Pineapple Growing.

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Title:
Pineapple Growing.
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Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
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Folder: Pineapple Growing.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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FARMERS' BULLETIN No. 140.







PINEAPPLE GROWING.



BY



PETER H. ROLFS,
PAI .L''LO -iT, IN :H.' ..F:_- .l T 'l'.-iC.LA kP'R. rt'R, .
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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY,
ll.,iu/i ,,''i, D. C., August 1, 1901.
SIR: I transmit herewith, and recommend for publication, the man-
uscript for a Farmers' Bulletin on Pineapple Culture, written by
P. H. Rolfs, pathologist in charge of the tropical laboratory of veg-
etable pathological and physiological investigations of this Bureau.
Respectfully,
B. T. GALLOWAY,
Chief of Bureau.
I-Ion. JAMEs WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.





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CONTENTS.


Page.
Introduction............................................................ 5
Importance of the fruit .........................................----- 5
The area -------------......................................................----------- 5
Terms used on pineapple plantations .................................------------- .... 6
The pineapple family .--...........--------.................--..-...-......--...-... 7
tion ...................................................------------------------------------------... 7
ariees---------------.....------------....................-.-----------.....---....-----...--- 8
'O-Leading.vaxieties ---------------------------------- ------------ 8
Description of 18 varieties..---.............----------------...--.--...--------- 8
Lines of improvement --....-.....---...-...................-------------------.............-----------..--....------ 10
Climate..--------------------------------------------------------................................................................ 11
Soil .--------.....-....---.-----...----...........................................---........ ---------------------------11
Florida mainland ---................-------.--..................----------------.........- 12
Spruce pine as an index----------....-..--..--.....-................---------...--....... 1
The Keys--....----........................................---............ ------------------------------------14
Porto Rico--....-..-..................................--------..------............ --------14
Hawaii ........---------..-..................------......--------..-....--.-----------------...... 14
Philippines .........................--------------.............................-------------- 15
Gatherine ----------------------------------------------- 15
Election~ ........................................................ 15
Care in handling --.-------.....-..............................-------------------------.......------- 16
Grading ..................................-----------------.......---..............---------.. 16
Wrapping ...................................................----------------------------------------------- 16
Packin ........ .. .... ........ .............. ...... ... .. 17
F, ........................................... 17
"f ,,. '" ..... .. .... ....................................... 17

In crates ---------------. -------------------------...........................-------.------..........18
In bulk--- ............. .........................................------- 18
By freight .-......---.....--------------............................--------------------.------.......19
By express ................................--------------..----...............----.... ----19
Cold storage -------------------.....................................................--------------------------------- 19
Markets .............----------------------..........................................------------.......--------------------- 19
In America .-----------------........................................ ......---------------------------- 20
In Europe .....-..-......--..---..........................----------------.------.----............. 20
Prices ....-----------------..............-------.............-------...........---------------............-----........... 20
Cost of 1 acre --...........---....................----------------...........................------..----------------. 20
Starting without capital-------------------.................--........-.....---.-------------...-....--. 21
Fertilizers ................-...----....-....-----------..........---...........--------------------.. 22
Commercial fertilizers ---.---.................................---------------------------------.--. 23
Time of applying........--.......------...............................------------------- 23
Ammonia .....................--------------------..............................----------------......------.... 24
Cotton-seed meal..-------------------------.......-------------.....................---- 24
Dried blood...--.........----------...---------......-....-........---------..........--------.....--.... 24
Blood and bone .............---------------............................------------------.--......... 24
Nitrate of soda .--..-----.............................................------------------- 25
Sulphate of ammonia ...................-------.....----.....--.........-----....... 25
Potash---..-..-.........-----............--------......----..-........------.-----.----...........---......... 25
Kainit.........................--------------------------------.....................--.......---------......--- 25
Carbonate of potash ...-.......-----.................-------........---....-------.-------...... 26
Low-grade sulphate of potash ...................-----------------------.........------......-.. 26
High-grade sulphate of potash .....------------------.........................--------..-.... 26
Muriate of potash .-..-..-------------.....--.............----...............---------------- 26
4 Ashes ........................................................... 26
3















4

Fertilizers-Continued. Page.
Phosphoric acid ...................................................... 26
Bone meal ....................................................... 27
Acid phosphate ...------------.........--..-....-.................-----------...-.....-----------. 27
Other sources ---.....................--------------.....---...----------.....-...-...........------------. 27
Remarks on commercial fertilizers -...-...-...........------.--.-----..........---.--....... 27
Who shall mix fertilizer ....-............----------...........-----..------------.........----.... 28
Fertilizer formula ..----..------------------.........--......--..----...............------.----.-----. 28
Amounts of different fertilizers---..-...............-........----------.......---------...--. 29
Home-made fertilizers --.......---------..............----------....-...-----...-.....---.......----------29
Mulching................................................................ 30
The land................................................................. 30
Clearing -.....---...-...-....-............---------------....--..-.........---------....-.....--.. 30
On the Keys --.............---........................................ 31
Laying off the land ...-----------------------------------................---------31
Planting ................................................................. 32
Time of planting...............................................--------. 33
ltivation.--.....--..------------------...............-...-.....-------------.....--..................-----------....... 34
Avoid breaking the leaves......------.....-................-----..----------.......-..-. 34
Irrigation...............................................................------------------------------------------------. 34
Canning -------------------------------.................................-----------................-.............-------- 35
For general market--------------.............-.......---...---.-------............-....--.... 35
For home use ...........-------.--------....................-------------.----.--.-----................-.. 36
For flavoring ..-...-..-....-----.......-.....................-----------------.---.-----............. 36
For medicinal purposes.....................-----------------------......--...-...-..-------....... 36
To prepare for table use ....-..-....-------..............-----------....-......----..........---------...... 36
Sliced ................................--------------..............---------..-....--------....--------... 37
Dug out .---------------------......--........--..--........--------------....----.......---- 37
Shredded...-........................---------------.....................------.---------....... 37
To flavor other fruit..............--------.....------.........-------........---.....-------------.... 37
Diseases, insects, and injuries .......................---------........---------------.--.-----...........-. 37
Blight; wilts.................---------------....................................... 38
Fruit mold........................................................... 39
Mealy bugs ........-----....-...-----..-----..........................---....---------------------------.---- 39
Red spider (Stignaeus floridanus Bks.).--...---....---...............----....--..----.....------------39
Pineapple scale-......------....--........-....................---------.........--...----------------- 40
Spike; longleaf-----------..--...........................................----------------------------------- 40
Sanding --.....--...........-------....-----...............-----..........---------------------.--.......... 41
Ripley spike; going blind...-..-...---....-----..........................------------------------........ 42
Tangleroot....---.......................---.........-----...------..........----------.......--------------------- 42
Blackheart ..................-----......................-----------------..-------..--.--............... --------42
Pineapple sheds---......----.--.....-....................---------.......-------.---............-...------------. 43
Cost of shed-...-.....----------------------------.....----------....................---.---- 44
Trees for shade-....................----------------------------......................................-------------------- 45
By-products ..--------------------------.........--..--.....--..-.........---...------.....--.--...... 46
Marmalade ....-..----------------.........--..-..-..-..-..-...--......-.........--------....... 46
Pineapple fiber................................................... 47





ILLUSTRATIONS.



Fig. 1.-a. Pineapple sucker, trimmed ready to set......................... 33
b. Base of properly trimmed sucker............................... 33
2.-The base of a pineapple leaf, showing the effect of red spider's work. 40
3.-Tangleroot .................... ...........----..........------.....---- 43
4.-Pineapple shed built of boards and planks, showing road at left,
ways in foreground running at right-angles to road............... 44




















PINEAPPLE GROWING.


