The University and Extension.

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Material Information

The University and Extension.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 3
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: The University and Extension.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Material Information

The University and Extension.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Physical Location:
Box: 3
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: The University and Extension.


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Full Text

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In presenting this paper I do not claim originality

for it. In this it is very different from the learned paper

presented by our genial president, Our official critic

cannot style this paper as forty years behind the time although

one of the quotations is somewhat over forty years old, MaB

ana.imn. It is a deliberate opinion formed by reading prac-

tically all that has been written on the subject and by direct

personal contact with Zn=rL 3, of the leaders of this move-

ment in the united StatesWA score or moeeAcould be named off-

hand e could present the subject more convincingly-but un-

fortunately none of them are here to do so.


The cUrricula of our public schools for the most partand

our colleges to somn extent have been so perfected that at the pre

sent time the public schools .generally and colleges to some

extent have become little mpre than temples of discipline q

our religion has been so much studiedl and creeds so much

formalized that churches are altogether too frequently temples

of dogma rather than the abode of the living Christ, Both

of these institutions need to be revitalized and made true

living and spiritual centers. If we who are engaged in educa-

tional work develop our field to the best of our opportunity,

there will be no time left for us to enter the field of religion

as reformers, r.e should therefore give all of our time to the

development of the educational ideal. In so doing we can do

more for the betterment of humanity than in any other way.

:E-President Eliot in University Administration, page

79, says 'A university ought to desire to serve all classes

and conditions of men, and not a single class or but one condi-


Having thus put my thesis clearly before you, I will

now begin to work Ap my material in a way that seems clear to me,

ad i
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On January 25, 1907, I read a paper before the Athaeneum

alub on Agricultural Education in Florida, The paper

ridiculed the pretense and show at agriculture practiced

by those responsible for the working of the College of Agri-


On February 21, 1908, the subject of Agricultural Mduca-

tion was presented to this club. This gave a general resume

of the status of agriculture in the State. Special stress was

laid on the fact that we needed a comprehensive program of

progressive work,

On April 29, 1910, the paper deat with educational

S. n otherwise

esented a

.. .,review of thesE

o devote the
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On January 25, 1907, I read a paper before the Athaeneum

01ub on Agricultural Education in Florida. The paper

ridiculed the pretense and show at agriculture practiced

by those responsible for the working of the College of Agri-


On February 21, 1908, the subject of Agricultural d-auca-

.1 / /
tion was presented to this club. This gave a general resume

of the status of agriculture in the State. Special stress was

laid on the fact that we needed a comprehensive program of

progressive work,

On April 29, 1910, the paper de't with Mducational

Awakening in Plorida, it showed statistically and otherwise

the need for aggressive work in this line and presented a

program of work to be carried out.

I had expected to devote more time to the review of thesE

papers, but later considered it more important to devote the

time to parts 4 and 5 of the essay,

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I wish to take this ,,as the starting point since at t1agaWI

the crisis had passed. At least it was then that the formative

work in the new order of things was beginning to take shape.

The supreme court had passed on the constitutionality of the

Buckman Bill and construction da the new ag begun.


active work in an extension line was carried on as police work

under the Commissioner of Agriculture in the office of the State

Chemist. This work was carried on admirably by the present State

Chemist. His ideals were that of educating the constituency

to look to his office for guidance and information rather than

to make it an office for punishing the wrong-doer. In general

working the office he sought rather to keep people from doing

wrong than to punish them after.so doing. le had at that time

one assistant chemist and confined his whole attention to the

regulation of the fertilizer trade.

THE X-DEFTTMET STATIOIJ existed but was broken up into

various departments, not coordinate and some at variance with

hI other, each department seeking to load itself with

problems, on paper, in order that each could secure the largest

amount of recognition from the funds available. For example,

one worker had fifty-two distinct problems to which he was

supposed to give one half of his time, There were ten names

on the staff most of whom gave nominally one-half of their
time to the work. The total income of the station was. 16700,

FARMERS' I TSTITUTES had lapsed for the want of funds due to

a lack of interest in the matter. A few public gatherings were

held at the expense of the Station Fund but since they were not

called Farmers' Institutes the administrative functionaries let

them pass,

In the COTIOir SCHOOL curriculum the nearest approach to

anything agricultural was nature study.

