Valuation of Carbohydrates and Proteins in Commercial Foods.

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Title:
Valuation of Carbohydrates and Proteins in Commercial Foods.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
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Box: 3
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Valuation of Carbohydrates and Proteins in Commercial Foods.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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THE VALUATION] OFi' C.AP 3-:. AT-.' AND' PROTI, ..

I 11 T9IRCGIAL ?IDO.3

Intr oC .c t on.

':e have co :ercial fecci control in ";,.y .'tatost, Ibut -jo to not


have a satisfactory mnet'od for publlhing these vwiluatonis so At

will ble of .7',ratost service to the agricultural people oof the

Otate. Th1s is largely our fault. "'e huve too frequently :,s-.umed


the .ttitmdo of saying to tho ionsms.ler of feed stuffs, "If yo-, want

to underst:-ind s;:hat I say cgt a toch:n1cal erduc-tilon -o yo; c:nl! r:rRe

It outt* Asn t rule, he reno'.re1t uo[:il.il uai.Ilyrses for ..Cod pro-

duc:ts give the information neccasury o o th:; :hl:he st., Tils is

fur from enough,the ;.rouitest goodl fro, our ;,tate Ouutrol o";, comes

fr'ro the r.ora. force rarrled ,.ith Its ?;ubllcution. : long as the


re r-,xts re pr-intea In a la ,-uage thi the rave~rage consumer does not

uId ers ,::nd, theio r: rts have very llttl,-; : 01 1 force. In "ol.oida(and


the e we in trnie n iM iny other sotithern 3tateos), the qu.',roln as to the


cnrorr;cemont of' fertilizer and fr:-.d lj'" re:ts vic;r l;ir.ly ith the


consumers o0 the ;-.terial. "1o that these consumeria are co'istantly

throwing violators of thi.. kind Into the courts s ':u', if th. analysisis


i~ stat od in su.-; a u, '-r tnit the cri-nsurcr lrndLiestands trt.e onaIyses,

he kno7: -cttor ?'hotiher he wA:iits the tufIff o' not.






S* -2-

Peed laws, like the fortlllzer laws, are planned and In-

tended to be carried out in such a way as to give the honest dealers

and honest, anufactur.Es the broadest liberty possible, -,hlle at the

same time it Wll protect the consu or a;;.lnst fraud by the Ulshon-

est dealer or manufacturer.

It is a rather :.trange corsuentary upon all o(f; the attempts

to forj:. late laws for the :pLotctlon of the honest consumer, that

the honest corLmercial house usually al~ngs itself w-th the dishonest

dealer, We have only to go b.a: a year or .two and see hor- the

rrIrAuftccturer of innc':ticios fought the passas o of any kind of in'e

scr:ti -ide or fungicide bill. 1o know, also that when an attempt

.a; made to [.La a felrtiliser' law t ? F:orilda that practically every

fortilioer Hiouse in the "I..ate exo:rted itself, It seeLed to the utmost

to have the pa.;a;age of the law7 defeated, Te argu'iment ulied in favor

of having ; no laws for the -.ontrol of feed or- fertilizer do not nake

it very clear that the men who were opposinp- the passage of these laws

were guldod by the stand..rd of the hi;hcsst .:olv:,vs. ;c lrno'* ;:1so

that these men -heo sought hi'.rd4.st a-.-anst the pass-ae of a reasonable

law 'were the ones who suffered most from the absence of any &awv to









enforce honesty in the dealings. I Oa fully convincod that, were

it jiut to a vote of the various fertj.lizer houst-s in the tute as to

whether the fertilizer law t should be entirely 2rei alcd an! no roew-

lations h!e had, that they Toulc 1Cretty nearly vote as A u nit to repeal

the law and yet these virlous houses hau-3 pr'lrti.;lly built tbeir

fortunes on th; pyrosence of a rca.onable law. Too fr-:quently the

Sr'.:'utaWle co-om;orcial hca:es3 insist t-.hat the ana3ysos be so st':ted

tha. tlhc average mnn cannot understand them.

JUst why we should have thi-d strenuous antagonism to aIy

and all laws does not s,'orm to be vi;ry. clear. The fortill er houses.

as well as i e houses yhich fir'niah corner! cial f.-eds, in no wise have

to pay for the analysis. This comes out of the pocket of the con-

sumer, The re.,l:.tions a.e suh'-~ only as will punish dlshon.'st or

dureoess handlers of foods and fertill.e rs. Thoe fort llzer control

question h-8 boon lhrashcd out for over twenty yc..rs. '-; law-, Thile

not everything that on t ion I sh for, are r: ..r:nably .-ood. The

passage of" laas controlling the sale of c~onercial feedrn is of a some-

what r ore recent date. To a I r,'e extent, the laws in different

Ltatcs differs, lnd yet all .ae ainng nt the t-.-.; point. 3As a





3--


matter of fact,the question as to the values o iffper)nt co'r;ercial

feeds In such a recent one that thi feeders of stocK themselves are not

agreed uron minute doet.lls, Iowever, enough information han been

collected and the general Information Ir-: on a sufficiently firm basis

to con:Ider it fairly accurate,

The question as to how we shall get at tho valuation of the

different feed elements in the -oiTmmorcial feed stuffs has e -rn od

the attention of a naber of eorianent chemists, an(v has been disanussed

for sometime, onsidorable c.i'resp!ondeRnce ban-. p'Asnod on thirn sb-

ject by our worthy Presidcnt, Carit, PR N. Bose, with other loading

chemists in the United states, Two lo years ago voliuinous correspond-

once passed botweern .;'apt. Rose and the VExperirecnt Otation of Florida,

The question hr boon thr..shed lout back and forth for several years.

About two years 6#o the qucst Inn -a taken Up carefully with out

n-:imal Indurtriallst, Pr-o'", Ocott, and thr- --hole stu:l~ect work:cd over

ruLthor thoroughly from the standpoint of the feeder, as well as from

a
the standpoint of the conrercial mRen. After/considerable a:.o0 nt

of study, -orrespondence .n-li other work, a pln -.ru fainLlly formulated

7;hich it seems to us is veory satisf-ctory,





" ^, *- -


It would serve no good purpo-;e to reproduce the dntaill of this

work and correspondence here, What this association Is interested

in p:.rticul;rly is the result of the labor and not the details :.? tO

how these restAts were' obtained. I r:a assure you honorable gentle-

men ;tht it is u qu;:-ton t that has roc,-,veo cureful and ioitslstent

stldy, 'The question cannot be settled correctly vlithout the o--oper.

tion of several departrants.


To Obtain Valuations.

The plan folr btalnine. vuluationis that I shall propose today

is simple and such a plain !A.du-tlon from the information that

we already have at hand that to state It will be sl-fricient,

Protein. A To obtain the valuation for the protein con-

tont, start with the valuation that nitrogen is given in the fer-

tilizer control. Tris will give a reasonauly correct anwi ret:.:;onably

constant for the price of nitr ,gen,

B. *onvort the nitrogen to protein and i'roi this get the

value per unit of protein; that is, divide the market value of nltro-

gea by 6,25 (If stated un av;-oniu, divide by 5.1404),

arbohcbdr-ateg To secure tho v.:lUition of the C:.rbohydrateS






-6-.


will be nearly as simple as to get the valuation for the protein,

To proceed is this r.tter, take corn as the standard. 'Thi n product

is tuoren from the fact that it s less likely to fluctu:ate from

artificial causes, such Oan getting a corner on corn. or an unequal

distrib1titon, or even from natural causes, :,.s a partial or total

fa-lure of corn In a lartlcu.l:,r section. ;Jorn Is king of all

our T grain products, It is the most 1 _rgoly produced of all of the

cr:ins in the United rt'Ates, and is raplilly beco;ing the principal

gj ain of r n::ry other countries, notably of ;.out'i atilea

Occurylnr:. the position that corn does It naturally r:'>'ulles b

the valuation of other grain crops. If we hava a laTr.-e oat crop

and the -prices fal low, more outs :aro used and less corn, If the

wheat crop ha!'pe:ns to bu; .!hoix t and the prices of' wheat goes high.

rore corn is Used to take up, thin dofcIt, th;lus equtCll:z,.r thri market

S.price o: :,heat. The s;:r,e r tr'o of burley anm' u.he,-' grain. On

the other h-.nd, If the corn (croj, proves to be short -.irl th,- prices

rise mowhat in '.he case of the corn, v"h,:at, oats, barley, nd

even other grains, such as rice, o:r.0h In to keep the price of corn

from rising abnormally high. Taking It all in all corn ls the

one crop that comes nearest to obeying the law of supply and de-






-7-

mand, It. is the one crop that i3 so0 generally p-o~uced that lo-

cal or :(ctional failure hits little or no a :'ct in varying the

market price.

From thin general dl --::-sion it '"il be -sen that corn is

the onst nearly id:l.1 o `a ll thr mUat::rlals that we can use as a

standard.

Pror. the standpoint of the corpmi:.-atlve crop, wo find also

that corn 2ont in .. ruther sn.all amount of protein, very little

crude fiber and only a il1. amount of fat, thus leaving corn

as a food rrop with practically its carbohydrate content as the

IN ice idetucrI iln7n, factor.

The carbohydrate conbnt of corn Is very largely r:igcostible.

Corn.


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Flint Dent
__ 6a: analyses 86 _naiys~sj
water 11.3 10.6

sh 1.4 1.5

?otein 10.5 10.3

-ude P11r 17 2.2

Ltro,.:en free
Extract 70.1 70.4

it 5.0 5.0

Jordan, T. iP..r The Feeding i of' A"nim1, ls p 424


All v:ritlies
20, ;~iiniyses

10.9


1.5

2.1

69.6

5.4.








'Carbohydrate V'.luution1,

Ai TTake the analysis of corn and from this find the pro-

tein Yuluatlon contained in It, a's indicated in section in fore-

going rara&raph,. Dub.tract *this anrount f,'fn the !-:ot of the corn

at ouaboird,

B* Oaleulate the total carbohyd.-ate8 n urnitst and uie this

as the divisor anO, the ro alinder s 'oulnd by noction cO,. us the

dividend. The Lauotient will be the unit value for the total car-

bohydrates,,

Tnis method Ls ar r.-traly perfeCt, I believe, as any that we

can no:'; c...tl1'iict.

It it not claimed that thi iIs absolutely perfect, any c~Ose than

it is absolutely correct to report the total amount of ':onia

found in a fort1lizer. We know T..erfectly well t:.at an-,onia from

hoof meal is not equal to a;.monia from dried blood ase a plant food.

Those of us who ar- in a I.Oo.d aid a G:,Ation to .-lrti ise this

method of procedure fo] findidig tl,& valuatlon, should bl;;.r in -Tind h

that tal t' they offer should be constr; active criticism and not de-

structlve xfiticizm. Any one c:n find fault with any lile of

procedure that may be tuKen up in olr fertilizer or feed c. :trol









Work, but that fault finding ; doos not help ur to any better under-

standing or any worC r tioinal method of p:.rccCd're. ohat we 'i...nt

here, today is -constructive criti:isn. We hive halted and hc.sttatted

:'nder dccstri-ctive criticism for at Vlast a dlca.'e and have made no

progress v';atu;ver, probably the only thing we have made Is that of

S a great deal of confusion, 0ie have n.ot had the cou-u -e to coT-e c.ut

and oCfor criticism that has bee:; r'ially ;.onst.ructive al.-nc this::-

line. Let us for a little while get out of this "'iockinl: iri't

an,. gct into a scientific; ..ood and hur.or and critiecse tbhl fl'rO a

const:utlivo standpoint.

