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ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
SCALE ITSEOTS AID I ViITEFLY CONTROL BY 1TATURAL IhEAIS
"Small fleas have lesser fleas upon their
backs to bite them. These lesser fleas have still
Smaller ones and thus ad finituma."
S Under natural conditions, no one species
of insect post is likely to become exceptionally
abundant. OItbieaks do occur from time to time ap-
parently without reason or cause. Still when the
relationship of cause and effect is studied' carefully,
one finds that for soeic reason unnatural conditions
prevail in the irmmediate neighborhood, An illus-
tration of this kind may be cited in the Colorado
potato beetle, which in its native haunts is, com-
paratively speaking, a rather rare specimen. Under
unnatural conditions, however, such as the general
introduction of the potato plant into large regions,
as occurred in the West during the seventies of the
S last century, this potato beetle increased enormously
in numbers. This brought the potato beetle into
a new region and a region free from the natural
controlling ele.oents of the potato beetle During
the early years it became a pest of very serious
importance to the agricultural people from t'-
"Pocky mountains east;wards. Especially serious was
this pest in the r.iscisaippi Valley, After combatting
it for a time by artificial means, especially by
the means of Paris Greon and .i~ondon Purple, the pota-
to beetle has largely disappeared in the potato
fields, cand since potato growing has become almost
universal in'that section of the country the enemies
of the potato beetle have become almost as thoroughly
established as the beetle itself.
Another illustration, rhich may be taken
from our immediate section, is .itht of the San Jose
scale. It is only a little over two decades since
this pest was introduced into the orchards of the
United States. At first its devastation were almost
complete, later people beg-an to doubt the seriousness
of th6 outbreak and still more recently, the.San-Jose
scale has not been considered a serious cnemy in the
humid portion of the southern states, especially in
the gxulf region. 'Where peach trees are planted in
extensive orchards, it becomes a pect that has to
be reckoned with. Still it is not considered an unsur-
mountable difficulty, even if the- San Jose scale
does a near. During the early years of citrus cul-
ture in Florida, the mo"t curious of the orchard posts
known wvcr the variou- cpocies of soale insects.
At the present tine, no citrus grower consider it
at all alarming to find prcsont in their gro.os a few
trees infosteaI with scale insects. As a matter of
fact, one of the most oe xport, if not the most xpoert
citrus grower in Florida, has told us candidly on the
floor at a mooting of the Iorticultural Society, that
he really welcomes the presence of one or two scaly
trees in his grove, since if he has one or two scaly
trees present, lie always l-nows where to find the agency y
which will koee the scale insects in check in the
most economical manner.
Profess or Quaintance lists over sixty
species of whitefly -O .in. .. Florida. Only
three or four of these spooiec rc likely to over come
to the notice of the average horticulturist. All others
are practically ua=nown oxcepting to the systematic
entomologist. Those species of whitefly that ate con-
siderod endemic by the systematic entoeologist rarely
or never become troublosonme to the h'o-ticulturict, not
because ond mic plants are Cnaff'ootod- by thom but because
the balance which nature has struck betvwe n various
individual species in her catalogue is such as to keep
those whiteflies perfectly under control.
By running through the list of serious insect
pests to cultivated crops, es ocially of the fruit
trees, Ywe are at once struck by the large number of
species that are not native to the particular region in
which they do their mnarimum damage. As a rule the
species of insect posts, when first introduced into a
region, increaco prodicLously in number, becoming so
abundant that they are apar-ently going to devastate the
entire industry. Artificial means of repression are
generally adopted with v..rying rOsults in officioncy
and profit. Later those insect -ests may become almost
omnipresent in the region. Later they decline in abun-
dance and finally ta o their place among posts which
damage the crops only occasionally.
This condition of cquesences on the part of
insect pests is not an adaptation of the crop to protect
themselves against the particular insect posts, but
rather a striking of the balance by nature to keep those
overwhelming numbers in check,
San Jose Scale.