The AGRICULTURAL 00LATT,*GE existed in a more or less chaotic

state; it persisting mAinly because the appropriation from

the Federal government for maintaining a College of Agriculture

and mechanicc Arts was vitally necessary to the life of

the University. Otherwise the funds would not have per-

mitted the presence of those studies that are enumerated

in "not excluded" list of the Land-Grant Bill. This in

brief and in a somewhat disconnected way, gives us the

situation in 1906.

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The years following 1906 were probably the most anxious

and trying ones for those who believe that every man or woman

in the State has a right to be a better being, morally, mentally

and physically. Those who believe that the masses are simply

so much rabble to be governed, dominated and ruled by the

classes are certain to have had some great disappointments.

During the last six years some of the fundamental problems have

been taken up. No more Amportant and difficult problem has

arisen than the formulating of the Extension i question.

The following general synopsis will give us a concrete

idea of what is being done in the State toward a general

education of the masses:

1. State Law giving the State chemist supervision over (a)

Purity of fertilizers (b) Purity of feeds and foods, (c) Purity

of drugs. We have now a State Chemist and three technically

well-trained assistants.
2. The State Geologist with an assistant and at times

temporary assistants. (This officer should be located at the


3. The State Inspector of nurseryy Stock.- 1 wish to call

attention to the fact that both the State geologist and the
Inspector of Nursery Stock had no political pull to place them

in office and that their only claim for recognition was that

they were scientists of recognized ability,

4. Agricultural Demonstration Workers. There are now in

the State the Special Agent and his assistant and 28 county


I shall always regret keenly that my language was not suf-

ficiently persuasive to have the Special Agent located on our

University campus, But those in authority could not see the

way clear and so let the opportunity go by default. If these

28 live men received their instruction and inspiration from

the university campus it would mean much in the lives of

these men and the hundreds of farmers they are serving.

5. The Inspector of High Schools.-The work of this

officer is so well known that I need only to mention it,

6. The Inspector of Hural Schools.- This is a very

important piece of work and needs careful and judicious handling

to bring the best results.

7. Agriculture in the common schools. Paraphrasing

a very wise saying lthe way to teach agriculture is to

teadh agriculture, while I would not question the ability of

our professor in agriculture to teach the subject better than

does the average country school teacher, I do know from con-

tact with the pupils that we have school teachers who are as

competent to teach this subject as they are to teach physiology

and more competent to teach it than sanitation.

8. Agriculture either directly or indirectly has found

its way into the platform of candidates for governor,

9. Experiment 8tation.-We have now on the staff

twelve who give all oX'theiItime to researchand five who

are supposed to give only half of their time to research. The

income of the Station is now 30,500.

10, The University.Extension, more commonly spoken

of as -armers' Institute.,iork has far outgrown its original

restrictions. : There are now nine sections which I will

mention rather categorically.(a) Farmers Institutes. During

the fiscal year ending june 30, 1911 we held 192 sessions with

an attendance of 19064 people, 531 addresses were delivered,

376 of them by people from the University, with an average

attendance of 99 (actual count, not estimate). (b) Women'sj

Institutes. A small number were held in conjunction with

PFarmers' Institutes. (c) Boys Corn Clubs are inaugurated on

a large scale. There are now about fifteen counties with

full organization, (d) Girls' Tomato Canning Clubs. These

are organized in eight counties. These young peoples olush

were organized by Dean J. J. Vernon as a joint project between

the university of Florida and the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

(e) Farm Demonstration ,ork and Citrus Seminar. Last year a

week was given to Farm Demonstration work and another week to a

citrus Seminar. (f) :Ie.cture and Literary bureau. This work

has not materialized as was hoped by its original projectors, due

in a large measure to the fact. that we did not get the material A

into proper shape for public consumption. Six or eight success-

ful lectures have, however, materializedwith good audiences.

