Rotation Crops in Florida.

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Title:
Rotation Crops in Florida.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
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Folder: Rotation Crops in Florida.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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JOTATION1 0.-' i;'OPS 114 PLOB.I.A,



P. 11. :OLP3, Direc' or,
:.Lri.- ..::. erilment stat iro.



T'l,-7' T'-L Cot tIM .l i L .,

,'nr this rot-.tinr,n it is v' i: OCedl tha-t the i':.!'.&r? ..ill use (c.;-3-h:Li

a1.- :L;.lin ati.n .-'r tlhe ;'rn-.l cr' t't 1i., c r.tr.t, rd.:l t+re oiher .:.,lI.

for crr-.j3 tn I j rov the 2>'.r1 ilit.. iud Iro.otiv'.ri- .r of :"-..i .:0, :- ./El

/, :rr t' n .1 .' ,.nr or ':..l0 i':, ilrv :,d dr ^ ,-^'-e:!,iic .'.;.i-': 1, L,.

I The n'.ei. t, .t ;: ci'r. j ."'Ll "be fcrr-,+ fnrV.-9, ;T ?. and ...,.; .., r ...'.in,

r' i' for r. ,, o -. I. '.r.?: .';i ly e t.s'ic cro. 7 fr.

1 l1r In' i -.r a u 3 .I rr. but oc.u-

..,: '. ri- e -' L r :1:., r. i,. n t r .r: r.-.. j



,r '. l..t' ou.lt vvatl.i_ 'so ,o*n .* ,.,. ".; cvr. .. Pin.



p ;i.r ; r +. ,- t 'ii ..r f..e ar".... .. r. 'e1 .'. : d 'r. '.:

t 2-it-C, : .L. ;.il v r \ J,- t C.:, 13 .2 : t--:!t : (1 -ter j *.llr

.tTe i.- .1:.L -:1.b.
'_____ : r.. r .;ei '. 1.D-:, 1 :.: e"rl 1" .,'e v y J+ nr .:'il-

eraoble ,' .-2 utr.i, 5 .5 t, I'.t b.:t.-A., .. r .'., ..[ 3 1 *.'- i

1'--:l is noit in 4*1e 1 .1'.heot e o0f rdc ctoivi-''";.,. Pi.t.S:- bo: ': ,- l

rc'73:

( 1) ..:r..e:a, at the "l.-3t, i1 'r i1 v-r.-e ti. conrn '.4.; o,, ;
i.n" z .1r. >.r.;.. 'r,'.: 1 v. .: s cr ..o r; .,. ... 3

.a;.n -11 ;,-'. A ': d,. -. 'rr p of cr l'b.ras" .' ". ,. o 'i .-1.

in f : .; ..1'.. .. .ir t r.? [" -ni'.-r in *,... iL trs. ire or ''.tr ;:r'







V 2 z
F

a tii;itcr crver crop, pl or t.1 7uider harch first, -aud t'he 2ild is

re1'?)!" _'or a ttorn.

('2) et, ;:-;.re 3 d, to bD :Ir ni, or t*. -e aied nv ar a.l' be in the

field ua, ,Ill *;rr.w up /it, i L :} orai, b t.so, .,:... '.,i ... crab-

C,';r.i3 ]:1V- bet a.1,. ';'The cr.rn tr. be t,..0 ... ,, -r, .- ri e


(3) P rol.rs1,; (2cr.r '.ist-, Flori,'',), jlq:ic will rro. UI r-.i ,dly

alftr t.*'.- 'cor b'"inlu t dry '1t.r .. 'r.ll make t.c,1 .ay,

(4) 'Lv t b. ..ui, pi ..+.td '. 'tie.n the rr,,o or orn the i l.

of A." -il or 'ir-t r.; a'.v, "" ,. cr.;- st-.tlko ar- 1 -:'t t S l..I. n'-. 't:he

n Iod3 cmJ. be ';:. heredl in 1. )t o .e...',r ,r er ,,:';. Ja :t.*. d the corn

av ;-Lti.l.ri' aco.t t- rLi time. ,,it r-tii t .n Ub- 3aze-c ofr

c. 1,-ttle, 7'rl../ .'.. ibr ::ry ".'J.r.t3..

(. ) '.-:ul.uts i.." be L -t n::t- 3 :et. i'r r"L; -:. 1' i; ; :'r:l.d.1r
b ....-.:'e n '1fi2 cr r;. rr,'.3 !iath-er 'r *. c r-: :?'..; *r'. r.r ':* :ir' :?.ol.. "':. ". r-i

":n +r. ,"'.1, i" l j .7 1-. ai:1 .b 1-.-..

-.. re*.. r^ r '. l ,;.c I oy ,r r .i.n t'f, j -, be

n".d. 1 ?r-r ....7. et p o5 -" j;" );l .':,.:,.:.l r in ,:. ..:- d Ju :r-
"* '-:e' ir' 0s ornlA' be al..,&. ne,!: i;nf b y t e ,i.", :'2 :ei..iLr r, .... :,il .1:c L: pln.-

ed d -ly.


o.ts .o 'r.r -;jrailn rr I1',t', ay '.ae -'.'Llo1?-.t bbr tih:? cro'is as i:.li ateid under


r." Z2I. IThi crop ne l-' ti I 'I a".1..11r all Of "'t- ,.-'0:].

About t"e first o 'f .,v -'r.3.. t. 1.ud t.; 11 I.. i.l ;(ed atl' d o ,CL to r.vy






.4 3


or oats as a onvc!r crop. Us 0 o-ly t-he richeot Plrtn~Tr 02 the .plan-

tation Cor thi;0 orop.


Thrac .e Cct.ton ',orarioln.,

*;'rr th'ee year rotation the sa.C.e .frm c.-ps :*..?' be 9ipl;n.'-:i, :oxcpt

t!.-.t the area davVntead .r tl.. r)"ali.teni-.; ce a,! 3nil i.;rovinr; ri '7 11

OIcupT.V tvoR-tir r 's r', th. area in i 1ac cir ;.A-D.fl'2, and t a. i,' tr. +r.n pr

only .li n.-ti:.ird, of t,:e area.

As an int-ns ive inet.od eof cirr."in'; t t.e f enreioin; rct-_..ti,:, o,,j

!airy aCLdort tb. following plan" m, -

?1ST YAill. Pl-ant the be3t r.nl'-third of ti, .I.rea tr cr4ttril; :t tjhe

last pl;''iL or; i .,the cottOn. So co.r,.ej.J. Irn :cvnt-r, ;n ;dll .the co t-


.7i ter cover c ;r. ., .A ,lo .; ond r- io, O br..I ry.

S-i001T.D Y.~A. Plant 1:1: ,it or, I~ vntln V:lvet be.-.no bti;-fee.I

tne ro,; to b.? :.razSl Off t? e rll-.!i:"';: ;v inter by? hn]3 a;. cttL C'.!-,

TuiIlD3 YLAi;. .loV u;:dr, a:-.. On t'o -'Irot or J:ai.-r.'- Cr. lirt oats.