INTRODUCTION.
The aim of this bulletin is to give a concise statement of the general
operations connected with the production of pineapples in the field
and on a large scale. The literature on this subject is limited and
scattered through a score or more publications, thus putting it out of
the reach of the man engaged in growing pineapples in the field.
A few pages of this bulletin are devoted to diseases, canning, and
similar closely related topics.
No attempt is made to give information in regard to the growing of
pineapples in glasshouses. Such information would be of little value
to the people who grow this crop out-of-doors, as the method is so
radically different that it should have a separate treatise.
Importance of the fruit.-The flavor of the pineapple is so agreeable
that no one has to acquire a taste for it.
The time at which the main crop in the United States ripens has
something to do with its popularity, as it comes into the market after
the strawberry has become somewhat common and before the main
shipping season for peaches. There are pineapples on the market the
entire year, but those sold at other times than during the main-crop
season are so high priced that the average man can not afford this
luxury. The main shipping season is from the middle of April to the
middle of July.
The area.-A considerable area in the United States is adapted to the
cultivation of this fruit, and with the increased demand for it there
can be no doubt that this will be greatly extended. The State of
Florida doubtless contains the largest tract of pineapple land in one
body. Southern California has some land that will produce pineapples
profitably. All of Porto Rico and the Hawaiian Islands are free from
frost, but the soil and climate are not uniformly adapted to the pro-
duction of this crop. In the Philippines there is more land adapted
to the production of pineapples than will be utilized for several gen-
erations. Mr. H. J. Webber estimated that Florida produced 3,000,000
pineapples in 1895, and the production has increased largely since that
time. The Hawaiian Islands exported $14,423.17 worth of this fruit
in 1897, according to the statement of Mr. Walter Maxwell. Much of
this fruit was sent to California "
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Porto Rico, the Bahama Islands, Jamaica, San Salvador, and Trini-
dad contribute to the pineapple supply of the United States. Porto
Rico is thought to be especially well adapted for the locating of
canneries.
TERMS USED ON PINEAPPLE PLANTATIONS.
Every industry has terms that are used in a restricted sense, and this
is true to a limited extent in the pineapple industry. The following
terms are used more or less generally:
Rattoons.-When a bud occurs on the underground portion of a pine-
apple stem it produces roots by the time it gets to be 12 to 15 inches
high. These make strong, vigorous plants, and are left in the field
undisturbed unless too many occur together.
Suckers.-Plants produced from buds that originate from a portion
of the stem above ground. These are nourished from the main plant
and are late in producing their own roots if they remain attached to
the parent plant. They are the usual commercial commodity. In
buying pineapple plants, suckers are understood unless otherwise
stated.
Slips.-These are plants that originate from buds produced at the
base of the fruit. There is great variation as to the number of slips
produced by different varieties and by different specimens of the same
variety. Slips usually remain on the plant after the crop has been
gathered, and often grow to be 8 to 12 inches long by winter. In the
common varieties only the largest slips are used, but in the high-
priced varieties all slips are saved and planted.
Crown slips.-These are plants that originate at the upper end of
the fruit. In some of the varieties, such as the Enville, the crown
is wanting and a tuft of crown slips is produced instead. Crown slips
are utilized only in the high-priced varieties.
Crowns.-The tuft of short leaves at the apex of the fruit; wanting
in some varieties, such as the Enville. It takes these a year longer to
mature a crop than it does large suckers, so they are not employed
extensively.
Pine.-The ordinary abbreviation for pineapple both on the planta-
tion and on the market.
Sanded, or sanding.-Referring to sand being blown into the buds of
newly set plants. (See diseases, p. 41.)
Spike.-A pathological condition produced by untoward fertilizer
or soil conditions. (See diseases, p. 40.)
Shed.-A structure which produces half shade, used to equalize the
extremes of temperature.
Tangleroot.-A condition in which the roots or part of them are
wound tightly around the stem of the plant. (See diseases, p. 42.)
Spruce pine (Pinus Olausa (Englem.) Sarg.).-A species of pine
restricted to the south Atlantic and east Gulf coast.














THE PINEAPPLE FAMILY.
This plant belongs to a very peculiar family, the Bromeliaceae, and
is the most important species in the genus Ananas. In its original dis-
tribution the family was confined to the Western Hemisphere, mainly
to South America, though the genus Tillandsia is represented by a
number of species in the Southern States. As a whole, the family is
either tropical or subtropical. The long moss, or Spanish moss (Til-
landsia vsneoides L.), is a peculiar plant common along the eastern
Gulf and south Atlantic coast. This species of the pineapple family
grows abundantly in the moister localities of the above region and is
largely employed in that section for making mattresses and stuffing
furniture.
This family is characterized by plants of an epiphytic nature; that
is, those that grow on other plants but do not derive nourishment from
them; but many of the species are terrestrial in their habits. In
Florida they are frequently spoken of as orchids; doubtless due to the
popular belief that all epiphytes are orchids, which is incorrect. The
pineapple plant is terrestrial but might be looked upon as half epiphyte
in that it will remain alive for months without being in contact with
the s9il. In contact with moist, loamy soil it soon sickens and dies.
It takes about four months from the time of blossoming to the
ripening of the pineapple. The main season of blooming is during
January and February, though occasionally plants bloom through the
entire year, the least number occurring in November and December.
Immediately preceding the bloom a number of bright-colored leaves
are produced as if to announce its advent. The blossoms proper occur
in a head springing from the center of the plant. Their color is usu-
ally a purplish blue, though there is some variation even in the same
variety. The blossoms though crowded into a head are quite distinct,
each having its own insertion on the central axis. Each blossom is
protected by a bract. The crown does not develop until later and its
development does not depend upon the bearing of fruit.
The production of seeds in this fruit is rather the exception than
the rule. Some varieties produce more 'seeds than others. While
many of the species of this family have their seeds provided with a
pappus of down for transportation, the pineapple seems to secure its
dissemination by means of the fleshy edible fruit.

EARLIEST CULTIVATION.
The discovery of the pineapple, as a fruit, was coincident with the
exploration of South America by the Spaniards. As early as the sev-
enteenth century it was cultivated in Holland and in England, but its
use was confined to royalty. Its cultivation in glasshouses did not
become common in England until the beginning of the eighteenth cen-














tury. It is now grown by all the leading nations, either in glasshouses
or in the open. In many instances it serves as an ornamental plant.
Outdoor cultivation of pineapples in the United States dates back to
1860. According to Taylor1 efforts were made as early as 1850 to
grow them in Florida, but for some reason they failed. It is now
known that more than freedom from frost is required to grow pine-
apples successfully.
VARIETIES.
Different markets require different kinds of fruits; not that dealers
disagree as to what constitutes a fine specimen, but that some markets
are able to pay for a first-class fruit while another market can afford
but a lower grade. The canneries in the large seaport cities of the
United States can pay only the lowest price, so that they are obliged to
use small fruit or that from an overstocked market. For shipping to
European markets from the United States, none but the finest fruits
that will stand the voyage should be selected. With the increased
facilities for shipping by providing cold storage in transit and in erect-
ing cold-storage plants in the European markets, these markets will be
opened to our finer varieties of fruit in a more perfectly developed
condition.
For distant American markets which have to be reached by express
the medium sized fruit-about thirties-cf the best shipping vari-
eties will be found the most useful. There are many smaller cities in
the United States where this fruit has not been in the market, and such
places will not pay a reasonable price for a superior fruit, but will pay
a much higher proportionate price for a medium sized specimen.

LEADING VARIETIES.
The number of varieties catalogued is not great, approximating one
hundred. Some of these names are synonyms and others are known
only in glasshouse culture. The pineapple, not being propagated from
seed excepting for the purpose of originating new varieties, is a fairly
uniform plant in its varietal limits.
Description of eighteen varieties.-The following descriptions are
from the report of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 1900
(p. xvii):
(1) ABAKKA, fruit large size, oblong shape, orange-yellow color, best quality, ripens
in midseason, plant of moderate vigor and very prolific.
(2) ANTIGUA, BLACK, fruit small size, oblong shape, color orange yellow, best qual-
ity, ripens in summer, moderately prolific.
(3) ANTIGUA, WHITE, fruit medium size, round shape, yellow color, good quality,
ripens in midseason, a good cropper.
(4) BLACK JAMAICA, fruit medium size, oblong shape, orange-yellow color, good
quality, ripens in midseason, a moderate cropper.
'Taylor, Win. A., Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1897, p. 328.















(5) BLACK PRINCE, fruit medium size, conical shape, orange-yellow color, fine
quality, ripens in midseason, not prolific nor a vigorous grower.
(6) BLOOD, fruit small size, red-orange color, good quality, ripens in midseason,
vigorous grower and quite prolific.
(7) CROWN PRINCE, fruit of medium size, conical shape, orange-yellow color, of
good quality, ripens in midseason, moderately vigorous and fairly prolific.
(8) CHARLOTTE ROTHSCHILD, medium-sized fruit, conical shape, orange-yellow color,
quality very good, ripening in midseason, vigorous plant and fairly prolific.
(9) EGYPTIAN QUEEN, fruit of medium size, conical shape, yellow color, good qual-
ity, ripening early, a vigorous grower and prolific.
(10) LORD CARRINGTON, medium-sized fruit, yellow color, conical shape, good qual-
ity, ripening in midseason, moderately vigorous and fairly prolific. .
(11) PRINCE ALBERT, large sized fruit, orange-yellow color, fine quality, ripening in
midseason, a vigorous grower and produces a good crop.
(12) PORTO Rico, very large fruit, orange-yellow color, variable shape, good quality,
ripening in the early part of the season, produces a very large plant, fairly
prolific.
(13) PERNAMBUCO, small fruit, of fine quality, fairly vigorous and a heavy cropper.
(14) RED SPANISH, fruit medium-sized to small, form somewhat variable, cone-
shaped, color reddish-yellow, fair quality, ripens early, a vigorous plant and
a prolific cropper.
(15) RIPLEY QUEEN, medium-sized fruit, conical shape, fine quality, ripens late and
fairly prolific.
(16) SMooTH CAYENNE, large sized fruit, orange-yellow color, very good quality,
ripens in midseason, a vigorous grower and prolific cropper.
(17) SUGAR LOAP, small fruit, yellow color, quality very good, ripens late, moderately
vigorous and a fairly prolific cropper.
(18) ENVILLE, medium-sized fruit, orange-yellow color, fair quality, ripens in mid-
season, moderately vigorous and fairly prolific.
The Red Spanish is undoubtedly the most extensively grown in the
United States and may be considered as the standard variety for field
culture. It is also grown under pineapple sheds, but sheds should be
planted to varieties that produce larger fruits that sell for a higher
price, such as the Smooth Cayenne. Pineapples, like other fruits, have
varieties that seem to be better adapted for particular localities. Some
of the varieties that prove successful under glass are failures when
taken to the fields, while the pineapple shed seems to furnish conditions
midway between the glasshouse and the open field, and thus proves to
be a suitable place for some of the less robust varieties.
Mr. Webber, in his study of the effects of freezes on this plant,
makes the following statement:
Little difference could be observed in the hardiness of the different varieties other
than that due to difference in size. The large plants were usually the least injured.
Thus the Porto Rico, the largest variety grown, was probably the least injured. The
Abakka and the Red Spanish probably come next in the order of size and consequent
injury, but the difference is very slight.1
As all of our varieties are introduced, we may expect great improve-
ment by way of breeding new varieties especially adapted for special

xYearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1895, p. 171.
10049-No. 140-06----2














needs and special localities. By growing the finer varieties under the
sheds and selecting from these the hardier strains, more perfectly
adapted varieties will be obtained.
The eighteen varieties listed by the Florida State Horticultural
Society in 1900 are all of foreign origin. The report says:
The Red Spanish, Porto Rico, Abakka, and Smooth Cayenne are grown most
extensively for market. The Egyptian Queen, Ripley Queen, Blood, Pernambuco,
and Sugar Loaf are grown less extensively. In the numerous and expen-
sive shedded pineries of Orange County and the West Coast, which are cultivated on
the intensive system, the Smooth Cayenne is planted most extensively.