2Jmo of us nay ar2lue that tMi- values of c rbohiydraten; .'cn r:lo-

rived f -' corn \ill. not be ::a-tly the r.;::i as that derived from:

svcet potatoes or r:hoat .vhon viewed fr'o the feeders standpoint,

I wish ri;ht here to t.. in'. those people th t if they ha ;one into

the bi nd Liark't dui kn in .t....'ocr tlh' w-ould havo found tht there

was very co..siderableo va-:i.tion as to th,- real interest paid by var-

. ous bonds, The lUnlte .'t..,tes CGvor ':nt bonds -7-:'1d pr:b blY

have yleldce the very lowest interest*




-' :-10-


Bonds an Septer-ber 1910.

Testern P.elfic 5*' solving at 93 'terresti 5.55

;lsscIuriI Parirc !'s ) 91 5,5

tU.f. otcel Jor!'-ration 58" 103 4.85

Ooloradi, & 2,':t? orri 4 93 4.50

Mis: ;uri.,IS, ar: 1 er 4 s o 0 5a 4.00o

T. Y. oc.!tral 4 8 a 93 l.

fSaturday .erenlng Post, aopte. emr 17, 1910.

To). thif- tatl1 we see th3t even in the r;
when ttiken front va r-lous sources, ar not selling at the s nre rrine.

Thooretically t-:ey should be selling for ,xctl-y hr nn:. r'.' y, incy, Ince

the Ijtcrcst on ,:arnin`i; po'-eCr (the olg,.ztion *c-rf-liclent) 5I abso-

lutely fl -qd.

In calculating the values for the cilffer,-nt c r.crrial --'.ufas

on the rurjr t, chetnical analyses r;ust t.) taken as the st'rnd.rd;

(a) because tris Is thU only p nrsieble balsi for Xs us to er.ploy#

The che;-int does notc he tve ttre tim nor f--cli.ticn Cor'- d'iteri.ning

the di:.." .ti';llty by our -ni'r t :,. only known i.'::'ns .Cor as ert aining

It; that is, feeding it to ntocKR. M"l:' rethod wro:1d not serve the

needs of the conFl-.er, since he v'ants to know before feeding his

stuff what t it l north a"d not Tonths fto" th9e tuff has been

used.






,I4 l. .- ^. *

(b) The digestible carboh.rdrtes and -rotein vary in the

different samples of the sa:c:e material, that is, iuch depndy pon

the stage of development as to the digestibility of food rat:.rials

in certain plants. This can be illustrated by if'arag any feed,

The following table will serve our purpose.

Percentage Digested.

Green velvet bean vines

Dry Matter Protein Fat., Fibre N, FTee
Extract.
Steer Y'o. 1 66.9 73.8 77.5 5e.2 80.4

Steer No. 2 71.6 72.8 85.1 #0.9 84.3

Velvet Bean Hay

Steer No. 1 69.0 63.0 75.1 74.0 70.2

steer no. 2 79.4 74.6 82,2 81.9 81.2

Florlda ETxricriment Station Bulletin 60,


(c) The digestibility of the same material will vary with

different animals. This is illustrated by the above table and

comments are not necessary.

(d) Toe State ,;her.ists-report the total ai:ount of am; onia pres-

ent in [itrate of Soda, also the total amo nt of nitrogen present In

Sulphate of Aro onla. ,we know, however, from careful experiments that,

especially with vegetables, the nitro.en In nitrate of coda is more





al12wi


valuab.:e-than the nitrogen ITn nulrhatte of' an-onia,.

Th-- Av:lality (f t;-i Oirferent NitogKernois Iaa' lIals

S.e n *het of th.e, !itr;'to is lton ai 2100.

P9.9 1900 1- ,04t 1I

Sodium ntrate 100.0 100.0 100.0 100
.ro-lum sall'-naste ., a 77*9 87.4 64,7 70

Drioft blood ,. +. 61.3 73.1 65.2 53

?Tow Jer.sey kxrerlmtinmnt ':tatio4n Qe~'oi L, :.. 210 (1905)


W, knY.o anl-l th -t the uro or' s .. h'ite of, p~ita nh 1-" ': lte Jpof

c.r .ble 1" r~,t-,1 Inst-nces to the. t:e of r-lA:tc o- nt,.ho Tnr

a *~ -b; t't l li.S er .rirto of ( .Ataci -h : -,o--1" l r- n ,!d : I 1i

o,.'-fli, jfi n In T .t'l O Ae ;rtilje fa;l.h tu Co :0. :rf., ..o 7: u ,'rC

used as It drVelops nr,..t-m'os at .-nh:nlces :*.':inpl.n;, inilitles, Ino-

r-inile f'tlf':ts tro' felds f' t,.l..Aizc :1th i'ift, --, of' oita '-h !)C ibu t:ly

andlare Api, t.. rot J.: th- cur Thiu.o ;sc re fl-.-ts '-th ":?;1:- tbhe grl-

tourist u, :nint hirnself r;: do not "'uo a n'.or:ot '. ,* tIt .t

b ri0 ct... I-nt -,snalynor o rertilizern do not" ':.ve. '11 the

Inforumatlo wvo snoul. 11 ho to have, t0hat tu: fo It otl.' ":ctter

rnot to ihave :'-ny 'o:,tCiol at a2l ovor t:-, o rtil .1' ,'-int of the

S.aterials sold


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Conclusions.


1. Foed Oontrol laws are a necessity.


2, They are, or should be, a protection to the consumer.


3. The tag on coach parcel is the con uumor guardian.


4 This guardian must speak in a language, understood today


(tomorrow or ncout year is too late).

5. TEvery additional item on the tag increases the confusion,


6. It would require six items. water, ash, protein, crude


fibre, nitrogen free extract, and ether extract, on a tag to


menno it technically coneoot. Such a tag would be worse than


useless to 99% of the consumers.


7. A tag giving the percentage of protein tnd total carbo-

hydrates would be of greatest service to the consumers and


would be practically correct.




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2f Bkrley 12.

2. Beef Soraps 71.

5. Boggarwood hay 11.

4. Corn 10

5 Cottaneoed aeal, bright 42.

6. Cotton seed meal, do 22.
7T Cotton ee8a (bWole) 18

8, Ootton seed bulls 4.

9. Cowpea 20

10. Oowpea bae 16

11. Gluten food 24

12. Roy feed 9.

1a. Linseed meal
01 prooeas 32.a
14. Linseod meal
New Prooess 33.

15. Oats (grain) 11

16. siee 7.

17. Rice bran 12.

18* Eye 10.

19. Timothy hay 5.

20. wheat 11.

21. Whet bran 15.

22. Wheat middlaalz 15.

23. Telvet beans in aml3t 19;


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24.

2H.
H.


Velvet bean hea

Wire grass hlla
R. Smith Profitable Stock


63.00


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In.^
I 9


&1333.0g


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* 1 '




4.5






^0 j oI1 9


; 1,z i.LL['.00


14.7,

5.50\
Feedin
\


bb 6.. 80
r., 1 0,I .oo





a.Quarter y Bulletin xx:3
P. 67, 68 July 1,1910)


.4


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3% 3 27.00


4,. 12.50


1


----


._ ______, ~-~- -


- --






Estimated
Protein Orude oager
Fibre & stM bohytatl
SStarah

2f arey 12.4 2.7 69.8 1.8 Y a3
se Beef Borapa 71.2 .3 13.7
B. Boggarwood bay 11.85 29.29 42.06 2.92 o,1
4. Oorn 10.3 2.2 70.4 5.0 a29.
5o Oottanseel. meal, bright 42.3 5.6 23.6 13.1 ./
6. Cottonseed mnea, r, 22.90 20.00 37.10 5.50 )1 |9 1
7. Cotton ee9M ('6ole) 18.4 23.2 24.7 19.9 I.
Cotton seed hulls 4.2 46.3 33.4 2.2
9. Oowpea 20.8 4.1 55.7 1.4 | (D.-
10. Oowpea bay 16.6 20.1 14212 2.2
11. Gluten feod 24.0 5.3 51.2 10.6 "
18. Eoainy feod 9.8 3.8 64.5 8.3 3'99
13. Linseed meal
01 prooosa 32.9 8.9 35.4 7.9 1 ( 0
* 14. Idnasod meao
oew Prooeas 33.2 9.5 38.4 3.0 1'.)D

15, Oata (grain) 11.8 9.5 57.4 4.0 l4.
16. 91 7.4 .2 79.2 .4" 0.7
17. Rioe bran .12.1 9 5 49.9 8.8 o,,

180 Rye 10.6 1.7 72.5 1.7
19.* Tlaty hay 5.9 29.0 45.0 2.5 o ,.
0, Whea 11.9 1.8 71.9 2.1 :. ,
. ... .-- .. .. .... .---. .... ...... --------.. .... ... .


Wheat bran
Wheat inddlisgs
Telvet beans in hullt
Velvet been heW
Wire graso hbayl


H. R. Smith Profitable Stock


15.4
15.6
19<40
14.70

5.50


9.0
.4.6
9.20
29.70

31.80


53.9
60.4

51.30
41.00
48.60


Feeding, yd edition 1908
.:.< 9.-' .:.


4.0 a I
4. 0
4.0 Il^ i
4.50
1.70Q q1,J

1.50se, .
Rise, R. E.
:..


21.

28.
83*


65.





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8 4


-fl.
W'9


-a-I
63.oo .
r1.C

S.28 00
. 30.80
3 ~ 27.00


^L-^l'a.50
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( i ( i & i-
rv1 w^ I6 -.0



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--1
.- : b 4.50 .


/ bb 17 i80


1X)



Faa.Quarter y. Bule in xx:3
P. 67, .68 .July 1,1910)






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To work out problema.
(1) Multiply figure in column 4 by 2.25; add the product to
numbers in columns S andi 5, and multiply tho sum by 25.A and
place product in column 5.
(2) Multiply figure ih column 4 by 2.25, add the producoto

figure in column 3, and multiply the spm by 26.4 D, and place
product in column 6.,

(5) I.Iultiply flgroe in colmuin I by~ Gf. ,-nd add tho product to
si-L1n oyt-tc-n for nlunmber in column 5. co to rCoadl- in colmn'tm7.








