Plant Associations.

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Material Information

Title:
Plant Associations.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description:
Unknown
Physical Location:
Box: 3
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Plant Associations.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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AA00000206:00093


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be-e a ? l*it we wish to look briefly


into the geologic times that had to do with the sur-


face as it is now exposed. An oceanic plateau ex-


isted during the Vickburgian of the lower Oligocene.

(Never mind the technical terms; they will confound


no one except some learned professors.) This plat-


eau to about the present southern extremity.


The water at that time was shallow--about 600 feet

b *
deep. The temperature of the water ran from 70-80 F.


Tropical currents passed over its surface. Materials


of an organic and inorganic nature were de sited


to a varying depth of 100 feet or more, the deepest


being at the southern extremity.


The sea bottom'












in this region was graduallly depressed, allowing a de-


posit of 1000 feet in some places. At the close of


the Vicksburgian time the plateau was elevated e ough


to permit erosion in the shallow waters. At this

time some islands existed as far south as.lMarion County.


The outline of the plateau was practically the same as





During the Apalachicolan time the uplift was


sufficient to produce a considerable along the

longitudinal axis, separated from the mainland by the


Suwanee Strait. During the latter portion of the


Apalachicolan time the oceanic waters became much cool-


er and the deposit was mainly from the land.


After this period the sea bottom again sub-


sided (that is in the early Miocene). The Suwanee










Strait disappeared and we have the Apalachieola Sea


of about 100 to 150 feet in depth. At this time the


waters were much cooled by the cold counter current


along the shore, and our temperature was about that of


Cape Hatteras at present. Toward the close of the


Miocene period we have a general uplift closing the


Suwanee Straight.


During the ?liocene we have a submergence


of about hIlf the present land surface. The entire


St. John's Kiver valley and across the State at Lake


Istokpoga. The water for the most part was shallow,-


between 20 and 30 feet deep.


At the close of the Pliocene was a general


uplift, reaching probably 250 at its maximum. The


land was broken up into various parallel ridges, very









much as we find them at present.


During the Plistocene there was a submer-


gence, but this was of short duration. At the close


of the Plistocene there was an uplift, resulting in


the present coral reefs and the Everglades of today.



The present shape of 'lorida is due in large


part to folding of the ocean floor. aarshas been fur-


ther modified by ocean currents, winds and tides.


The counter currents have brought silt from northern


shores and river beds. This silt occurs in widely


separated places. The general growth of the axis


has beam toward the east. The irregular outline of


the coast is the result of currents carrying sedimen-


tary materialband depositing them wherever they meet









an obstruction, either as land or a counter cu.re.t.


The tides ih.t-.e thrown up much of this material, which


has been carried further by ;.ini:~.

Wit- i this hasty review of .the geology of


Blorida, -Z will l -tP---Aa-trt c--orT'Uir W ith

your permizc-on, I'll pass over the ',-i<-ral physical

geography question and tal: up the disc ..: io of


Plants, their Relations and Li.-- '-ibution. This is
:r urve- .e..,.., ,-,.--.-.... .-- -- ---.-.-..-----.-,...... .. --
tou,'hed in your teset-ook, Part V, pp. 280-291.

:.lh:it is said tonight ful-,-.i. :.-ts the brief and very


Si:.:.-1C.i.ite treatment there given.




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PHYSIOGEAPHYI


The general trend of the peninsula as we all know, is


nearly southward. The highest lands occur west of a


line drawn down the middle of the peninsula. This is the


primary axis of the peninsula. The elevation of this


region varies from about sea level to rarely more than two

hundred feet.


East of the primary axis running parallel to it is a


secondary axis, varying in width up to about forty miles.


Lying between these axes is the St. Johns River and a


series of lakes terminating in Tohopekaliga, at the north-


ern border of thp former everglades. The St. Johns river


is really phly a series of fresh water lakes connected


by wide streams. The source of the St. Johns River is


only about ten feet above sea level, and as it is over

two hundred miles long, measured by its tortuous route


to the ooean, we see that there is no chance for rapid

flowing streams.








Along the east coast is a series of salt water


lagoons, usually spoken of as rivers. Towards the


east of these lagoons are narrow islands which rise


only a few feet above sea level. On these low sand


dunes occur.


Peninsular Florida stretches about 400 miles from


north to south, and is about 130 miles broad at its


widest.

The minimum temperature in the northern part is

P0
about 20Q-: and in extreme cases may reach 15 F.

0 0
It rarely rises above 95 F. with the extreme at 101 F.


Throughout the southern extremity the temperature rarely


goes dbwnotde freezing and rarely above 950F.