Tho study of the laws of int;e-relation
between the abundance of species and the natural sur-
roundingCL is a very complicated problem. So many
factors come in to vary the rocs.lt that inI uch time
must be consumed by the scientist in getting the
correct appreciation of the conditions. I'y meaning
in this matter will be made mcre clear by itAling a
specific exo:aLrp. By reverting to the outbreak of the
San Jose scale vhich occurred about twenty years
ago, vwe will have a good illustration. The presence of
this scale was found at about the same time to occur
in the peach orchards of Virginia.. The earliest re-
ports that we have of the San Jose scale occurring in
Florida, came from the westen most portions of the
State. Peach growing had lboen conducted in there for
a number of years. ITursery stock was secured from
everywhere that it could be purchased. The trees
sooned to thrive for a number of years. As a matter
of fact, the region wass her.ldod as being particularly
adapted to the growing of this crop. It was thought
that the climate was so mild and favorable to the
peach tree that it would be impossible for any onemy
to affect it. After a very few years of unprecedented
dovelopmont .in the peach growing area, the trees began
to nystcriously blight and die. Investigations showed
at once that the trouble was duo entirely to the pre-
sence of the San Jose scale. The early peach growers
had succeeded in producing a number of orchards
entirely free from these pelts. Later more aggressive
orchardists gathered their nursery stock from all
quarters of the United States to plant in this section,
Unfortunately some of this stock came from sections
infested with the San Jose scale. This introduced
into the region a :lot of insects. These in turn flour-
ished in a 'way that was quite unprecedented in other
-prts of the United States, due to the fact l-rgely
that there v1as practically only one month of the entire
year during- which their rapid growth ceaccd, thus ac ini r
very materially to the annual .rate of increase. Aftor
the San Jose scale flu rischod in that region for a
numbere: of years, anda after it had illod off a con-
siLerable -roportion of the peach trees set out, it
wa: noticed that there was a distinct diminution in
the number of scales present. Investigations showed
that pJaoh orchards, pear orchards. and plum orchards,
that had boon thichly infested and even encrusted
with San Jose scale the year before oere found in 1895
.completely free from the pest.
Discovory.of San Joso Scalc Fungus.
This very significant fact remained unnoticed
ountirely by the average orchardist. It was ascribed to
luck, cold winter, mild winter, or any other condition
that might happen to exist... To the scientists, however,
the phenomena was of greatest importance. It required
however fully a year of diligent and painstaking
study before the real cause for the mortality among
the scale pests could be definitely determined. The
steps for proving that a certain agent was the abusee for
the mortality had to be taken with the great care. And
even after the matter had booeen proven most conclusively
from the scientific standpoint, it had.to be demonstrated
over again to be certain that no error had crept into the
work at any point. A second year.elapsed, therefore,
before definite public announcement could be made.
Life History Study.
After the fungus enemy of the San Jose Scale
had been definitely discovered and unquestionably iden-
tified, considerable time was required to work out its
life history, The work along this line at that time
was seriously handicapped by the lack of information in
regard to methods of proceeding for the determination
of the life history of this kind of fungi. Practically
all the steps passed over new ground and had to be
worked out upon new media and by new processes. Fortu-
nately the work was done so thoroughly that after a
lapse of over fifteen years no essential detail has had.
to be corrected.
Necessity for Teaching.
The first thought that comes to one, is that afteY
a discovery of this kind had been made, that all that
would be necessary would be to make the bare announce-
ment of the fact, and then everyone would hail with de-
light the new information. Fortunately or unfortunately,
however, the facts of the case are that fruit growers as
well as other agriculturists are likely to accept-new
ideas with a great deal of incredulity. It therefore
happened that it required years of teaching of the
facts and a continual repitition of the story to induce
even a samll proportion of the population interested to
accept the evidence as fact. As much as ten years later,
we find one of the most aggressive peach growers in the
State, saying that it required a great deal of courage on
his part to try the experiment of using the fungus enemy
of this San Jose scale for treating the pests. This too,
in spite of the fact that he had been, or should have
been perfectly familiar with all that had been written
on the subject. Even to the present day, we find scores
of peach growers who still consider this method of treat-
ing the San Jose scale as an experiment, in spite of
the fact, that one nan alone in Florida has supplied this
friendly fungus and treated ten thousand acres for San Jose
scale within the last three or four years. In addition
to supplying the fungus, this person has guaranteed
that the fungus will destroy the San Jose scale in the
orchard in which it is applied, and so far has not been
Called upon to make good his guarantee, Fungus material
has been supplied by this one man alone to Georgia,
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas for the treat-.
ment of San Jose scale in orchards. In all of these
states, this one remedy works decidedly well, In Georgia
alone as many as sixty thousand trees have been treated
in this way.