fTHE-VALUATION OF CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEIN

IN COMMERCIAL FEEDS.-



Te have commercial feed control- n many States, but 4te'

e- not hee a satisfactory method fo publishing the/ valuations

so t--w4ll be of greatest service to the agricultural people of the

State. : This is largely our fault.. We have too frequently assumed

taL LLiU e of ai to the consumer of feed-stuffs, "If you want

to understand what I say get a technical education e- you can make
/ A

it out', As a rule, the reports of chemical analyses for feed

products give the information necessary to the chemist, This is
A A

far from enough,the greatest good from our State Control work comes

from the moral force car4ed-wi 4 publication So long as the

.reports are printed in a language that the average consumer does not

understand, the reports Ate vp y-little mor al force, In Florida,(and

-the-same is true in *a? other southern States), the question as to the

enforcement of fertilizer and feed laws rests yx= largely with the

consumers of the material. Not that these consumers are constantly-

throwing violators of this kind into the courts, but if the naltsi

t- stated in such a way that the consumer understands '~h nalryaa,-

he whether he wants the stuff or not.
'. ~ ~~-A .. ,








Peed laws, like b fertilizer laws, ape planned and in-

tended to be carried out In such a way as to give A honest dealers

and honest manufacturOes the broadest liberty possible, while-at the

same time w, protect the consumer against fraudgo *6 Ashon-

est dealer or manufacturerS,

It is rather strange commentary upon all of the attempts

to formulate laws for the protection of the honest consumer, that -

the honest commercial house usually aligns itself with the dishonest

dealer, We have only to go back a year or two aod see how the

manufacturersof insecticides fought the passage of any kind of in-
A

secticide or fungicide bill. We know, also that when an attempt

was made to pass a fertilizer law an Florida practically every

fertilizer house in the State exerted itself, 14-*emff-d to the utmost-

to have the passage of the law defeated. The argumentsused in favor

of having no laws erhe control
it very clear that the men who were opposing the passage of these laws

were guided by te asandtr of the highest meaQtls. We know also

that thYse.men who bought hardest against the passage of a reasonable

law were the ones who suffered most from the absence of any law to




Hin.
-3-

enforce honesty in BQ dealings. I am fully convinced t, were

it put to a vote of the various fertilizer houses in the State as to

whether the fertilizer law should be entirely repealed and no regu-

lations be had, they would pretty nearly we* as a unit to repeal
A
the law; and yet these \ houses have practically built up their

fortunes on the presence of a reasonable law. Too frequently the

reputable commercial houses insist that the analyses be so stated

that the average man cannot understand them.-

JUst why we should have this strenuous antagonism to any

and all laws does not seem to be very clear. The fertilizer houses1

as well as the houses which furnish commercial feeds, in no wise have

to pay for the analysis. This comes out of the pocket of the con-

sumer. The regulations are such only as will punish dishonest or

careless handlers of feeds and fertilizers. The fertilizer control

question has been thrashed out fp-ov-er twenty years. The laws, while

not everything that one .might wish for, are reasonably good. The

passage of laws controlling the sale of commercial feeds is of a some-

what more recent date. To a large extent, the laws in different

States: dfirs, ,and yet all are aiming at tho oa-me- pit. As a









matter of fact,the question as to the values of different commercial

feeds is such a recent one that the feeders of stock themselves are not

agreed upon minute details. However, enough Information has been

collectedaand the general information Is on a sufficiently firm basis

to consider fairly accurate.

The question as to how we I get at the valuation of the

different eed elements in the commercial feed-stuffs has engaged

the attention of a number of eminent chemists, and has been discussed

for some timeConsiderable correspondence has passed on this sub-

ject ~b,our worthy President, Capt. R. E. Rose, with other leading

chemists in the United States. Two years ago voluminous correspond-

ence passed between Cppt. Rose andthe erimen Station orld

The question has been thrashed out back and forth for several years.

About two years 66o the Qaestton was taken up- carefully with out

Animal Industrialist, Prof. Scott, and the whole subject worked over

rather thoroughly from the standpoint of the feeder, as well as from
a
the standpoint of the commercial men. After/considerable amount

of study, correspondence and other work, a plan was finally formulated

which it seems to us is ~ear satisfactory.







It would serve no good purpose to reproduce the details of this

wor~ and correspondence here. What this association Is interested

in particularly is the result of the labor and not the details a -4

btr these results were obtained. I can assure you honorable gentle-

men that it is a question that has received careful and e t

study. The question cannot be settled correctly without the co-opem-

tion of several departments.


To Obtain Valuations.

* The plan for obtaining valuations that I sf propose today

Is simple and such a Plain deduction from the Information that

we alreadyy have at hand that tostate It will be sufficient.

Pretein. A. To obtain the valuation for A0 protein con-

tent, start with the valuation t "i /L4 gken In the fer-

tilizer control.* This will give a reasonably correct and reasonably

constant for the price of nitrogen.

B. Convert the nitrogen to protein and from this get the

value per unit of protein; that is, divide the market value of nitro-

gen by 6,25,(If stated as ammonia, divide by 5.1404,o)

Carbohydrates. To secure the valuation of the carbohydrates








will be-nearly as simple as to get the valuation for the protein..

TE^-roced ja this"tiien traXe corn as the standard. This preduvt

is taken from the fatt a It is lees likely to fluctuate from

artificial causes, such as getting a corner on corn, or an unequal

distribution, or even from natural causes, as a partial or total

failure of corn in a particular section. .omn ic l- n -f all_

-Y feifi .tBs It is the most largely produced of all of the

Strains In the United States, and is rapidly becoming the principal

grain of many other countries, notably tc South America,

Occupying the position that c(rn does it naturally equalizes b

the valuation of other grain crops. If we have a large oat crop

and the prices fall low, more oats are used and less corn. If the

wheat crop happens to be short and the pricel of wheat goes high,

more corn is used to take up this deficit, thus equalizing the market

price of wheat. The same is true of barley and other grains. On

the other hand,. f the corn crop proves to be short and the prices

rise somewhat .tl hp rea@es of the onrL. wheat, oats, barley, and

even other grains, such as rice, comb in to keep the price of corn

from rising abnormally high. Taking it all in all corn is the

one crop that comes nearest to obeying the law of supply and de-
A.






-7-:


mand. It is the one crop that is so generally produced that lo-

cal or sectional failure has little or no effect in varying the


market price~..


From this general discussion it will be seen that corn is

the most nearly ideal of all the materials that we can use as a
A.

standard,


From the standpoint of the comparative crop, we find also


that corn contains a rather small amount of protein, very little

crude fiber, and only a small amount of fat,.thus leaving corn


as a feed crop with a Its carbohydrate content as the 4i


price-determining factor.

The carbohydrate content of corn is very largely digestible.
A rn
% *


Water

Ash

proteinn

Crude Fibte/)


Jordan,' H.,
~, '0 -- -. 0I


Flint Dent
68 analyses 86 analyses

11.3 10.6

1.4 1.5

10.5 10.3

1.7 2.2


70.1 70.4

5.0 5.0
The Feeding of Animals, p 424.


All varieties
208 analyses

10.9

1.5

10.5

2.1


69.6

5.4








Carbohydrate Valuation.

,A. Take the analysis of corn and from this find the pro-

tein valuation contained in it, as indicated in section in fore-

going paragraph. Subtract this amount from the cost of the corn

at/eaboard,

ealcula e the total carbohydrates in itts and e this

as the d visor and the remainder s found by, section Ye!a as the

divi The uotient will e he unit val or the total car-

bohy ates.

This method is as nearly perfect, I believe, as any that we

can now construct.

It Is not claimed that this is absolutely perfect, any more than

it is absolutely correct to report the total amount of ammonia

found in a fertilizer. We know perfectly well that ammonia from

hoof meal is not fnin ammonta from dried blood as a plant food.

Those of us who are in a mood and a position to criticise this

method of procedure for finding the valuation, should bear in mind I

that what they offer should be constructive criticism and not de-

structive criticism. Any one can find fault with any lime of

procedure that may be taken up in our fertilizer or feed control







Ba ..

B, (a) To get the factor for carbohydrate valuation
multiply the per cent. of fat by 2.25, add tLis product to the

amount of crude fibre vbd uugir aild stcrch nresott. This
sum givcs uo tho divisor. ,ho reirm.in&or as found by the fore-
going aootion is used. as the dividend. The quotient will be
the unit value for the total carbohydrates.

(b) To stLto the -'roblemo arithketioally, it works
out a.s follows:

'~t----3 .20 (vl. per unit j.'onin.) t 5.1404 62.'/, valuo
per unit of r:xotoin.

---I 10.3 proteinn in orn) = :,..41, vLl.o. of protein
in corn.
,- -.,41 = ;21.59, value e f.c.-rcb.'johyJr1.ites in corn.

: 70.4 (starch ;nd suLgfr) + 2.2 (crude fibir ) + 11.25 5.0 x 2-.)
.fat converted to carbohy.lrate Coiuivalnt 83.85


.;;21.59 t 83.85 = 25.8/, v:.l e -cr I.Mit of carbohydrate.

If we omit the crude fibre from our calculation we have:-
;21.59 + 81.65 = 26.4/, vclue 'cr unit of caribohydra.tcs.








work, but that fault-finding does not help us to any better under-

standing or any more rational method of procedure. What we want

here today is constructive criticism. We have halted and hesLtated

under destructive criticism for at least a decade and have made-6

progress vtbzds r. Probably the only tbi /we have made is that of

a great deal of confusion, We ha e noh had the courage to come out

and offer criticism that has been really constructive along this

line. Let us for a little while get out of this *knocking" spirit

and get into a scientific mood and humor and ^eLhba frtJi- from a

constructive standpoint,

Same of us may argue that the values of carbohydrates when de-

rived from corn will not be exactly the same as that drive fom '

sweet potatoes or wheat when viewed from the feeders standpoint.

I wish right here to remind these people that if they had gone into

the bond market during September they would have found that there

was very considerable variation as to the real interest paid by var-

Ious bonds. The United States Government bonds would probably

have yielded the OA lowest interest.







Bonds in September 1910.T

Western Pacific 5's selling at 93 interest 5.55
Missouri Pacific 5's 91 5.5
U.S. Steel Corporation 5's o 103 N 4.85
Colorado & Southern 41 s 93 4.50
Missouri,Kans, and Tex 41s 80 o 5.00
N. Y. Central 41s U 93 4.50

SSaturday Evening Post, September 17, 1910.

From this table w# see that even in the money market, the units,

when taken from various sources,,-are not selling at the same price.

4^i/ 1UL- /4L ^ ^.
Theoretically they should be-se for eeftyqm mony,
CA... n- C 2 oe ,
le T the digestion co-efficient is abso-

lutely fixed.

In calculating the values for the different commercial stuffs

on the market, chemical analyses must be taken as the standard,

(a) beeauee This is the only possible basis for thI us to employ,

The chemist does not have the time nor facilities for determining

the digestibility by nly nwn m for ascertaining

it; that is, feeding it to stock. This method would not serve the

needs of the consumer, since he wants to know before feeding his

stuff what it is worth, and not months after te9 att9 has been

used.








(b-) The digestible carbohydrates and protein vary in the

different samples of the same material, that is, much depends upon

the stage of development as to the digestibility of food materials

in certain plants. This can be illustrated by taxing any feed,

The following table will serve our purpose.

Percentage Digested.

,4 Green velvet bean vines


Dry Matter


Protein


Fats Fibre
S


N. free
Extract.


Steer No. 1 66.9 73.8 77.5 -58.2 80.4
Steer No. 2 71.6 .72.8 85.1 0o9 184.3

SVelvet Bean Hay
Steer No. 1 69.0 63.0 75.1 74.0 70.2
Steer No. 2 79.14 74.6 82.2 81.9 81.2

K- Florida Experiment Station Bulletin 60.


(c). The digestibility of the same material will vary with

different animals. This is illustrated by the above table and

comments are not necessary,

(d) The State Chemists report the total amount of ammonia pres-

ent in Nitrate of Soda, also the total amount of nitrogen present in

Sulphate of Ammonia. We know, however, from careful experiments that,

especially with vegetables, the nitrogen in nitrate of soda is more


'' t


S-1- -





yl # --12- -


valuable-than the nitrogen in sulphate of ammonia. j -
/44g-Sj- /UL-t^U'W 'kjt^ Q -fCa r^TtS* rz-t-eLC O<-, %- ^e //Juu^t^ O-Q x.
The Availability of the Different Nitrogenous Materials
When that of the Nit-rate is Taken as 100.

1899 1900 1904 1905
Sodium Nitrate . 100.8 100.0 100.0 100.0
Ammonium sulphate . .. 77.9 87.7 64.7 78.1 -
Dried blood . .. 61.3 73.1 65.2 53.5
SNew Jersey Experiment Station Report 26, p,210,(1905).


e Know also that the use of sulphate of potash is quite pref-

erable in certain tastances to the use of muriate of potash. In

a cucumber fertilizer muriate of potash should be used as it is

cheaper; An a cantaloupe fertilizer sulphate of potash should be

used as It develops sweetness and enhances shipping qualities. Pine-

apple fruits from fields fertilized with muriate of potash bleed badly

and are apt to rot These are facts with which the agri-

culturist must acquaint himself. We do not for a moment argue that

because the present analyses of fertilizers do not give us all the

information we should like to have, that therefore it would be better

mt to have mS control at all over the fertilizer contents of the

materials sold.