The rainfall for the northern section is rather


uncertain as to time of occurrence. The average annual


amount being about 50 inches. For the southern section,


the average annual rainfall is about 60 inches occurring


mostly during the summer months. The fall, winter and









spring months are usually dry. For these the average


is about two and one-half inches per month,


If we keep the map of Florida in mind we will


see that it is a rather broad peninsula with no ele-


vations rising above 375 feet. Consequently the cli-


mate cannot be influenced perceptibly by the altitude.


The State, however, stretches through 5-1 degrees of


latitude which has a very perceptible influence on the


character of the vegetation. The southern portion


of the State is still further favored by the presence


of the Gulf Stream which flows along the banks and


strikes the coast at latitude 27 degrees. The soil is


uniformly sandy.




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STRAND


Monathochloe littoralis Engelm
Uniola panioulata L.
Eleocharis capitata L.) R. Bt. (Near coast)
Serenoa serrulata (Michx) Hook
Alternanthera marltima St. Hil
Chrysobalanus Icaco L.
Phyllanthus Garberi Small
Opuntia austrina small
Persea lit-oralis Small

Tpomoee Pes-Capras (L.) Sweet
Solanum Bahamense L,
Lyoium Carolinianum Walt.
LantOrna odorata L.
Genipa clusiifolia (Jacq) Griseb

Erithialis frutioosa L.

Chiooocca racemosa L.
S-rnodea littoralis Sw.













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STRAND


Mona^thochloe littoralis Engelm

Uniola paniculata L.

Eleocharis capitata L.) R. Bt. (Near coast)

Serenoa serrulata (Michx) Hook

Alternanthera maritime St. Hil

Chrysobalanus Icaco L.

Phyllanthus Garberi Small

Opuntia austrina small

Persea littoralis Small

7pomoea Pes-Capras (L.) Sweet

Solanum Bahamense L,

Lyoium Carolinianum Walt.

Lantana odorata L.

Genipa clusiifolia (Jacq) Griseb

Erithialis fruticosa L,

Chiocooca racemosa L.

Ernodea littoralis Sw.

Coocolibus nuvifera

Cocoa nucifora





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FMANGROVE

The coast offFloridae from latitude 29' onthe


east to 28' on the west is practically lined with this

growth. The plants belonging to this formation not only


occur along the sea but extend up into the brackish


waters of the many indulations. In many cases the is-


lands shown on maps are no more than acres of mud held


in place by the interlacing brace-like toots of Rhizophora


Angle. This species is usually the dominant one.


Cocos nuoifera is conspicuous below latitude 25'. Other

rather constant.apecies are Laguncularia racemosaCono-


corpus erecta and Avicennia nitida. Phabdadenia biflora


occurs as a very common liana.



225 Oocoa nuoiffera L.

831 Laguncularia racemosa (1) Gaertnf

831 Conocarpus ereota l. :

834 Rhizophora Mangle L.

937 Rhabdadenia biflora (Jacq) Muell. Arg.

1016 :Aicennia nitida Jacq.


- _LAh1&_ _- 3 __








THE EVERGLADES.


Location:- The Everglades stretch from about 27'N


Vc latitudee to nearly 25'N. Or beginning at the upper

end of Lake Okeeohobee to Cape Sable, a distance of about

150 miles, At its upper breadth they measure about 120

miles, roughly speaking they form a triangle with the

apex at Cape Sable. This vast area includes about 7500

square miles, an area equal to one of our smaller states.

There are nearly five million acres in this vast area,

nearly all of which can be easily brought into cultivation.

General Contour.- The highest portion which

rises about 40 feet is at its northern extremity and east

of Lake Okeechobee. The-wate}jin Lake Okeechobee stands

about 18 feet.above sea level and sheds in three direction

"ast, South and West, find outlets through many small


tortuous streams,


Along the eastern shores occur higher elevations










than along the western. These ridges of coral breccia


and sand dunes run more or less parallel to the adjacent


coast, The coral breocia ridges are for the most part


and probably altogether of volitic formation. They are


merely extinct coral rock dunes. In som cases,


Coquina sand is at present being blown over some dunes.


About thirty miles north and east of Cape Sable the


everglades merge into the coastal salt marshes,


The dunes are higher on the East coast and


extend father southward than at the west coast because


the prevailing winds are from the south-east. The coral


breccia Eidges and old sand dunes are cut in various


places, permitting the water to flow off in that direction.


Toward the west coast is formed the Big cypress and a


fringe of mangroves which retard the passage of the water


in that direction.


