to "

You are indeed fortunate t, get so maiy fine colored
drawings maude f disea:-:: affecting f-uit. T'-e one you sent me
it seems to me wc.s about a- nearrly ,.--fect as could be made.
You have a superior artist, and it is very certain that your
artist is willing to C:C.Et criticism on his .,work. 'our artist
is. too modest, You will 'h-av-v. to cocrr-:t him up for that. I have
looked frori is initials or other indic tion on the plate, and
founi none. He deserves to have his name perpetuated. He is
an artist with the patience of a scientist, a ver, rare combina-
tion.

Allow me to make a suggestion in regard to the publish-
ing of this booklet. Secure a goodlj numbe for yourself, then
distribut- b-nem to every one of the 'itrus; Pathologists, with the
request that they sand you some of their publications. In this way
you will get their frlandn te 'e~t ind kindly cooperattin.

"Hygiene o pomna is of course directly responsible
for a great many "JancLhas and as we said in a previous letter,
you cannot repeat "Hygiene do pomar' too many times. Should you
be so fortunate as to serve the State of Sao Paulo twenty or
twenty five year from now, you will still have to be advising
yeur constituency to improve thair orchard hygiene.







-2-

On the 17th of this month, we wrote you a five page
letter. Should $his fail to reach you, let us know and we will
send you a copy of it.

I want to congratulate you on prosecuting your work
in spite of the abnormal conditions existing at the time. It
seems to me that you had the spriti of a true scientist.

Very sincerely yours,


P. E. Rolfs, Consultor Technico de
Agriculture .o d. de Minas-Gerais.



P. If you can do so easily, please
send us some of the bo Paulo rt-aps.
In four to six months time, these will
be quite difficult to ss2:ur-. If you
could get us t', complete collsctiLns of
unriued ones, we will be glir to Tp y
you for Utem. Ky new~p} ws are at the
stamp-colle ry tingt" g
Very truly -yours







SECRETARIA DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO

INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE OEFESA AGRICOLA E ANIMAL
AV. BRIGADEIRO LUIZ ANTONIO, 100
AB/W. TEL.: 2-4117 N 39
CAIXA POSTAL, 2821
sAo PAULO ASIL S.Paulo, 18 de Outubro de 1932

Mr. 5-
J P. H. Rolfs
Consultor Technico de Agri4ultura
do Estado de hinas Geraes
Vigosa


Dear Professor Rolfs

I have received to-day your letter of October 1. I must thank very
much for your kindness in sending my paper to prof. Fawcett. Although I would
not have done it myself as it was a provisory text, I think this was very happy
as it has given me an opportunity to receive a letter from this most distinguished
S, authority in citrus diseases, just a few days ago. Dr. Fawcett offers me pho-
tograpth,: for the illustration of my paper and I have availed myself of the
opportunity to ask him those Ie might find of interest on the subjects I treat
in the paper. He asks me about variola and other diseases of Brasil and I have
sent him five photographs (variola, Ascochyta citri, sooty blotch) and ten spe- _
cimens (variola, mancha parda and false exanthema) which he will find, I think r
of great interest. I have asked him to send me specimens of diseases Bframn Bra-
zil, as I want to make a complete collection of diseases of Citrus in order that
any introduction in our country will be promptly identified and controlled.

I was fortunate enough to have during one month, during the revolu-
tion, the department artist in my la oratory. He made 6 beautiful coloured draw-
ings:9lmelanose,? scab, thrips injury, rust mite injury,4lariola and a plate with
eight miscellaneous spots: sooty blotch, sooty mold, Septobasidium, coccidae,
fly puncture, oleocellosis, mancha parda and anthracnose spot. I think that
these coloured plates with be a beautiful and very useful addition to my paper
as they will enable any one to recognize the different spots. Besides these,
he made china-ink drawings, either original (entomogenous fungi) or copied from
text-books. I have also secured a few photographs but they are not enough to
illustrate all that I would like to.

In July 12, I sent you a very long letter in answer to yours of May
29,asIthought that there was still a mail between Sgo Paulo and Minas, in spite
of the revolution. I understand that you have not-received this letter, but
I hope that it will reach you soon as I have received a good many old letters
that were delayed by the revolution, If you fail to receive it, let me know
and I will send you a copy.

I have greatly extended my paper on the "Manchas" I was inclined
to suppress the first part on the "Higiene do pomar" as I believed it was
rather out of the subject, but as you greatly insist over it in your letter
of\May 29, I have tried to improve it through your kind suggestions. I have
suppressed Fawcett's key and substituted it by a "Quadro recapitulativo"
which I think is more or less what you suggested in your letter. In this table
the diseases are shortly resumed in four columns one with the name of the
disease, the second with the name of the agent, the third with a short des-
cription of the symptoms and the fourth with a brief notice on the control.




-2-


To the description of the diseases I have added a short description
of the fungous, in small type. I have greatly extended the chapter on fungi-
cides and the paragraph on the sprayer.

I am including a copy of one of the coloured plates in order that you
may appreciate the work of our artist and of the Bremensis firm who is to
make the cuts. I am not quite sure that there will be sufficient "verba" to
make the other ones that have been calculated in five contos de reis!

I have still got your Quartely Bulletin which I have not yet sent back
for fear that the abnormal situation will cause it to be lost. If you think
it is safe now I will sent it immediately. Otherwise I will wait a week or two.

With a tender of my best services here, I remain

Very gratefully yours



esilaa Bitancourt
Assistente Chefe da Secqao de
Fitopatologia










Vigosa, Minas-Gerais


17 de oulubro de 1932.