-13-


Conclusions.


1. Feed Control ]aws are a necessity,

2. They are, or should be, a protection to the consumer.

3. The tag on each parcel is the consumer's guardian.

4. This guardian must speak in a language-:,understood today

(tomorrow or next year is too late).

5. Every additional item on the tag increases the. confusion.

6, It would require six items, water, ash, protein, crude

fibre, nitrogen free extract, and ether extract, on a tag to

make it technically correct. Such a tag would be worse than

useless to 99% of the consumers.

7. A tag giving the percentage of protein and total carbo-

hydrates would be of greatest service to the consumers and

would be =. -- i. correct,





.r'
j.^at





^ Kf- $y/t? Z 2
S-. cz-4 '6 .r /.- 6" ir

9 ['-,,t_ f-t 4L4 '-' t1r.- /"s-s
f ,,' / ,*^ ,'




ss,,. A L .l '- t~',,-- r ~-- -


.. o,-, L*,.-^'F ^.-. ,







I.H. RoL T o.
A. W. BL m .I
JOHN M. F Im7aL. IN1DU.TRL....1T
E. W. BRERER ENTOMOLOGIBT
H.S a WCETT, PLANT PATIOLOGIlI
B. P. FLOYD, PLNIr PHYIIOaOIBI


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE


,T'.-"^Jer 7, 1910.





0-,.. R. E. Ro.-e, StaLte Clcmst,

T.1ciui.e-o, Florida.

Dear captain Rose:--

So Lar I :',.e o :en unable to get hold of the Oc' -

bor Seaboard prices for the following ii-Loi.:


1. Cotton seed (woholc)

2. Linseeod meal (old proccs) / I

5. (new proco ss )

4. Rice

S5. i ce L"n. /. .

It is .:o .ely poscil .e t-t have thbse data in your
office. I ij. .d like very Lu:Lnh to have it in coi:n..ction

i, a --er I am ,-'cariing for thie Atl`ta reting.

Ve'ry Tri tj r

Ft^ jD 7L4y a, It ^^ a


/ ;t


r4










THE LOUISIANA PLANTER AND SUGAR MANUFACTURER


[Vol. vlv., No. 19.


WANTS
Wi will publish in this column free of charge
until further notice; the applications-ot all man-
agers, overseers, chemists, sugar-makers and oth-
ers who may be seeking positions, and also the
wants of planters and sugar manufacturers de
siring to employ any of,these.
These advertisements will be Inserted until
they are pushed out at the bottom of the column
by the influx of new advertisements at the top.
Any advertiser may have his advertisement re-
inserted anew, however, if he will write It out
again and send it In to us.
We cannot undertake to forward by mall reples
to the advertisements in this column, even though
postage be supplied, and, to secure publication in
the issue of the succeeding Saturday, they must
reach us not later than Thursday morning of
each week.

HELP WANTED,
ASSISTANT engineer for sugar factory in Texas.
Salary $.zo.00 per month, including .board. Grind-.
ing will last three months and possibly longer.
Address MASTER MECHANIC, care LOUISIANA PLANT-
E -' 1 10-31-1-0
-Li tilEl-qmtraupe' -effect-operator --and-aso -a
centrifugal foreman with experience. Must be so-
ber and industrious with a speaking knowledge of
Spanish. Address wif i"references, salary expect-
ed,; ete, to GaINoo, care LOUIsIANA PLANT. .
SUGAR house assistant engineer; must be thor-
oughly'competent, sober and industrious, and not
Afraid of work. Address with references, salary
expected and other information to GaINGO, care
LOUISIANA PLANTER.
TWO experienced chemists accustomed to cane
sugar house work and taking hourly tests through
all stages, night and day. Must be sober and In-
'dustrlous. Speaking knowledge of Spanish desir-
able. Address with references, experience, salary
Expected, etc., to GaiNao care LOUISIANA PLANTER.
AN experienced sugar refinery man accustomed
to bone black work, must be sober and Industrious.
A speaking- knowledge -o Spalnish -dsitrable. '*Ad-
dress with references, experience, salary expected,
tc., to GRINGO, care of LOUISIANA PLANTERB.
FOR Mexico, sober, industrious, close boilers
head and assistant wanted. Speaking knowledge:
of Spanish desirable. Address with references, ex-
perience, salary expected, etc., to GRINGO, care
LOUISIANA PLANTER. 10-19-10,
GRADUATE sugar chemist as assistant on large
plantation in Mexico, Season January to May.,
State experience and rferences. Knowledge Span-~
ish desired. Address Apartado 1157, Mexico City.
Meice. -- -- -- ----- .. -- 1-0-10-10
' CAPABLE and experienced cultivation field
superintendent, on well equipped plantation In
Mexico. Must speak Spanish. Address, with par-
ticulars. Apartado 1157, Mexico City, Mexico.
-. CHEMIST assistant.ior -Cuba.- Engagement for
about five, months.. Must be available about. Decem-
ber 15th.- State experience, references and expected
salary, you paying your board about $18.00 per
month. Address J. L. KUBIN, 853 Humboldt Ave.,
,Detrolt, Michigan. 9-27-10

S SITUATION WANTED.,.
POSITION-As assistant chemist in the tropics
by a young man who is not afraid of work. Can
furnish. references as to- ability and qualifications.
Open.for *ngagema nt about December 1st. For par-
tidulars address C. A, RICHARDSON, care of Na-
*tional Sugar Mfg. Co., Sugar City,, Colorado.
11-3-10
POSITION-Wanted as assistant chemist for
the coming season in Cuba, Porto Rico or Mexico
by a young man with: experience in. the tropics
and Louisiana. Can furnish the .best of refer-
ences. Address W. T. M;', 1617 Terpsichore St.,
New Orleans. 11-3-10
WANTED-An assistant laboratory man for
Louisiana crop. State salary. Apply, G. R. S.,
S Bayou Goula, La. 11-2-10


BY an overseer and timekeeper of large experi-
ence. _Would.like to .communicate. with-planters
who will be in.need of a good, reliable and-hard
worker by the" first of next year. Can furnish
refeenes from last .place of employment; also
willing to be tried if necessary and prove my
ability. Age 33; small family. At present em-
ployed. Address, stating salary and conditions,
"OVERSEER," Matthews, La. 10-30-10
CHEMIST, college graduate, with 3 years ex-
perience in laboratory work, desires position in the
tropics as assistant chemist. Best of references.
Address C. H., care of LOUIsIANA PLANTER. .
10-30-10
A-1 man with experience, teams, tools, etc., to
raise cane on tenant system. Can-handle 75 to
100 acres first year. Teche country- preferred.
Address TENANT, 502 Peoples Bank Building.
POSITION wanted as locomotive engineer on
plantation. Address LOCOMOTION, 2256 Marals
Street, New Orleans, La. 10-27-10
.A POSITION as assistant overseer, timekeeper
and bookkeeper, by young man of excellent habits
and character. References. G. P. B., 1606 Pry-
tania Street,-New Orleans, La. 10-27-10
--A--POSITION-for-1-iil as -first -overseer on a
sugar plantation. F. F. SINGLETON, Centreville,
La.. .10-27-10
CHEMIST desires a position as chief chemist
in a cane sugar factory in the tropics. Ai present
employed as chief chemist in one of the largest fac-
tories in Louisiana. Graduate of a German univer-
sity, 36 years of age, speaks English, Spanish and
French. Four years' experience in Louisiana, Cuba
and Mexico. Can furnish best of references. Ad
dress "CHEMIST," P. O. Box 1700, New Orleans.
10-27-10
POSITION as sugar plantation manager or as-
sistant overseer for -1911. References furnished.
Address M. D.-G., Welcome La. 10-26-10
-A- POSITION as first-class sugar boiler. Expe-
rienced in all grades of sugar. Will accept position
In this State or elsewhere. Best references fur-
nished: -Address E.--G., care of the LOUISIANA
PLANTER. 10-24-10
POSITION as sugar boiler for- a crop In Loulsi
ana that will 'not last any longer than december
31st. F. N, SMITH, 800 Congress Street. New Or-
leans. 10-27-10

FIRST-CLASS electrician'wants position for the
coming grinding season, in Porto Rico, Cuba. Mex-
ico or any tropical country. Years of experience in
electric work in sugar houses. Experienced.-n con-
struction work of all kinds In the electric line: dy-
namos, -poles and lines. Best. of references given.
Address ELECTRICIAN, 1339 Constance Street. New
Orleans. 10-26-10
CHEMIST. graduate of German university, with
15 years' experience in cane houses in Java, Fiji.
Cuba and Louisiana, practical man, desires posi-
tion in the tropics after close of Louisiana crop.
Rest references. Address G. J.,:care LOnISTANA
PLANTER. 10-26-10
POSITION as sugar boiler: best of references.
Employed at present. W. B. JEF'RIEs, 540 Pitkin
Avenue. Grand .Tunction. Colorado. 10-24-10
- HEMIST of 10 years' experience in Cuba, Mex-
ico, Centrhl America and Louisiana. open for en-
gagement in tropics at close of grinding in Louist-
nna. Best references. Speaks Spanish. Address
CHEMIST,- Bellevlew Plantation, Franklin. La.
10-24-10
POSITION as water tender or other sugar house
lob by experienced man. Have been in charge of
boilers and mill and am familiar with sugar house
machinery. E. W. MATHEWS, R. F. D, No. 1. Box
19, Lafayette, La. 10-20-10
.. WANTED a position as cane shed or field fore:
man.-: Have bad. '10 years experience handling
and 'managing labor. Can give Al references.
Will also accept position as cane weigher for
coming season. Address F. GRoss, 718 Baronne
St., New Orleans, La. 10-19-10


WANTED for Cuba. TA competent and active A 'stuatlon as sugar, plantation manager by a
Travelllng EnEaleer to represent, particularly in practical up-to-date cultivator. Highest refer-
.Cuba sugar dl.trie-.'. a well-known engineering 'nces. Address K, care P. 0. Box 355, Donaldson-
firm producing complete Installations for the cane ville, La. 10-19-10
sugar industry. Applicants with experience in this
or similar line abd if possible, with, a thorough POSITION as cane weigher or sugar weigher, by
knowledge of the Spanish language, please address, experienced man who has,worked for Adeline. A.
giving particulars ad tb agie, experience, and terms Ci BALDWIN, 134 South Solomon Street, New Or-
required, to P. E., Hamburg, Germany, hauptpost- leans. 10-19-10
lagernd. 11-1-10
COLLEGE graduate desires position as chemist
.POSI ~iON as head sugar maker- or assistant, or assistant superintendent lh sugar hliose. Speaks
Twenty years' experience in' Louisiana. Can speak Spanish and Engllih. Open :to engagements. after
.French. Italian apd Spanish. Would llke to go" naryst: WIll go to anyfoign country. Ad-
rto Mexico or Cuba.t Adress SUGAR MAKER, 3147 dress 0. A. O..- cre of tbe LOUIIANA PLANTER.
Urquhart St., New Orleans. 10-31-10 New Orleans, La. 10-18-10


POSITION as chemist in tropics, young man,
age 27, university graduate,, three years' experi-
ence in beet sugar. At present employed as chief
chemist. Available about December 15th. Com-
petent and energetic. Will accept assistant chem-
ist position. References furnished. W. B. C., 620
Albert Street, Chippewa Falls, Wis. 10-18-10


POSITION as head sugar boiler or assistant su-
perintendent for the crop of 1911. Twenty-three
years' experience in sugar manufacture, refinery
and plantation. Highest references furnished.
Since 1906 employed in Porto Rico. Address
SUGAR BOILER, care CUBAN AMERICAN, La Gloria,
Cuba. 10-18-10
WANTED a position as foreman sugar drier,
either in Louisiana or Mexico or elsewhere. Speaks
Spanish. Address JOHN GOMEZ, 638 Royal St.,
New Orleans. La. 10-13-10
ASSISTANT superintendent, familiar with mod,
ern work, experienced as chief chemist and sugar
boiler, wants position In tropics. Address G. F.
30, Wallaceburg, Ontario, Canada. 10-18-10
AS a filter press foreman or bag filter, 15 years'
experience. Best of references to that effect.
JOHN LUSTALO, No. 1024 White Street, New Or-
leans. 10-13-10


Position Wanted.
As head sugar boiler or assistant superin-
tendent for the crop of 1911. Twenty-three
years experience in sugar manufacture, refin-
ery and plantation. Highest references fur-
nished. Since 1906 employed in Porto Rico.
Address "SUGAR BOILER," care Cuban-
American, La Gloria, Cuba.