Tlh':s,'. c :1i be t '.--;' rE2r in -y .mCId ,:-flUw! l'l ed. l-u ::r : oh ? f it

i: 1-: yS.l-d to sweet it.itto8e usinl-' t.- best 1.u2:; t:..a r.-r.i 3 *C-

tiina 0cj. tco n'Ir'ea? and millet, rc 'i:;r; :.' ,Jr"eal jrri:u; :i:'e'1, "&ale
%.'' tr 1:.Ltr h.W, "'-.1 1 tPe ..'ir t cC' ninv 'beer .-. '; e r n tq rr '" -.'-

t-.' c v.r crn]. 'f';ri on. :r cr, un.drr 1 '--br u,: ." d ,l.'. to

cr ton.





p *- 4AIj GAA-d X


a-i


Srmer will at one-half
S. and the other half to
iess of his land, as well
Animals.
S. .T, -?-"g rye and oats for grain,
sorghum for forage, sweet potatoes, and.possibly some truck crops for
particular localities. Sugar cane for syrup is a good crop, but occupies
the same piece of land for a number of years, so is not considered here. /


The e iea&
---an--" te -eah can best be determined by the individual &as
Corn. This crop should be planted early in the year, and consid-
erable space, about 5 ft., left between the rows, especially if the land
is not in the highest state of productiveness. Plant between the rows:
(1) Cowpias at the last plowing. Remove the corn as soon as
dry enough to shock. Mow the cowpeas for hay as soon as the pods
are well made. A sinall crop of crabgrass can be taken off the field
in.the fall. The first of _Joveinber plow and sow to rye or oats for
a winter cover crop. Plow this under March first, and the field
is ready for cotton.
(2) 3Beggarweed, to be sown, or t- may already be in the field
and will grow up with the crabgrass, when beggarweed and crabgrass
hay can be made. The corn to be taken off as soon as ripe enough.


)D~"








ROTATIOIT OF COPS IN FLORIDA.


Two Year cotton Rotation.
---------- -- ^ j
For this rotation it is supposed that the farmer will I~=t one-half

his plantation to tr!e money crop, that is, cotton, and the other half to
crops for improving the" f rtility and productiveness of his land, as well
as for the maintenance of his family and domestic animals.
The maintenance crops will be corn, forage, rye and oats for grain,

sorghui for forage, sweet potatoes, and. possibly some truck crops for

particular localities. Sugar cane for syrup is a good crop, but occupies
the wam.e piece of land for a number of years, so is not considered here. /


n.. n:, rr] t..... hl *-^- .__O.!g ,,-: -' 'p ..
pateti e can best be determined by the individual as
Corn. This crop should be planted early in the year, and consid-

erable space, about 5 ft., left between the rows, especially if the land
is not in the highest state of productiveness. Plant between the rows:
(1) Cowpeas at the last plowing. Remove the corn as soon as

dry enough to shock. Mow the cowpeas for hay as soon as the pods

are well made. A small crop of crabgrass can be taken off the field
in the fall. The first of iTovenber plow and sow to rye or oats for

a winter cover crop. Plow this under March first, and the field
is ready for cotton.

S'(z) Beggarweed, to be sown, or tt may already be in the field

and will grow up with the crabgrass, when beggarweed and crabgrass
hay can be made. The corn to be taken off as soon as ripe enough.





WPf ^i .i ii ff>"f f"
^^~ 0^ "L&" ^^c^A^ e-- r ^^ ^u-^

(?-y (^ft- -<-V~ rrV^^<-^- ^- C^^Bp f'^tf-t^ rAr-LLC*- /j-Lr.' .~~~


^~ O~ ,, r *w










5) Parsley (for West Florida). This will Cgro, up rapidly

after the corn beLins to dry up and will mnke good hay.

L4) Velvet beans, planted bet,.e-;, the rows of corn t:~e ni!.lle

of April or first of r T.':. Tli~ corn sta.lks are left st:~ inE. The

por:- can bet gathered in late December or early January and the corn

gathered a.out the s3.t.' time. "'i at re- liins can be grazed off by

ca.tle. ^ ^ ^ /" x

(5) Peanuts nra, be planted sometijiii duri i,"t-I,.y in the middles

bet.'..-, the corn rows. father the corn as soon as dry enough.

'.-et Pot. toes. So much of ,li land sovwn to r-e or oats as ;,' be

n--ed-d for sweet potatoes may be planted to this crop during May and June.

Th -es: should be dug sometiri"m by the middle of December and the land

plon.'-.l deeply..

r or Oats. The portion of the land that is planted to rye or

oats for grain or hay may be follo.b/ .il by the =i-- crops as indicated un-

der corn.

r-... This crop ie'l-el the 1 Id .pr':tically all of the season.

About t.ee first of november the land should be plowed and so!'ed to rye or

oats as a Cr~vr crop. Use only the richest portions of the plantation

for this crop.

Three Year Cotton Rotation.

For three year rotation the same farm cro.ps miay be employed, except

that the area devoted to the maintem,.nce and soil-i,.proving crops will

occupy two-thirds of the area in place of o-i'--htll, and the cotton crop

only one-third of the area*

As an intensive met:-od of carrying out the for-oing rotation we

may adopt the following plan, -

.' FIST Y.id. Plant the best one-third of the area to cotton; at the




** i'Vi IN *





last plowing of the cotton sow cowqpeas. In November, when all the cot-
ton will have been gathered, plow under and sow to rye or oats for a
winter cover crop.and plow under in February.

SECOND YEAR. Plant this with corn, planting velvet beans between

the rows, to be grazed off the following winter by hogs 'Vkcattle.
THIRD YEAR. Plow under, and on the first of January sow Burt oats.

These can be taken off in May and the ground plowed. Plant so riUch of

it as is needed to sweet potatoes, using the best land; the poorer sec-
tions sow to cowpeas and millet or cowpeas and sorghum mixed. Make

these into hay, ,and by the first of November sow rye or oats for a winter
cover crop. Turn the cover crop under in February and plant to cotton.








ROTATION OF COP8 IN FLORIDA.


Two Year Cotton Rotation.

For this rotation it is supposed that the farmer will plant one-half

his plantation to the money crop, that is, cotton, and the other half to

orolps for improving the fertility and productiveness of his land, as well

as for the maintenance of his aramily and domestic animals.
The maintenance crops will be corn, forage, rye and oats for grain,

sorghum for forage, sweet potatoes, and possibly sone truc.: crops for

particular localities. Sugar cane for syrup is a good crop, but occupies
the :ame piece of land for a number of years, sn is not considered here,

For th.: half of the area to be planted to maintenance and fertility

crops, use corn, rye, oats, sorghum and sweet potatoes. The areas to be
planted to each can best be determined by the individual case.
corn. This crop should be planted early in the year, and consid-

erable space, about 5 ft., left between tile rows, especially if the land

is not in the highest state of productiveness. Plant betwveear tlhp rows:
(1) Cowpeas at the last plo'.winR. Remove the corn ats snnn as

dry enough to shock. H o..! the cowpeas for hay as soon as the pods

are well made. A small crop of crabgraj3s can be takenr off the field
in the fall. The fir.t of November plow and sow to rye or o;,ts for

a winter cover crop. Plow this under March first, and the field
is ready for cotton.

(*) Deggarweed, to be sown, or it may already be in the field

and will grow up with the crabgrass, when beggarweed and crabgrass

hay can be made. The corn to be taken off :a soon as ripe enough.










(3) Pureley (for west Florida). This will grnloT up rapidly
after the corn begins to dry up and will make good hay.
(4) velvet beans, planted between the rows of corn the middle

of April or first of Mjay. The corn stalks are left standing. The

pods can be, gathered in late December or early January and the corn

gathered about the saire time. ,hat remains can be grazed off by

cattle. *- t ".

(5) Peanuts may be planted sometime during I ay in the middles
between the corn rows. Gather ti-e cnrn as soon as dry enough.

Street Potatoes, So Inuch of the land sown to rye or oats as Tay be

needed for sweet potatoes !may be planted to this crop during IHav and June.

These should be dug sometime by the middle of December and the land

plowed deeply.
Rye or Oats. The portion of the land that is planted to rye or

oats for grain or hay may be followed d, the ,anrx crops as indicated un-

der corn.
sorghum. This crop needs the land practically all of the season.

About the first of November th land should be plowed and snwed to rye or

oats as a cover crop. Use only the richest portions of the plantation
for this crop.

Three Year Cotton Rotation.

For three y-ar rotation the lamer farm crops may be employed, except

that the area devoted to the mail.tenance and soil-improving crops will

occupy two-thirds of the area in place of one-half, and the cotton nrop

only onr-third of the area.