Mr. A. Bitancourt,
Ssrvigo D)fesa Vegetal,
Slo Paulo.
Dear Dr. Bitancourt:

Your letter of July 12th (dated 12th of July), and later
dated in a post script July 14 and 19, has just been received.
You need not apologise for having writtenew long letter.
It is far better to avoid inaccuracies than it is to correct them
after they are in print. As soon as you-- all have done some work
showing that you have ability as a Plant Pathologist, you will
find that the Plant Pathologists thruout the tropical world will
cooperate with you and Ielp you very materially.

Page 1, paragraph 1. The present facility for developing
negatives and securing prints in a commercial way is so well
tAe d to day that I have used this method almost entirely during
the last ten years. I am not surprised that you have difficulties
with the official photographer. No one has ever succeeded,with them.
my suggestion would be that yo4 secure an ordinary camera of the
Kodak type with a lens of highest quality, then make your own ex-
posures, and have the rest of the work done by commerciaEl'An. In
this way you will get an exposure from exactly the right point of
view. You will find that you can set up your camera and make the
exposure far more expeditiously than you can get an official pho-
tographer to do.Ibt.

Page 1, paragraph 2. a). I mad, bark inoculations by
using the same kind of a cut that is used for budding, on branches
two or three centimateirs in diameter, wrapping the wound with
waxed tape. Oftimes extensive gumming areas would occur twenty o0
thirty centimeters above the inouclatona. b). I have used as
high as five pounds of copper sulphate, spread on the soil arouia
a tree four or five years old, without showing any visible damage.
I fancy that in the clay soils, teo beneficial effects would be pro-
duced more tardily.j% Since we do not know just what the physiologi-
,cal disturbance is, we cannot judge as to what is the best method
or whether the best method has been discovered. What we know about
Srn IngT f -oot pot has been learned by the"trial and failuremaethod,,
Shen eliminating the failures,. Prof. B. F. Floyd and Dr. Nothnagel
wer4unable to produce a typical case of die back in the greenhouse.
they finally produced some of the symptoms but not pronounced aaough
to justify extensive technical investigations.






-2-


c). The pronounced beneficial effect j4 produced by spraying with
Boadeaux aisture, caused many people to assume that exanthema was
the result of organic infection. Today it is regarded as being due
to unfavorable soil condition, which may or may not be connected with
micr6bic growth on the roots or in Ite soil.

Page 1, paragraph 3. Sunlight. The legend to that photo-
graph should be so worded as to include shading and depletion of
nutritive material in the soil. Xou will be interested to know
that we are now photographing roots penetration from an isolated
tree, eight years old, laranja doce, that is sending out'roots to a
distance of eight and eight tenths (8.8) meters.. This shows very
clearly that trades planted sixteen meters apart will compete with
each other for food material contained in the soil. Of course
this does not mean that the most economic production of oranges
is in orchards spaced a t that distance. It does mean, however,
that in an orchard six or eight years old, the fertilizernlft be
spread anywhere between the rows, without danger of its being lost.
Of course if a scientist advocates even eight by ten meters, the
so-called practical man is very doubtful as to the soundness of
such advise. Our citrus growers will lean in time, by dear ex-
perience.

Page 1, paragraph 7. I wonder if you have a copy of Bulletin
229, of the florid* Experiment Station, entitled wDiseases of Citrus
in Floridan, by A. S. ihoads amd-b. '. Debusk. If you do not have
this, I would suggest that you write the AW Senvr author, A. S.
Rhoads, at Cocoa, Florida. At the same time, and him a copy of
your multigraphed manuscript on "As Manchas das Laranjas. When
he sees that you are really working on citrus diseases, he will ..
become interested in your work at once, even tho he may be unable
to read the manuscript completely. On page 56 of this bulletin, he
discusses a mushroom root rot of citrus. This fungus, Clitocybe
tabescens (Seop.) Bres., has been suspected as causing root rot
of citrus but it appears that Rhoads was the first Plant Patholo-
gist to work it out so clearly If you request Rhoads, he wil
doubtless send you a copy of this bulletin. It contains 0
pages, well illustrated, and at the' close has a spray program.

Page 2, paragraph 3, Green Manure. With us it is still a
question of trials and experimeutations in order to find the crop
which is best adapted to certain regions and soils. And also the
best w4y of manipulating these crop after they have been grown.

Vi belief is that for the light sandy soils, sUah as
one finds on the "baixadas& that it is better to cut t06 cover
crop and after it has beoo.e .Cy, wuLk it into the surface part of
the soil, with a disc harrow. On# the heavy soils, which the lin-
eirans call "nassa-p'e, it is advantageous to incorporate it with
the soils more deeply. If the citr s rgove is loc:3.ted where there
is a distinct demarcation between the dry and the rainy season,
it will be best to do this work at the beginning of the dry season.
If no distinct demarcation occurs, and the cover crop or weeds
begin to rob the citrus grove, it is wall to apply the mower or
the scythe, permitting the organicA matter to rot on the strface.






-3-


Cultivation should be limited to the period when the soils are
dry.

Page 2, paragraph 4. For cleaning the trunks and larger
limbs, Bordeaux mixture, with enough oil to be a coc ci!de, is excel-
lenth. Scraping the bark, or brushing it is simply ahelp to the
imagination. When one's suit of clothes is all covered with dust,
one uses a brush. The brush does not improve the suit of clothes
very amuh, it simply Iaproves the looks of it.