(g) Field instruction. This line of work could be very

rapidly extended should funds permit. X-or the most. part the

work has been done by Mr. McQuarrie. ,The nature of the work

is private instruction to dairymen and field operators, it is

especially useful in the recently settled colonies. (h)

Farmers' Demonstration Train. This train consisted of five cars

in northern Florida and six cars in the Citrus region. We

exhibited for 26 days, being on the road ab6ut 35 days. 30,700

people visited the train. (i) Correspondence course. This

work is carried on by Dean J. J. Vernon. The success attained

shows the great need for such work.

I have now given you a hasty review of the present

status of what we might call the non-campus work of the

t 6
University. Or as I have put it before--carrying the

University to the people, To those of you who see in it only

so much advertisement for the university and the means of

bringing so many students to the campus, I will say that you

have missed the mark. You are on the plane with the man.who

sees only so many sticks of stove-wood in a massive oak.

One word farther, there is very little hope for the man who

finds himself in the attitude of mind that leads him to believe

that he would do so much better than the other fellow if he

were in the other fellow's stead, 'e is almost as bad off

as the fellow who thinks that his special work is the one that

deserves all the applause and all the attention. Eliot, Chas.

W,.-University Administration, p., 79 "A university ought

to desire to serve all classes and conditions of men, and not

a single class or but one condition." Another quotation,-"The

State University is a public-serVice corporation.

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The quotations that I am about to read point out

unmistakably that the trend of University work is toward

extension. V. .. ..

SmenAentirely outside of Universities or men connected with

endowed institutions,

1Vt A rotationn from Pres, Eliot's inaugural addressdelivered

in 1869. It is extremely interesting on account of its

prophetic vision.

The President should be able to discern the practical

essence of complicated and long-drawn discussions. He must
often pick out that promising part of theory which ought
to be tested by experiment, and must decide how many of
things desirable are also attainable, an4 what one of many

projects is ripest for execution. He must watch and look
before: watdh, to seize opportunities to get money, to

secure eminent teachers and scholars, and to influence
public opinion toward the advancement of learning; and
look before to anticipate the due effect on the University
of the fluctuations of public opinion on educational
problems, of the progress of the institutions which feed the

University, of the changing conditions of the professions

which the University supplies, of the rise of new profes-

sions, of the gradual alteration of social and religious

habitsVn the community. The University must accommodate

itself promptly to significant changes in the character of

the people for whom it exists. The institutions of higher

education in any nation are always a faithful mirror in

which are sharply reflected the national history and

character. In this mobile nation the action and reaction

between the University and society at large are more

sensitive and rapid than in stiffer communities. The

President, therefore, must not need to see a house built

before he can comprehend the plan of it. He can profit

by the wide intercourse with all sorts of men, and by

every real discussion on education, legislation, and


(b) 1

4cience6 Vol, XXXINo. 793-March 11, 1910, Page 383.
(University and EJducational News)

The corporation and the board of overseers of Harvard

University have created the department of university ex-

tension, and appointed in it the following officers; Dean,

Professor Ropes; members of the administrative board for

1909-10, Professor Ropes, Bofessor Royoe, Professor Hanus,

Professor Hart, Professor Moore, .Professor Osterhout, Prof-

essor Hughes and Professor Munro,
it is announced that extension teaching on a large

scale will be undertaken next yearAby Columbia university,

The field to be covered will be broad. There will be

classes organized in languages, literature, history,

economics and politics; in various scientific subjects, in-

cluding electrical and mechanical engineering; in archi-

tecture; in music and fine arts; in preventive medicine and

sanitary science; in manual training and the household arts;

in teaching, and in law. For this work a large staff of

professors and lecturers will be appointed,choseft in part

from the present teaching -staff off .the University,'
Professor James Chidester Egbert, director of the summer

session has been appointed director of extension teaching,

Editorial, The Outlook, March 19, 1910 p. 605.