As an intensive method of carrying out the fo:'egoing rotation we

may adopt the following plan, -

1j'ItST Y.Ai. Plant the best one-third of the area to cotton; at the










last plowing n' the cotton sew coowpeas. In November, .Wvhen all the cot-

ton will have been gathered, plow under and sow to rye or oats for a

winter cover crop and plow under in February.
SECOND YEAR. Plant tnis with corh, planting velvet beans between

the rows, to be grazed off the following winter by hogs or cattle.
THIRD YEAR. Plow under, and on the first of January sow Burt oats,

These can be t.kken off in May and the ground plowed. Plant sn luch of
it as is needed to sweet potatoes, using the best land; tne poorer sec-

tions sow to onwpeas and millet or cnwpeas aid sorghum mixed, iake

these into hay, and by the first of November sow rye r orats for a winter
cover crop. Turn the cover crop under in February and plant to coitnn.






1

ROTATION OS C OPS3 IN FLORIDA.


Two Year Cotton Rotation.

77r this rotation it is sup,.osed that the farmer will plant one--half
his plantation to t e money crop, that is, cotton, and the other half to

oro'ps for improving the fertility :,d productiveness of hi s lmd, as .e1ll

as for the maintenance of his f-aimlly and domestic anirailo.
The Inain*enance crops will be corn, forage, rie :.and oats frr grain,
sorghum for forage, sweet potatoes, and lpo"oibly soue tiuc- crr.s ror

particular localities. Sugar oawne for syrup is a gnd cror, but occupies
the .:*.ame piece or land for a number of ycars, so 1:3 not considered her..
For th half of the area to be planted to jnai ..tein.Lnce a i-d fertility

crops, use1 orm, rye, oats, sorghum and sweet potatoes. h, aes ars to be

planted to each c'mu; best be determined by the individual case.
cr,. Thil orop should be planted early in the year, anid onnsid-
erab.e space, about 5 ft., left betaieen tiei roie:, especially if t4he limnd
is not in the' highest state of roductiveness. Plant bet-:ee-: the rc-.roe
(1) Cowpeas at the last plna.in. Reirove tVe corn as s3nn as

dry enough to shock. .lo',.; the cowpeas for hay Ls soon a:- tV, podo
are well made. A s3.all ro f rop n cra;ra:ss ca;. i)e "ta.e:: o;f *t ft iel'!
in thee fal e ir :.t of Irovember plow a ri no- to rye or o t for

a a;inter cover Crop. Plow this under rMarch first, -.ad the field
is ready for cotton.
(z) J3e :arweed, to be sown, or it m~y alr.a ain d will crow up wit;, t.e crabgraas, ~vieie begl .arwqeed and crabgrass

hay can be made, Thl .crrn to be taT.en oft ;13 honor as ripe enough.










(3) Puroley (fo; West Florida). Thlls ;ill rror up rapidly
[ftor the Cnno b'iflns to (rc-r up and 1ill make groor hai.
(4.) Velvet beans, .lainted bet;remL the rows r, corn rz e i-dile
of Anril or first of M ay. The cornr stalrs are left standlinr% ':.e

rdi-o can b.. r;:tthered in late D9cemiber or early January :..nd ther corn
gathered aimCt. tieo .a':e i!e. "'hlat reiinills c.-in be r .azed o' by

cat.tlc, CR-C-Ld.I4/ 9^ Iv

(5) Peanuts mnaV be yl-ted sometime ( d1inui., ay in til! midnlleG

b3l,.een the corn roas. GRath:.r the cOrl as soon 3as dr 9er.,l'.,

3:aeet Pot:tto9.0, 30 rIchl o e the land on to or oatcs n mly be

nedced. for sweet potatoes ;'ay be planted to t his 'ronp duri-; a' '" A J-I i

These should be dufg so-.etijpe by th?: ii1 dl'Le of December arAd -t'.e 1:.ZId

plo,.Ted dSeeply,
__e Q Oata* Tl0 iortirnil. o 11:0 lLd t~Lt 8 Isla.llted tr. r-'- or

nato for graln or hay i:'ay b" r'nllo.7Ted b t..:- cs or.s as ilndic.ated un-,
d(:I cor;-.
se rg,. TPio ropr nee-. t1:e l.-n'd -lrcticaIly all of ... n.

Aboutt tie first of Tovember t.i l1-iLd oaiovll1 be plo'je;d sa;rd ,r.el to r, or-

oats as a cover crop. Use o;ly ti e richest optionss of th'c ,lantat ion
for this crop.

Tlree Y'ear cotton Rnotation.

ro r three vear rot'itlon tihe' .; ..!e ar.. cro Crr psr be ellov.ed, except

t!iat the area devoted to the mIinLtenaunoe :id 'oil-iliprovin'l "rosr will
occupy two-thirds of the area in place of one-]2,alI, and the oottorn -rop
only ono-third of tihe area.

As an intiumivve methi.d of carrying out t1-?: f,. erin, rotation we

1ay adopt the follonvi. -1lan, -
.'Ii UT Y' Al. Plant the best one-third of the area to cotton; at the







3


lant plorviIng r the cotton ao0 cn'.pCeaso. In INovemrber, .-en all t.e cot-

ton wrll have b3en gathered, i'lov under anjd sr; to rye or oats for a

winter cover crop and plow under in Feblruary,

S~,OOiN Y":. Plant tlis withl c:-rn, plaitingr Velvet beans between

the rowe, to be grazed off th.e following ; winter by hras or battle.

THIM) YiAi. Plow under, and on tlse first or Jlanuary sc, w l:.rt oats,

Th3Cese ca! be t...en oCr in 1ay .d thi e ground t plowed. PlUt oo uch of

it .13o i needed to sieet pontatoeo, using tio bsst lund; the ponrrer sea-

tionn rj to co:ipeas and millet or coweas anid .jorghuin nixed. hke
'fslie il.to Ir,', .,Ad by the iirst nr; NTovember or r'e or oats for a wnter

co-'or orr:n. Turn the cover crop under in February ar.d plant to co.tri;.


*


















r Per~iPhapAs .he eat rotation for the average corn and cotton
S farmer would be.velvet beans, the vines being plowed under in the fall
a, .'n. followed by .cor the following spring, Peanuts or cowpeas
S should jit~n be planted between the rows of oer .in the summer and
; "should be followed by Cotton the -following year.

Potato Grow rin Seotont .The rotation in the potato grow-
ir ng sootion of Florida is oommonly potatoes in the winter followAd by
corn in the early spring and the corn followed either.by crab-grass
or oowpeas in the fall*

S .letable secioons -In,the vegetable sections there Is
not..,iuoh rotation except that vegetables are commonly followed with

S volunteer hay .raop, which may be orab-gras or beggerweed. Sometimes
: the epring.vegeutailes .re followed by cowpeas, peanaut-and hay arops.
SMultiple cropping is commonly practiced in Florida; for in-
.' ... .'- ...
;." .etanoe, the fSllowing suooefsio T of oropt are often grown on the same
land in one year,
Cabbage, bean. and hay,

Melons, 'hay and turnips,
Melona, velvet beans,
Hay, two crops followed by winter vegetables.
Vegetables, followed by peanuts,
Tobacco, followed by white potatoes and sweet' potatoes, pea@&
turnips, etc.

S A hay crop is generally grown after ll early cultivated crops.




















.U'.". l e ,olet--dans th* vines bat g owed- inler oin .th 6 fall and folip Iao-t'
S. f ....

....t.'. .... ... .... .. Io T e., t dug.. ..B- Oi....a beaa f .l
t .. .- "-
t., '." m "- -" "" ,. .. ...: -' '-'" .- ''A ri- --"-
P- r A .I... .
o_ &_______ _tq sopottto growing! r






-W
ki' tia3eotrfloridearo pbt tbi Sftsr Q* atiore tbyr endi u' &-
-- .- -.. o r o.. o -s e. .

W .i. .... p t.-. ..