Ms. Dierberger is correct. It is much easier to apply the
liquid by means of a spray pump than by means of a qy -NPM, and
also much more economical.

It is necessary to use a special nozzle when you are
applying liquids of such high density.

If you have an orchard of five or ten hectares in extent
to be treated, a gang of three men is most economical. Place a barrel
spral. pump in the cart and have this over seen by the expert. Have
two leads of hose, and a man for each lead. The ma the cart, oper-
ates the pump, drives it to the proper location and -'directs the man
who are doing the spraying. The sprayers treat only the side of
the tree in plain view to the expert, in this way, a large number of
trees can he treated in a day.

Page 2, paragraph 7, etc. My suggest n would be that you 4
send dried specimens to Miss Anna b. Jenkins, Bureau of Plant Indus-
try, Washington, u. C. She is probably the best expert on citrus scab
as it occurs in North America. If it turns out to be only a-form of
X4i a physiological variation of a well known scab, this information
will save you months of work that in the end w& t e quite useless.
if it turns out to be something different, you will then be i- n %__'
a position to attack it with special vigor, and your location in
the region here it occurs will give you a great Advantage over
anybody else.

Unpublished experiments by Stevens and O'byrne ~ae~ that
two spraying were entirely sufficient for almost couple ~subjugatioh
of the scab in the seed bed or in ths nursery. They also showed that
treated tree might be growing within centimeters of the untreated
trees, without the disease being eoomuniceted to the treated trees.

Where the nursery trees are badly stunted, it will pre-
bably be advisable to dig thee out and burn them. If the nursery
man does not have the cour,.ge to do that, probably the next best
thing would be to cut off the tops at the ground level, frca all the
trees, and burn then. Then fertilize and cultivate the nursery. As
a father prection against scab, the new sprouts, say be sprayed
witlk-adhesive ordeaux mixture.

Page 3, paragraph 2. I have never examined the rust site
under the hig'i powered microscope in Brasil. All of my examinations
have been with a ten 030# diameter magnifier. I could see no






-4-


difference between our rust mite and that occurring in Florida. My
main reliance for identitifation has been on the effect on the
fruit, which appears to be no different from that whicbhoccurs in
Flottda and in the West Indies.
Possibly you can find talepe's monograph on PHYTOPTIDEAS.
1 think later he changed the family name to CaUP PHYCGAS. It is
wtttten in the German and was published prev6rus to 1900. This
is ai magnificent monograph on the four footed sites.
Bust mite treatment, to be rational and economic, should
be adopted only after observations. A good magnifier often to twenty-
diameters is entirely sufficient. When the rust mite migrates in
considerable quantity to the fruit, praying should be done, regard-
less of the size of the fruit or the time of the yer. The spray
calendar can only indicate the approxiAte tiel when this migration
is likely to occur. All *f us who have worked on citrus pathology,
have seen numerous occasions when the rust mite was excessively
abundant on the leaves and yet no rusting of the fruit Lollowed.
Being interested in this phenomenon, I made close observations for
a number of yea-rs, as to its cause. I have repeatedly observed
ftab a devastating mortality of the rust mite on leaves of citrus
trees. Microscopic examination of these dead rust mites demonstrated
the presence of a large quantity of bacteria belonging to the bacil-
lus group. This occurred frequently enough and over a sufficiently
wide area for an hypothesis. *But only an hypothesis.
If abundant rains occur before the rust mites infest the
fruits heavily, this usually washes so many or them off that it is
not economical to spray. I think it was Watson wh~ da reduced it
to a formula, if I remember rightly, ke consider 'tf the rust site
population on the orange fruit did not exceed 2 per square centi-
meter, it was of doubtful economy to spray.
In Florida, rust mites may cause discoloration of fruit
and so lower its market standard, even after the fruit is fully grown
and well -colored.

Page 4, paragraph 1. Soft &oaps are made with potassiat
hydrate, while hard soaps are,made with sodium hydrate. The latter
being much the cheaper, is the greater fa oite with the panufactarers
of soap. The former is the only one that was obtainable by the pio-
neers, so was used in m.-king 3o.io.
In time the soap emulsions will practically disappear from
the citrus grove, but today, almost every grove oamer can provide ho-m
made soa. and kerosesaAt Vigosa we have used the hard soap frequently
without experiencing at great difficulty. At is more difficult to
put into solution and requires a little more work in saponifying the
kerosene or other oil. The Texaco ~il Company, in 1~i de Janeiro, and
doubtless also in bo Paulo, are putting a miscibls~il on the market
under the name of "Texide". Rhis c company has sentga sufficient sample
for the treatment of about a hundred trees and sent a simplar
samplEoto Br. Borges, at Anna loreneia, for trial. Doubtless if you .
get in contact with these people, they will be glad to let you try ouni







-5-
some of their product. These petroleum companies are constantly
looking for an opening in which to employ some of their by-products.


SPH ifP ./4i1 Page 4, paragraph 3. In a treatise such
as you are preparing, it is importa-nt that /ou include only.the
most obvious and destructive diseases ando insects. Later you ca a
assemble all the details iand unimportant ones into a monogr-:gph for
scientists. If you should publish shhc a thing for the practical man
at the present time, It would only serve to confuse him.

During the first wakk in August we visited some of the
oacking;house: in thTe 1istricto Fe -i'al. We visited some seven or
eight dif fe..'nt .st--. lijments If you have beea- r ;..dcing the dai-
lies frame hio ..e 1n!iro (Sept 8th, 4ornal do Cemmarcio), you w>uld
see thr.t many oct the shipments that were easing prepared, returned
a financial loss. This was predicted in a private letter of mine
to A-r. Artihus torres, 1-111e,.