LINES OF IMPROVEMENT.
With a fruit so nearly perfect it would seem useless to attempt any
improvement, but there are several directions in which there might be
a change for the better. The new environment has laid the species
open to new enemies and to new methods of attack from diseases, but
this will be discussed under the heading of diseases.
Many of the finer varieties have originated in the glasshouse, and,
having become accustomed to glasshouse conditions, are not profitable
in the open or under sheds. Such varieties need to be changed by
selection or crossing until they will become productive in the open.
This can be brought about only by patient work and careful attention
to breeding. Much of this work has already received thought and
careful attention from this Department.
In the case of the Red Spanish the line of improvement will be in
securing larger fruits and a better quality. The general method
adopted for setting out fields is not conducive to the production of
the best strains of a variety. As a rule the prospective planter buys
the plants by the thousand, either delivered or at the railway station.
The man who sells these plants is interested only in keeping his field
properly stocked with plants and then to deliver them at the least
expense to himself. This method of selecting gives the advantage to
specimens that bear a small fruit or none, because the plant being less
exhausted by b,.:~:-ii a small fruit is able to produce more suckers
and of a larger size than the plant that has been reduced in vigor by
bearing a large fruit. Thus, in a measure, have the pineapple growers
been selecting from the inferior plants and starting their new fields
from them. Since the demand for plants of this variety has been
practically supplied, there is an opportunity to improve it by judicious
selection.
The use of the proper fertilizer ingredients will likewise do much
to improve not only the appearance of the fruit but also the taste.
Some of the varieties produce an abundant crop, but the fruits are
either so small, or so uneven in size, that a great deal of care is needed
to grade the crop properly, and even then much of it has to be thrown
out because it is too small to pay to ship, and becomes a total loss.
















One of the causes for this has been indicated in the above sugges-
tion regarding the improper selecting of plants. Again, it may be
due to carelessness in fertilizing. When it is due to unfavorable
weather there is some difficulty in remedying the matter.
There is room for improvement in the quality of most of the varie-
ties. In many of the fruits of the more hardy varieties the central
stem is large, leaving considerable waste. This in itself is not so bad,
but it is usually accompanied with a coarse fleshy portion which char-
acterizes the inferior pineapple. The best remedy for this is to dis-
card all plants producing such fruits.

CLIMATE.
To the general observer it may seem that a climate whose tempera-
ture never reaches the freezing point is all that is necessary to pro-
duce pineapples, but when the matter is studied more closely it is
found that it requires more than temperature to produce pineapples.
A matured leaf will lie upon a table in a dwelling for two months
without decaying or drying up, but it will rot in less than two weeks
if it be placed in an atmosphere saturated with moisture. Pineapple
plants may be shipped from the Hawaiian Islands to Florida if they be
kept dry. This fact merely indicates that the healthy pineapple plant
does not suffer seriously from ordinary dry weather. It is one of the
class of plants that prefers an alternating dry and wet season.
The culture of this crop should not be attempted in a latitude where
winter frosts occur unless one is prepared to provide the proper pro-
tection. All of the region in Florida north of Palm Beach and Fort
Meade are subject to occasional winter freezes which cause, great
losses to the pineapple growers unless their fields are protected by
some artificial means. In this region there are some favored localities
that did not suffer during the recent severe freezes.
Neither does the pineapple flourish in the extremely hot portions
of the globe. Its largest acreage is confined to the islands or to the
seacoast.
The best pineapple region in the world has a mean temperature of from 750 to
800. Key West, off the coast of Florida, has a mean annual temperature of about
760; Jupiter, in the midst of the pineapple region, about 73. The mean annual
temperature in a large part of the pineapple section of Florida is thus comparatively
low.,
SOIL.
The proper selection of soil for pineapples is the most important
problem in connection with their culture. The requirements of this
plant in this respect are so different from the ordinary fruits that it
took many experiments to convince the would-be pineapple grower
'Webber, H. J., Yearbook U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1895, p. 373.

















that he has here a plant that demands a soil utterly intolerable to the
ordinary crops of vegetables. This crop can be grown upon land that
will produce ordinary vegetables, but the soil must be of a loose and
open nature and not allowed to become water-soaked. It is not the
fertility nor the humus in the soil that is detrimental to the pineapple,
but it is the want of free drainage.
The soil prepared by the gardeners who grow this crop under glass
illustrates this point. Their standard formula is about as follows:
Two parts decomposed fibrous loam, one part well-decayed manure,
another part one-half inch bones and pounded oyster shells. From
this it is seen that even where the control over temperature and
moisture is the most perfect the texture of the favorite soil is open
and decidedly loose. The directions for watering are fully as inter-
esting: "Moderately in winter and freely in summer."
Florida mainland.-The soil of the Florida mainland will be consid-
ered first, as it is more thoroughly understood than that of any other
region. The following tables of the chemical analysis of some typical
Florida pineapple soils are exceedingly interesting, especially so from
the fact that they show the soils deficient in every constituent that is
thought to be a necessary element of plant food:

TABLE No. 1.-Chemical analysis of pineapple soil, Brevard County.

Type of soil. Field. Patch- Saw Palmetto Yellow soil. White soil. General
es. scrub. subsoil.
ttion number ........... Soil Soil Soil 'Subsoil Soil Subsoil Soil Subsoil Subsoil
Station number ........... 12 1 21 22 88 89 40 41 37


Coarse earth................
Fine earth..................
Humus.................
Nitrogen ..................
Moisture at 100 C..........
FINE EARTH.
Insoluble residue...........
Potash (K2O)...........
Soda (NaO) ................
Lime (CaO) ................
Magnesia (MgO)...........
Ferric oxid (Fe2O3) ........
Alumina (AlsOa) ...........
Phosphorus pent6xid(P..Oz,)
Chlorin.....................
Sulphur trioxid (SOs) ......
Carbon dioxide (CO) .......
Water and organic matter .


21.00 24.90 3.20 4.00 11.40 7.90 12.20 5.20 11.70
79.00 75.10 96.80 96.00 88.60 92.10 87.80 94.80 88.80
.24 .21 .71 .07 .18 .02 .16 .01 .12
.0378 .0252 .0742 .0126 .0182 .000 .0042 .000 .000
.4000 .2940 .4880 .3140 .1820 .1000 .0400 .0080 .0925

97.6085 98.2100 92.3635 82.8206 97.2876 97.8545 98.6490 99.4480 98.2240
.0086 .0111 .0612 .0564 Trace. .0077 .0034 .0048 Trace.
.0510 .1285 .1911 .2150 .0516 .0492 .0714 .0344 .0781
.2100 .1075 2.2325 7.5250 .0400 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000
.0225 .0099 .0207 Trace. .0090 .0990 .0634 .0036 .0243
.2345 .13121 .15 .3375 .8784 .8602' .1472 .8180 .7750
.1169 .0596; .4011 .1328 .0935 .3688
.0336 .0192 .0544 .0672 .0416 .0637 Trace. .0160 .0112
Trace. Trace. .0086 Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace.
.0145 .0103 Trace. Trace. Trace. .0060 Trace Trace. Trace.
.0000 .0000 1.6060 5.4280 .0000 .0000 .000 .0000 .0000
J1.7999 1.8127 2.8464 8.5500 1.8600 .6400 .7860 .1600 .6260


Total ................. 100. 0000100.0000100.0000100. 00001100.16811 99.9840' 99.8532:100.0783100.1064

Table No. 2 compares the Florida soil with Hilgard's average. Dr.
Hilgard obtained this average by combining 466 analyses of soils from
the humid portion of the United States. He came to the conclusion
that a soil which contains less than one-tenth of 1 per cent of either
lime, potash, or phosphoric acid may be regarded as deficient in that
particular substance. Referring to Table No. 2, it is seen that the

1 Persons, A. A., Bul. 43, Fla. Agr. ExL. Sta., p. 664.


















Florida pineapple soil is deficient in all the necessary elements except
lime, and Table No. 1 shows that it is deficient in this element in the
favorite class of soil (yellow soil).

TABLE NO. 2.-Comparison of Florida soils with Rilgard's averages.

Hilgard's Florida pineapple soils.
Substance, average of
soils. Soils. Subsoils. Meanofall.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Potash............................................. 0.216 0.0168 0.0230 0.0199
Lime............................................... .108 .5180 2.5083 1.5131
Phosphoric acid .................................... .113 .0298 .0489 .0393
Magnesia ................. ....................... .225 .0251 .0342 .0296
Nitrogen........................................................ 0319 .0042 .0181


Table No. 3 gives the averages of the mechanical analyses of pine-
apple soils. The most striking peculiarity is the small amount of
moisture and organic matter present. The small amount of moisture
is doubtless due to the small amount of silt, fine silt, and clay con-
tained in these soils.

TABLE No. 3.-Mechanical analysis of soils and subsoils. (a)

West Palm Beach Rockledge spruce-
pineapple land. pine scrub.
Substance. Soil (0 to Subsoil 0 to Subsoil
6 inches, (6 to 36 inches, (6 to 86
depthof). inches, O inh dep, inches
depthdepthof depthoo.) depth o).