*- .. )-... ...'E_ A:,lU. e. .. t ts.a l e e- ti n.. tb ....l.. jp .. '..
.. .. :.. ,l .- 1


I ;.. : -. I., .. i -..l
I" "- "!Y ".. .i ., ..'- 1-. .. ^ ^ ^
-:. t.:i _. t


:.-. .'. ,-..... -. ,.t.d t,.-s

,. .




4.. -: ,.








-- :. ,: ., : .- -` t"- .. : :.



-,, A f ,o W ro ..... ,,- '
,. ; ;'- .. -: i:Tob o -, ]toe :y w.;L -oai e) w- ,p .r' es pmm, ;
: .. '. o. .. .. .







*-


0I


g .i ROTATION 'OR THUUKING UROP8.

^ ({3-%9.4. %4J^-
a- c-kn sing the question of rotation for trucking sections it must.
frne in mind that certain vegetable crops are basic crops and that the
rotation ruast be accommodated to suit these particular crops. The basic
crops vary from one section to another and vary from one character orl sol4
to another. The variation in truck crops is so great that only a few of.
them can be used in a rotation with one another. 'he basic truck crops
are (1) Tomatoes, (2) celery, (.) Lettuce, (4) cabbage, (5) Uantelopes,

(6) Watermelons, (7) cucumbers, (8) Eggpllant, (',) Peppers. Each one of
these truck crops will have to be considered separately to make any rota-
tion possible.
TOMATO RO''ATION. This crop should not be planted on the sajoe land

in two successive years. It therefore makes it desirable to have an in-
termediate crop.
(k) The rotation for the tomato field is about as follows.
Plow the field Irmefdiately after the last picking has been made;
sow to beggarweed for hay, How July first to bring to uniform size.
This is likely to give about two cuttings for hay. Plow the stubble

Sunder November first and sow to rye as a winter cover crop. Plow
this under when the'r eld is needed 'or the succeeding crop.
(2,) Another summer crop for the tomato field is cowpeas and mil-
let or cowpeas and sorghum mixed, to be used rfr a hay crop. Plow
the land immediately after the tomatoes have been shipped. uow the
oowpeas and millet, or sorghum, during the first tvw weeks of July.
This will bring the hay in about the time the fall dry season sets in.
Plow about November first and sow to oats for a winter cover crop.
a


\1










THE SEOIND YI'AR this land should be planted to some other crr-p, such

as cabbage, e aurt ud.e.r snime circumlsta.n'es antelopee:, ocumurbers, er plants,

TBtnd peppers Tay also b- used. jor succession or crops read the discussion
u ader t1'ose hie;i.fllufn.

.;ELJ';JY. L:Lnd that io sitiabole for celery .;r /1in;, and has Tosen pre-

pa. ed for tils cro,, lham eiita:.leld to uI ch expense that it is rnpcessary to

rrov celery: upnn it every year.

(1) After the celery crop has beun taken off, plo0v! the l.;id and

sow to be.-':rw,'eed. iow July rirst to brinl t. uniform size-. Thi

will i Ive tire eiinu'lh to ,';:L.:e two ;;r:d cuttliu3,... Then plow uider

for the next crop of c ?lery.

(2) A -,crrnd inti'r di..t- crop is cc,.;i3 ,. 1- millAt, r:r cow-

p ... :1.:..1 ne ,r -iurf. 4^-^- ak -Lu. 1"
(3) A tl'ir.l intermediate crop is corn. 1:.11- this is either r

d.Dpleting to t'h-r 3rl, it is at th-: zC e t:iie an :xcellent crop to

*, titUp iT ..e land. :,,dl put it into .,,.rca sanit:.ry rc,'ndition for celery

cult, Pe.

L'ETT.'I;, '71inter. As sorn as the lett.u.: e ]i,- bte.-, cut a:d

Sshiprd, plow, the 1-aid amdi pl;t to to]a*.-, eg. plant, peppers or squash,

SAS -:ron as t1ese latter cropns havc? b ;)n taken fro'r! ti- land follnu by

leC&iTie anfld for.,age as inctic-Lted under st he..di, "sr tA*h i^iy@ i

LETTUCE, Sprir,. AS on as th:e priL;;; lettuce has been rer-~ved

'ro'.)i the soil rollow by (a) cnr'leas, (i) v-lvet bo.nds, (c) cnrwpe.s and

millet, or (d) cowpeas and sorghiun. Plow the lojj. Ilnv-'.-rl; r rir:t and

sow to rze oa:ts for winter cover crop or plant to lettuce.




rr *




CABBAGE. This crop grows well only on certain character of soil and

must necessarily therefore be restricted to that. It is a rather bulky

a crop and is profitable only when cabbage is high priced. The area plant-
4#d is not extensive when compared with toiiratons. immediately after the

]ast cut ings are. 'mnade the l;.,,d should be plnwed anr pl..ntt(d tr, (a) corn

and v-lvet beans or to (b) cornn followed by cowCeas' or o,.t :.areea. Plow,

In NIovember and sow with ryt or oats for a winter crover crep.
UjAT.L.OPEI.i Plow the l:ti.. i.0: a .rn iL3 the crop ha); b ei imrklmted

3r.1 'r.lloiw vlwth (a) cowivpe;, and millet or with (b) co;priP:s am:!'l n"r.r.n:..

Plow i-nv],ber rirst -u:i; ow to rye or nts ror a WintjEr cover crop. Plow

t is u der FebrL.,rrr firot. .nllow with c.-intlop-o, or better, 'rfllo-w

S with a corn rot nation .

,F naps. arris is a short lived crop. Th'. r nains sanl.- be

plowed l i ndor imr,-'di ately after the crop has been shipil-.!. FolloT with
sw, povtatres or l! :he"* anm other iorr;1.,e crops,

WATE;iLONJ. I il crop ;n.::3t be shiftl'd -'rr.; onie ield to a:r.tI"er

in successive years. On accrount or ":e ;-r.-valeai.?- or w/at-rmaelnn wilts

(Fusariln) it is considered unsa'. e to -lant ,,.t.-rnelo1s n the 1ae lC nd
in levis oth.n five years. A great deal or this ai.''culty would be a.'r.lded

if the land were plowed at once after t';: last shiprneLt hadl b---'.r made.

PInov a5t once and sow to beg .r- ed, c,;.:L-'L aid .. .rrhum, or cr.rpeas and.

millet. Plown in lNovenmer a,.d sow to oflts or rve ror a winter cover

crop. use the land for sno.,e suitable v~-etable crop for the succeeding

rour years,
CUU'JJB]iER. 'This crop is usually planted on to- a:;,,e land in suc-

oeedina years.










(1) Ifarnealately after the last picking has been made, lwhich

in central Florida is about the first of June, soC to beJgr:arwF.ed.

Iow July first to bring to unirfrm size. Plon the stubble under
S inveimber first ai.c'. ri to-r.y or oats ror a winter cover crop.

(2) ir.qp:...o alid millet or criwpveas and sorghum inay be sub-

stituted ,'rr 'l.-17',arrdl-ed.

(3) ;jed-t potat.tos may tlsr, bDe planted on a olrrtion of the

land. T!is may tlhe, be ,Iloi:l as soon a:,. t)h, sw-:tt potato crrp is

off aind b-: r.-adJ for tl.i- spriL:.' plant.in, of cut!~ Lb:.rs.

,GG PLAiT :L) PI'P:.P.i.j, .)Llo E' *hea o t: rotation as for Tor,atces.









HOTAT'IOT FOR T1UUKIJ-G ',IIh I iltA.



In discussion the question or rotation for trucl-in;. sections it must

be borne in mind.! that certain vrteetable crops are basic e orps ani-d that

the rotation must be ac2om-oa:ted to suit these particular crops. The

basic crops vary from one section to another and vary frovr one ch'_ira.c-

er or soil to another. The variation in truck crops is so great that

only a ,'EVw or thieim can be used r-H rotations with one another.

The basic truck crops are: (l; Tomithoes, c.j uelery, k5) Lettuce, (yL

Cabbage, (5 ) antelopes, (6) Watermelons, (j) cucumbers, (6) EYgfiplant,

( ) Peiyers. ,Each one or these Truck crops will have to be considered

separately to make any rotation possible.