'My imp- .ion wt. ns th,.xt .t-e and rot stood weil in the
lee.:d # izgaf at**n r, melanose appo-xr. to be of equal impor-
tance. hrtp mais tood well below tc;-:e. Rusting caused by rust m-te
sites, while of quite fr'iuent occurren~:, did rn consierable damage.
Probably the -rastest dam.-g e of ll "l .s done by persons araafrom
t-e Lu picN pickinE of the fruit till the tive of nailing down the
top of the cr te. Of cour--e ncl.u 'l'. ` ith this is the failure to se-
lect the fruit tiit was really of export I~ii'it.:. Tlieiuropean, like
the Dr:t.ilian.A_ i cinsum i., i3;ys fruit on.its a;jp.I :le. It matters
Slittrle 'wit;: itm in wnat country it originates. Hieis not much ia-
S.ressed by ehrternals. No matter how be u ti ful tYhe crate may/ hop
or how glorious the country from which the fruit originated. If it
13 of ic-fe-ior apoearence, .rnd of inferior quality, the consumer
- "simply refuses to :bu itb.
Ci-a lrJio-. Page 6. This is excellent. It is all that
you cOPr~: exect. To incre se the entries or items would be likely
to confuse the poml:-rist, th:-n to enlighten him. .. .
I ;-ope t.,3t the interruption in thie mail did not greatly
i!.cofnv.ni:: e yo.u, 'i--n d lat tie main; .:riot is going long toward
comr-etion. No masttec 'ow long you keep revising it, w'hen it is
finally in print, yo.u 'ill still see s.mr n ints in it that you
will vwishL u :d revised. At leart t ast hhs ueen my general exper-


Very since.:.?iy oitr. :,


P. A. Rolf., Consultor Technico de
AgricuL.ua do 6. de Minas-Berals
PH C .







-5-


Mowm of their product. These petroleum companies are constantly
looking for an ojeaing in which to employ some of,.their byproduotss
i : .. .. : 1 '


Page 4, paragraphi 3
it is very important that you


In a treatise such as you are preparing,


jm'~yTk~3mxuporuqBOian;)'~iIt


P





/'J



P. S. S afithea. Page 1, yaragKr-p 3, The ~aaamens you sent
as are charcteristic ones. I h~ad nozt ee-. such "ell ., fine. cases
before in ~rasil.
P. .R.







SSECRETARIA DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO

INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE DEFESA AGRICOLA E ANIMAL
AV. BRIGADEIRO LUIZ ANTONIO, 100 NO. 319
TEL.: 2- 4117
CAIXA POSTAL. 2821
SAO PAULO- BRASIL S.Paulo, 12 de Julho de 1932



Dear Professor Rolfs

*
As I told you in my last letter, I want to ask you a few more informa-
tions regarding a few topics of your letter of May 29 on my paper: As manchas das
laranjas.

-----------. First of all you have convinced me of the necessity of doing one self
photographs for the illustrations of one's work. I will try to have a small dark
room mounted in my laboratory but I am afraid this will be opposed by the directo-
ry as probably they will not have two photographical laboratories inone Institute.
But for my present work I will have to use our official photographer with all
his whims and with his personal opinion on scientific photographs.

-------- Regarding exanthema, I have sent you specimens of a very typical and
pronounced case secured from Brigadeiro Tobias. I have found in nearly all the
pomares I have visited what seems to be a mild form of exanthema, caracterised
by small swellings on the tip of the green twigs, exactly like those represen-
ted by Fawcett, page.245.

These swellings, anatomically, are seen to be produced by an accu-
mulation of gum between twoxylem layers. They burst,later on,and show at some dis-
tance from the tip, like a scar much alike hail injury on twigs. The trees that
show these symptoms have dark green foliage but frequently show foliocellosis.
The twigs are abnormally numerous and of smaller diameter than usual. Lichens
and cocci are generally abundant on these trees. If you have ever met theses I)
symptans I would like to know if you consider them as true exanthema.

C ---- -. -I will add a few words on sunlight which will be beautifully illustra-
ted by the photograph you have kindly sent me, although in this case the relati-
ve influence of shading and the draft on the nutriment of the soil caused by the
older trees cannot be perfectly rated.

Page 4 a Agua: I will add a few words on terraces and their great
value in retaining water.

S----.>) Page 5 I have hitherto used "gomose" as a general word to designate
all diseases, physiological or.parasitic, that produce gums in any part of the
plant. These diseases have never been studied in detail in Brazil and my opinion
is that some of them are perhaps peculiar to our country. As, however,in this
particular case I am dealing with "foot rot" or "mal di goma" I must indeed
change the name, but I prefer "podridao do colo" to the italian name "mal di goma".

Page 5 Fertilisantes: I will give a small account on the necessary
choice of the proper soil before planting, and make the statements you suggest
about cultivation and fruit spots.


Regarding feijao de porco, I wonder if your opinion on this plant refers





-2-


only to the highland plantations. I have had a three years experience with this
feijao in Deodoro. I think that in the "baixada fluminense" it is the best cover
crop because it flowers in three months time and regarding the amount of green ma-
nure it can only be compared, in this region, to mucunaa" which, besides being
voluble, flowers only at the end of the rainy season. In fact I have been able to
have two crops of feijao de porco during one of mucuna. 'eijao de porco produces
well in relatively poor soils.