Treatment of Whitefly with 1ngus.
I now come to a more recent discovery and one
that has been given less general attention probably than
the use of fungi for the treatment of scale insects. The
treatment of scale insects has been so generally adopted
in the citrus groves of Florida that scores of spraying
machines are now idle and rusting where formerly they
were polished by use. The use of the fungi for the control
.f .the1-whitefly as not been given the thorough study
that it deserves until within the last four or five years.
So little attention had been paid to this matter that
the spore form of one of the most. effective fungi was actual
ly unknown until about a year ago. I merely mention this
to show how hastily and unsystematicly the work has been
carried on. In spite.of all this, we still have secured
a very large fund of valuable information by the way of
observations. During the last two years, one man alone,
who has made it his business to apply these fungi in a
commercial way has sprayed 750,000 to 800,000 trees for
other people. This is the correct way in which the work
should be taken up putting the work in the hands of an
experienced man. The work will then be done much more
efficiently and thoroughly than where every citrus grower
attempted to work for himself. Mr. Sterling of Deland
who has undertaken this work on a commercial basis charges
two cents per troe for the introduction of the spores by
the spraying method. "this is comparatively cheap as against
insecticides which cost approximately twenty-five cents
per tree to spray.
The Natural Methods.
I now come to the most important part of my
talk this afternoon, the part to which all that I have
said before is an introduction. After studying the
question rather carefully, we nay state that the reason for
the tardiness in adopting the natural methods for the con-
trol of insect pests are largely due to artificial con-
In the first place, the introduction of the
natural methods for the control of insect pests means
a very largo diminution in the number of spraying machines
that will be needed in the work, consequently every agent
of the spraying machine manufacturers must perforce ignore
the advantages and divert the attention from the use of
natural enemies toward artificial means. He must make it
a point to keep preeminently before the would-be spraying
machine purchaser the various difficulties and failures
that occur from the use of the natural enemies. ne ig-
nores these difficulties or assails them to the use of the
other fellows machine When applied to insecticides.
In the second place, the use of the natural
methods would in a large measure reduce the insecticide
business. Consequently every manufacturer of insecti-
cides and his agents must hunt up the apparent failures
and disadvantages that occur from the natural methods.
These they must emphasize pretty strongly to men who are
expecting to use the natural methods for the control of
Lastly and by no means least, is the natural
apathy with which we' are affected. The horticulturist
naturally puts off treating his trees either for insects
8g fungus diseases until it becomes imperative. He then
has to use the means at hand, and such means as give
results quickly. irrquently he has delayed so long
that to make an application of the natural remedy would
mean a total loss of his crop for that year, Consequently
something must bc done immediately. Artificial means are
therefore the only methods to which he has recourse.
A-ain this whole line of work is a new and
unchartered one. It requires definite and very careful
attention to details, both from the investigator's stand-
point and also from the standpoint of the orchardist. The
natural lines must be studied and understood. When the
investigator has ascertained what the lines are, the
orchardist must familiarize himself with the conditions
necessary for success, all of which requires a consid-
erable amount of outlay in the way of brain work, a line
which all of us would like to avoid if possible.
The field is not an inviting one for the young
entomologist. He will not, get results quick and his
principal is likely to expect him to "make good soon".
He will find that it is easier to got a hundred'
dollars to spend in applying the "club" method than to get
ten dollars to apply the natural method. Then too the
scientists and their assistants have all been trained along
the insecticide route. The principal studies on the
natural control of these pests have been made as side issues.