,TOMATO- OiT!ATION This crop should not be planted on the sa;ie land

in t..'o :-suicessive years. It therefore makes it desirable to have an in-

t-rnme.iAte crop i'ie rotation ror the toi;:iato field is about as follows.

plow the field immediately after the last picking h-u. been vrale; srw to

eg ar\vF-ed ror hay. TiS 'is likely to give about two cutt i. Plow

he stubble under f .Movem~ber rirslt nd srw to rye as a winter cover

crop. Plvw this under when the field is needed ror the succeed in, crop.

() Another suiu'er crop ror the tomato rield is cowjpeas and millet or

cowpeas ana sorghum mixed, to be us-d for a hay crop. Plow the land

mLm-iliately after the tomatoes have been shipped. Sow the cowp.ea during

the first two w .s oi. This will bring the hay in about the time

he fall dry season sets in. Plow about Ilovember first and sow to oats

or a winter cover crop.

The recordd year this l:rnd should be planted to soie other crop, such

as i..ba., andii under some circumstances cantelopes, cucumbers, eg.ilants,

and p-ppers may .I5so be usea. 3- eA-l- = A M
A.










CELER'. LanC that is suitable for celery growing, aid has been pre-

pa-ed for this crop has entailed so much expense that it is necessary to

grow celery upon it every year. After the celery cr p has been taken

off, plow the land and sow to Tegt ].;re. This will give time enough to

make t.wo good cuttings. Then plow under for the next crop of celery.

:.. second intermediate crop is cowpeas andi millet or corwpeas and

sorghum. .

(9) A third intermnteaate crop is corn. lhile this is rather depleting

to the soil it is at *he same time an excellent crop to open up the

and aj. put it into y,oa con tion for celery culture.

LET'TUUE, Winter. AS soon as the lettuce has been cut and shipped

plow the land and plant to toi:iatoes, egg plant, pe..pi-rs or squash. AS

soon a-c Athese latter crops have been taken from the l:-.nd follow by le-

gu- me and rorage ~ c J- -~ -r

LFIT'UCE, spring. As soon as'the spring lettuce has been removed

fromr th- soil follow by ta) cowpeas, Ib) velvet beans, (cj covwpeas and '

millet, Ad) cowlPeas and sorghum. Plow t'1 l,:d Ilnveyi-r first a. d sow

to rye and oats for winter cover crop ,6-pe~ !-

CABJ"jAuEv. This crop agrow only on certain character o0 sll

and must necessarily therefore be restrlct.d to that.f The area planted

is not extensive when compared with tomatoes. Iinmmdlately after the last

cuttings are made the land should be plowed and planted to corn and vel-

vet beans or wi-th corn followed by cowpeas or b)egigar'weed. Plow in ITovem-

bsr and s3r, with rye or oats for a winter cover crop.

C;CIT TLOP,. Plow the land as soon as the crop has been marketed and

follow with be weed and millet or with bta v and sorghum. Plow

Noverbiier first and sow to rye or oats for a winter cover crop. Plow


-'4-







ii / 2
F_ /I



K (V(







-3-


this under Feb ruary firgt. h. LLA ( 4H2L EjU 0

EA',S, Snaps. This is a short lived cropaan should be plowed un-

der ,iruiediately after -A hats be~Pe shipped. Follow with sweet potatoes

or legumes and other forge crops.

IvATERELOITo. This crop must be shifted from one field to another

in successive years. ,It is i considered unisure to plant water-

melons se on the same lanid aais in less than five years. A 'jr.e:t deal

of this difficulty vruld be avoided if the land were plowed at once after
-e^E
the last dsi'ri-"t had been made Plow at once and sow to begL r:..,il.,

cowpeas a.:d sorg'iiui, or b and millet. Plow in INover-.t, and

sow to oats or rye for a winter cover crop. Use t~r. land for some suit-

able vegetable crop rr the succ~edini four years.
CuC, l J, '3. This crop is usually planted on th~. same land in suc-

ce-:i.r "irj I..-rimdiately after the last picking has been made, -

hich in Florida is about t:h first of June, sow to beggarwee.'1ei. Plow

md--r-the stubble5,a:November first and sol,, to rye o r ats for a winter

cover croi).

() Gowpeas and millet or cor.wpeas and sorghum ;i;i.y be substituted for

t e.-x-t.-c ri1C, ed.

(31 Sweet potatoes may also be planted on a portion of the land. This ma~

thn be plowed. as soon as the sweet potato crop is off and be ready for

the spring planting of cucumbers.

GiC- PLAITT and PEPPE13S. Follow the sairim rotation as for Toai.itoes.




Full Text






(1) Irmealately after the last picking has been made, which

in Central Florida is about the first or June, sow to beggarweed,

Mow July first to bring to uniform size. Plow the stubble under

November first and. sow to-rye or oats ror a winter cover crop.

(2) cuwpeas and millet or cowpeas and sorghum may be sub-

stituted I"or beggarweed.

(3) Sweet.potatoes may also be planted on a portion of the

land. This may then be ploWed as soon as the sweet potato crrp is

off and be ready for the spring planting of cucumbers.

EGG PLAINT AND PEPP1RS. *Follow the same rotation as for Tomatoes.


- j r
r
ai:





9r 't




CABBAGE. This crop grows well only on certain character of soil and

must necessarily therefore be restricted to that, It is a rather bulky

j crop and is profitable only when cabbage is high priced. The area plant-

Ad is not extensive when compared with tomatoes. Immediately after the

last cuttings are'made the laid should be plowed and planted to (a) corn

and velvet beans or to (b) corn followed by cowpeas or beggarweed4 Plow

in November and sow with rye or oats for a winter cover crop.

UATTELOPES. Plow the land as soon as the crop has b-en marketed

and follow with (a) cowpeas and millet or with (b) cowpeas and sorghum.

Plow November first and sow to rye or oats for a winter cover crop. Plow

this under Pebrua ry first. .follow with cantelopes, or better, follow

with a corn rotation.

BEFITS, naps. This is a short lived crop. The remains should be

plowed under immediately after the crop has been shipped. Follow with

sweet potatoes or legumes and other forage crops.

WATER ELONS. Tnis crop must be shifted from one field to another

in successive years. On account or the prevalence of watermelon wilts

(fusarium) it is considered unsafe to plant watermelons on the same land

Sin less than five years. A great deal or this difficulty would be avoided

if the lai were plowed at once after the last shipment had been made.

Plow at once and sow to beggarweed, cowpeas and sorghum, or cowpeas and

millet. Plow in November and sow to oats or rye ror a winter cover

crop. use the land for some suitable vegetable crop for the succeeding

four years.

CUCUlBERj this oropeis usually planted on the same land in sue-

oeeding years.


-r
-
;
r'










a winter cover crop. plow this under March first, and the field is
ready for o-tton.
(2) Beggarweed, to be sown, or the seed may already be in the
field and will grow up with the crabgrass, when beggarweed and crab-
grass hay can be made. The corn to be taken off as soon as ripe,
enough.
(3') Pursley (for West Florida), This will grow up rapidly
after the corn begins to dry up and will make good hay.
(4) velvet beans, planted between the rows of corn the middle
of April or first or May;. The corn stalks are left standing. 'Te.

pods can be gathered in late December or early January and the corn
S gathered about the same time. What remains can be grazed off by
cattle. Plow February first.
(5) Peanuts may be planted sometime during m!ay in the middles
between the corn rows. Gather the corn as soon as dry enough. Turn
hogs on to peanuts, and plow in Decembere

Se2t Potatoes. So much or the land sown to rye or oats as may be
needed for sweet potatoes may be planted to this crop during Aay and $rne.
lw -!fhjese should be dug sometime by the middle of December and the land plow-.

ed deeply.