Here in Sao kaulo, I am planting feijao de porco in my orchards and I ha-
ve not had such good results as in Deodoro. The plant takes a longer time to flo-
wer gnd produces much less than in the baixada. I believe that here it will show
the defect you point out in your letter. I have had a splendid production of green
foliage with soja of which I c6uld never succeed to get a good production in Ieodoro.

Another point &n which I would like to have your opinion is the working
S; of green manure into the soil. In Deodoro I started a comparison experiment to
see whether there was any advantage in burying the plant or cutting it and letting
it lay on the soil as a mulch, the first impression was that the second way was
by far the best as it suppressed an operation on the field and had all the advantages
of a good mulching during the dry season. Unfortunately I had to interrupt this
experiment when I came here.

SPage 6 Your arguments against the Luvas metallicas are convincing but
4.hki4 + 'k T 1h-w h.IA +t'hamn 1her. LafnA at+ Deo4roT n-nd T ahaA +.ha


yOu saCy no n o6 W rus A s a
impression that they permit a better contact of the Bordeaux paste, afterwards. Do
you think that even a soft metallic brush should be discarded. Mr. Dierberger has
told me that instead of painting with a brush for Bordeaux paste,which indeed is
trqublescme and takes a lot of time he uses a strong Bordeaux in the sprayer. This
is at the same time quicker and more perfect than painting as it reaches the
smaller twigs. Do you think that such a winter spray with a 2 or 3% oil emulsion
should be recommended.
\I ^


y The effect of beneficial fungi will be emphasized in a special paragraph
including the photograph by Fawcett.

age 17 Blue mold: Accordingto your remarks I think it necessary to
emphasize the necessity of minimizing the amount of spores in the air, the agri-
cultural implements and in the packing house by a careful destruction of all the
mummified fruits. Regarding the Black rots, I must say that the reason why I have
Snot dealt extensively with them is that in fact I have never metthem on oranges
although they are fairly common on other fruits in Sao Paulo.
A
Page 19 I will notice the practice of "knocking off the button".
Page 23 Regarding scab, I thiak the question is quite different when
"considering scab on the stock in the nursery and scab on the fruit of the sweet
orange on the tree. Our"viveiros" are being kept perfectly free from sd'ab here
with the use of Bordeaux, although others viveiros in the neigbourhoud (Horto F10-
restal) were abandoned in a terrific state and have now developed into stunted
shrubs all covered with scab. Our spraying is perhaps a little too frequent for
economic purposes, but Mr. Dierberger tells me he checks the disease fairly well
with one or two sprays a year.
The question of scab on the sweet orange is, in my opinion entirely dif-
ferent because it is a matter of doubt whether the agent is the same as the one
S that causes the scab of other citrus. For this reason I am inclined to suppress
all what I say about the infection of the sweet orange by means of the scabbed stock.
Unfortunately I have never seen scab on sweet orange trees.,- as the disease is. by no
means common in Sao Paulo, although it seems to be very injurious, at least as re-
gards the commercial value of the fruit, in orchards where it occurs, but I find


4


iT








scabbedfruits from "time to time on the market and it always lowers a great deal
the grade of the fruit. I have been told that scab in sweet orange is never found
on leaves and green twigs and I have noticed that it seems to attack only well de-
velopped fruits as Sthe scab brings no deformation whatever, as would certainly be
the case if the corky excrescences were produced in an early stage. These facts,
allied to the experiments made in U. S. A., proving the high resistance of sweet
orange to Sporotrichum citri, tend to show that we are dealing with an entirely
different disease.. as happened with lime anthracnose which indeed resembles to
scab much more than to anthracnose. In this connection we cannot of course sug-
gest the same treatment as for ordinary scab on sour orange and lemon. If sweet
orange scab does not attack the leaves and develops only in the last phase of the
growing of the orange it seems that only one treatment should be recommended when
the fruit is half grown or perhaps sooner. In this case, the Bordeaux spraying
for melanose should be sufficient to check scab.
*
Page 27 In order to avoid descriptions of a technical character I quoted
"/acaros" when speaking of Phyllocopterus oleivorus although other "acaros" than
this one interest the orange tas~- -1-will however establish the distinction, i.
between the russet mite and the red spider. By the way, I don't know whether` russet
mite is the same Phyllocopterus that occurs in the~ .S.A.

5 I will probably speak also of a third mi* which was observed in this
laboratory before my arrival and which Grillo, of the Rio Istituto Biologico has
also observed there. It causes a kind of scab,, the small ite being found under
the corky elevations.

"ra Regarding the time of spTaying with lime sulphur, there is. always a
debt for me when trying to apply here what *s been found to be'the proper time,
in the States, You say in Florida this time is end of May-beginning of June, which
should correspond, more qg less,to the beginning of Decemaber hre, at which time
S*.he rainy season has well started. But then the orange trees are full bloom and
as russet miteslive on the fruit, it seems to me that, under our conditions at
least, the treatment shou4f be delayed until the fruit is 1/3 or 1/2 grown, that
is between March and April. I would like to have your opinion about that point.
Persor&ly I have applied lime sulphur at that time in our orchard and have no
russet or*lge, but I am not quite sure that theses were abundant in the previous
years.