* * In the early autumn (1910) Columbia will take a

long step /towala a more complete realization of her

functions in a group of neighboring cities. This new

enterprise is an outgrowth of the summer sessions of the

University, which began about ten years ago, and which last

summer assembled two thousand students from all parts of

the country. This liberal extension of university work

will provide classes and laboratory work in the evening

at the university and during the day in other parts of the

city, and extend these educational facilities to Westchester
County and northern New Jersey. Evening classes will be

organized in which wage-earners and those who are engaged

in the professions or trades may obtain the best instruc-

tion the University can offer. That instruction will

include classes in languages, literature, history, eco-

nomics, politics, the various scientific departments, arch-

itecture, music sanitary science, manual training, the

household arts, teaching, and law. The extension work

will be directed by a large staff to be under the super-

vision of Professor James C. Egbert, The value of the

opportunities offered by the University to wage-workers of al

classes who are busy during the day can hardly be over-

estimated, since their direct result is to give men and

women a chance to become expert workers in their various

fields. The time is ripe for this generous extension of

the usefulness of a University to which much has been

given and from which much ought to be required, and

Columbia is showing in many ways an interpretation of

her opportunities and her functions which fully re-

cognizes the civic and the cprrirunity obligations

of a University which has received generous gifts of

time and money for more than a century.

Editorial in The Independent-December 14, 1911, p. 1346.

This new extension work does not, however, confine

itself.to the country. t has to do with the whole of

that Back-to-Land movement which is stirring our towns to a

new sort of life, and is reversing the drift toward con-

gestion of population. Thousands of homeless people, who
are thus being roused to a desire for creating homes in the

country, have really nothing in their training, nor their

instincts and heredity, that fits them for making an

intelligent start on the land, So it is that ouitagricul-

tural teachers have a very important mission among the

congested crowds that have never touched a plow. The ig-

norance of a large portion of our city residents concern-

ing Nature is complete, Even those who will remain as

urban dwellers, owing to the possession of wealth, need

to have the avenues opened for them, whereby they shall

have some rational apprehension of the world about them.

Eliot, Chas. W. University Administration.pp. 116-118(9"6

The functions of a State University faculty differ some-

what from those of the faculty in an endowed institution

which is not dependent on appropriations to be made by a

legislature, because the State university faculty has a

stronger sense of direct responsibility to its State and

a keener desire to be of direct and visible service to

the learned and scientific professions, popular educa-

tion, the characteristic industries, and the public

administration within its State. It will therefore

take active part, through many of its members, in

visiting soondary schools, holding short courses of.

elementary instruction at the university or at a dis-

tance from it, lecturing at teachers' institutes, women's

clubs, grange meetings, and trade-associations, distri-

buting through numerous short-term students superior

seeds proved at the university, and working on State

commissions which need the help of experts. Such useful

functions as these the faculties of endowed universities

in the East have been slow to assume. They have been

inclined to reserve themselves for teaching and research

at the seat of the university, and to leave to others

all sorts of "university extension" work. They are,

however, improving in this respect, because they now

realize that in a democratic society all institutions

of higher education, whether endowed or supported from

public revenues, are ultimately dependent on the public's

appreciation of their services, direct and indirect,

and on the resulting good-will of the whole community.

hence the growth at endowed institutions of summer schools

in theology, medicine, and arts and sciences, of term-time

classes for teachers in service, and of courses of

popular lectures in divinity and medicine at times con-

venient for adults who are earning their livelihood;

and hence also the increasing participation of university

professors in various forms of public work,

I will now read two quotations from man whose

ideals may have been biased from their connection

with State institutions,

Address 6f President D. B. Purinton, University of

West Virginia, at meeting of Southern Educational

Association, November 1905, at Eashville .