IM ar Oata. 'The portion of the land that is planted to rye or
oats for grain or hay, may be followed by the Ocrps as indicated under
corn.
2rdg n 5This crop needs the land practically all of the season,

About the first of November the land should be plowed and sowed to rye






V. ROTATIONS IN FLORIDA.


Rotations are not extensively practiced in Florida but the

best farmers in the more intensive localities rotate their crops,

Corn and Cotton Sections; The corn should be planted in
rather wide rows and peanuts or oowpeas. should be planted between the

rows.

Perhaps the best rotation for the average corn and cotton

farpmor would be velvet beans, the vines being plowed under in the fall

and Collowed by corn the following spring. Peanuts or cowpeas
should then be planted between the rows of corn in the sum,,er and

should be followed by cotton the following year.

Potato Growing Sections: The rotation in the potato grow-

ing s;2tion of Florida is cornionly potatoes in the winter followed by

corn in the early spring and the corn followed either by rab-grass

or cowpeas in the fall,

!'tetable section: In the vegetable sections there is
not.rsuch rotation except that vegetables are commonly followed with

volunteer hay crops, whioh way be crab-grass or beggerweed. Sometimes

the spring vegetables are followed by cowpeas, peanuts and hay drops.

Multiple cropping is commonly practiced in Florida; for in-
stance, the following succession of oropf arc of te.n grown on the same

land in one year:

Cabbage, beans and hay.

Melons, hay and turnips,

Melons, velvet beans,

Hay, two crops followed by winter vegetables.

Vegetables, followed by peanuts,

Tobacco, followed by.white potatoes and sweet potatoes, peas
turnips, etc.

A hay crop is generally grown after all early cultivated crops.






-3-


this under february first. r .

BEAITS, Snaps. This is a short lived cropa= should be plowed un-

der immediately after i ah-s been shipped. Follow with sweet potatoes

or legumes and other forage crops.

WATERMELONS. This crop must be shifted from one field to another
in successive years. AIt is s a considered unsafe to plant water-

melons e-ek on the same land agadi in less than five years. A great deal

of this difficulty would be avoided if the land were plowed at once after

the'last shipment had-been made Plow at once and sow to beggarweed,

Scowpeas and sorghum, or b te d and millet. Plow in November and

sow to oats or rye for a winter cover crop. Use the land for some suit-

: ,ble vegetable crop for the succeeding four years.
CUCUMBERS. This crop is usually planted on the same land in suc-

ceeding ear IImnediately after the last picking has been made

which in Florida is about the first of June, sow to beggarweed. Plow

d-r'rhie stubble s= November first and sow to rye ov oate for a winter

cover crop.

W eowpeas and millet or cowpeas and sorghum may be substituted for

V.-Seggagrweed.

(3 Sweet potatoes may also be planted on a portion of the land. This may

then be plowed'! as soon as the sweet potato crop is off and be ready for

the spring planting of cucumbers.

EGG PLANT and PEPPERS. Follow the same rotation as for Tomatoes.










(3) Pursley (for West Florida). This will grow up rapidly

after the corn begins to dry up and will make good.hay.
(4) Velvet beans, planted between the rows of corn the middle

of April or first of May. The corn stalks are left standing. The

pods can be gathered in late December or early January and the corn

gathered about the same time. What remains can be grazed off by

cattle. ^- /"x

(5) Peanuts may be planted sometime during May in the middles

between the corn rows. father the corn as soon as dry enough.

Sweet Potatoes. So much of he land sown to rye or oats as may be

needed for sweet potatoes may be planted to this crop during May and June.

" These should be dug sometime by the middle of December and the land

plowed deeply.-

ye or Oats. The portion of the land that is planted to rye or

oats for grain or hay may be followed by the eam@ crops as indicated un-

der corn.

Sorghum. This crop needs the land practically all of the season.

About the first of November the land should be plowed and sowed to rye or

oats as a cover crop. Use only the richest portions of the plantation

fo.r this crop.

Three Year cotton Rotation.

For three year rotation the same farm crops may be employed, except

that the area devoted to the maintenance and soil-improving crops will

occupy two-thirds of the area in place of one-half, and the cotton crop

only one-third of the area.

As an intensive method of carrying out the foregoing rotation we

may adopt the following plan, -
FIRST YEAR., Plant the best one-third of the area to cotton; at the






AO IO -AITIONS I w 'BRIJA.


Rotations are not ext-naively practiced in Florida but the best

farmers in the-more intensive localities rotate their crops.

CGorn and Cotton 3ectiong: The corn should be planted in rather
wide rows and peanuts or cowpeas should be planted between the rows.

Perhaps the best rotation for the average corn acon d otton farmer
would b velvet 'boans, the vl.nes being plowed under in the fall and followed
by V corn the following spring. Sib peanuts or cowpeas should then ba planted
S corn
between the 'rows in tae summer and. should be followed by cotton t following

year.
"otato Grcwing Section,: .he rotation in the potato growing 'c-
-tionea ofilorida is co mmonly potato-e. in the ^inter follow by corn n n the

-early. spri' n and the corn followed either-by co pe'a4-an- 1-E~-asa in the
A
fall.
eit .e able Sect i oh: In ths vegetable sections thers is not 'much

rotation except that vegetables are co only follow ad ith volunteer -hay croQi
-which may be cr-b-gras- or bggr. Sometimes the srig vegetables are -

folloed., by v*e is'

iltip3le. is cormMonly practiced in Slorida; for instance,
th fo loving succesgionai f crops are often grn on the same eln3 in one -year: '
Cabbage, b-ran, and Vray,
*i:el-ons, g, *nd turnips..


ay,tw6 crops followed by em .bb
Vegetablesfolloved by 'A b -d /

Tobacco, .followed by white -potatoes or Sweet potatoes, pea,, .
turnips, etc.
1i=hbay crop is generally grown after all early cultivated crop.






L3.


-" OTATION YOR T]UUKING OCOPS.

^ ^ 1 *. .
| f-al B-3slng the question of rotation for trucking seet-t1nK it must.
rnme in mind that certain vegetable cops are basic crops and that the

rotation must be accommodated to suit these particular crops. The basic

crops vary from one section to another and vary from one character or soil
to another. The variation in truck crops is so great that only a.,few of.
them can be used in a rotation with one another. The basic truck crops

are (1) Tomatoes, (4) celery, (3) Lettuce, (4) Cabbage, (5) (antelopes,

(6) Watermelons, (7) uucuibers, (8) Eggplant, (9 ) Peppers. Each one of
these truck crops will have to be considered separately to make any rota-
tion possible.
TOn.ATO ROTATION. This crop should not be planted on the same land-

in two successive years. It therefore makes it desirable to have an in-
termed.iate crop.
(1) The rotation for the tomato field is about as follows.
Plow the field immediately after the last picking has been made;
sow to beggarweed for hay, mow July first to bring to uniform size.
This is likely to give about two cuttings for hay. Plow the stubble
under November first and sow to rye as a winter cover crop. Plow
this under when the'field is needed for the succeeding crop.
(2,) Another summer crop foe the tomato field is cowpeas and mil-
let or cowpeas and sorghum mixed, to be used for a hay crop. Plow
the land immediately after the tomatoes have been shipped. *ow the
cowpeas and millet, or sorghum, during the first two weeks of July.

This will bring the hay in about the time the fall dry season seta in.
Plow about November first and sow to oats for a winter cover crop.

',*










last plowing or the cotton sow cowpeas. In November, when all the cot-
ton will have been gathered, plow under and sow to rye or oats for a

winter cover crop and plow under in February.
SECOND YEAR. Plant this with corn, planting velvet beans between

the rows, to be grazed off the following winter by hogs or cattle.

THIRD YEAR. Plow under, and on the first of January sow Burt oats.

These can be taken off in May and the ground plowed. Plant so mach of

it as is needed to sweet potatoes, using the best land; the poorer sec-
tions sow to cowpeas and millet or cowpeas and sorghum mixed. Make

these into hay, and by the first of November sow rye or oats for a winter

cover crop. Turn the cover crop under in February and plant to cotton.