Moisture in air dried sample................................ 0.16 0.07 0.15 0.25
Organic matter ............................................. 1.21 .31 1.06 .46
Gravel (2-1 mm.).............................................. .23 .06 .65 .66
Coarse sand (1-0.5 mm.)....................................... 3.02 3.08 12.86 9.07
Medium sand (0.5-0.25 mm.).................................. 61.11 57.50 41.42 32.58
Finesand (0.25-0.1 mm.)...................................... 33.76 37.78 41.18 52.13
Very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm.)............................... .54 .59 2.40 8.26
Silt (0.05-0.1 mm.) ............................................. .22 .07 .16 .23
Fine silt (0.01-0.005 mam.).................................... .06 .13 .06 .18
Clay (0.005-0.0001 mm.) ..................................... .50 .52 .385 .51

a Division of Soils, U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bul. 13, p. 28. (Averages.)

How it is that pineapple plants can grow and produce a crop on a
soil that seems to be so deficient in the chemical constituents that are
necessary for plant growth has not been explained satisfactorily. It
is true that heavy applications of the necessary elements of plant
food-potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen-are made annually to
maintain the productiveness of the fields, but the quantities added in
the form of fertilizers would not amount to more than the chemists'
"trace" when compared with the soil in which the plants grow; that
is, the amount of these elements of plant food added in the form of
fertilizers is so small comparatively that the chemist would not esti-
mate it in the analysis of the soil to which it might have been added.
That this plant should need a soil of such mechanical analysis as is
shown by Table 3 is not so surprising when it is remembered that it















belongs to a family a large per cent of whose members are epiphytes,
i. e., grow upon other plants but do not draw nourishment from them.
Spruce pine as an index.-The inclination of the earliest pineapple
growers on the mainland of Florida was to experiment with pines on
the low islands east of the Indian River, which were thought to resem-
ble the Keys more closely than the mainland. As they produced
excellent oranges and large crops of vegetables, it was but natural
to consider them a proper place to grow all crops for profit. After
numerous failures on the islands it was discovered, almost by accident,
that the spruce pine land on the Indian River contained the soil best
adapted to the growth of this fruit.
The land with a yellow subsoil and covered with spruce pine mixed
with a fair sprinkling of hardwood, such as -hickory and scrub oak, is
considered as made up of the ideal soil. In the interior of the State,
where more careful attention is paid to the matter of irrigation and
drainage, ordinary high longleaf pine land is used with good results.
On soil with a hardpan subsoil it is necessary to bed the land up so as
to insure prompt drainage during rainy weather. Any soil or condi-
tion that will hold water around the roots of the pineapple plant is
certain to end in diseased fields and cause disappointment.
The Keys.-These are islands near the coast of southern Florida.
They have a low altitude, often rising only a few feet above high-
tide limits. They have a coralline foundation, making a rather
porous substratum. Some of these Keys have large areas that are
nearly ideal as a pineapple habitat. The proximity to water keeps
down the high temperature in summer and their nearness to the trade
winds induces a dry winter. In many cases soil, in the ordinary sense,
can not be said to exist. In some instances the pineapple planter is
obliged to choose the spot that has enough decayed vegetable matter
to hold the plant in place on the coralline rock. The greater part, or
nearly all, of the plant food is located in the small quantity of decaying
vegetable matter; consequently it is soon exhausted. The question as
to the best method of making these exhausted fields again productive
has not been determined. The method usually followed is to abandon
the worn-out field and clear a new one, but as nearly all of the available
land has been cropped or is under cultivation it will be necessary to
find some way of making these abandoned fields again productive.
Porto Rico.-The largest variety grown in the United States and
Porto Rico originated in the Porto Rican islands, where a large por-
tion of the soil is suited to its growth. According to Dr. S. A. Knapp,
in his Report on the Agricultural Resources and Capabilities of
Porto Rico, 1901 (p. 23), this fruit may be grown in all parts of this
territory. The fertility of the soil will enable planters to grow pine-
apples there for an indefinite time without exhausting its resources.
Hawaii.-"In these islands the soil and climate seem to be as nearly
right as could well be expected," According to Dr. William C.















Stubbs, it is "extensively cultivated, nearly every small farmer having
a patch."1 It is also reported that the plants have escaped from culti-
vation and are growing wild. The fact that plants may be shipped
from the Sandwich Islands to Florida and sell for less than the home-
grown ones illustrates the fertility of the soil and the suitableness of
the climate.
Philippines.-" In Niihu and the Philippine Islands, where pine-
apples succeed well, the soil is disintegrated lava covered with a layer
of humus. There is but little cohesion in such soils, particularly
when, as in this case, they contain considerable lime. When clay is
present it is said to be important that it should not be so abundant as
to hinder root penetration or to hold the soil water, but a certain
amount to increase the water-holding capacity of the soil is apparently
very desirable."2
To be successful in growing this crop it is necessary to be thor-
oughly acquainted with the needs of each individual field. This infor-
mation can be obtained only by continued experience on the particular
fields. In all sections there are spots in the fields that are liable to
peculiar diseases, elevations that suffer during long droughts, or
depressions that hold water too long during rainy weather. There
are also variations due to gradations in the composition of the soil.
GATHERING.
It is not an unusual experience for the agriculturist to do all that is
necessary to bring a crop to excellent maturity and lose it all or in part
for the want of proper handling at the time of gathering. In no line
of work is it more necessary to pay the closest attention to details in
gathering than in growing tropical fruits. This operation is the one
most directly under control, and yet it is the one most liable to be
slighted. It is the operation in which judgment plays the most
important part. It can not be learned except by experience.
Selecting.-The fruit should be dry when gathered. The first act in
gathering is to select the fruits thought to be ripe enough to reach the
market in the best condition. This is done by a laborer under the
direct supervision of some responsible person who from time to time
instructs him as to whether to select more mature or less mature
specimens. The degree of maturity will depend upon the market to
which the product is to be shipped and to the manner of .-hilpisiu,
whether by express, freight, or by water. In the summer, if the fruit
is to go forward as freight it is selected when it is "just turning." If
it is to go by water it is selected a little less mature, and if by express
the fruit may be permitted to become "quite well colored." The mat-
ter of selecting depends so much on judgment that no fast rule can
SBul. 95, Office Experiment Stations, p. 89.
2 Webber, H. J., Yearbook U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1895, p. 273.














be laid down. The distance from the market, the condition of the
weather, and the variety planted are all factors which must be
considered.
Care in handling.-Handling begins when the laborer has seized the
fruit to be broken, and ends, so far as the grower is concerned, when
the fruit is on the railway platform or on the steamboat dock. The
laborer who goes among the fruit is usually provided with a pair of
leggings that reach above the knees and a pair of mittens made of
canvas.
He seizes the pineapple usually in both hands, and gives it a slight I
twisting bend to cause the stem to snap off a half inch or so below the
fruit. Breaking pines" requires skill and attention. If the stem be *
broken off too near to the fruit it is apt to rot in transit, and if the
stem is broken too long it has to be broken again at the shed at a loss
of considerable time. Only the more intelligent and better laborers
are sent into the land to break or to out pines. After breaking, the
pineapples are tossed to a laborer standing in the pathway between
the beds, who catches them and lays them down carefully. From this
place they are collected in large baskets or in field crates and hauled
to the packing shed.
In gathering some of the fancy varieties the stems are cut several
inches long, the fruit taken to the packing house, and the stem cut
off even with the fruit. In some cases the cut ends of stems are cov-
ered with paraffin wax to prevent, as much as possible, evaporation and
the loss of flavor. Under proper conditions it pays to take all of these
precautions, but for the ordinary fruit the advantage gained would
not be worth the time consumed.
Grading.-At the packing house the fruit is sized and sorted. Under
ordinary circumstances there are only two grades, fruits and culls.
It sometimes happens that the pineapple grower has three grades on
hand besides the culls-ripes, greens, and mediums. The first grade
must be packed and sent out as soon as possible, either by express or
to some near-by market. The mediums allow more choice of method
of shipping and of market. The greens may be kept in the packing
house until they have ripened fo a suitable degree, or they may be
shipped by freight to the most distant market ordinarily supplied.
In sizing, the fruit is known by the number it requires to fill a half-
barrel crate, viz: 18's,*24's, 30's, 36's, 42's, 48's, and 54's. The last-
named size is not crated unless the crop is very short. There is no
machine which can be used to determine the sizes, so this has to be done
by guessing the grade to which the particular fruit belongs. The
laborer who does the sizing soon becomes expert at the practice, so the
wrappers find no great difficulty in packing the fruit.
Wrapping.-Pineapples that are shipped in crates are usually wrapped
in some kind of paper, the grade varying with the taste of the grower