Functions and relations of the ~tate university.

x xx The function of the State university is-purely

and solely educational. It should be altruistic, democratic,
cyclopedic, pedagogic. x x x ip. 50)

x x x The chief relations of the university are of

two kinds, those to other educational institutions and those

to the State itself, x x x tibid p. 54)

x xx This tlatterj relation is by no means fraternal or

coordinate. It is rather filial on the one hand and paternal

on the other. The university is in a sense the creature of

the State, created by its authority, supported by its

resources, subject to its will. It is therefore the servant

Of the State. notice, I say servant of the State, the

entire State, not of any particular portion of the State, nor

even of the political party which may chance to dominant

the $tate. Education is for all citizens alike, and must

forever be strictly non-local and non-partisan. As such

the 4tate university may loyally serve the entire common-

wealth and may earn the gratitude and honor of all good

The story is told of Alexander the Great, how on a

certain occasion he was in pressing need of a large

quantity of gold, A certain mule driver was started to the

capital with the requisite amount of precious metal. When

in sight of the palace, the mule, utterly overcome by

reason of the great weight and the rapid driving, fell

beneath his burden and refused to go farther, whereupon

the driver, loyal to his trust and to his king, with super-

human effort raised the gold to his own back and struggled on

toward the palace. Alexander, seeing his noble deed and

observing that he, too, was about to fall beneath the

precious burden, is said to have said, "Sear up, brother,

bear up a few steps farther, for all the gold thou bearest

shall be thine." The story may be apocryphal, but it is

certainly beautiful, a story of faithful service on the one

hand and of generous reward on the other. Now the average

American State is not exactly an Alexander, nor is its

university exactly a mule-driver. The students, at least,

would protest against such an uncomplimentary comparison.

And yet in its arms of loving endeavor, every State uni-

versity is bearing for the State a burden of youth and

beauty and human possibility far more precious than gold

and far more needful to the State than any amount of gold


could ever have been to the great king. Let us hope that
this service will be loyally rendered and royally recognized
by the great commonwealth in whose interest it is put forth.

/The Place of A1rioclturhnin Higher Education L. H. Bailey
Education-December 1910, p. 249

we are gradually passing to higher levels and to broader

views of life. Educational procedure is keeping step with

this onward movement and is constantly readjusting itself to

conditions. That is to say, education is becoming a real

part of life.

Education has not always been a real part of life.

It has not 3:elated itself to the work-a-day affairs of

men and women. it has not been a real vestibule to the activity

and accomplishment of adulthood, in making these statements,

I intend no disparagement of the educational policy and pro-

cedure of our former days. I,:am- speaking from the point of

view of the evolution of human institutions. Our older educa-

tional method made strong and staunch men, but it did not

give us the technical knowledge that we needed to conquer

a continent or a world and to make the best use of it, School

and life have been at variance,

Report of the country Life Commission, Jan. 23, 1909.
"Ueed of a Redirected Education,' pp 5M-51

The subject of paramount importance in our corres-

pondence and in the hearings is education. In every part

of the united States there seems to be one mind, on the part

of those capable of judging, on the necessity of redirecting

the rural schools. There is no such unanimity on any other

subject. It is remarkable with what similarity of phrase

the subject has been discussed in all parts of the country
before the Commission. Everywhere there is a demand that

education have relation to living, that the schools should

express the daily life, and that in the rural districts they
should educate by means of agriculture and country life sub+

jects. It is recognized that all difficulties resolve them(

selves in.the end into a question of education.

The schools are held to be largely responsible for in-
effective farming, lack of ideals, and the drift to town.

This is not because the rural schools, as a whole, are de-

clining, but because they are in a state of arrested develop-
ment and have not yet put themselves in consonance with all th(

recently changed conditions of life. The very forces that

have built up the city and town school have caused the neglect,

of the country school, It is probable that the farming

population will willingly support better schools as soon as
it becomes convinced that the schools will really be changed

in such a way as to teach persons how to live,

OAddress before training Conference for Rural Leaders.
Cornell University, July 26-27, 1911,by L. H. Bailey.
The Survey-Idea in Country-Life Workp. 20

I have nowsketched a rougn outline of my hope in the

country-life survey. Looked at from the start; it may

seem to be an ambitious program; but it will come only year

by year and piece by piece, and nobody will be startled in

the process. It will be fortunate if we have a clear con-

ception at the outset of the results that are to be desired,

and if our work proceeds in an orderly way. We must con-

ceive a progressing enterprise. What we are aiming at is

the record of community experience, as a guide to further

action. The parts of the work eventually will aggregate

themselves into a Book of the Community, which will represent

all that the community has done and what it hopes to do.