SPage 30 Your statements about Bordeaux mixture are certainly of great
* importance. I have never used thisspray overnight myself and will suppress "...e
*t ate dias". *

Page 30 The last paragraph .ljil ,be transferred to the bottom of page
33 with the head line "0 pulverisador",'p' you suggest.
t .. ,
Page 35 Oleo 'de parafina: The question of the. proper oil and soap to,
be used in our ,e.lsions has been a matter of our great interest.'.According to* '
Joseph Ginsburg ''experiments (Journ. Agr. Res. XLIII, 5, p.469-474) the penetration "
of refined petroleum oils in the leaves of cultivated plants varies-'indirectly with *
their viscosities. As this penetration causes injury to the leaves, the oils with
high viscosity have to be preferred. Here in Brazil theses oils are easily found
as they are extensively used for lubrificating purposes. The refined petroleum pr-
ducts are found under the following names in order of increasing viscosity: gasoli-
Sna, kerosene, oleos levels (para lavagma de motor) oleos medios, 61eos pesados, va-*
selina, parafina. A'less refined product is the oleo Diesel, and a nearly crude
product is the oleo combustivel extensively used nowadays in some industries. This


r-. -5-





-4-


last contains some of the lower terns of the scale and may thus have the pe-
netrating effect of kerozene in the leaves. As it is the cheapest it would other
wise be preferred. One can find under the name of oleo de parafina and also oleo
de vaselina, a refined product, transparent, very expensive and which seems to
be used only in medicine or for very fine lubricating purposes. I think that
this product is by no way superior to the ordinary lubricating oils when used as
an emulsion but I would like to know whether the paraffin oil of the american
authors is the ordinary lubricating oil or the very refined product found in
our market. As for myself, I have used extensively in our orchards the light
oil used when cleaning the motor cars' carter (flush oil) It has a lower viscosity
than the oleos medios and oleos pesados which would seem preferable according to
Ginsburg experiments, but it costs half as much.

p Now for the preparation of the enulsion, we have experienced a great
difficulty in using the american formulae. They very often speak of fish soap
and also of potash soap which I remember to have seen in Europe in form of a
*black soft soap. Neither of them can be found here. So we have used our or-
dinary white (more or less) soap. After a great many experiments we have arri-
ved at the conclusion that to obtain a reliable product it was necessary to
increase the amount of soap. I am including a copf'of our directons on the
preparation of the emulsion.

Page 34 Your topic on this page is a very important one to me. I
think that among the numerous spots, stains, etc. described in my paper, a
good many are of secondary importance when considering the question as a whole.
It is true that for particular orchards one or more of theses spots of less im-
portance may assume the first rank. The chief markings, themselves, have not
all the sane importance in the different orQcards, that is why, ipstead of a
general schedule as found in the books, I have divided my schedule in three dif-
ferent sets of sprays.Now if this was to.be done, taking tnto consideration all
the other types of markings, the schedule would be so complicated that the
choice would be somewhat difficult to the grower. The solution is of course
the one you suggest: to state the treatment for every kind of spot and marking.
I think that the best way is to add to the description of every one its speci-
fic treatment. As I am willing to add also a short note on the etiology of the
disease, the treatment of the'subject will be more complete than in the original
paper, that 1p, it will bring-the description of symptoms, etiology and control.

I have read very carefully the spray schedule of the Quarterly Bulletin.
Vol. 5 no 3 which I am sending you back with my bests thanks. From its date (april
1921) I see that when it was published, the experiments of Winston and Bowman on
"Citrus Melanose and its control" (Dept. Bulletin n 14t4 of March 1927) were
just starting. I think that this accounts for the fact that no treatment for
melanose was included in the schedule. "It seems to me.-that this treatment it
the most important together with the thrips spray in thi State of Sgo Paulo. I
have made a single Bordeaux spray in our orchard when the fruits were quite small
and I have nota single spot of melanose which is very abundant in the neighboring
orchard of the Horto Florestal. I have thus organised the following spray schedule
which is the Florida schedule in which the Bordeaux spray for melanose has been
included. I wish to have youropinion on this revised schedule.

I must apologize for such a long letter but I am sure you understand
that I will make good use of your suggestions and that they will improve my
paper a great deal*










I remain, dear Professor Rolfs, with my best thanks


Yours very sincerely



Se--~ Agesilau Bitancourt
Assistente Chefe da Secqgo de
Fitopatologia



4*



P. S. 14/7/53. This letter was written when I received ycurs of
July 1I I am glad you agree with our identification of exanthehh.
I suppose the mild symptoms I describe above are more or less
the sane you have observed in Brazil. I have in such treesapplied
copper sulfate in a hole bored in th trunk and in a circle,
buried in the ground,with a six t diameter but without a noti-
ceable result.

P.S. 19/7/32. Owing to the revolution, I think it 'safer not to send
you the Bulletin as it might be lost in the mail. If this letter
reaches you safely and if you think I can send you.he~' bulletin,
I will do it as soon as I receive your answer. 6Ohgr efe I will
wait until the situation is normal again. -




S..



r. *





>' *





..



*

4








" 3ALENDARIO DE PULVERISA10O


Na traga ou doenqa Pulverisago Momento do emprego Observagjes


1 Sarna, Thrips, Acaros
da ferrugem



2 Melanose, Sarna
Coccideos, Aleuro-
dideos e afidios ,


5 Acaros da ferrugem


Coccideos
dideos


e aleuro-


Acaros da ferrugem


Calda sulfo calcica e
sulfato de nicotine
on extract de funo


Calda bordalesa cam
emulsao de oleo



Calda sulfo-calcica




Enulsao de oleo



Calda sulfo-calcica


Quanto 1/3 on 1/2 das
petalas cafram



Quando as frutas medirem
em media um centimetro
de diametro.