(E.G. nebbers Studies; ravwcetts Studies, Rolfs Studies.)
o t-1 G al
Introduction. Small fleas have le, s 0r fleas u0on
an!c7 them.# Those lesser floa, have still smaller'
hrir "oais in
ones .-- te -- ... anEd wthus ad finittin. Unler natural
conditions, no oeie s ecios of" i" cct is ll to bec6l..
e:.coptionally abundant Duktbreakes to occur from i-e to te
apparently :v1ithou reaon or cause. St i l v hon the relationship
of cau:ioe and effect is studied o rofulll -one fids that for some
rea co1r unat L ra co di ions prevail in ti :'e imi re.iaete" noiihborl-ood.
An illustration of thisc ind ay be .:cit' the aolorada ora.
c tlo, which in native hannt. is C3.oIcavtiVely spoalint
rather rare spoecimen. Under urnatural conki ions, ho cver,
such as tIt production of the pSotato -lant into large regions,
as occurred in the 10st tring te sovent'ies cof -e last col:tl -, ,
thiec potiatlo bntle enormously iO n numbr. o This brought the
1 tat. o beetle iontb Pa pn orei ands.L a region frhe from the
nat .ral controlling elements of the. -eotato beetle r l'Lo uin.
the car:ly y ars, it became a pest of very ser ious imnortanoe to
the agricultural pcorle from Ite roc'y mounntains east'y.ar.-s, -h.-c
ially .ev'rious was this oest in the ini isip i y alloy. T 5a
After cormbattin it For a timo by artificial means, escclal!.-.
;by the moe.ans of Paris .1-reen and I.ondon o urple, the po.ae beetle
has largely diciappared in h el p ot to fields since potato Cr-i-o
increa d r +I
ing has beco meo almost univo rsal in, that C.Thic on of the coo.ntr;
thoe onomies of the p otato betle have baod almost as t-.'roughly
ectab lis hed a the bcctle itself.
Afte cobatin^it fr atin "b artfical ean :.espcialy.
Another illustration, 01hich nay o taken **ror our
ijaCidiat'o section, is that of the San Jose scale. It is only 'c s
l. ec aides since .thls twas introdc i into the ochar ls of
theU TTnited Statecs. At fi';.t its devastatibns 'vas alr.most co :plete,
later people began to doubt the "riout~s: of the outbroel and
still more recently, the Sah Jose scllo 'ta.. not boon considered
a .seriou.I' neuy in the humid ari 1otortion Lf e southern statoo, oc-
pecially in the ulf region. !7hor peach trees are ~ in e:-
t enosive orchards, it beco:nos a nelat that' had's to.be reckonecd with.
Still it is not ooesiderei an unsurmouItable ldificulty, even
if the San Jose scale does .,rpear.
during the early years of citrus c-ulture in Florida,
the most serious of the orchard po.ts now"In were the various
species of scale insects. At the present time, no citrus
grower considers it 'a all alar-ing to Iind. resent in their .goves
a feu .trees scac.l insects, AS As.matter of fact, one
of tlhe 'tost expert, if not the rnos- ,oe c't citrus grower in
Florida, has told us candidly on the floor. at a meeting of the
*Ilorticultural Society, that .ho really weleonos the presencee of one
or 'two saly tres in his grove, since if. le has one or tv-o scali
trees present, he always, knows .;chore to findthe agency which vill
S .keepn the :scale insects in checkk in tlhe most eco'iOal aio
Professor Quaintance lists over si::ty species:
Sof :.1hitefly as .-;ro.:ing in Flo'rida." Only three or four of th- e-
species, aro lic'eiy .to ever come to the notice bf 'the average heoticul-
turist 3: a3-=@at. All otheo s are pra-cticac. ly, ni.. u n:. eeox.e-Tpting
to the systematic entomolo-:ist. Those secies of whitofly .tht c:re
considered ondomic i.e L by ,the ysto ati. entomolog0ist rarely:,
1 ii .
or never become troublesome to the Ihorticulturist, not because
endemlic plants are unaffected by then but because the balance which
nature has struck betvoeen various individual specios in Iher catalogue
is such as to keep 1-e acs w hitefl7- o e t perfectly under
3y running through the list of serious insect nests to
cultivated c-rop, ospccially of the fruit treec, we aro.at once
-strck by the large number of species that Ceo not native to the
particular region in v:hich they do 0.their Laxinum damage. As a r-ule
the socies of insect pests, 1v7ih nt uced into a region, increases
prodigrously in number, becoming sok5 -jal;t that they .re aTparnt
going to devastate the entire ind r. Artificial means of repression
are g-onorally adopted with vari-' reiIlts in efficiency and profit.