and the quality of the fruit shipped. Red Spanish are usually wrapped.
in ordinary brown straw paper, fine smooth Cayennes and Queens in a
number of thicknesses of finer paper, and some are wrapped in tissue
paper stamped with the plantation name. It is quite important to
wrap pineapples to keep them from breaking the skin of one another
in transit. In addition to lessening the danger of breaking the skin
the wrapping protects them from wilting and from dust while being
shipped and carted. Pineapples sell largely upon their looks.
Packing.-The sizes of packages adopted by the Florida growers
are the barrel and half-barrel crates. The former is 12 by 20 by 36
inches; the latter, 12 by 10 by 36 inches. The latter size seems to be
the one in most general use. This is undoubtedly the more convenient
size, as the unit of this size holds about as much fruit as the ordinary
fruit dealer or grocer wishes to have on hand at one time, and it makes
a convenient size to handle. As the industry is extended, more atten-
tion must be given to the convenience of the individual and small
buyer.
In packing a crate the fruit must be pressed down firmly so it will'
not shake in transit, and, on the other hand, it must not be squeezed
down to the extent of mashing or bruising. The method varies greatly
with the particular variety packed and the quality of the variety.
Some of the fine large varieties when quite ripe have to be wrapped in
two or more thicknesses of soft paper and then packed in excelsior or
Spanish moss. This adds greatly to the cost of packing and prepar-
ing for market, but is usually more than compensated for by the higher
price they bring.
For long distances.-Fine specimens of fruit that are to be shipped
a great distance need special preparation to stand the trip. When
the fruit is sufficiently fine to pay the cost, and sufficiently mature,
the plant is cut off at the ground and the whole wrapped carefully and
packed firmly in a crate or barrel. Sufficient ventilation is allowed
so the plant will continue to live during transit. This method of pack-
ing lor shipping requires experience and care. The vitality of the
plant will be drawn into the fruit during transit, serving to mature it
in a way much more like the fruit that is matured on the plant in the
field than the fruit that is cut from the plant and allowed to mature in
that way. Simmonds, in Tropical Agriculture, mentions another way
that is practiced in shipping fine fruit from the Azores. He says that
the stalk is cut several inches below the fruit and an ordinary large-
size flowerpot is then filled with mold, into which the stalk is inserted.
These are then shipped in skeleton cases to avoid bruising or injur-
ing, the fruit being wrapped in paper to further insure its safety.
The benches.-The tables or benches on which the fruit is delivered
from the field should be built about 30 inches high on the side where
the laborers stand who do the wrapping work. The top should have
10049-No. 140-06--3











18

pitch sufficient to cause the fruit to roll to the front of the table. These
tops may be made of 1-inch stuff, 1, 2, or 3 inches wide, the upper
corners rounded. These strips are fastened crosswise of the table and
covered with coarse cloth, such as fertilizer sacks are made of. On
the front of the table is an 8 or 10 inch board to prevent the fruit
from rolling off. The width of the table varies to suit the convenience
of the packing house, usually about 40 inches.
The benches are usually built along the walls of a shed at a siding,
on two or three sides, as may be most convenient. Such sheds are
furnished by the railroad company usually, or they may be private
property and located at a siding. During the shipping season work is
so pressing that it is not practicable for more than one grower at a
time to use an ordinary shed. The fruit from the smaller field has to
be hauled to the siding or to a depot.
SHIPPING.
This fruit will stand more rough handling and keep for a longer
time than any other tropical fruit that is transported in the fresh con-
dition. The length of time that a good pineapple will keep depends
greatly on circumstances, but in a dry atmosphere, such as an ordinary
living room, a fruit free from bruises may be expected to keep for two
or three weeks from the time it is picked for shipping. Its ability to
stand rough handling and its good keeping qualities make it possible
*to ship it to the centers of population of all the great nations of the
world. Europe is supplied mainly from northern Africa, the Madeiras,
the Canaries, and the Azores; the eastern portion of the United States
is supplied from the West Indies, the Bahamas, and from Florida,
and the western portion of the United States from the Hawaiian "
Islands. A large area of our country is still left unsupplied.
In crates.-The larger portion of the fruit comes to the market in
crates, and this is the only way in which it should be shipped except
when the poorest grades, that are used for canning, are being handled.
The crate makes a good unit for quotations, for transportation rates,
and for the commission merchants. It also gives the individual an
opportunity to establish a reputation and the buyer a good chance
to trace back any fraud that might be practiced by an unscrupulous
planter. This "handy package" has done more to extend the trade in
fruits and vegetables than would at first seem possible. The trade-
mark of a particular planter may at first seem a useless expense, but it
has proved advantageous to many orange growers. In some cases the
markets know the trade-marks so well that the fruit sells upon them
without further inspection. Some of the orange growers have custom-
ers whom they supply directly, thus saving the commission merchants'
fees and having a definite market for their product.
In bulk.-In the Bahama Islands and the West Indies the greater
part of the fruit is still shipped in bulk. This, of course, discourages














the growing of any but the more prolific and coarser varieties. The
fruit produced on the Keys was shipped in this way until quite recently.
It was loaded into small sailing boats and taken to Key West or some
other near-by port, and there packed for the regular market or loaded
onto larger vessels and taken to Northern markets and sold in bulk
to canneries or to men who reshipped it to the consuming markets.
This method of shipping is not only unsatisfactory, but very liable to
lose a large part of the shipment.
By freight.-The bulk of the crop goes into the market as freight.
For this purpose special trains are put on to pick up only pineapples.
These trains start out early in the morning, but since there is a sid-
ing" or depot every mile or two in the pineapple belt it is well into
the heat of the day before the train begins to make much headway.
After the train has gotten out of the pineapple region it makes good
time, so that there is no great loss, ordinarily, from delay in forward-
ing by freight.
The railroad laborers are inclined to handle the crates of fruit
rather roughly, but the grower-can minimize this by his presence and
attention. The crates are so packed in the car, if it is a through car,
as to give considerable ventilation. This, together with the spaces
between the slats of the crate, allows the moisture to escape to some
extent, and so keeps the fruit dry and from sweating even though the
weather be somewhat warm.
By express.-This is the ideal way of shipping, and although expen-
sive, is still in many cases profitable. Pineapples that are too ripe to
go forward by freight may be shipped by express. The fancy varieties
that command high prices are usually permitted to develop until quite
ripe before gathering, and such must be forwarded in the most expe-
ditious way possible. Where they are bought directly by the con-
sumer they are scarcely more expensive than those shipped by freight
and obtained from the dealers.
COLD STORAGE.
Experiments in keeping pineapples in cold storage in this country
seem to be wanting. It seems quite probable, however, that this
method may be developed when the fruit shall become sufficiently
abundant and the cold-storage plants sufficiently numerous.
The experiment has been tried in New South Wales and reported
upon favorably. Since this fruit may be obtained at all times of the
year no great effort in this direction need be expected until the demand
shall have been supplied during the season in which the greater part
of the crop ripens.
MARKETS.
With increased facilities for distribution the markets are being
greatly extended. The question of making the pineapple a fruit to















be universally used depends entirely upon being able to distribute it
to all portions of the world at a price that brings it within the pur-
chasing power of the inhabitants. As the transportation becomes
cheaper and more expeditious the area to be supplied becomes greater.
In America.-During the time of slow sailing vessels and uncertain
railroad transportation the markets in this country were limited to the
Atlantic seaboard and the'ports of the Gulf coast. Since the advent
of the steamship and close railroad connection the cities as far inland
as Chicago, St. Louis, and Minneapolis have been regularly supplied.
From these as centers the secondary cities are furnished, but no special
effort has been necessary to get rid of the fruit, so the inhabitants of
the smaller cities and towns rarely have an opportunity of purchas-
ing it.
The west coast of the United States is supplied mainly from the
Hawaiian Islands.
In Europe.-The markets of Europe are regularly supplied from
Madeira, the Canaries, and the Azores. Large shipments are also
made annually from Jamaica, Trinidad, the Bahamas, and the West
Indies. Trial shipments have also been made from the United States,
and it has been fully demonstrated that the markets of Europe are not
too far off nor too difficult to reach when the needs of the United
States shall have been supplied. The common varieties and inferior
fruit will never be profitable for this market, but we shall have to
produce a finer fruit at a lower price than is produced in the Tropics.

PRICES.
The price paid for pineapples varies with the time of the year and the
market to be supplied. The fancy market will pay a handsome price
at any time for superior fruit. During the winter months the prices
are better than during spring, summer, and fall. The reason for this
is partly because the markets are full of other desirable fruits at these
seasons and partly because the supply of pineapples is limited during
the winter. Fifty cents apiece, even in Jacksonville, Fla., during the
winter is a common price for a pineapple that weighs 8 or 10 pounds.
Just before Christmas the prices run up to $6 and more a crate for fine
fruit. Christmas is a time of high prices for all rare fruits, and these
prices must be regarded as somewhat abnormal.
Medium-sized fine fruit brings a good price at all times, rarely less
than $2 to $2.50 per crate, while the small fruit sometimes sells too
low to pay for gathering and shipping. The product brought into
the markets for canning is usually sold in bulk, either by weight or
measure.
COST OF ONE ACRE.
Pineapple growing as a systematized industry is so new that it
requires great care and constant attention to avoid failure. Enough















21
failures have occurred to show several ways in which we should not
go, but as a whole the most desirable plan has not been reached except
by a few men. The markets are still able to take all the good fruit
offered at a price that leaves some compensation to the grower. The
question, then, of financial success is not so much of being able to sell
a good product as to produce one.

The outlay per acre.
Cost of land..............--- ......................... $1.50 to $80. 00
Cost of clearing........--------.....------------------------...................... 20.00 60.00
Cost of plants .............. ........................ 25.00 800.00
For fertilizer........--------................................. 20.00 150.00
Freight, express, etc ............................... 20.00 80.00
Labor .-------------------------...-----------........................ 25.00 75.00
Shed .............................................. 325.00 600.00
Total........---------------.................................... 436.50 1,845.00
This estimate does not include the salary of the superintendent.
The first column is about as low as one would be safe in estimating;
while the amount might easily exceed the figures in the second
column.
The receipts.
For plants........ ............-------.................. $ 00 to $1,500
From fruit...........------.............------------.................. 150 750
Total....................-------------------------.......................... 150 2, 250
The amount given in the second column has frequently been exceeded,
and, under what appeared to be very favorable circumstances, an
amount less than that given in the first column has been realized from
the sale of products from an acre.
In Porto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, and on the Keys the largest
item of expense, the shed, is not incurred. To produce good fruit,
such as is demanded by the fancy markets, the cost per acre can not
be reduced below $100. If the soil be fertile enough to grow a crop
without fertilizer the cost of clearing will be greatly decreased.
From the figures here given it will be seen that it requires consider-
able capital to grow pineapples extensively.