We are in a position

to offer well drained sandy land for the
cultivation of cane. This land can be
rented either at a fixed price per acre or
based on A certain percentage of the crops
raised. For further information apply to
Office of
Franklin & Abbeville Railway Co.
JULES GODCHAUX, Gen. ]Vr.
No.221-Godchaux Bldg. New-Orleans, La.
Or to C. D. KEMPER, Gen'I Supt., Franklin, La.




WANTED t
TO BUY

24-INCH GAUGE


LOCOMOTIVE1
Must Be in Good Condition
Address No 675, care Louisiana
Planter and Sugar Manufacturer
NEW ORLEANS



Wanted to Buy
(For delivery after this grinding)
2 ten fobt vacuum pans.
1 250,000 gallon double or triple effect.
1 large mixer with ten 36" machines
and one small mixet with four 36" ma-
chines.
10 150 H.-P. return tubular boilers, or
eq ivalent power in any other type of
boilers.
Address "GEARING", care of The
Louisiana Planter.


__ __ _~_~_


L
ii :;









S .
November 5 il9i,.J


--~ *. ns~1~r.;~ Ju- -"'-. -7~~.


Nov. 4th.


SUGAR.
CLARIFIED-
M60 Test .................
Plantation Granulated.....
Choice White.............
Oft White................
Choice Yellow.............
Prime Yellow..............
Off Yellow................
Seconds ..................

OPEN KETTLE CENTRIFUGAL.
OLD PROCESS OPEN KETTLE.
MOLASSES.
)PEN KETTLE CENTRIFUGAL.
)LD PROCESS OPEN KETTLE.
CENTRIFUGAL .............
CANE SYRUP.


THE LOUISIANA PLANTER AND SUGAR MANUFACTURER.


WEEKLY MARKET REPORT.


Oct. 29 Oct. 31


- @365
- @ -
- @--
- -
4@ -
4 @ --





None

12@26

- @33


- @365


- @4

4 @AA





None
- @ -
12@26

32@31


Nov. 1

- @3 65
- @ --
-@-

S3 7/f 4
3%@4
- @ -




None
- @ -
12@26

32@33


Nov. 2 Nov. 3 Nov. 4


- @365
- @ -
- @ -

4 @4%
3%@3iA
- @ -

- @4
- @ -

None
12@24

29@31


- @8s


-@3%
- @ -
-




-@3%
- @3


No sales

12@24

27@0E


-@3%
- @ -
- -


3%@4
3%@3%
- @ -

No sales
-@

- @32

12@26
27@29


Rsea Day Last Tsar


@ -
4%@4iA
4 %@ -
4A@4ir
3-1@3%

-@ -

E9@34

12@24
28@30


OTHER MARKETS.
NEW YORK: RAw--Qulet.
Centrifugal 96 .......... 3 80 @3 80 @3 80 @3 80 @3 80 @3 80 @4 30
Muscovado, 89"............ -@ @ @ @ -- @ @ arIW--
Molasses Sugars, 89...... -@ -@ -@- -- @@ -@ quiet.
Granulated............... @4 60 @4 60 4 60 @4 60 -@460 4 60 @5 05
StandardA............... @4 45 @4 45 @4 45 @4 45 @4 4 4 45 @4 90
L.ONDON:
lava, No. 15 D. 8........... 9 d. 9s, 9d. 9s. 9d. 109. -d. 10s. -d. 10o. -d. 12., 9d. CANS-Quiet.
A. and G. Beet........... 8s. 8,4d. 81. 8%d. 8S. 9d. 9s. -d. 8s. 10%d. 9e. 0%d. lls. 8%d. Bx-Opened
quiet.
NEW ORLHEANS REFINED.


Cubes.....................
EXXX Powdered..........
Standard Powdered .......
Fruit Powdered............
Coarse Powdered.........
standard Fine Granulated.
Standard Fine Granulated
in 100-lb. sacks in bulk........
Confectioners Candy A....


- @4 85
- @4 75
- @4 70
- @4 70
- @4 70
- @4 60
S@4 60
- @4 60


- @4 85
- @4 75
- @4 Z0
- @4 70
- @4 70
- @4 60
- @4 60
- @4 60


- @4 85
- @4 75
- @4 70
- @4 70
- @4 70
- @4 60

- @4 60
- @4 60


STOCKS.


- @4 85
- @4 75
- @4 70
- @470
- @4 70
- @460

- @4 60
- @460


- @4 85
- @4 75
- @4 70
- @4 70
-@4 70
- @4 60
- @4 63
- @4 60


- @4 85
- @475
- @4 70
- @4 70
- @4 70
- @4 60
- @4 60
- @4 69


- @5 35
- @5 25
- @5 20
- @5 20
- @5 20
- @5 10
- @5 10
- @5 10


Steady.


At four ports in the United States to Oct. 26,1910 ................................................................... 139,522 To
At four ports of Great Britain to Oct. 1, 1910 .....................................................................144,000
At Cuba, six ports to Oct. 25, 1910 ....................................................................... 8,000 "
Receipts and Sales at New Orleans, for the week ending Nov. 4, 1910. Receipts and sales at New Orleans from Sept. 1, 1910, to Nov. 4, 1910.
--Sugar---- Molasses -- Su M'oass
---- ------- Mol e Hhds. Barrels, Barrelpi
Hhds. Barrels. Barrels. Received........................ 75,075 27,389
Received........................... 56,991 10,191 Sold ............................ 74,289 26.491
old ................................ 56,205 10,054 Received same time last year.... 133,338 32,535


RICE.
XOUGH per bbl...
Honduras .......
Japan ..........
CLEAN, per lb.
HONDURAS:
Head...........
Straights .......
Screenings.....
No. 2...........
JAPAN:
Head...........
Straights.......
Screenings.....
No. 2 ..........
3RAN, per ton......
POLISH, per ton. "' *


Oct. 29

1 25@3 25
1 75@3 25


3 @5%
2>4@2%

1i@1%

2%@3%
2/4@2%
1%@1%

13 50@16 00
25 00@27 00


-Oct. 81

1 25@3 25
1 75@3 25


3 @5
2Y4@2%
1%@2%


2%@3i%
2%@2%


13 50@16 00
25 10@27 00


Nov. l







o

0


Nov 2

1 50@3 25
2 0)@3 25


3 @5X
12%@2%




2%@2%
1%@1%
1i@1%
13 50@16 00
25 00@27 00


Nov. a

1 50@3 25
2 00@3 25


a @5%
1%@2%


2%@3%
2Y4@2%


13 50@16 00
25 00@27 00


IR-eoolpts and SOles at New Orlean.
BacksRough. Pockets of Olan.
Rsoelpts thus far this week........................ 25,887 18.172 Sales thus thi Week
R sipts ths lar this season....................... 66,010 182,078 SaleW thus fea this s
R oelpts duri same time last year. ............ 841,537 213,886 Bales during same ti



---I.


Nov. 4

1 50@3 25
2 00@3 25


3 @506
20@2%
1%@2%
1%@1%

29@3%
2%@2%
1%g@8
1%@1%
13 50@16 00,
25 00W 27 00'


Same Day
Last Year

2 00@3 85
2 03@3 80


4 @6
2%@8%
1%@2
1%@1%I

2%@3%
@ -
1%@i%

16 00@17 00
28 00@24 00


Tone of Market
at close of week
Uondursa--
Quiet.
Japan-Quiet.




Hondjras-
Steady.


Japan--


Steady.


Sacks RBogh. P-.ckqtl of Iesa-
(lbol~ ang Q pllren' reeipts). 18,841 22.61
eason,................... ..... t19 487.565
me Last ear ......... 68 ,713. 588,580




...- -


*1


303


1910.


Tons of Market at
Clse of Weak.





Quiet.


Quiet.
Quiet.

Quiet.


4%
4


THE LO ISIANA PLANTER AND SUGAR MANUFACTURER.


Nov. 4th.


I '


- z- a _











FLOUR I FEED


Feedstuffs Trade in Europe, While Slow,
is Marled by Firm Prices.
LONDON, Eng.-Trade on this side in feedstuffs, while
slow, is marked by firm prices, but there has been a small ar-
rival of choice new season's make of decorticated cotton cake,
and so superior is the quality that consumers have bought
freely. Decorticated cottonseed cake prices range from 7
12s and 6d to 8 10s and for prime English from 8 2s 6d
to 8 12s 6d. Undecorticated English in bulk is quoted at
5 7s 6d to 5 15s with prime Bombay 4 18s 9d to 5 2s
6d. Supplies of Egyptian continue to be rather in excess of
demand, so that these prices are with difficulty held up.
With regard to linseed cake the spot demand is small and
the high prices ruling prohibit any big inquiry for forward
deliveries. These prices are not likely to shift lower in
view of the fact that the market in linseed here has again
commenced to advance with prices up as much as 24c per
quarter in a week. Country merchants throughout the United
Kingdom are content to just fill natural requirements. Rus-
sians are still available in limited quantity at 7 13s 6d to
7 15s loose and 7 16s 3d to 7 17s 6d in bags. East
India seed, pure, have changed hands at 8 15s to 8 17s
6d for arrival. London made offer in second hands at 9 to
9 5s, that is silghtly under crushers' quotations. Liverpool
reports that improved linseed rules quiet with Liverpool mak-
ers comparatively easier and demand only very moderate.

Soya Meal Is Scarce.
Soya cakes are quiet with a slightly more English de-
mand, soya meal being scarce and firm. The cake is quoted
in London at 6 2s 6d to 6 5s ex mill, and the meal at
6 15s. Considerable falling off in continental demand is
to be noted and consequently there is at times more pressure
to sell on the part of home manufacturers.
Rape cake is dull, East India quoting 4 10s. Some par-
cels of white South African maize germ meal are firm, ruling
at 6 5s to 6 7s 6d with English makes offering at 5 7s
6d to 5 10s. Maize gluten feed continues in fair request at
6 5s. Parcels of white Siam and Rangoon rice meal in
warehouse move off quietly at 4 17s 6d to 5 with some
business reported at 4 15s to 4 16s 3d for winter deliv-
ery. Prime white hominy feed in bags reaches 6 10 to 6
15s.
With regard to locust beans only a small quantity of the
old crop is now available in warehouse and prices are higher
at 6 2s 6d for whole and 6 15s for kibbled.