I'ater these insect .,e sts may become" al ost in, the
region. Later they 1 declinc.. in uila:dco l ,a.d. finally -0ct
among posts .ih d armare libhe ..crops L b ooT. Ooa i a na'll y..
T :his co ndituion O h. onte.prt o.f insect cEst-
is not. an aCdta` tionrof. the crop to i ooOt &theei elt es'aC inst0/a"E110
insect pests, but rather a btrihLinr of; toe balance by natu, to
Ioepn thocseo overwhelm ing numbers in, c c. *
i i ,'!
The study of tihe laws of into --ro action between the
abuCndance of species and the natural surroundings is a very cor-pli-
cated problem. So many factors come in to vary the results that
much time must boe cons t d. in getting' a correct a_-reciation of
the conditions. l.y meaning, in this m-atter will be maLde mo.r::ciloar
by taking a specific -exanpie. By reverting to the. outbreak of the
San Jose scale which occurred about -twnty year ago,- wo ill have
a good ill',1t--ation. The presence of this scale w.as' found at,
about the same time to occur in:the peabh.o tchards off Vir inia. Ihe
earliest reports that we have of the San-Jepo scale occurring in
Florida, came from thle western most porti-ons of the State,. Peach
growing had been conducted in there fori a. nnber of years. Hursery
Stoclk vwas from everyvihere that it could be i w. The trees
seemed to thrive for~ii umber of years.: Asa matter'of fact, the
region vwas',C heralded' as being particularly. dapdted to' the growing
of this crop. It was thought that the cli -t"e was so mild ahd
favorable to the peach tree .that. it woti'd: be imiosible for'any
e unemy to affect it. After a.-very fev; _ea,'r. of unprecede::tedc
development in the peach growing, toC t-ros .began to mysteriously
blight and die. Investigations showed co tht te trouble as
daue 'a -l-by to the presence of the San Jose scale.. The
'early peach growers had succeeded in producing a number of
orchards entirely free fro'n this poets. afterr more aggressive
orchar..dist.. gathered their nursery stock] from all quarters of the
United States to plant in this section. Unfortunately some of
this stock came from sections infested it-lthe San Jose scale.
This introduced into the region a lot of insects. These in
iC ", .. .
turn flourished in.. way that was quite Unprecedented in other
parts of the United States, due to the factrlargely that there was
practically only one month of the. c.tire, year during which their
rapid growth ceased, thus adding very.majerially to the ainual
tate of increase. After the San'Jose scale .flourished in that
region for a number of years,.and after i.t" ad killed off a
considerable proportion of the peach trees:set out, it was noticed
that there twas a distinct diminution in the numberr of'scales present.
Investigations showed that 1-eaelh orchards,! j~ar orchards and plum
orchards, that had been thickly infested and evcrifnsE encrted
with San Jose scale the year before vwerc found completely free from
VA I U f ':-o al,
the -est in ^ "." -- nt
Di covery I S I I 9"t
This very significant fact rtoaianed unnoticed entirely
by the aveor-ge orchardist. It vias ascribed.,merely to luck,
cold winter, nild winter,, or any other condition -that ni :ht happen
to,.: c:ist. To the scientists, however. the phenomena was of
greatest impo: eLtance. It required howevo;e fully a year of dili-
S gent 3and -ainstaking, study before the .real cause for the mor-
tality .amon~ the scale pests could b6 d.qinitely determined.