~~-QLCL~~p S9(tt /Ccc L~~~~




we are the beginning of a new epocqi educaw

tion in Florida. The University has just maq beginning.

Shall we study the problems and work them out effectively

and thereby bring about an intellectual and spiritual

...ag....r aagg aild-.m.. progress or shall we consider our

offices in the lighter frame and simply drift along with

the progressive tide? Or shall we do even worse and make

a joke of our position and see in it only so much merri-

ment and social advantage.

The drift of the whole united States is toward

democracy and away from Aristocracy and plutocracy. Organi-

zation and community of interests is the dominant note.

I know that these words and terms have been worked over

time, and even on Sunday, until they sound like platitudes.

There are eight or ten States that have adopted the Board

of Control idea for their institutions of higher learning.

The- commission form of government is another index of the

general drift. The many laws passed recently curbing

rapacity of the individual for the good of the whole is

another good illustration. we have also the demand for

a popular election of Senators as another illustration.

Organization and the bringing order out of chaos is the

dominant feature of our present generation. Whether

we like it or not matters very little. tt matters

a great deal, however, whether we recognize the fact,

and recognizing the fact whether we act in mimmni mas with
our opportunity, In the last six years .ouy educational

elements have been reduced to a system. We are indi-

vidually and collectively vitally interested in seeing

these prosper and the system strengthened. In our

failure to recognize the true import of the movement we

frequently put ourselves at variance with ourselves.


There are two serious obstacles in our way.

The first is a lack of team work and the second is a

lack of vision to see the situation in its proper per-

spective. (not the narrow questions but the broad problems.)

.irst, as to the lack of team work, This has been

mainly if not strictly due to want of time in which to gain

experience, In organizing a football team the coach

always finds that the inexperienced members of the team

think they know more about coaching than any one else. it

took considerable time before the various members of the

Experiment Station Staff found their most effective place

and were at the same time willing to sYpport their colleagues

in making good pla. It is a rather difficult matter to

look pleasant when the other fellow gets the applause for

the work that in a large sense you have done, This same

difficulty is experienced in all large establishments. It

is much more true when a large number of workers occur that

are loosely connected, The tendency under such circumstances

is for these coordinate workers to consume a large amount

of time and energy in making a scopt on the other fellow.

The competition for funds becomes rather sharp, especially

where we are trying to run full-fledged departments on

half enough money and grossly inadequate equipment. Under

such circumstances we find that in place of studying the

problems in a statesmanlike manner we are bent on

working some trick or scheme to beat the other fellow. Such

methods are clearly beneath the true spirit of the Uni-

versity. Competition and compromises will occur as long

as we live and wherever we may be and whenever individuals


It is too much to hope to unite all the educa-

tional forces of the State to work for the common good.

Some men are naturally so constituted that they can see

nothing in their office but "private snap". These people

say in spirit "the public be damned", To them the civic

pride and honesty with the public is a joke, a fiction,

a catchy platitude, used only for personal advantage,

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I have now made quite a detour of the field and

have only touched on some of the main points but all of

these were needed to make myself clear. The wonder is not

that we have made so little progressbut it is rather

amazing that we have made so much progress. Six years ago

we;were thrown together a heterogeneous mass, strangers to

each otheriand in some cases strangers to the work in hand.

It is therefore a wonder that we accomplished so much. The

reason for getting the work done must be looked for in

the advanced state of popular education rather than in

any inherent virtue in ourselves. m v O..m.t-m

= ,, _T-uOWN..... '- Ong- 11"I Dvr. James,

President of the University of Illinois, proudly announced

that he had gotten three million, three hundred thousand

dollars from this year's legislature as the appropriation

for the biennium. This with the federal fund.gives the

University in round numbers two million dollars annually.