3


last plowing of the cotton sow oowpeas. In November, wTen all the cot-
ton will have been gathered, plow under and sow to rye or oats for a

winter cover crop and plow under in February.

SECOND YiAR. Plant this with corn, planting velvet beans between
the rows, to be grazed off the following winter by hogs or cattle.
THIRD YEAR. Plow under, and on the first of January sow surt oats,

These can be taken off in May and the ground plowed. Plant So MUCh of

it as is needed to sweet potatoes, using the best land; the poorer see-

tions sow to cowpeas and millet or oowpeas and sorghum mixed. Make
there into hay, and by the first of November sew rye or oats for a winter

cover crop. Turn the cover crop under in February and plant to cotton.


























\ rv




I~

4.:


ROTATION OF CROPS IN FLO1ID.A,

by
P, H. ROLFS, Director,
Florida Experiment station.


Two Year Cotton Hotation.
For this rotation it is supposed that the farmer will use one-half
his plantation for the money crop, that is, cotton, and the other half
for crops to improve the fertility and productiveness of his land, as well
as for the maintenance or his family and domestic animals.
o The maintenance crops will be corn, forage, rye and oats for grains
sorghum for forage, sweet potatoes, and possibly some t.'uck crops for
particular localities. Sugar cane for syrup is a good crop, but occu-
pies the same piece of land for a number or years, so is not considered
here.
Cotton. At last cultivation sow cowpeas. Take off crop. Plow

the first of November and sow to rye or oats for a winter cover crop*
Plow under the first of February. The area to be planted to each of
the maintenance and soil Improvement crops can best be determined by
the individual farmer.

o. This crop should be planted early in the year, and consid-
erable space, about 5 feet, left between the rows, especially if the
.and is not in the highest state of productiveness. Plant between the

rowe:
(1) Cowpeas at the last plowing. Remove the corn as soon as
dry enough to shock. NMow the cowpeas for hay as soon as the pods
are well m'ad. A small crop of crabgrass can be taken off the field
in the fall. The first or November ploi and aow to rye or oats for




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FILES







(3) Pureley (for West Florida). This will grow up rapidly
after the corn begins to dry up and will make good hay.
(4) Velvet beans, planted between the rows of corn the middle
of April or first of May. The corn stallK are left standing. The
pods can be gathered in late December or early January and the corn
gathered about the same time. What remains can be grazed off by
cattle. ~P p '
(5) Peanuts nmy be planted sometime during May in the middles
between the corn rows. Gather the corn as soon as dry enough,
sweet Potatoe So much of the land sown to rye or oats as may be
needed, for sweet potatoes may be planted to this crop during IMay and June.
ThqOe should be dug sometime by the middle of December and the land
plowed deeply,
j~ y O atsa 'f'he portion of the land that is planted t r've or
oats for grain or hay may be followed by the s~ae crops as indicated un-
der corn.
ort um T his crop needs the land practically all of the season.
About the first of Novermber the land should be plowe ad d sowed to rye or
oats as a cover crop. Use only the richest portions of the plantation
for this crop.

Three Year Uotton Rotation.

For three year rotation the 3amve farm crops may be employed, except
that the area devoted to the maintenance and soil-improving crops will
occupy two-thirds of the area in place of one-half, and the cotton crop
only one-third of the area.
As an intensive method of carrying out the foregoing rotation we
ma adopt the following plan, -
FIRST YEAR. Plant the best one-third Of the area to cotton; at the





< i

ROTATION OF CROPS IN FLORIDA.


Two Year Cotton Rotation.

For this rotation it is supposed that the farmer will plant one-half
his plantation to the money crop, that is, cotton, and the other half to

crops for improving the fertility and productiveness of his land, as well

as for the maintenance of his family and domestic animals.
The maintenance crops will be corn, forage, rye and oats for grain,

sorghum for forage, sweet potatoes, and possibly some truck crops for

particular localities. Sugar cane for syrup is a good crop, but occupies
the same piece of land for a number of years, so is not considered here.
For thf half of the area to be planted to maintenance and fertility
S crops, use corn, rye, oats, sorghum and sweet potatoes. The ares to be

planted to each can best be determined by the individual case.
Corn. This crop should be planted early in the year, and consid-

erable space, about 5 ft., left between the rows, especially if the land
is not in the highest state of productiveness. Plant between the rows:
(1) Cowpeas at the last plowing. Remove the corn as soon as

dry enough to shock. Mow the cowpeas for hay as soon as the pods
are well made. A small crop of crabgrass can be taken off the field
in the fall. The first of November plow and sow to rye or oats for

a winter cover crop. Plow this under March first, and the field
is ready for cotton.

(z) Beggarweed, to be sown, or it may already be in the field
and will grow up with the crabgrass, when beggarweed and crabgrass

hay can be made. The corn to be taken off as soon as ripe enough.










(3) Pursley (for West Florida). This will grow up rapidly
after the corn begins to dry up and will make good hay.
(4) Velvet beans, planted between the rows of corn the middle
of April or first of May. The corn stalks are left standing. The
pods can be gathered in late December or early January and the corn
gathered about the same time. What remains can be grazed off by
cattle, "t '".
(5) Peanuts may be planted sometime during May in the middles
between the corn rows. Gather the corn as soon as dry enough.
Sweet Potatoes. So much of the land sown to rye or oats as may be
needed for sweet potatoes may be planted to this crop during May and June.
These should be dug sometime by the middle of December and the land
plowed deeply..
Rye a Oats.. The portion of the land that is planted to rye or
oats for grain or hay may be followed by the same crops as indicated un-
der corn.
Sorghum. This crop needs the land practically all of the season.
About the first of November the land should be plowed and sowed to rye or
oats as a cover crop. Use only the richest portions of the plantation
for this crop.

Three Year Uotton Rotation.

For three year rotation the same farm crops may be employed, except

that the area devoted to the maintenance and soil-improving crops will
occupy two-thirds of the area in place of one-half, and the cotton crop
only one-third of the area.
As an intensive method of carrying out the foregoing rotation we

may adopt the following plan, -
FIRST EXAR. Plant the best one-third of the area to cotton; at the






3


last plowing of the cotton sow cowpeas. In November, when all the cot-

ton will have been gathered, plow under and sow to rye or oats for a

winter cover crop and plow under in February.

SECOND YEAR. Plant this with corn, planting velvet beans between

the rows, to be grazed off the following winter by hogs x Vcattle.

THIRD YEAR. Plow under, and on the,first of January sow Burt oats.

These can be taken off in May and the ground plowed. Plant so much of

it as is needed to sweet potatoes, using the best land; the poorer sec-

tions sow to cowpeas and millet or cowpeas and sorghum mixed. Make

these into hay, and by the first of November sow rye or oats for a winter

cover crop. Turn the cover crop under in February and plant to cotton.





SiL rprL~
)~ir7? *
iA.


JyvL3~L-~n


IV










CELErIY. Land that is suitable for celery growing, and has been pre-

pared for this crop has entailed so much expense that it is necessary to

grow celery upon it every year. After the celery crp has been taken
<____ _-__ ------ has &-e- t -i
ff, plow the land and sow to beggarwee his will give time enough to

make two good cuttings. Then plow unaer for the next crop of celery.

(A .second intermediate crop is cowpeas and millet or cowpeas and

sorghum.

(S) A third intermediate crop is corn. While this is rather depleting
-C
t the soil it is at the same time an excellent crop to open up the

and and pu t it nto goo con tion for celery culture.