Rates Somewhat Easier.
Dried brewers' grains remain a dragging market and are
without alteration at 5 for mixed and 5 5s for ale. A
good demand exists for feeding treacle, rates being somewhat
easier. The last quotation is for prime in casks 4s 9d to 5s
per hundred weight (always 112 lbs).
London makes of flour are dearer, ex mill. The sorts
which show no change are the very highest grades which are
kept very advanced by the moderate prices accepted for Hun-
garian. Country flour has a good sale but the makers, as
usual in October, are rather spoiling their own market by in-
discreetly heavy deliveries up to London. The new all-Eng-
lish flour is by no means lacking in strength and the mix-
tures with old foreign give some splendid flour. American
flour is firmer and is stiffly held. The by-products of the
mill are, if anything, in buyers' favor for pollard and sharps,
but some sorts of bran are a little dearer with wheat meal
firm.
With regard to millers' offals I might mention here that
at the council meeting on Sept. 28 of the National Association
of British and Irish Millers the members discussed a sugges-
tion to bring to the notice of British agriculturists the feed-
ing properties of millers' offals. Association President
Priestly thought that the British farmer might be made to
use millers' offals more freely. These offals are imported


largely from this country by Germany and Denmark, which
countries in turn export butter and eggs back to this country.
It was proposed that the association should actually start
an advertising appropriation to publish the merits of millers'
offals in the English agricultural journals and the catalogues
at the cattle and similar shows. Generally, it appears that
millers' offals are underestimated in value as feeding stuffs
in this country. Some members thought it was a matter,
however, for individual action and were disinclined for col-
lective advertising.
Would Be a Calamity.
One member dealt with the export side of the question
especially and declared that if the export trade in offals was
stopped it would be a calamity to the British milling trade,
although, perhaps, many millers did not realize it. He re-
ferred to a drop in the price of millers' offals of as much as
$4 to $5 per ton in the course of a week or two recently. If
the export trade was stopped entirely he foresaw a drop of
something like $10 per ton in the course of a- few weeks.
Apparently, however, he was quite agreeable to the export
trade being stopped automatically by an increase in the home
demand. Eventually it was resolved that an association in-
quiry in corroboration with some representative agricultural
college should be started as to the feeding value of, millers'
offals in this country as compared with other feeding stuffs.
London prices per ton ex mill or warehouse for fine mid-
dlings is 6 10s to 6 12s and for coarse middlings 4 5s
to 5. London broad bran quotes 4 10s to 5 and London
flake 5 8s to 5 10s. Pollard rates are 4 3s to 4 5s.
American feeding flour is quoted at 8 4s to 8 8s and
French feeding flour 4s or $1 cheaper.
There has been no remarkable development in the various
classes of feeding stuffs in use in Germany, Austria, Russia,
or the near East. The Austrian flour mill owners are suffer-
ing from a strike which has caught them with rather short
supplies of the finer flours, but they are fairly stocked in
coarser sorts. The South Russian mill owners have been
holding a congress where they. have been discussing their
troubles and have come to the conclusion that they must
combine, establish a special bank, etc. The only other really
practical conclusion arrived at at the congress was that they
must make an organized attack on the markets of the near
East which, of course, would have a serious effect on the
foreign mill owners, particularly Austrian.
Seed Harvests Pretty Good.
The seed harvests in Russia have been pretty good, hemp
being the only seed that has not shown up above the average.
The weather has not done well by the crops at the close of
the season generally. These prospered marvellously in the
early part of the year, both in common cereals and seed crops,
which gave rise to confident hopes that the harvest in practi-
cally every branch would be a bumper one. As a matter of
fact, practically all sorts have kept well up to the average or
rather more, although the fine results of the phenomenal har-
vests of last year cannot, of course, be expected to be re-
peated. Russia will have an abundance for home consump-
tion and a fine margin for export.
The position as to oil cakes may be considerably modi-
fied by the healthy situation in the country, which may en-
able the cattle raisers to feed their beasts on better stuff
than has been their lot in past years, for so hard have they
found it to do so that they have been obliged to have re-
course to cheaper stuffs and let the oil cake leave Russia
for countries that can better afford it. A series of good har-
vests naturally enables them to use up some of their own
rich cake, so that perhaps the world's markets may feel the
effect of a lesser export of linseed and other cakes from"
Russia in the coming season.
One of the varieties of cake somewhat new in the market
is sunflower and this will be fairly plentiful in the coming
season, for the harvest is a good one, particularly so in the
home of the sunflower seed, which is northern Caucasus and


NOVEMBERPT9re14
r


Che Export Market


1. I









T

j'FOVEMBER, 1910 FLOUR

millers, generally, are predicting strong prices for the win-
ter. Quotations now are: Flour-Best Michigan patent,
$5.45; ordinary patent, $4.50; straight, $4.80; clear, $4.30;
pure rye, $4.50; spring patent, $5.90 per bbl, in wood, jobbing
lots. Feed-In 100-lb sacks, bran, $25; coarse middlings, $25;
fine middlings, $28; cracked corn and coarse cornmeal, $25;
corn and oat chop, $23 per ton.


TRANSIT RULES.

Agreement is Reached Between Millers in
Central Freight Territory and
Railroad Oflicials.
The controversy over the milling-in-transit rules prepared
by the Central Freight Association has been settled as far as
the Millers' National Federation is concerned. At a meet-
ing of representatives of the railroads and the millers' com-
mittee at Chicago on Oct. 14 changes were made which satis-
fied the millers.
The following changes were affected:
Rule 1. The invisible loss or shrinkage to be checked
periodically and not to be shown on each car of product
which leaves the mill. (The carload method at best would
be a guess and could not be arrived at with any definiteness
-the change is entirely practicable and is considered satis-
factory.)
Rule 6. New rule advancing milling-in-transit charge %c
per 100 Ibs, with a minimum of $3 a car, due to the fact
that these rules assessed the minimum charge on the out-
bound instead of the. in-bound product. A change was secured
in this to apply the charge on the in-bound instead of the
out-bound product. This means a reduction in the milling-
in-transit charge of 50c, owing to the fact that in-bound mini-
mum is 60,000 Ibs, while the out-bound minimum is 40,000
Ibs.
Rule 7. An extension was secured in the milling-in-
transit time limit from six months to twelve months. The
central states miller more and more finds it necessary to
accumulate his stock of wheat for the year's.grinding during
the crop-moving season and the limiting time of six months
meant considerable loss, owing to inability to get out the
product within this time. (This is one of the very valuable
concessions.)
Rule 11. Providing for a recording fee of 10c per car and
meant a 10c charge on every car which came into the mill,
a considerable tax. This charge was waived.
Rule 14. A change in the shipping certificate was se-
cured which was a little more in the line with the ordinary
legal affidavit and considered a little fairer.
Rule 15. Paragraph "C." Softened to make the rule en-
tirely practicable, workable and satisfactory.
Paragraph "E" of Rule 15 was discussed at considerable
length as to its effect, which was discussed at length in the
October issue of Flour & Feed. It was decided by both par-
ties to be impossible of change in the light of the Interstate
Commerce Commission's rule as to the mixture of transit
and non-transit commodities in the same car and was, there-
fore, passed as approved.
The commission takes the position that there must be a
clear line of separation between the transit and the non-
transit commodities and that when non-transit in less than
carload quantities is added to a transit shipment it would
amount to the same thing-under the old practice-as secur-
ing a carload rate on a less than carload shipment.


COL. WINTER RESIGNS.
At a meeting in New York of the directors of the Ameri-
can Milling Co., President A. G. Winter resigned and H. C.
Atwood of Minneapolis was chosen temporary president.
Three of the directors also resigned, and the following were
elected to fill the vacancies: J. B. Shaub of Pittsburg, E. M.
Butler of Chicago and J. L. Dunn of Philadelphia. Col. Win-
ter is widely known as a feed manufacturer. He is a director
of the American Manufacturers' Association and has taken
a leading part in that organization's deliberations. -.


The elevator of the Columbus Hay, Feed & Grain Co.
burned at St. Louis, Mo., loss $5,000.


F FEED 27


Ro3D~m T. IHaiD WMIIAX HABDY


Rodney J. Hardy Q Sons

Shipper of


Grain and Mill Feed


Chamber of Commerce

Established BOSTON
1873



Western Feed Prices.
Quotations on feed in the markets named at noon, Oct.
29, are reported by the Western Feed Market Bureau of
.Milwaukee, as follows:
LAST YBAR.
Minneapolis bran 100 lb. sacks.................................19.2 ........Sellers $17.75
Minneapolis bran, 100 lb. sacks ................................ 19.00 ............Bid 17.50
Minneapolis bran, 100 lb. sacks................................ 19.0 ...........Nov. 17.75
Minneapolis middling 100 lb sacks............... 1.(........................... 19.7
Minneapolis middlings, 100 b sacks ................. 19.00 ...........Nov. 19.50
Minneapolis flour middlings 100 lb sacks..................... 28.00 ............... 22.75
Minneapolis red dog 140 Ib sacks.............................. .50 ................. 28.60
Minneapolis low grade, 140 b sacks......................... 80.50 ............... 24.25
Minneapolis bulk. bran ........................................18.00 ................ 16.75
Country mill bran, delivered at transit points ......... 20.00 ................. 18.75
Minneapolis bulk middlings............................... 17.75 ........... 18.76
Minneapolis old process oil meal 100 sacks.............. 81.00 .............. 80.75
Choice cottonseed meal 100 lb sacks...................... 82.90 ............80.40-80.90
Minneapolis mixed feed, 1UO lb. sacks, "Occident" ... 27.00Nov.Boston 25.00
Minneapolis bran 100 lb sacks................................ 24.25...... Boston 22.75
Minneapolis middlings 1001b sacks................ .... 4.00...... Boston 24.76
Minneapolis red dog, 140 lb. sacks...................... 80.50...... Boston. 28.50
Market firmer, better feelings, good inquiry.
Flour production heavy.
Duluth bran 100 b sacks ....................................... 20.25 ............ 18.25
Duluth middlings 100 lb sacks ................................. 20.25 ................. 20.75
Duluth country mill middlings 100 lb sacks.............. 21.00 ................. 21.00
Duluth flour middlings 100 lb sacks ......................... 22.50 ............... 28.60
Duluth mixed feed 100 lb sacks "Boston"................. 26.00...... Boston 25.50
Country mixed feed 100 lb sacks .............................. 21.00 ................. 20.00
Duluth red dog 100 lb. sacks................................ 2.50 ................. 2460
Market firmer; prices a shade higher.
Flour production moderate.
St. Louis bran 100 lb sacks...................................... 20.60 ........... 18.4-19.00
St. Louis No. 1 middling 100 lb sacks................... 22.60........... 22.20-28.20
St. Louis fancy white middlings 100 lb sacks............ 25.00 ........... 24.00-2500
St. Louis mixed feed, 100 lb sacks ..................... ...... 21.00........... 19.60-20.00
St. Louis hard wheat bran 100 lb sacks..................... 20.60.......... 18.20-18.40
St. Louis hard wheat mixed feed 100 lb sacks ............ 21.00 ........... 19.00-19.20
St. Louis hard wheat middlings, 100 lb sacks............ 22,60 ........... 22.60
St. Louis fine white hominy feed 100 lb sacks ......... 28.00 ................ 19.00
St. Louis old process oil meal 100 lb sacks..............81.50.............. 88.50
Choice cottonseed meal, 100 lb sacks........................ 81.10 ........... 28.60-29.10
Market unchanged, but firm in price, fair inquiry.
Flour production heavy.
Kansas City bran, 100 lb. sacks................................ 20.60 ........... 16.60-16.80
Kansas City shorts, 100 lb. sacks, brown................. 21.60........... 20.20-20.60
Kansas City shorts, 100 lb. sacks gray .................... 22.40 ........... 21.00-22.00
Kansas City mixed feed, 100 lb. sacks .................21.00................ 17.20
Choice cottonseed meal, 100 lb. sacks..................... 81.90........... 29.40-29.90
Market firmer, better feelings, good inquiry.
Flour production moderate.
Choice cottonseed meal, 100 Ib sacks,...................... 84.50 .....Bos..82.00-82.50
Hominy feed, 100 b sacks....................................... 27.25 Boston 28.00-28.25
Gluten feed,............ ......................................... 28.90 hi. 100 lb. 21.85
Milwaukee bran 100 lb sacks ................................... 21.25 ............... 19.50
Milwaukee bran 100 lb sacks.. ............. 21.00......... Nov. 19.25
Milwaukee middlings 100 Ib sacks ......................... 21.25 ............ 21.26
Milwaukee middlings, 100 lb sacks ........................ 21.00 ......... Nov. 21.00
Milwaukee flour middlings 100 lb sacks .................. 24.50 ................. 24.50
Milwaukee hominy feed, 100 lb. sacks.... ... .........2 .... 19.0-20.0
Milwaukee red dog 100 Ib sacks ......... ..... ........... 27.25 ................. 25.2
Milwaukee red dog, 140 lb sacks .............................. 27.00 ................. 25.00
Milwaukee low e, 40b ute............... ........... 82.50................. 26.00
Milwaukee rye feed, 100 lb sacks ............................ 21.00 ...... .....0.00
Milwaukee old process oil meal 100 lb sacks .............. 8250 ..... ....... 88.00
Milwaukee No. 1 screenings.................... ......... 20.00...........bulk 17.00
Milwaukee No. 1 screenings, 100 lb sacks........... 21.50.............. 18.650
Choice cottonseed meal, 100 Ib sacks, 41% protein..... 82.40 ............80.40-80.90
Market strong, very little feed offering.
Flour production moderate.
Rate to Boston from Minneapolis, lake and rail................................ oo
Rate to Boston from Duluth, lake and rail..................................... 4.00
Rate to Boston from St. Louis lake and rail.................................... 8.94
Rate to Boston from Kansas City, lake and ral ........................ 5.54
Rate to Boston from Milwaukee, lake and rail.............................. 8.84