Quanto as maiores frutas
apresentarem os primeiros
sintomas da ferrugem


Quando as frutas comeqam
a amarelar


No inicio da colheita


A nicotine s6 deve ser
acrescentada quando houver
mais de 25 thrips em cada
inflorescencia

Este tratamento devera ser
repetido um mez depois caso
o pomar esteja muito atacado
de melanose.

Este tratamento 4 capital
no tratamento da ferrugem
quando a pulverisagqo no 1
nao tiver sido efetuada.

Este tratamento pode ser dis-
pensado naso nao se verifique
notavel ocorrencia de insetos

Este tratamento pode ser
dispensado caso as frutas nao
mostrem vestigio de ferrugem.


--


APB LABRANJEIRA NO ESTADO DE S. PAULO




'K~


'j


foti.ath a


Sabio soum amarzlo ,.. ,...,,,......... o....*..... 800 graces
ol*o tlmorel (ttpo l as 6M otore) ........... 1 1/8 litro



Colo-ose o sbio cortedo me fatSia flaoe, dentro do um vaeslhe do.

capacidade conveaidnte (1ata e kez;euoe, per 'asmpio), eateado a aguas loa-

n s o fogo at& ftlor o memo eompletamaeto disoolvido*

Ca. a vasllhB aiada no fogo, derma -so, paoco a pouoo, o lit#o meiq

de oleo na qga do esabo, j be teato deo e m* seuldl, tIatto d14m pl; d

mdoet, eaitbs- ftoimate penr W obter ufs lattau be bam.aB s, rstxando-

so a &vailmt to quoe dee o luI Gs imntr w .baUl .

Ooatiau-se, eatao, a aitar a aisture maiteliame per me es horn,

afjds aoe eoflsee r g w pat o eoasltab1 la dse matiFp a que pode senr con-

served a .. uaqu as i teli



a) Cm a oald boriales propend a 1%, disslveo-, a trio, 1 quilo

Sde pasts an 10(0 ltrwms a salid a

b) Pea plautas do fthglhom ame ma t eas. d4l lveo-*o, a frio, 1 a 2

Quiloa it peafa ma 100 Utstes 4'ae

e) p* ar tn tasitoa do lavereo e e planted ea aetaed dsormato, dissol-

vos, a frt tUlos da p6sta 4 100 Ittmwe desu oun todaa for-

Mss ia 80 tl itme @*g* .



pulverisadoro, prefnrlado-os os tipo. provideo- do nasedewoe. Gramduie o apae

lh o do nodo a so obter un p~lverlsqeo SmitOe fiam semlhaUt 6o orfvatho, quo

deve eloanqar toda as parts dI pleats a sor pOlvorlMda.

As polvyrt3Aqae deem sor feottes eim 4ia so ea oalu.o*

A amnlso de sabo ole o ni4el 6 muiat eftais no ocaati obe ogocl-

de. afridos outros poquenos insetos.


a.-- 1'*


-C1* . .* .. .^


9 L*
, *0
9 ~


9.


*0 1C *


-* .-


MLS.10 DE SABkO E 0'OL MIR


*-- AW










Vigo sa, Minas-Gerais
Oct. 1, 1932.


Dr. Agesilau Bitancourt,
Secago de Fitopatologia,
Institute Biologico de DeSesa Agricola,
Sao Paulo.
I~ear Dr. Bitanoourt:s
SfOn Aug. 9vi 9 Dr. Fawcett wrote us in response to our
letter to him. We had transmitted, copy of your manuscript on
alanchas e Alterag8es das Laranjas. In this letter, Dr. Fawcett
said that he had written to you, and offered to send you photo-
graphs of diseases that occur in California. This is a splendid
opportunity for you to obtain authentic photographs from the
highest authority on citrus diseases. You already realize that
+ a photograph frog Fawcett would .oarry much greater conviction
StO the Plant Pa tologist than any other that you could secure.
The following is a copy of the paragraph in Dr. Fawcett(s
p letter which r-fars to this matters
I1 have written to Er. bitancourte as you suggested,
andnave offered to send hit any photographs oa diseases
here in California in case he will tell te what ones he
SAwishes to have.*
:- He also said
Tyhe disease which Mr. Litancourt speaks of in the
name of "Variola" is of the most interest, as he consid-
ers it to be something that, possibly, has not yet been
described, unless it be a phase of the concentric ring
blotch of South Africa."
You will be interested to know that our librarian,
has had a copy of your manuscript bound and placed on the shelves
with the permanent r=fe-ence books. So you see your work is al-
ready doing good service. It will likewise be an interesting
reference book for future students in citrus pathology.
We are writing you this letter, because the mail to
Sgo Paulo has been seriously interrupted in the last few weeks.
So if you do not receive the letter from Dr. Fawoett, you will
be in a position to write to him, requesting some photographs.

SVry sincerely yours,

P.H.Rolfs, Consultor teehnioo de
'* Agrioultura do I. de o inas-Gerais







SSECRETARIA DA AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRIAL E COMMERCIO

/ INSTITUTE BIOLOGICO DE DEFESA AGRICOLA E ANIMAL
AB,/. AV. BRIGADEIRO LUIZ ANTONIO, 100 N0 400
TEL.: 2-4117
CAIXA POSTAL, 2821
SAO PAULO-BRASIL S.Paulo, 25 de Outubro de 1932


Mr. P.H. Rolfs.
Consultor Technico de Agyicultura
do Estado de Minas Gerais
Vicosa



Dear Professor Rolfs,


I have received yesterday your letter of 17th inst. for which I thank
you. I hope you have in the meantime received mine of 18th.