STARTING WITHOUT CAPITAL.
The figures seem almost prohibitive to many farmers, but it has been
demonstrated repeatedly that a willing laborer may become a pine-
apple grower. The absolute outlay in money may be reduced to the
cost of the plants, the cost of the fertilizer, and the cost of land. This
puts the cost for the first year at about $50, and to carry this forward
to the ripening of the first crop about $20 more should be added,
making an outlay of $70 to produce the first crop on an acre. In the
pineapple-growing section of Florida there is sufficient demand for











22

labor to more than keep a man while he is growing his first crop.
Another plan adopted is for. two persons to form a partnership, one
working to supply the needed cash while the other grows the crop of
pineapples. After the first crop has been produced the increase in
the number of plants will permit the extension of the area as rapidly
as financial conditions will allow. The one great drawback to the
average man's succeeding in pineapple growing is that the returns
come in at one time and during a short period. So it is a case of
labor and wait for about eleven months in the year for the returns
during the twelfth month. The character of the pineapple land does
not permit many other crops to be grown upon it successfully; conse-
quently the greater number of pineapple growers have to depend on
this crop alone.
FERTILIZERS.

This term is applied to manures or substances used in the place of
manures. Those that are put up and sold on the markets are known
as commercial fertilizers. The most difficult problem in connection
with the commercial growing of pineapples in the United States is the
proper use of commercial fertilizers. The chemical analyses of pine-
apple soils show conclusively that something must be added to the soil
before it can be productive (see pages 12 and 13). A soil so nearly devoid
of all the elements necessary to plant growth would, at first sight, be
considered the most unreasonable place to plant anything, but the
pineapple, and other fruits as well, are made up of about 90 per cent
of water, and less than 1 per cent of them is made up of the mineral
matter which is added as a fertilizer. The amount of nitrogen
(ammonia) is also very small. Since these elements that have to be
supplied do not cost a prohibitive sum and water is free usually,
the need of commercial fertilizers becomes an advantage rather
than a drawback. Plants will take up almost any soluble matter
present in the soil at their roots, so that if a pineapple is placed in a soil
which is naturally fertile this will absorb the plant food regardless of
the fact that it may make the fruit insipid or nearly nauseous; but if
we have a soil in which there is no such matter to be taken up we may
supply those substances that will give the fruit the desired flavor and
keep it from ripening flat and insipid.
There is considerable land that produces good pineapples without
the use of any fertilizer, but it appears that the best and finest pine-
apples and likewise the largest crops are produced on land that has to
be heavily fertilized. Soils that are normally fertile become deficient
in some one or more of the constituents necessary to make them pro-
ductive. The soil need not be entirely deficient in the amount of the
elements required, to be unproductive, but these elements may be
present in such a combination that the particular plant may be unable















to appropriate them. It is possible, therefore, that a particular soil
may have a large quantity of a certain element and yet be benefited
by an application of that element in a different form.
In studying the effects of fertilizers it is always important to take
into consideration the kind of soil, the amount of cropping that has
been done on it, the location, and even the varying conditions of the
same field. Nor should too much confidence be placed in the results
of one or two years' experience. The pineapple soils of New Zealand
appear to be abundantly supplied with potash, while those in the
United States seem to be deficient in this element. There are fields
that have raised several crops without the addition of this element
except in a limited amount in the form of cotton-seed meal or tobacco
stems. The latter substance contains a considerable quantity of pot-
ash, but in the cases referred to it was used only as an insecticide,
and, therefore, in a small quantity.

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.
The greater number of commercial fertilizers are sold as complete
articles-that is, they are supposed to contain in proper proportion
every element of plant food that the particular soil needs to make it
produce pineapples.
The general reports as to what fertilizers are the best are very con-
flicting, and even the reports as to what fertilizer elements are required
by a particular soil are not uniform. These conditions arise partly
from an imperfect understanding of what the fertilizer is supposed
to supply and partly from the variable conditions attending different
applications.
The pineapple soil of the mainland of Florida is so nearly sand and
insoluble matter that it is the ideal soil in which to experiment with
fertilizers on this crop.
Time of applying.-The time of applying the fertilizer is by no means
well understood; so we may find people applying it at all times of the
year with precisely the same end in view. Many growers prefer to
make one application during November or December and another just
after the crop has been gathered. Others make only one application,
and that during the summer or in the early fall. Other growers make
three applications-one just after the crop has been shipped, the sec-
ond during the fall, and the third in the spring or winter just before
the blooms appear. Even among the growers that make the same
number of applications there is no uniformity. The practice among
the different growers is so variable that it is not improbable that a fer-
tilizer properly prepared may be used at any time of the year with
good results, although there may be a time of the year or condition
of the soil when the fertilizers will prove to be of greater value than
at any other time; also this time imuit be ascertained independently

















for each section and possibly for each field. It does not now seem
probable that any fixed rule will ever be formulated for this operation
that will not involve considerable loss at times. Experiments will
doubtless be able to demonstrate what substances are best for pro-
ducing certain kinds of fruit, but the amounts of those substances
dissipated or wasted by conditions not under control will not be
determinable. In addition to this, there is an amount of fertilizer
and a kind of fertilizer that will produce a maximum of plant growth
consistent with the best economy.

AMMONI-A.

The terms nitrogen and ammonia, as used by the fruit growers in
connection with fertilizers are nearly synonymous, the only differ-
ence being that a fertilizer which contains 5 per cent of ammonia,
when expressed in the term of nitrogen, contains about 4 per cent
(4.059 per cent) of nitrogen. When the term ammonia is used it does
not mean that the nitrogen present is there in the form of ammonia,
but it is simply a way of designating the amount of ammonia that
would be present if the nitrogen present were combined with the nec-
essary amount of hydrogen to produce ammonia. The fact that larger
figures are required to designate the amount in the form of ammonia
than in the form of nitrogen has had something to do with the general
introduction of the term.
Cotton-seed meal.-This substance is used mainly for its nitrogen con-
tent, though it contains a small percentage of potash and phosphoric
acid. Some land, especially new land, is capable of producing a first-
class crop with no other fertilizer, but it is quite probable that nearly
all Florida pineapple soil needs potash, and possibly phosphoric acid
in addition, to produce a maximum crop. As a substance to be dropped
into the bud of newly set pineapple plants to furnish a small amount
of fertilizer and to protect the buds against sanding, it is preferable to
anything else now in use.
Dried blood.-The nitrogen content of this substance is quite high,
running from 10 per cent to 14 per cent. The amount of potash and
phosphoric acid present is. so small that it is usually not considered.
The nitrogen from this source is liberated somewhat slowly, which is
a point in its favor. It contains from two to two and a half times as
much nitrogen as cotton-seed meal contains, a consideration not to be
overlooked; for all the fertilizer has to be applied by hand and shipped
a long distance. It may be applied directly into the bud without harm
to the plant. As a fertilizer it possesses all the advantages that cotton-
seed meal has and is more concentrated.
Blood and bone.-This fertilizer as found on the market contains an
indefinite amount of dried blood mixed with ground bone and fre-















quently with inert material to give it bulk. In using this substance
or mixture it is best to secure information as to its composition from
some reliable source. In addition to the value of the dried blood, the
ground bone contains some nitrogen and some insoluble phosphoric
acid, which the pineapple plant seems to be able to assimilate, at least
in a small degree. This form of fertilizer can also be applied directly
in the bud without injury to the plant.
Nitrate of soda.-This is a concentrated form of nitrogen. When
applied it must be done with care, as it is quite caustic to the pineapple
plant, and if applied in the bud is apt to kill it. As a source of
nitrogen it is quickly available and not considered lasting. If used,
a number of applications should doubtless be made during the season.
Large applications should not be made nor should it be left in bunches,
but distributed evenly and mixed thoroughly with the soil. When
pineapple plants appear to be growing too slowly they may be
"forced" along by an application of nitrate of soda. A little experi-
ence with nitrate of soda and a knowledge of previous fertilizations
will enable one to use it to good effect. Some caution is necessary in
using nitrate of soda, as it produces luxuriant growth, but a tender
plant.
Sulphate of ammonia.-This is the most concentrated form of nitro-
gen that is used as a fertilizer. It contains about 20 per cent of
nitrogen. As a fertilizer for pineapples it does not seem to produce
as good effect as nitrate of soda, and is usually applied in combination
with other substances; that is, as a mixed fertilizer.
POTASH.
This substance is found in insufficient quantities in most of the pine
apple land on the South Atlantic seacoast. In the island pineapple
regions the soils have not been tested sufficiently to know definitely
just what is needed. In New Zealand the soil does not seem to be
benefited by an application of potash, and this will doubtless be found
true also in the Philippines and in the Hawaiian Islands or in other
volcanic regions.
Kainit.-This is a mineral substance composed of several salts in
combination as found in the mines. The principal constituents are
potassium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride, and a
small amount of potassium chloride. A strong objection to its use is
that it contains only a small percentage of potash, there being usually
less than 12 per cent. It does not seem to be the best source of
potash for this crop, but why this is so does not seem to have been
determined. The percentage of potash is too low to permit its use in the
greater number of mixed fertilizers. As a fertilizer, or an ingredient
to use in combination, it will be advisable to avoid it, at least for the
present.