LETTUUE, Winter. As soon as the lettuce has been cut and shipped

plow the land and plant to tomatoes, egg plant, peppers or squash. As

a.oon~ assthese latter crops have been taken from the land follow by le-

gune and rorage --- -

LETTUCEi, spring. As soon as the spring lettuce has been removed

from the soil follow by aa) cowpeas, t bk velvet beans, c; cowpeas and

millet, (Ad cowpeas and sorghum. Plow the land November first and sow

to rye and oats for winter cover crop -r

CABBAuE. This crop saa=-grow 'only on certain character o sll

and must necessarily therefore be restricted to that.' The area planted

is not extensive when compared with tomatoes. Immediately after the last

cuttings are made the land should be plowed and planted to corn and vel-
vet beans or wtt corn followed by cowpeas or beggarweed. Plow in Novem-

ber and sow with rye or oats for a winter cover crop.

CANTELOPES. Plow the land as soon as the crop has been marketed and

follow with begg cweed and millet or with beggawo4 and sorghum. Plow

November first and sow to rye or oats for a winter cover crop. Plow


- 4-





cw~~~~~0 __r~L -* ~~~ 1~~
fr-~ a. 4~ ~L Fctc,~ u- Q*C~tiYb








ROTATION OF COPS IN PLORIDA.


Two Year Cotton Rotation.
For this rotation it is supposed that the farmer will plant one-half
his plantation to the nmney crop, that is, cotton, and the other half to
crops for improving the fertility and productiveness of his land, as well
as for the maintenance of his family and domestic animals.
The maintenance crops will be corn, forage, rye and oats for grain#
sorghum for forage, sweet potatoes, and possibly some truck crops ror
particular localities. Sugar cane for syrup is a good crop, but occupies
the same piece of land for a number of years, so is not considered here,
For the- half of the area to be planted to maintenance and fertility
crops, use corn, rye, oats, sorghum and sweet potatoes. The areas to be
planted to each can best be determined by the individual case.
Cra. This crop should be planted early in the year, and consid.
erable space, about 5 ft left between the row, especially if the land
is not in the highest state of productiveness. Plant between the rows:
(1) Cowpeas at the last plowing. Remove the corn as soon as
dry enough to shook. Mow the cowpeas for hay as soon as the pods
are well made. A small crop of crabgrass can be taken off the field
in the fall. The first of November plow and'sow to rye or oats for
a winter cover crop. Plow this under March first, and the field
is ready for cotton,
(z) Deggarweed, to be sown, or it may already be in the field
and will grow up wi th the crabgrass, when beggarweed and crabgrass
hay can be made The corn to be taken off as soon as ripe enough









ROTATION .B'Or THULKING VO tf. A.


In discussion the question or rotation for trucking sections it must

be borne in mind that certain vegetable crops are basic crops and that

the rotation must be accommodated to suit these particular crops. The

basic crops vary from one section to another and vary from one charac-

ter of soil to another. The variation in truck crops is so great that
IHw w
only a few or them can be used "Ob prac-'~-e-e rotations with one another.

The basic truck crops are: (i; Tomatoes, \]) celery, (5) Lettuce, k4)

Cabbage, (5) antelopes, k6) Watermelons, ( ) cucumbers, [ ) Eggplant,

(y ) Peppers. Each one or these Truck crops will have to be considered

separately to make any rotation possible.

,p0'M?0 ROVAT.oi. This crop should not be planted on the same land

in two successive years. it therefore makes it desirable to have an in-

termediate crop. The rotation ror the tomato field is about as follows.

low the rield immediately after the last picking has been made; sow to

eggarweed for hay.^ T~si is likely to give about two curt i Plow

the stubble under November firtt and sow to rye as a winter cover

op Plow this under when the field is needed for the succeeding crop.

() Another summer crop for the tomato rield is cowpeas and millet or

cowpeas and sorghum mixed, to be used for a hay crop. Plow the land

Immediately after the tomatoes have been shipped. Sow the cowpeas during

the first two weeks or ~ This will bring the hay in about the time

he fall dry season sets in. Plow about November first and sow to oats

for winter cover crop.

The second year this land should be planted to some other crop, such

as cabbage, and unaer some circumstances cante3dpes, cucumbers, eggplants,

and peppers may also be usea. --,'-. l-- (r i- i,
O i.


CI
-DiiZrk--r... *~






*3


or oats as a cover crop. use only the richest portions or the plan-
tation for this crop.

Three Year Cotton Rotation.

For three year rotation the same farm crops may be employed, except
that the area devoted to the maintenance and soil improving crops will
occupy two-thirds or the area in place or one.-half, and the cotton crop
only one-third of the area.
As an intensive method of carrying out the foregoing rotation, we
may adopt the following plan, -
FIRST YEAR. Plant the best one-third of the area to cotton; at the
last plowing of the cotton sow cowpeas. In November, vhen all the cot-

ton will hav.l been gathered, plow under and sow to rye or oats for a
winter cover crop, and plow under in Pebruary.
SECOND YEAR. Plant this with corn, planting velvet beans between

the rows, to be grazed off the following winter by hogs and cattle.
THIRD YEAH. l0ow under, and on the first or January sow Burt oats.
These can be taken off in *y and the ground plowed. Plant so much of it

as is needed to sweet potatoes, using the best land; the poorer sec-
tions sow to cowpeas and millet, or cowpeas and sorghum mixed. Make
these into hay, and by the first of November sow rye or oats for a win-

ter cover crop. Turn the cover crop under in February and plant to
cotton.





1

ROTATION OF CROPS IN FLORIDA.

(/y <.~ 9 -'r-. 9-, e/. ^,
Two Year Cotton Rotation. '

For this rotation it is supposed that the farmer will nt one-half

his plantation to the money crop, that is, cotton, and the other half to

crops for improving the fertility and productiveness of his land, as well

as for the maintenance of his family and domestic animals.

The maintenance crops will be corn, forage, rye and oats for grain,

sorghum for forage, sweet potatoes, andpossibly some truck crops for

particular localities. Sugar cane for syrup is a good crop, but occupies

the same piece of land for a number of years, so is not considered here. /

h a .. -. ... ow__ A Q.- ad

The e eaA
p tlantd lt e ach can best be determined by the individual oas o /

Corn. This crop should be planted early in the year, and consid-

erable space, about 5 ft., left between the rows, especially if the land

is not in the highest state of productiveness. Plant between the rows:

(1) Cowpeas at the last plowing. Remove the corn as soon as

dry enough to shock. Mow the cowpeas for hay as soon as the pods

are well made. A small crop of crabgrass can be taken off the field

in the fall. The first of November plow and sow to rye or oats for

a winter cover crop. Plow this under March first, and the field

is ready for cotton.

('z) Beggarweed, to be sown, or it may already be in the field

and will grow up with the crabgrass, when beggarweed and crabgrass

hay can be made. The corn to be taken off as soon as ripe enough.











THE SECOND YEAR this land should be planted to some other crop, such
as cabbage, and under some circumstances cantelopes, cucumbers, eggplants,

Land peppers may also be used. For succession or crops read the discussion
under those hearings.
uMLERY. Land that 1i suitable for celery growing, and has been pre-

pared for this crop, has entailed to mich expense that it is necessary to
grow celery upon it every year.
(1) After the celery crop has been taken off, plow the land and
sow to beggarweed. mow July first to bring to uniform size. This
will give time enough to make two good cuttings. 'Then plow under
for the next crop of c .lery.
(Z) A second intermediate crop is cowpeas and millet, or cow-
peas and sorghum. 4t-+ aL~J 8 1 "
(3) A third intermediate crop is corn. While t lls is rather
depleting to the soil, it is at the same time an excellent crop to
open up the land and put it into gono sanitary condition for celery
culture.
LETTU ( ,Winter. As soon as the lettuce has been cut and

shipped, plow the land and plant to tomatoes, egg plant, peppers or squash,
SAs .son as these latter crops have been taken froim the land follow by

legume and forage as indicated under th ~' headings j. ev A J
LETTUCE, Spring. AS onon as the spring lettuce has been removed

from the soil follow by (a) cowpeas, (b) velvet beans, (c) cowpeas and
millet, or (d) cowpeas and sorghur. Plow the land November rir rt and
sow to rye- A oats for winter cover crop or plant to lettuce.