The success in Illinois, in Mississippi, in Georgia, in

South Carolina, and in every instance that I know anything

about has been the result of years of patient toil; the

unselfish toil of many for the sake of the institution

with which they are working.

The average county school teacher sees in the

job only so many dollars per month. To him his em-

ploymen is merely a bread-and-butter question. To the

average principal of a department school, large numbers in

attendance is about the only ideal. Unfortunately a

large percentage of the people we have to deal with use the

number standard as a mode of expressing their ideal. For-

tunately a number of people have risen above the purely

number standard, Even our law makers made an educational

qualification rather than a numerical standard the criterion

/Oonsciously or unconsciously. A ML, PM was a long forward
step. It was not taken as a result of clear vision but

rather a the plea of an economic necessity. The idea was

not original with the Plorida Legislature. The Board of

Control idea had been put into practice elsewhere in fact,

if not in name. The unification of the school system had its

origin two or three decades ago when graduates of certain

graded schools were certified to enter college without ex-

aminationand when teachers' certificates were recognized.

as equivalents of such examinations. The desultory local

farm demonstrations in such States as north Carolina, New

York, and Mew Jersey led to organizing State Experiment

Stations and these in turn to the organization of National

Experiment Stations.

Organization is an absolute necessity in a

democracy. I mean a cooperative. organization, not a

bureaucratic organization, this latter form of organization

belonging to an aristocracy or plutocracy.


.1 The University of ilorida is a publicc Service Corporation

II. We, you and I, individually, are responsible for our

share of the work,

III. The opportunity is kno 'king at our door, if we hear the

knock well and good. if we do not the opportunity is gone


IV, The thought and education of our State must be moulded and4

t i should be done by the University.

(a) Thought should be molded along progressive lines

not along recessive lines,

(bM Thought must be molded educational IAmw

(c) Every department in the university should make its

presence felt in every corner of the state.

(d) The Correspondence Course is the cheapest and most

accessible means,

(e) Excuses and explanations cannot recover lost


V.Some of the present dangers,

1. The establishment of Independent vocational

aigh Schools.

2. The rapid development of Extension Departments

of endowed institutions in Florida, (It is easier to hold a

fort than to retake itt)#

*- I i,
'\ :9j

The University ,and Extension
P.P H Rolfs
Friday, Maroh 29, 1912 7:30 P.1.

S President's Office.

References will be found on a table in the library of the Experi-

ment.Station. To get the full import :of the essay it will be necessary
to be more or less familiar with.the literature on the subject.
*Reber .Louis E,-University Extension and the State University
Science XXXIV 825-833 (1911)
*Butterfield, EK. L.-The Soil Phase of Agricultural Education
1 Offiod of Experiment Stations Bulletin 153:56-61 (1905)
*Waters, H.J.-The Duty of the Agricultural College
SScience XXX:777-789 (1909)
*Soule,-A.-How the Proper Direction of the College may be made to
Serve the State
Bulletin, University of Georgia IX:16-18 (1908)

4 -*Country Lifa- Qommission-Need of a Redirected Education
Country Life Commission p. 50-53
*.Bailey, L. H.-The Survey Idea in Country-Life Work
Journal Print, Ithaca, 21 pp. July 1911 .

Branson, E.C.-Farm life Condition'in the South VI
Athens, Georgia, 15 pp (no date)
Burnett, E. A.-The Function of the Land-Grant College in Promoting
Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools:,
Office of Experiment Stations Bulletin 228:87-94 (August 1910)
Hamilton, John Progress in Agricultural Education Extension
Office of Experiment Stations Circular 98:1-12 (1910)
Howe, Fred 0.-A Commonwealth Ruled by Farmers
Outlook 94:441-450 (January 1910)
Main, Josiah University Extension in Tennessee High Schools
The School Review 18:29-35 (January 1910)
Outline of Paper

'"The University is a Public Utility Corporation"
1. Review of former papers by the writer
2. Situation in 1906
3. .Progress made to 1912 and present situation
4. The trend of events in nearly all other Universities
even Private. Institutions, is toward Extension
5. Our University should mold and direct thought and
,. education in Florida





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