The interior of the everglade region is inter-










sected by sand ridges and by sloughs. The ridges are


the remains of former dunes. The sloughs are tortuous,


retarding the flow of water to such an extent that it is


difficult to tell whiohEway the water flows. Before the


elevation of this region had been determined by engineers


it was supposed to be at tide level.


From the foregoing it will be seen '.hat the


engineering feature of draining of the everglades is


comiraratively simple but of considerable magnitude. X


Canals of sufficient capacity and at close enough intervals


to carry off the rainfall during its maximum, is all that


is necessary. Many of the smaller glades, or prairies as


they are called locally, have already been reclaimed


until from 50 to 100 thousand acres of Glade land is in


use. These reclaimed glades are for the most part


located near the ocean or Biscayne Bay. The Baynton prairie


is a good illustration. The water from the evergJades is







held back by old Sand-dunes and the water in this


prairie, six miles long and two miles wide, was held back


by newer dunes. When a anal was cut to tide water, the.


prairie was drained and is now furnishing excellent farm


lands.


Forest trees, especially the pines are becoming


established on the prairie.


Botanizing: The interior of the everglades are botani-


cally unknown, but there is no physical difficulty in the


way of making the exploration. The task, though an easy


one, is not inviting. The flora is rather sparce and un-


intersting. Over the level stretches the sedges pre-


dominate. In the muck ponds the aquatics, like the


water lilies are common. The small hammocks which occur


frequently are extremely interesting from the fact that


the number of species in an individual hammock is apt


to be very small but the number of plants of the species


very abundant. This fact proves that the hammocks are of





44


comparatively recent origin. The impenetrable overglades

is as elusive as the great American Desert. In our

botanizing excursion we fhuj:' it no more difficult to

penetrate this impenetrable (?) region by means of horses

and carriages than would ordinarily be experienced in

traversing other unknown regions. We made a journey of

ten to twelve miles in a single day.







THE SAHD DUtE OR SORUB.


This formation is characteriszed-by the almost


invariable presence of Pinus Olausa amd which at the


same time is the dominant species. The number of


species present is very small and all are well adapted


to the zerophytic existence. In brief the scrub may


be described as an island or an extinct sand dune. The


species peculiar to the scrub are Pinus Clausa, Querous


Myrtifolia, ceratiola ericoides,


and cassytha filiformis. The latter occurs also on


the pine woods formation but attains its fullest develop-


ment in the scrub. Here-this parasitic cuscuta like


species often covers several rods of area, or may complete-


ly envelope a tree.


Pinus clausa Chapm.

Serenoa serrulata (Michx) Hook

Quercus myrtifolia Willd.

Ceratiola ericoides Michx.

Cassytha filiformis L.

Bejaria racemosa Vent.




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th / "r^ t rvo we wish to look briefly


into the geologic times that had to do with the sur-


face as it is now exposed. An oceanic plateau ex-


isted during the Vickburgian of the lower Oligocene.

(Never mind the technical terms; they will confound


no one except some learned professors.) This plat-


eau about the present southern extremity.


The water at that time was shallow--about 600 feet

b e
deep. The temperature of the water ran from 70-80 F.


Tropical currents passed over its surface, Mvaterials


of an organic and inorganic nature were de sited


to a varying depth of 100 feet or more, the deepest


being at the southern extremity.


The sea bottom'.






S TRATND



Monathochloe littoralis Engelm

Uniola panioulata L.

Eleocharis capitata L.) R. Br. (Hear coast)

Serenoa serrulata (Michx) Hook

Alternanthera maritima St. Hil

Chrysobalanus Icaco L.

phyllanthus Garberi Small

Opuntia austrina small

Persea litioralis Small

Ipomoea Pes-Capras (L.) Sweet

Solanum Bahamense L.

Lycium Carolinianum Walt.

Lant7na odorata L.

Genipa clusiifolia (Jacq) Griseb

Erithialis fruticosa L.

Chiococca racemosa L.

Ernodea littoralis Sw.

Coccolibus nuvifera

Cocoa nucifora





14

held back by old Sand. dunes and the water in this

prairie, six miles long and two miles wide, was held back

by newer dunes. When a onal was cut to tide water, the.

prairie was drained and is now furnishing excellent farm

lands.


Forest trees, especially the pines are becoming

established on the prairie.

Botanizing: The interior of the everglades are botani-

cally unknown, but there is no physical difficulty in the

way of making the exploration. The task, though an easy

one, is not inviting. The flora is rather space and un-

intersting. Over the level stretches the sedges pre-

dominate. In the muck ponds the aquatics, like the

water lilies are common. The small hammocks which occur

frequently are extremely interesting from the fact that

the number of species in an individual hammock is apt

to be very small but the number of plants of the species

very abundant. This fact proves that the hammocks are of









spring months are usually dry. For these the average


is about two and one-half inches per month.