I am including the revised text of the first part of my paper.
You will see that I have somewhat increased it and that I have availed myself
of your suggestions Some parts are perhaps a little too long for a paper
on "As Manchas das Laranjas". If this is your opinion please let me know
and I will cut them away.

I have heard of Rhoads and Debusk's Diseases of Citrus in Florida
through an abstract in the Review of Applied Mycology I am writing to
Rhoads as you suggest.

Sweet orange scab. Already done a bit of work with this disease. I have
isolated Sphaceloma fawcetti from sweet and sour lemon, grape-fruit, Rangpur
lime, Tahiti lime, Avocado and sour orange. The fungus was the same in all
cases. I have isolated frcm scabs on sweet orange and tangerine rind a fun-
gus that is somewhat different from Sphaceloma faweetti and of which I already
have two strains (from two different oranges) I have made 22 inoculations
of this fungus on sour orange budding leaves without successwhile one single
inoculation with the sour orange fungus gave a heavy infection. I have made
41 inoculations of Sphaceloma fawcetti from the different Citrus above on small
(under 1 cm. diam.) round oranges. Although it is somewhat too soon to read
the results, it seems that the rind shows no scab, while there are lesions on
the nectar disk from which I will try to reisolate the fungus. I have made 26
inoculations of the two strains of the sweet orange scab fungus and it is not
yet possible to read any result. G. Fawcett in Argentina and Miss Jenkins
admit the possibility of the sweet orange scab fungus being different from
Sphaceloma fawcetti. Miss Jenkins (Journ. Agric. Research XVII, pag. 548)
referring to a specimen from Balansa's colltion, collected as early as 1882,
says: "On this specimen, although acervuli were numerous, no conidia were seen,
so that until additional data are avalaible the specific identification of the
fungus as S. fawcetti should perhaps be regarded as not absolutely positive".

In fact the lesions do not look exactly like scab lesions on other
fruits and I have not myself found the characteristic spores of Sphaceloma
fawcetti although my specimens are probably much more important than Miss
Jenkins. I am going to send her a few samples in order that she may compare
them to Balansa's specimen.




-2-


'\


^'7T
V./.2
) <( tip


Rust mite : in Mr. G. Bondar paper: "Insectos damninhos e Molestias da Laran-
jeira no rasil", Eriophyes oleivorus is given as the cause of russet oranges
in Brasil, so it seems that he has seen and identified the mite. This is all
what I wanted to cite Phyllocoptes. I have searched for this small animal
both on russet oranges and on silver scurfed lemons without being able to find
it.

Oil emulsion: After many experiments we have come back to the classical for-
mula. It seems that the quality of the soap has some importance as the emul-
sion was not so good witit a neutral "Marseilles" soap than the ordinary
Matarazzo soap. The high prices of oils now make the oil emulsion very expen-
sive. Some substitute oughtto be found in the by-products of the paulista
industries. I wonder if that "Texide" is more expensive than the ordinary
oil which is around 2 to 3 mil reis nowadays. I will try to get a sample.

I take good note of what you say about the importance of the diffe-
rent spots on orange in the District Federal. I think that in Sao Paulo
the case is a little different. Some spots of which you say nothing are
quite frequent: scab, variola and sooty-blotch for instance. I hope to
make next year a real statistic in our chief packing-houses.


With my best thanks, I remain,

Yours very sincerely





Agesilau Bitancourt
Assistente Chefe da Secqao de
Fitopatologia.












DrnQDIZo


Cm o a sento da preduqgo muadial do frutas pare mesa, os paisea

consmidolre toram-se ada ves mis exigates. Mailto so contrario do 'ue go-

ralmute so paoss aio ao as frutas do mlhor sabor as male proouradas ais

as qw aproseaten o mIhor aspoto a aor uniforidado. Iai outros trmos,

a aparncia extra des frtatao mai important sob o potato do vista omeo-

oial do qae as qualidados gustatlAas. oU exmplo frimante doesn fito dado

polo sacesso o eraoontc das saqia airleanas nos mroados europeus. Mau grado

as despesas do fr6b, oatas frteas -o prefoerdas I produaqo localnito eabora

as msaqs produsidas m diverse ponatos a Eropa soj muito mais saborosas

do que as quo exported on Etados Uiides. Isto i drvide ozolusivaenats a

sers estas ultmaas perfoltas sob o pontoda vista dda ooambfomao, da cor, da

unitamidade oompleotmate isatau da qualqu-r nmaha o alteraqEo.

Os a~trimultores byesilelros mao devem caqueeor esta 1iqao sen-

pro ter oe mate que o quo aeonate eam a a q tafbem pode aooateer oam a

laranja. sabido c-u a larazja produzida na Afriea do Sul ton ua peTaair ma-

to imarior i nossa. Os cfbrqos daomnvolvrdo peloa plantadores sul afrioeaos

pama mlhorar o saw produto sio, entretanto, enom es persevorants do modo

a sor possivol prever qua deatro do pouoo toapo as frates sal aftianaa al -

eanqario o alto gria do perfteigo que o meroados europeas esto aoostma-

dos a eaontrar was laranjas da Califbzsa.

Si do aosso lado nio dessOrolverms oa memos caorQos, eremos

pouso a poao as mosas frataU mbora maim saborosom, abandonadas poles oeasa-

aidoros.