Carbonate of potash.-This form of potash is not on the market exten-
sively, but is one of the best forms for pineapples. It contains about
18 per cent of potash.
Low-grade sulphate of potash.-This fertilizer is also called the double
potash salts, being a sulphate of potash and of magnesia. In addition
to the beneficial effects derived from the potash contained in it, the
magnesium sulphate is supposed to have some beneficial effect upon
this crop. The amount of potash present varies from 22 to 26 per
cent. As the price of the potash salts is fixed by the amount of potash
present, it may be advantageous to buy this form to secure the
advantages of having the magnesium'sulphate present.
High-grade sulphate of potash.-This substance is composed almost
entirely of the sulphate of potash, and usually contains more than 95
per cent of sulphate of potash, or nearly 50 per cent of potash. From
the standpoint of bulk this would be considered a more economical
fertilizer than any of the foregoing, having almost no waste product
to handle. Its reputation among pineapple growers is good.
Muriate of potash.-This salt is known to the chemist, and to some
extent to the pineapple grower, as potassium chloride. It contains
nearly 50 per cent of potash, and so is a fairly pure substance. As a
potash fertilizer it is well thought of by many growers; by some it is
believed that the pineapples grown on land fertilized with it are tender
and "bleed" easily.
Ashes.-Various forms of ashes are offered for sale in the markets.
They have no value, as a rule, beyond their potash content. They are
sometimes used for insecticidal purposes, but can not be recommended
for that purpose. They may be obtained from cotton-seed hulls, hard
wood, saw palmetto, and other sources. The potash content of the
cottonseed-hull ashes is fairly constant, but that of the hard wood and
saw palmetto are exceedingly variable. Cottonseed-hull ashes may
contain as high as 20 per cent of potash, but that of hard wood will not
average much over 8 or 9 per cent. Ashes are undoubtedly good fer-
tilizers for pineapples, but their reputation has been greatly damaged
by large quantities of poor or worthless ones being placed on the market.
Any one desiring to use ashes as a fertilizer should secure a guaranty
from a reliable source that the particular shipment that he expects to
buy has not been leached and that it contains a certain quantity of
carbonate of potash.
PHOSPHORIC ACID.
The amount of phosphoric acid needed by the pineapple plant for
its fruit seems to be only one-tenth as much as the amount of potash.
If cotton-seed meal is used as a source of nitrogen it will supply nearly
as much phosphoric acid as seems to be needed, judging from a chem-
ical analysis of the fruit.













Bone meal.-Ground or pulverized bone has long held an important
place as a fertilizer for general farm crops but has not been recom-
mended extensively for a pineapple fertilizer. The esteem in which
it is held as a general purpose fertilizer places its price considerably
above what the pineapple grower can afford to pay for it, at least from
a technical standpoint. Its value as a fertilizer on our present basis
of calculation would put it at about $12 per ton, which is much below
its market price. The question as to whether the phosphoric acid it
contains is available to plants or not has not been definitely settled.
The good effect upon pineapples produced by bone meal seems to be
greater than can be accounted for on the theory that the nitrogen con-
tents is all that is available to the crop.
Acid phosphate.-Dissolved rock has been used so extensively in fer-
tilizing crops that it has been considered as an essential constituent.
Experience has shown, however, that this form of phosphoric acid is
injurious to the pineapple crop under the Florida east-coast conditions.
For a time it was thought that the acid phosphate contained free sul-
phuric acid and that this was the cause of the injury, but by doub-
ling and quadrupling the amount applied it was demonstrated that
the cause for the unusual behavior of the plants after the addition of
phosphoric acid must be explained in some other way. The experi-
ments demonstrated, however, that the source of this element, phos-
phoric acid, should be sought elsewhere.
Other sources.-Guano, or the dung of sea fowl that has not been
leached is also an excellent source of phosphoric acid. Its high price
has kept it out of the hands of the pineapple growers.
Fish scraps have been utilized to the best advantage. The whole
carcasses of otherwise worthless fish may be used as a fertilizer.
REMARKS ON COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.
From extensive experiments carried out by the Florida Experiment
Station under the charge of the writer it seems that blood and bone
gave the best results as a source of ammonia, nitrate of soda stood
second, and cotton-seed meal third, while sulphate of ammonia stood
last.
Of the forms of potash used the potassium magnesium carbonate
stood first, low grade sulphate of potash second, high grade sulphate
of potash third, muriate of potash fourth, and kainit last. Bone meal
gave better results than did acid phosphate.
In a general way blood and bone gave good results with any form
of potash. Nitrate of soda in combination with acid phosphate or
with kainit did not seem to do well.
Just why these combinations did not do well has not been explained.
The general deductions obtained from the experiments on the sandy













soil of the east coast will be of great importance in understanding the
fertilizing of pineapples on other soils.

WHO SHALL MIX THE FERTILIZER P
The appliances necessary to mix fertilizers consist merely of a good
packing-house floor and an ordinary sand screen, such as is used by
plasterers. One hundred or 200 pounds of different elements may be
mixed at a time. The fertilizer houses make a point that the pineapple
grower can not mix the elements evenly, but by running the fertilizer
through such a screen several times the material will usually be mixed
sufficiently if all the elements were present in the proper proportions
in the beginning. As a rule, two or three thorough screenings is all
that a mixture needs.
There are reliable fertilizer houses which will mix any combination
of fertilizer elements for an additional cost of $1 per ton over the
amount that the elements cost in their establishment. We have no
evidence that the pineapple fertilizer improves by being kept after it
has been mixed, nor is there any reason why each element should not
be added separately as the particular part may be needed by the grow-
ing plants. Above all other ordinary considerations the pineapple
grower should know the origin of each element in his fertilizer, and
the fertilizer house ought to be required to guarantee this before the
fertilizer is purchased, if one buys a prepared pineapple fertilizer. It
is much more important with the pineapple crop than with the truck
crops, and it is fully as important as in a tobacco or an orange crop.

FERTILIZER FORMULA.
The formula given below is thought to be such as will supply the
needed amounts of plant food to soil that is nearly destitute of the
principal forms-nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid.
The pineapple grower is the only one who is able to tell whether
his particular field needs more potash, more phosphoric acid, or
more nitrogen, and he can tell it only after definite experiments. The
following formula will be found useful:
Per cent.
Ammonia.------......-----..........----------------------------------------- 4
Potash .........-..--------.......-------------------.-------.........----------------..................... 6
Phosphoric acid.....------..--.....-......---------------------------------------- 1
Use about 1,000 pounds per acre of the above formula for the first
application, after the plants have'been set out and'are well rooted.
Use about 1,500 pounds for the second application, iand then determine
from results whether to increase the amount for the third application
or not. These figures and formula are approximate only and may
not be equally good for any two fields or for any two lands of the
same field.














AMOUNTS OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZERS.
The following statement shows the amounts of different fertilizers
that should be used for an acre:
As source of ammonia-
500 pounds blood and bone, or
200 pounds dried blood, or
150 pounds nitrate of soda, or
400 pounds cotton-seed meal, or
120 pounds sulphate of ammonia.
As source of potash-
350 pounds carbonate of potash, or
250 pounds low-grade sulphate of potash, or
120 pounds high-grade sulphate of potash, or
120 pounds muriate of potash.
As source of phosphoric acid-
120 'pounds bone meal, or
120 pounds guano (bird dung), or
120 pounds dried fish scraps.
If blood and bone be used as a source, of ammonia the bone will
doubtless supply a sufficient amount of phosphoric acid.
If cotton-seed meal be used as a source of ammonia there seems to be
no good reason for adding any substance to secure more phosphoric
acid; that is, cotton-seed meal and a potash seem to form a complete
fertilizer for pineapples.
If guano or fish scraps be used as a source of phosphoric acid the
amount of ammonia-furnishing substance should be decreased by one-
third.
From the experiments completed the indications are that the amounts
named in the foregoing table are approximately what is needed on an
acre of a good quality of spruce-pine land. The substances thought to
be best are named first under each fertilizer element.
HOMEMADE FERTILIZERS.
These usually include the manure from domestic animals and the
decayed mass from straw or other organic matter that has been col-
lected for other purposes than that of the manure or fertilizer produced.
At times this vegetable and animal matter is collected on purpose for
the rotten material that it will produce. This material is sometimes
mixed or composted with commercial fertilizers to give to the material
the elements needed for plant food.
This kind of fertilizer is excellent for pineapples, but the supply is
so limited that it is scarcely worth considering. When homemade
fertilizers are used the vegetable matter should be thoroughly rotted
before it is applied.
Eelgrass and seaweeds generally give good results especially if used
in a well-decomposed state. In most cases, however, the'tdvwatagea












from the use of these marine plants is not commensurate with the cost
and trouble of applying.
MULCHING.
Most funit crops take kindly to a good coating of mulch, and the
pineapple is no exception to this rule. After the first crop has been
gathered most of the old foliage dies and makes a covering for the
soil. The leaves of the old plant do not die until the young plants
that have started from them have exhausted the old plants. By the
time the second crop of fruit is maturing the leaves of the plants that
produced the first crop form a considerable mulching. To this will be
added from year to year the leaves and stems of the plants that have
produced a crop. In the course of five or six years this makes a con-
siderable covering over the ground or humic addition to the soil.
Any protection of the soil from the direct rays of the sun is a benefit,
but a mulching adds to the soil a small quantity of organic matter.
The beneficial effect of this is very striking.
The application of organic matter for the purpose of mulching is
the exception. Mulching material is both difficult to obtain and haz-
ardous to use. The danger from fire is so great that no one would
wish to apply it on a large scale. In some instances fires destroyed so
many plants that less than half the area burned over could be set out
with the remaining plants. The cases referred to were in fields where
no mulch had been applied, but the fire caught in dead plants.