If we keep the map of Florida in mind we will


see that it is a rather broad peninsula with no ele-


vations rising above 375 feet. Consequently the cli-


mate cannot be influenced perceptibly by the altitude.


The State, however, stretches through 5- degrees of


latitude which has a very perceptible influence on the


character of the vegetation. The southern portion


of the State is still further favored by the presence


of the Gulf Stream which flows along the banks and


strikes the coast at latitude 27 degrees. The soil is


uniformly sandy.












in this region was gradually depressed, allowing a de-


posit of 1000 feet in some places. At the close of


the Vicksburgian time the plateau was elevated enough


to permit erosion in the shallow waters. At this


time some islands existed as far south as Marion County.


The outline of the plateau was practically the same as





During the Apalachicolan time the uplift was


sufficient to produce a considerable along the


longitudinal axis, separated from the mainland by the


Suwanee Strait. during the latter portion of the


Apalachicolan time the oceanic waters became much cool-


er and the deposit was mainly from the land.


After this period the sea bottom again sub-


sided (that is in the early Miocene). The Suwanee










than along the western. These ridges of coral breccia


and sand dunes run more or less parallel to the adjacent


coast. The coral breccia ridges are for the most part


and probably. altogether of volitic formation. They are


merely extinct coral rock dunes. In some cases,


Coquina sand is at present being blown over some dunes.


About thirty miles north and east of Cape Sable the


everglades merge into the coastal salt marshes.


The dunes are higher on the East coast and


extend father southward than at the west coast because


the prevailing winds are from the south-east. The coral


broccia ridges and old sand dunes are cut in various


places, permitting the water to flow off in that direction.


Toward the west coast is formed the Big cypresF and a


fringe of mangroves which retard the passage of the water


in that direction.


The interior of the everglade region is inter-






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Along the east coast is a series of salt water


lagoons, usually spoken of as rivers. Towards the


east of these lagoons are narrow islands which rise


only a few feet above sea level. On these low sand


dunes occur.


Peninsular Florida stretches about 400 miles from


north to south, and is about 130 miles broad at its


widest.

The minimum temperature in the northern part is

about 20 FO and in extreme cases may reach 15 F.

0 e
It rarely rises above 95 F. with the extrme at 101 F.


Throughout the southern extremity the temperature rarely


goes down;-t6 freezing and rarely above 95 F.


The rainfall for the northern section is rather


uncertain as to time of occurrence. The average annual


amount being about 50 inches. For the southern section,


the average annual rainfall is about 60 inches occurring


mostly during the sumner months. The fall, winter and







STTAJITD



Monathochloe littoralis Engelm

Uniola paniculata L.

Eleocharis canitata L.) R. Br. (H ear coast)

Serenoa serrulata (Iichx) Hook

Alternanthera maritima St. Hil

Chrysobalanus Icaco L.

Phyllanthus Garbori Small

Opuntia austrina small

Persea littoralis Small

Ipomoea P'es-Capras (L.) Sweet

Solanu-m Bahamense L.

Lycium Caroliniannm Valt.

Lantrna odorata L.

Genipa clusiifolia (Jacq) Griseb

Erithialis fruticosa L.

Chiocooca racemosa L.





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44


comparatively recent origin. The impenetrable overglades

is as elusive as the great American Desert. In our

botanizing excursion we found" it no more difficult to

penetrate this impenetrable (?) region by means of horses

and carriages than would ordinarily be experienced in

traversing other unknown regions. We made a journey of

ten to twelve miles in a single day.




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/6

PHYSIOGrAPHY.


The general trend of the peninsula as we all know, is


nearly southward. The highest lands occur west of a


line drawn down the middle of the peninsula. This is the


primary axis of the peninsula. The elevation of this


region varies from about sea level to rarely more than two


hundred feet.


,ast of the primary axis running parallel to it is a


secondary axis, varying in width up to about forty miles.


Lying between these axes is the St. Johns River and a


series of lakes terminating in Tohopekaliga, at the north-


ern border of the former everglades. The St. Johns river


is really ohly a series of fresh water lakes connected


by wide streams. The source of the St. Johns River is


only about ten feet above sea level, and as it is over


two hundred miles long, measured by its tortuous route


to the ocean, we see that there is no chance for rapid


flowing streams.









an obstruction, either as land or a counter current.

The tides have thrown up much of this material, which

has been carried furtherAby winds.

idth this hasty review of the geology of

lorida, -i: will With. y i, _I J. With

your permission, I'll pass over the general physical

geography question and take up the discussion of

Plants, their Relations and distribution. This is


touched in your text-book, Part V, p-. 280-291.

r~hat is said tonight supplements the brief and very

inadequate treatment there given.