The steps for proving that a certain ag'nt was 'the cause for the
m ortality had. ,to be ta:en with the. greatest care.' And even
After 'the mat.ter had. bden proven mvost conc lsiely from. the
'cientific. standpoint, it had. to be. dcrohtrated over again to
be certain that no erro-r. had. crept it o thie work at any point,
, :A second year cla-:.eda, therefore, beooir. d-efinite public announce- .
ment could be *ace. j .
Life History Stud .i!' .
'A : ftorhle fune-u, enomy of the" San Jose scale' bad been .ef initeyi.
; t. ... : .
discovered and unquestionably identified, considerable time was
required to w-ork out -4tA life history, s-g4- a. The
work along this line at that 'timr a ty handicapped by
the lack of information in regard ti nothods of proceeding for
the determination of the life his ~ ory 1i~ i f p "1 rY of uingi,. Prac-
tically all the steps passed over had to be worked
out upon new media and oy nev process. Fortunately the vork
vas done :'o thoroughly that afotr &. lapse of over fifteen years
no essential detail has had to be corrected.
ITecessit ~l aching ttT
The first thought that comes to one, is that after a
discovery of this kind had been made, that all that wouldd be
necessary woIuld be to make the bare announcement of the fact,
and then everyone would hail with delight the now information.
Fortunately or unfortunately, however, the facts of the case are
that fruit growers as well as other agriculturists are likely to
accept new ideas with a great deal of incredulity. It therefore
happened that it required -years of- teaching of the facts and a
contiunua repitition of the story to induce even a small pro-
portion ,. ..;. a-
portion of the population interested t.d icpt the evidence as
f&ct. As much as ten years later, we iLnd-.on of the most
agll:resoive peach grove! er in the State, saying that it required
a great deal of courage on his part to try the experiment of
using the fungus enemy of this San Jose scale for treating the
pests. This too, in spite of th. fact: th he head been, or should
have been perfectly f.ilia-- With all that. had been written on the
subject. Even to-the present day, we find scores of peach
growers who still consider this *rthod of' treating the San Jose
scale as an experiment, in spite of the fact, -that one man alone in
Florida has supplied th fgs -oy and treated ten thousand.
acres for San Jose l:le w within the. last three or four years.
In addition to u pply the "fun,-is this person has guaranteed that the
fulngue will: destroy the San Jose'.scale in the orchard in which it is:'
pd'lied, and so 'far has not een "o make good' his guaran-
S,. .T .
teex 11iLO C'
. . I " "" -: '
',Fungus material has.b eeh suppli.ed- 'by this 'one man alone to Georgia,
Alabamia, MEiseississipp and.' Louisiana and Texas for the treatment:
^^ ^Zy ^^-^., ^rr^^J
of Sal Joco scalo in orchards. In all of thcoe state, t- h one
remedy vw'orks decidedly well. In rGorgia- alone a 1..any as si:-ty
thou. and. trees have been treated in this Vay.
Treatment of Whie itefly with Fungue..
I no\7 coLme to a Licr recent discovery and one that has
boon given loe; gconoral attention probably than tha he use of fu-rni-
s n for the. traLtient of Icale inefotQ by 1e.e of p araYitic
fungi has talhon sA trong a d on h lori tr r
that ow find oreo and a iior da o h ;Ar: o oing s eth c'
in .prforen to ti noa o:; p
moans of praying o tions he .c of the fniS o th for the control
fil'lOZ~t il I L: 1! U 1O l ,o-
Tuhro iITofly not been given the thorough tnudy that it
decorve s. until ',i thin the last four or five yoarc. So little
attention -had been -paid to this -Iattrr that the spore .I of one
of the. most offootive fungi was actually unnrowvn until about a
year ago. I merely Ymention this to ov ho a ha and uncystom-
a ioC rth work has boen carried on. Tn spite of all this, e still
have ccnrol a vc-ry;, la-e fu,,n of valuable information the way
*of observations. During the last two -years, o'ne man alone, Vho
has nade it his businos to those ii in a corOra.
vay, has sprayed 1oe3 -tr t oes for qthoeri pole. This is
the correct way in which the .;ork should be ': taken up putting
the .:orh in the hands of an e:rperienced --.-'he work v.il then
Cf~~~~~~~ fl 1;OiiC ii ,....
be .done much more efficiently and thoroui;hly than o ev.cry....- it"Irs
gro:wer atteml.ptuc to .ori: for himself. '!hr. Sterling of DoLand viho has
unldertalren this ,/ork on a commorCcil >asis charges two cents per
troo for the introcliiction of thle s -'ore s by theo sprayirng method.