Please Mention FLOUR & FEED in Writing Advertisers


**








Carbohydrates In Its Relation to Feed Control.



We may define food as "that which Is talen into the body, and is

used either to build up new tissue or to yield energy,.

The body is composed of different constituents. Each has its

specific function to perform. If the body is to continue to perform

its functions, all these different constituents must be supplied to

replace the worn out parts, or in the case of young growing animals,

to supply material for new growth. In its building, or muscle-

Sproducing function. protein Is the most important ingredient of

food, as it is the basis of muscle, bone, and almBst all the tissues

and fluids of the body.

To know the digestibility of a feed is of as much importance to

the feeder as it is to know of what substances it is composed, and

the percentage of each. The only part of the food material that

is of value to the animal is that which can be digested a;d utilized

by tharbody, and this determines the real nutritive value. As a rule,

carbohydrates are more easily digested than proteins while protein

is easier of digestion than fats.

'"he digestibility of feeds must be considered, however, frtm the







-2-

standpoint both of rapidity and completeness. Some feeds require

four or five times longer to digf'st than dB others. For instance,

the starch inppotatoes appears t0 be acted upon much more rapidly

than that' from the cereals, such as wheat or corn.

Other things being equal, those'foods which furnish the nutrients

most easilya-on corrpletely utilized by the body are the most desir-

able, since such foods will not cause unnecessary exertion of the

digestive and eliminative organs. Too much food is as bud as too

litt i, for it causes ai vaste of energy and strength in the body,

as well as a waste Of nutritive material.

Composition of the Animal Body and Animal Products.

Experiments and investigations have ascertained that the bodies

of animals, as well as animal products, are made up of the following

substances: Water, mineral matter, protein, and fat. These substances

occur in the animal body in somewhat varying proportions, depending

upon the age, condition, treatment, etc.

Water is an essential constituent of the animal bo'y and composes

from 40 to 60 per cent. of its live weight. Mineral matter occurs

mostly in the bones from 2 to 5 per cent. of the live weight. The






-3-

fat occurs in greatly varying proportions, but rarely constitutes

less than 6 per cent, or more than 30 per csnt. Nearly all the

bsustances which contain nitrogen are classed as protein. They

are an important group, of which lean meat and the white of an egg

may be taken as good samples. They contain about 16 per cent. of

nitrogen. All parts of the worKing macninery of the body, such as

flesh, skin, bones, hair, internal organs, brain, and nerves, contain

a large proportion of protein. Mineral matter is also needed in

1ihe body structure, though in smaller quantities,

Composition of heeds.

We find that science has brought to llght the fact that plants

also are composed of water, mineral matter, fat, and protein; and

in addition the food Of herbivorous animals contains a group called

carbohydrates,

Water.-- All food stuffs, no matter ow dry they may seem, contains

a certain amount of water. In grains and dry feeds it ranges from

8 to 15 per cent. of the material; in green forage and silage It is

about 80 per cent; while in some roots it reaches as high as 90 per

cent. While water is essential to animal life, and the water in




w


the food fulfils the same function as that drunk by the animal, we

do not, of course, value food materials for the water they contain.

minerall Matter.-- ?hen a food stuff is burned until the organic matter

is all driven off, the residue is mineral matter or ash. It is

composed largely of lime, magnesia, potash, sulphuric and phosphoric

acids, and a few other oxides. The ash of the food is the source of

the mineral matter found In the animal body, and as such is of great

importance. Ordinary combinations of feeding stuffs, however, contain

-n abundant supply of mineral matter for the use of the animal; so this

is not a matter of practical concern,except as it has a bearing on

the mineral elements of fertility in the manure,

fts.-- This term needs no explanation, as every one knows what fat

or oil is; for it is the same as the fat in the meat or butter that

we eat. The proportion of fat in feeding stuffs varies within wide

limits. In general, seeds and their by-products contain more than

the coarse fodder. Straws naturally contain less than bays, varying

from j to 1i per cent. of fat; but very little is found in the dry

matter of roots or tubers, uorn and oats contain from 4 to 5 per

cent., while cottonseed meal contains from 8 to 12 per cent, of fats.







-5-


Oarbohydrates.--- Tnis group includes such substances as starch,

sugar, gum, etc,; also the woody or fiber i:art of plants. The

former are quite freely digested; the latter less so, through ful-

filling the same function as far as it is digested. The carbohydrates

constitute the largest part of vegetable foods. They are not usually

stored in the body as such, but are converted into fat or used to

produce heat and energy.

Since the carbohydrates and fats serve nearly the same purpose


in the animal body, they may for convenience be groups together.

Experiments have, however, shown that fat is about two and one-fourth

as effective as a food as are the carbohydrates when both are equally


digested. That is, one pound of fat when digested, will produce

about as much heat or energy as two.and one-quarter pounds of carbo-

hydrates,

Protein.-- The protein of feed-plants, like that of the animal body,

is characterized by cont'-ining nitrogen. It is therefore frequently

termed "Nitrogenous Matter. The function of protein in the food is,


first of all, to build up and repair the working machinery of the


body; and to supply protein for the production of milK, wool, etc,







-6-


No other food constituent can fulfil this function.

Since we have shown that the animal body and all animal products

are composed of the same group of substances as are contained in

food-stuffs, it is an easy matter for us to begin the solution of

the feeding problem. What we now have to do is to transport our

food-stuffs to the animal in the proper proportion to economize on

feed as much as possible, while at the same time providing sufficient

nutriment for the animal to do its best work.

Balanced Ration.

In the first place what is a properly balanced ration? A balanced

ration is a combination pf feeds containing the various nutrients


in such proportions and amounts as will nourish the animal with the

least waste. The nutrients of most vital importance to the feeder

not
are protein, carbohydrates, and fats. All feeds do/contain these

nutrients in the proper ratio to form a balnccei ration; hence the

feeder must AuKe the proper combination of feeds so as to furnish

the animal with the nutrients in the proper amounts, and at the same

time with the least possible waste of nutrients.


Experimenters and scientific investigators have found that only







-7-


a certain amount of each element of food taCen into the body is used

in building up waste tissue and supplyingeenergy, and that all nu-

trients supplied in excess of the amounts needed for this purpose are

wasted. What I mean is that a dairy cow, for instance, can only

digest a given amount of protein, carbohydrates, and fats. If a

larger amount is fed than can be used by.the animal, the surplus is

thrown off in the excreta, and hence is wasted. A dairy cow giving

a good flow of milK required to digest about the following amounts

for each 24 hours. Protein 2.5, carbohydrates 13.00, and fats .5

pounds.

As mentioned above, protein is used in the body to build new

tissue, muscle, bone, etc. This function of protein cannot be

delegated to either carbohydrates or fats, neither should the function

of the carbohydrates and fats be delegated to protein. However, pro-

tein can replace carbohydrates and fats, but it will not be found

economical to do so.

Carbohydrate or Nitrogen-Freer?&e'

The question which we wish ti discuss today is not whether our

f"-:d control laws are just what they should be or not, but rather to






-8-

take up the question as to what the guarantee tah should show.

In theory the tag on mixed feed should givenan itemized list

of the feeds used in the mixture and the percentage of each. How-

ever, the question that should be of most importance to the consumer

is which feed is the best for him to purchase. In other words, in

which feed can I get the most not pounds, but feeding value for

the money spent. If the guarantee tags are properly labeled it

will not be so difficult for the average consumer to judge from the

tag which brand of feed will be the cheapest for him to purchase.

The feeding nutrients of the feeds that are of most important

and that should be considered are protein, carbohydrates, and fats.

There are numerous other elements In feeding stuffs, but they are

not of as much importance as these three.

As to whether we shall tall the second constituent carbohydrates,

nitrogen-free extract, fats, starch, plus sugar, plus gums, I cannot

see that it maKes much difference so long as we apply a name that

means what we are talking about, and at the same time is understood

by the public,

If we discard the word carbohydrates what will we use instead







'9-

that will be any better? If we use the term nitrogen-free extract

we do not do justice to a lirge number of our purchased feeds.

For Instance, cottonseed hulls, which in the souther States are

used extensively as roughage, contain 33.4 per cent. of nitrogen-free

extract, but only 34 per cent. of this, or 227 pounds out of each

ton, is digestible or of aalue to an animal. In the same ton of

cottonseed hulls there are 435 pounds of digestible crude fiber.

The same thing is true of oat straw and timothy hay. If then we

continue the use of nitrogen-free extract, we disregard or make no

allowance for one-fifth of the fe:?d value in the three feeds named,

This also applies to our other feeds, but not to so marked an extent.

The trouble with the term "nitrogen-free extract" is that it does

not include all of the feed nutrients.

*Food Inspection Decision No. 124 entitled, "Labeling of StocK

Feed", speaks with some degree of finality in defining the terms

in dispute.

"The term 'nitrogen-free extract* includes starch, sucrose, re-

ducing sugars, pentosans, organic acids, coloring matter, and certain

other ingredients in small quantities.






-10-


The term 'carbohydrates' includes most of the specified Ingred-

tents which make up the nitrogen-free extract, plus crude fiber, but

does not include organic acids and coloring patter.,

Percentage of crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract inAfeeds, and
percentage digestible,


Cr
.eed Stuffs
/ Cottonseed Oulls
> Oat straw
Timothy hay
SJohnson grass hay
,~ Soja bean hay
SCorn stover
SCorn grain,Dent
g Oats,grain
Gbuten feed
/0 Bran, winter wheat


Percentage in feeds
ude fiber, Nitrogen-free
extract.