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IAINGROVE

The coast of Florida from latitude 29' on the


east to 28' on the west is practically lined with this


growth. The plants belonging to this formation not only


occur along the sea but extend ur into the brackish


waters of the many indulations. In many cases the is-


lands shown on maps are no more than acres of mud held


in place by the interlacing brace-like roots of Rhizophora


Mangle. This species is usually the dominant one.


Cocos nucifera is conspicuous below latitude 25'. Other


rather constant species are Lagunoularia racemosa,Cono-


corpus erect and Avicennia nitida. Ehabdadenia biflora


occurs as a very common liana.


225 Cocoa nucifera L.

831 Laguncularia racemosa (L) Gaertnf

831 Conooarpus erecta L.

834 Rhizophora Mangle L.

937 Rhabdadenia liflora (Jacq) Muell. Arg.

1016 Avicennia nitida Jacq.










Strait disappeared and we have the Apalachicola Sea


of about 100 to 150 feet in depth. At this time the


waters were much cooled by the cold counter current


along the shore, and our temperature was about that of


Cape Hatteras at present. Toward the close of the


Miocene period we have a general uplift closing the


Suwanee Straight.


During the fliocene we have a submergence


of about hElf the present land surface. The entire


St. John's Kiver valley and across the State at Lake


Istokpoga. The water for the most part was shallow,-


between 20 and 30 feet deep.


At the close of the Pliocene was a general


uplift, reaching probably 250 at its maximum. The


land was broken up into various parallel ridges, very










seated by sand ridges and by sloughs. The ridges are


the remains of former dunes. The sloughs are tortuous,


retarding the flow of water to such an extent that it is


difficult to tell which way the water flows. Before the


elevation of this region had been determined by engineers


it was supposed to be at tide level.


From the foregoing it will be seen .hat the


engineering feature of draining of the everglades is


comparatively simple but of considerable magnitude. X


Canals of sufficient capacity and at close enough intervals


to carry off the rainfall during its maximum, is all that


is necessary. Many of the smaller glades, or rrairies as


they are called locally, have already been reclaimed


until from 50 to 100 thousand acres of Glade land is in


use. These reclaimed glades are for the most part


located near the ocean or Biscayne Bay. The Baynton prairie


is a good illustration. The water from the everglades is




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much as we find them at present.


During the Plistocene there was a submer-


gence, but this was of short duration. At the close


of the Plistocene there was an uplift, resulting in


the present coral reefs and the Everglades of today.



The present shape of i'lorida is due in large


part to folding of the ocean floor an~shas been fur-


ther modified by ocean currents, winds and tides.


The counter currents have brought silt from northern


shores and river beds. This silt occurs in widely


separated places. The general growth of the axis


has been toward the east. The irregular outline of


the coast is the result of currents carrying sedimen-


tary materialband depositing them wherever they meet









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FILES





THE SAND DUTE OR SCRUB.


This formation is characterized-by the almost


invariable presence of Pinus Clausa amd which at the


same time is the dominant species. The number of


species present is very small and all are well adapted


to the zerophytio existence. In brief the scrub may


be described as an island or an extinct sand dune. The


species peculiar to the scrub are Pinus Clausa, Quercus


Myrtifolia, ceratiola ericoides,


and cassytha filiformis. The latter occurs also on


the pine woods formation but attains its fullest develop-


ment in the scrub. Here- this parasitic cuscuta like


species often covers several rods of area, or may complete-


ly envelope a tree.


Pinus clausa Chapm.

Serenoa serrulata (Michx) Hook

Querous myrtifolia Yilld.

Ceratiola ericoides Michx.

Cassytha filiformis L.

Bejaria racemosa Vent.








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U?

THE EVERGLADES.


Location:- The Everglades stretch from about 27'N


T gptitude to nearly 25'IT. Or beginning at the upper

end of Lake Okeechobee to Cape Sable, a distance of about

150 miles. At its upper breadth they measure about 120


miles, roughly speaking they form a triangle with the

anox at Cape Sable. This vast area includes about 7500

square miles, an area equal to one of our smaller states.


There are nearly five million acres in this vast area,

nearly all of which can be eaily brought into cultivation.


General Contour.- The highest portion which


rises about 40 feet is at its northern extremity and east


of Lake Okeechobee. The watehin Lake Okeechobee stands


about 18 feet above sea level and sheds in three directions,

aast, South and West, find outlets through many small


tortuous streams,


Along the eastern shores occur higher elevations




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