T1i~ i comparatively y~a clhe& a. .L41. 1:..it insocticico~ which
cost appro;iatcly t'.'ient-five.c ents peir; trc ro to spray,
.sst Ia.ural :thocs. ,.
I inow come to the m'ost important part of my talk thiso .
af'ornoon, the part to w-hich all that I have said before is an
introduction. After studying the Irootion rather a refull y,
,'e lay satea th tho. roacon for the tarlinese ,'A
natural mnethoda for the control of inecots peGss ae las'ly u1 e o
to artificial conditions.
Tn the first placec, thi'e introduce o. o. f the natural
methods for the otrd'l of insect pest :Li .a "ry lar;" dimi-
manmifacturers Tiitust pierce ig no, th a e rv:ntsc a]" divrt
attention from tho...use of'natural enemiea He .t' :",.:e it a
point to I:kp preeminently before the "oulcd-bo apr;i:",". .Tac0hi:eo
purchaser the various .difficulties and failures that occur
from the iuse of the natural enomies. J / C /3
4, / eA. In-the second place, the use 0i the natural methods
would in a large measure tbh6 insecticide business ss
*"= t8t Consequently every r.ianufaturor of insecticides
and his agents must -t-ey up the -&parent failures and disad-
vantages thiat occur from the natural mheithod 'ae orp osiZe
t-^ pretty strongly Ief2e man who is a~ep6 tingit use the natural
methods for the control of insects.
Lastly and by no means 0last, is the natural a-nathy wr.ith
which 'e are affected. The horticulturist natural pute off
t Lrting his treos Either for incsets 'r fun .us diseases until
it becomoa imperative. He then ha to ;use the means at hand, and
such means as give results quickly, Frequently he has delayed
so long 'that.'to ma]:e. : an anplicatioil the natural would
mean a total loso di ifis crop for that ear,. OCCncequentl
.oc,.thing must be done immediately. Artificial r.ieaus a:-e there;,
for the only. methods to: which he has. coursee, : .
Again this whole line of work is a new and unchartereod.
- di .. It requires definite and very careful attention to details,
both froin the in-vccti.. ato: 's atandpoint and alo fro'i the stand-
"oinT of the orchardist. The natural lines must be stud'ie. and
understood. rhen.the iiv stigator lha dasldrtained what the lines
are, the orclhardit must familiarize himself 1 .'ith the conditions
neces,-ary for success, all of which reouiroo a considerable amount
of outlay in the eway of brain awork, a lino which all of us would
like to avoid if ,possible.
S The fi l is not an invit n-g -on for the young onto-
nologist. Tp take it'up he must beo =Scalous enthusiast, and a
man who is illijj to study umn his oi- Cot under all.c ondittion.
. Secticide, which
.n,; simple that
.sequiontly it is
the average .man
way of getting a
h'e can e certain that
chine n r has he dis-
a formula for a neit in-
't . . .. '
w"olo Hat te r is' so :-plain
ystertions 'about, it, on -
amount,- of crodrocnce. from
LIe rysteiousL a]d -cubibe Eou
me nyste-i-ous an1d oumboratmo
- I/ /] Y ^ "~e 'L-"
4--l-I lzi Ito
0 ;v /h~~c,~ /~xe~~ /acxcka~~~~
;/L:aLLk'h ^ AV-^^ -^^^ ^6 ^^^O^- ^-b^r~l /^?-Z>- ^(^ ^^ -^ ^<-^C^^ /
.Z.t ^ ~~ -1"5""
I ~ rf~ J, ^ .(
;.~ ^2^2^LC ^^^^Kcc~9/' s
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