29.0 45.0
28.5 45.9
22.3 38.6
19.7 31.5
2.2 70.4

9.5 591.7
5.3 51.2
8.1 53.7


Percentage digestible
Crude fiber Nitrogen-free
extract.
47.00 34.00
54.00 44. 99
52.00 63.00
58.00 54. 00
61,00 69.00
67.00 -64.00
58.00 93.00
20.00 76.00
72.00 87.00
27.00 65.00


~vh- p~ip~'"








This definition of these two terms shows very clearly their

difference, Furthermore, it shows thqt t.,e term Carbohydrates covers

more of these feeding nutrients than does the term nitrogen-free ex-

tract; the only ingredient not included in carbohydrates being organic

acids and coloring matter which are of no importance as a feed.

In our tejp-booKs and literature on feeding live stock the term

carbohydrates Is used alrrost entirely; and especially is this so In

ail tables and in discussions that treat of the digestibility of feed-

ing stuffs.

Then too, in computing balanced rations, the ration of the protein

to carbohydrate s s always given. It is never spoken of as the ratio

of protein to fat or nitrogen-free extract. If then, we should dis-

continue the use of the term carbohydrates it would mean a revising

of all our present literature. If, as in some other States, it be

only required to guar-antee the percentage of crude protein and crude

fat, this guarantee will.give but little indication as to the real

feeding value of a given feed. If we only consider the protein

and fat we make no allowance for from 25 to 75 per cent, of the feed-

ing value of our feeds (see table II.). In one ton of cottonseed







I


Table II.


Table snowing pc.:nd crude p.o-' ei, crude fat, total protein and fat
and rv.[,unds total carbohytr1otes in OBe ton of the different f.e 'd.,
Orude pro- 3rure f:t Totii pro- YeAding
tein in one in one ton toin and fat nutrients
ton. pounds pounds in one ton ______s__SB
pounds not considered.

OOttonseed hulls 84,00 44.00 128.00 1594.00
Oat straw 80.00 46.00 126.00 1585.00
TiTrothy hay 118,00 50.00 168.00 14"I0.00

Johnson .,:russ 114.00 42.00 186.00 148s'.00

So3a bean hay 308.00 104.00 412.00 1218.00
Corn stover 76.00 22,00 98,.O 1024,00
Corn grain,Dent 206.00 100,00 306.00 1452.00

Wheat bran 3081.00 80.00 388.00 1258.00
Gluten feed 480.00 212.00 692.00 1130,00

.iddlings 312.00 212.00 524.00 1300.00

Cottonseed meal 846.00 262.00 1108.00 5S4.00
Cowpea bay 332.00 44.00 376.'0 1246.00

Homi.My Chop 196.00 166.00 362.00 1366.00










Shballs there is 84 pounds o" crude protein and 414 pounds crude fat, or

a total of protein and fat of 128S rcpunds. That is, if we only require

the guarantee t-:g to show the crule protein and fut, Ine one ton of

cotton sced bulls we only guarantee 12E poi:ndr of feed or 6.4 or cent,

of the total amount. In this same ton of cotto seed hulls there is

f5941 pounds of carbohydraites that are certainly of some value as.a

feed or the feeder would not buy it. In fact, this 1594 pounds of

carbohydrates is what the f 2 der Is buying the cottonseed bulls for,

He cares nothing ab ut the protein and fat for'the reason that he can

supply that much cheaper by buying cottonseed meal or corn. The snme

is true of timothy hay, oat straw, Johnrson grass, and c-orn st ver,

The feeder does not buy any of these feeds for the purpose of supplying

hib animals "ith protein and fat, but he buys thob '-vith but one end In

view, that is, to supply the necessary c rb6dr a Lseed meal

which is one of our richestffeeds in protein and fat has in each ton

584 pounds of c'.rohydrotes, or in other .v':rds 25 er cent. of each ton

of this valuable feed in carbobydrates. 'e could continue this list

of feed but this is sufficient to show th necessity of tsKing into

consideration the carbohydrates,









" 7


The protein and fat are of vast Importance as feed nutrients,

an
but it would not show c od judgment to feed/animal on protein

and fat only. As shown above, an animal can only utilize or use

to O'Ivantoge a given amount of each element, hence if we supply


a surplus it will only be ', cted. Then too, an animal cannot digest

a food that is too concentrated. Therefore, a guarantee of protein o

and fat i i. A ration very rich in fat is

likely to c'.use ail sets of digestive troubles. At the present

time, there is more or les- confusion in the uso of the terms. -N-P




p. r8 p*a j, nn r pnri- rimr eni Uri-nu iRw elt t finid




"-iTreil, -ld e.l" tn ....n AtLI 3._ since the Pureau of 'hemistry

has given us a clear-cut definition of these two terms it sees that

we should have no further di "c'ilty- in selecting the proper one.





(I)


CrOude Sugar
Tibre &
Starch


M A ;Li -^ ^*

Total Oar-, oiitted $,Io I-
bobydrates Eio


1. Barleq._ -


2. Beef Sors~e. ._
3. Beggarweed. ay --. -

4- Cotto iseed. me bi ht
5,, cottamse-eL meal, bxle bt


712K 1,
7/. ...2 0 A
/,- *.z .,-. *

42,. i a 24


/.
"'7


5,6


6. ottonsa eal. da.. ra .2.- as.l, 7./- V i /) ,,
7. Cotton se4 (sele) /d,2 JA 2 /7 /f 34 ?l
8. Cotton seed hUllsa f4_i -_ ; I. i
9, Cowpea 4_.__ -/ It / /
10 Cowpea hay .2r4 2. z
11, Gunten feed& 2 6 6/.C /e
12. Hominy feed r g

Old process 71f /410
13.8, LTnseed mea al Qh q9

14. Lnseed meal
New Prooes- : /- $3.o tA
15. Oate (grain) I /
3-6. 10 -- .
17. Rioe bran / / ,
X8. ye la 1.7 72. /4 O'
z9. Tothy ^, ... ,_. ao'. b
so. Wheat, /,. / .F ( ''52
______________________/* p.7. fcTl~f


21* Wheat b3an
22, Wheat riadlin2g
82. Velvet beane n hui
24. Velvet beqa he y
25*. ire grass baoy
fc.j^ ^. '-*.^'


/F ,- /A ?
... /9. .,_
"-" '. I....4


/1,


,3 '.


Protebtni


jq


bl1 35l 331.


rGl)toJ
/ J'
~o\ 5
r33"1J
20'6.3 J


w


~LgrDq_" 16
:-ZL ,6
~'5 \(1
'd-1' b!J1 \3

.*i" I~:


*d

I6"
/

a
/*/

ff


19i~
~ s~c~ 1~
\22 1/

~Y~ c~
J1J~E~, ~


,q/- X. a6.- 3/" -o
5 ~' *./ --_3es^^s


IL,
-L ,,.,
-? 'n C
_ .ia ~s
-fi(Ar


J t


at
Fat


f/'f^^9' vr & '5


#'^ n'*/>>'^
/'2-
e2/zqA a. go


&^',^b^--
-' Z- --








] c r Ip




aycp/)f--
aII ^ y0* **


I


i


v _


I


-~ --


I


=- =


~--u---`


!


J


.-~L~-


/ ei.//- ,


t_


5^ J^


/





p5gTo work. ort probloma.
(1) T lltiply figure in colaim 4 by 2.25; add the product to
iu.ibw:-o in column 2 :.~2i iea miutlply tihe ~la m by.5.O;J., and
:-'. o pZotdut in solam 5.,
(:f) i-iltiply figauo in coluTm 4 by 2.25, c..d the produc-to
Si/i'.ere ia column ;-rL r1ll;i i:i r mI by 56.4 sna n l.oe
-pro .Kt in coulram 6&.

(S) .1aultip3l figure in obmn 1 by 62 vnd aidd tbo product to
sam fotten for nauborr li column 5. ".L:co tbo romult in coltumr 7.




.^^, rzlco ^s^ />^^1 A^ ^^ a-i *^ -^<




L-f L 1- c,.-c,






Protein


eyr 12.4

P4tl' Beef scraps 71.2

3, Beggarweed hay i1.85

4. oorn 10.3

5. Cottonser'd -eal, birint 42,3

6. Oottonsncd rieal,utrK> 22.9

7. Cotton seed (whole) 18.4

8. Ootton. eefd hllls 4.2

9. Cowpea 20.8

10. rowpOa hay 16.6

11. Gluten feed 24.0o

12. Horiny feed 9.8

13. Linseed eal
Old process 32.9

14. Linseed en;!il
sew procea3 ,33.2

15, Oats (gruIin) 11.8

16. ice 7.4



i6, Be 10.6

19. Tirothy hay 5.9

20. Wheat 1 .9

21, Wheat bran 1.4

22. ,Thoat riddllnns 15.6

23. Velvet beans 'n hblls* 19.7

24. Velvet bean hayt 14.7

2% Wire grass hayA 5.5


5


Orude
Fibre


2.7



29.29

2.2

5.6

20.0

73.2

46.3

4.1

25,1

5.3

3.8


8.9


9.5

9.5

.2

9.5

1.7

29.0

1.8

9.0

4.6

9.2

29.7

31.8


-I --- -


H, I. r:'lth, frofitatble 3tocl Feeding, 3rd edition.

'Rose, l*. .,flu.,uarLorly .1ll0tin X.x:3 P. 67 and 68.


Fat


r ugar
&
ft!arch

69.8

.3

.: 06

70.4

23.6

37.1

24.7

33.4

55.7

42.2

51.2

64.5


3.4


38.4

:7.4.

79.2

49.9

72.5



71.9

:3.9

60.4

51.3

41.0

88.6


(July i, 1910).


as0


__


1.8

13.7

2.92

5.0

13.1

5.5

19.9

2.2

1,4

2.2

10.6

8.3


7.9


3.0

4.0

.4
-- ,4----

8.8

1.7

2.5

2.1
- Wa~---

4.0

4.5

1.7

1.5


I


---


I _


JM


I-rrrr







Estimated
Values.To-
tal carbo-
hydrates.


1. Parley

2. Beef Scraps

3. Beggarweed hay

4. Corn

5. Cottonseed meal,br,: .t

6, Cottonseed treal,durK

7. Cotton seed (whole)

8. Cotton seed hulls

9. Cowpea

10. Gowpea hay

11. Gluten feed

12. H{ominy feed

13. Linseed real
Old process

14. Linseed meal
New process

15. ats (grain)

16. Rice

17. Rice bran

18. Rye

19. Timothy hay

20. Wheat

21. ;heot bran

22. ~hoat Itddlings

23. Velvet beans in bulls

24. Ve.rot bean hay

25. Wire grac- hay


119.75

8.03

20.10

21.59

15.14

17.93

23.91

21.84

16.2 4

17.35

20.73

22.44


16,01 o


14.10

19.58

20.72

20.43

20.13

20.54

20.23

18.55

19.09

18.22

19.23
21.61


11.92

17.53

21.15

18.40

20.15

13.37

20.23

16.61

18.32

16.22

11.83

13.72


_ -)~-


Sea-
board
Prices


EstimatOie
Values. oar-
bohycdrates.
Crude 7rlhr
oSi tted.

819.50

8.22

12.84

21,59

114,01

13.06

18.34

10.12



12.45

19.81

21.96


7 T


Estimated
Vala t ion
Protein &
Oarbohy...
ra tes.,

727.50

52.53

27.51

28.00

"1.58

32.24

35.41

23.46

29.24

27.73.

35.73

28.57


36.57


34.85

26.96

25.35

27.99

26.76

24.23

27.67

2 .18

28.84

30.53

28.42

25.05


24.50

35.00

26,80

30.00


I


----~IIIIIIL


63.00



28.00

30.80

27.00



12.50


33.00

31.00


31.00


- ----


1"11~


- T




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