THE LAND.
The places where this crop grows seem to be the most unlikely ones
for jthe cultivation of any fruit or vegetable. This is doubtless the
reason for so many surprises in pineapple propagation. Its native
haunts appear to be in the shade of dry forests in some of the tropical
countries of America. Its near relatives live in moist atmospheres
but in dry locations, in such places as on tree trunks and boughs, and
at the feet of trees.
Clearing.-One of the first requisites of the land is that it should
have a free circulation of water. The soil may become thoroughly
soaked, but it must not be filled with stagnant water. Such land has,
as a rule, very little heavy timber upon it, and so does not prove diffi-
cult to clear thoroughly, and when once cleared it does not send up
many suckers.
The first work of clearing is to remove all large trees and shrubbery,
digging them out by the roots, or at least cutting the roots deep
enough under ground so they will not be struck by plows or other
implements. The stumps of the larger pine trees, especially if they
are over 10 inches in diameter, are usually left. It does not pay to
remove these unless more abundant than usual, and in three or four













years they will be rotten and the pines will have spread over the place
previously occupied by the stump. So much of the cultivation and
other operations is by hand that not much interference with the work
results. After the grubbing has been done and all visible obstacles,
excepting the large stumps mentioned, have been piled up they are
burned. This clears the field of nearly every vestige of wood or other
material that would obstruct work in the field. The land is then plowed
deeply and carefully, and the plowing locates any roots or stumps that
may have been missed in the first work, especially the roots and under-
ground stems of many vines, such as the china briar (Smilax sp.),
gopher apple (Chrysobalanus), and perennial herbaceous plants that
happen to be dormant at the time of clearing. The large quantity of
this material taken out at this time is burned when sufficiently dry or
when convenient. If the pineapple soil contains much vegetable matter,
which is an unusual thing, it is better to remove the trash from the
pineapple field before burning it. Usually there is nothing in the
pineapple soil that can be damaged. Finally, the land is raked over
with a wooden hand rake to take off the last vestige of trash or ash
piles that might prove an obstruction.
The cost of clearing pineapple land varies with the character and
amount of growth. Poor pineapple land has been cleared for as little
as $8 to $20 an acre and land with a heavy mixed growth may cost for
clearing as much as $80 per acre. The average land will cost some-
where between these figures for clearing. Where the land is rocky
in addition to the native vegetation the cost of clearing is greatly
increased and may amount to as much as $200 per acre.
On the Keys.-The method of clearing on the Keys is very different
from that on the mainland. Here is a coralline-rock foundation with
little or no soil upon it, so that plowing and grubbing are impracticable.
The pineapple grower therefore cuts the vegetation during the grow-
ing season, and when it is thoroughly dry it is set on fire. This burns
all the cut material and destroys most of the remaining vegetation.
While this method of clearing is very simple and primitive it is the
only one practicable. There being only a small amount of vegetable
matter or soil present the field becomes exhausted soon. The land is
then thrown out to be reclaimed by nature and a new field is cleared,
which in turn is thrown out when it becomes exhausted. This proc-
ess can not be continued indefinitely, since the area of the Keys is
limited.
LAYING OFF THE LAND.
After the field has been thoroughly cleared it is laid off into lands
of widths to suit the purposes of the planter. A favorite distance,
where the field is extensive, is to lay the lands off about 60 feet wide.
This leaves a distance of about 30 feet for the man who breaks the














fruit to toss it to the man in the pathway-one side of a land being
picked over at a time.
The lands are laid off in varying checks, favorite distances being 18
by 18 to 22 by 22 inches for the smaller varieties, 22 by 22 to 30 by 30
inches for the medium sized, and from 30 by 30 to 48 by 48 inches for
the largest varieties, or the distance between the rows may be greater
than that between the plants in the row. A favorite distance for Red
Spanish is 18 by 22. Smooth Cayennes are often planted 20 by 30
inches apart.
The method of planting in beds about 15 feet wide under sheds
has been practiced for a considerable time and is gaining in favor.
This allows the laborers to use the shuffle hoe without going between
the plants, and also to apply the fertilizer by merely stepping among
the plants of the first two rows. It is always necessary to exercise
the greatest care in order to avoid breaking the leaves.
On the Keys the laying off of lands is impracticable, but plants must
be set wherever there is room and enough soil.
When the planter has determined the size of his lands and the dis-
tance between the plants in the row and the distance between the
rows, the rows and checks are laid off either by hand or by a horse
marker. It is not worth the while to exercise great care to have the
rows exactly straight nor the plants placed at mathematical distances,
as in twelve months one field will look as well as another. If the soil
be somewhat firm the rows may be opened with a small plow. Various
other methods are adopted to meet the needs of the individual field.
In planting under sheds the lands, or beds, are laid off so as to leave
the roads and ways free from posts, the beds being made as wide as
the greatest distance between the posts, with the rows of posts running
down the middle of the beds. The location of the roads will depend
upon the needs of the individual sheds.

PLANTING.
Suckers are planted for the main crop of the common varieties.
Slips and crowns take too long to mature a crop to be utilized except-
ing when suckers are not to be obtained. Well-matured suckers will
produce a crop in fourteen to eighteen months from time of setting
out.
It is desirable to strip off the lower leaves of the suckers and to
trim the butt end as shown in fig. 1. Not to strip off these leaves
gives a tendency to "tangleroot." After cutting the end off square, the
leaves may be stripped off until the newly formed roots are visible.
(See illustration 6, fig. 1.)
The sucker should be set 3 to 5 inches deep, according to size, care
being taken not to set it so deep that sand can be easily blown into
the bud. Many planters prefer to clip off the ends of thi leaves to

















keep the wind from blowing the plants over. This is not necessary
except in exposed fields and should be avoided if practicable.
Crowns are not utilized extensively for planting because they are
shipped with the fruit and it requires a year longer for them than for
suckers to come into bearing. In the vicinity of canneries they might
be used, but as a rule they are not worth the cost of saving. They
are set out just as suckers are, but there is less danger from sanding
and from being blown over.
Slips are usually so small that they are used only in the higher-
priced varieties, or when plants are scarce. They are treated very
much as the sucker, but need much more attention and care. They
can not be set more than 2 to 4 inches deep, and even then there is
danger of their sanding or being blown over. It usually takes slips a
year longer to mature a crop than it does well-matured suckers,
though large slips planted at the right time may mature a crop in
twenty months.












a b
FIG. 1. a, pineapple sucker trimmed ready to set; b, base of a properly trimmed sucker. (After H. J.
Webber, Y. B. U. S. Dept. Agr., 1895, p. 279. Fig. 65.)

Seed is used only for experimental purposes, like originating new
varieties. It is said to take these ten or twelve years to mature a
crop.
Time of planting.-Plants may be set out at any time during the year,
but the favorite time is during the fall after the suckers have made a
good growth and are somewhat hardened off. If set at this time of
the year they will make considerable growth during the fall months
and early winter. If set at the beginning of winter a considerable per
cent may be lost from various causes.
If there should be suckers fit to set out during the spring the pine-
apple grower should not permit any avoidable disturbance at that
time, because it is the time of fruiting, when the plants need every
advantage possible to produce the finest fruit. Practically the time
for setting out pineapple suckers is limited to the season from July to
November, and in a more limited way to the 1st of February.















CULTIVATION.
In the sandy region of south Florida very little attention is directed
toward the matter of cultivating after the field has been set out. This
is by no means due to indifference or carelessness, but rather to the
result of years of experience. Many different types of labor-saving
implements have been used and nearly all possible ones have been
tried, but under the present condition of labor and profit iii the culti-
vation of this crop there will be very little change in the matter of
cultivation, simply because the present methods are the best under the
existing conditions.
Cultivation as it is now practiced consists in agitating the surface of
the soil to the depth of about an inch with a shuffle hoe three or four
times a year. Some planters hoe the pines as often as once a month.
The roots of the plants do not penetrate the soil deeply. The soil is
made up of so large a per cent of sand that it can not bake or form a
hard crust. While the hoeing would conserve the moisture to some
extent, it does not have so beneficial an effect as on clay soil.
As there are comparatively few weeds, they can be easily kept in
subjection by pulling them up.
On the Keys nothing in the way of cultivation can be practiced.
The attention given the crop there is restricted to cutting off such
large weeds and woody plants as happen to spring up.
In Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands a different class
of soil is utilized for producing pineapples, and more attention must
be given to the cultivation of this crop. In all of these sections pine-
apple growing is still undeveloped, and consequently the cultivation
varied and often indifferent. In Jamaica implements that might be
called plows are used as ordinary cultivators. This method should
reduce the cost of production to some extent, but cultivation is not
the heavy item of expense.
Avoid breaking the leaves.-During the growing season the leaves of
the pineapple plant are very easily broken. The peculiar and com-
plicated structure of the pineapple leaf makes it very resistant to
drought, but if the epidermis is broken it soon loses moisture to an
excessive extent, and damage to the plant results. Whatever imple-
ments are used or whatever operations are performed in the field,
special care must be exercised to avoid breaking leaves.

IRRIGATION.
Whether irrigation is profitable or not must be determined on each
plantation and by each individual grower. Where the rains are well
distributed and abundant there may not be sufficient advantage from
the application of water during a short drought to compensate for the
cost of an irrigating plant. Where the grower has gone to the expense














of erecting sheds it will doubtless pay to have a supply of water also.
Irrigating plants provided with spray nozzle and standpipes have been
used, but it is doubtful if this extra expense is compensated for. The
direct application of the water to the soil will doubtless prove just as
efficacious.
In the pineapple district of Florida droughts are liable to occur
between the time of blooming and ripening. Sometimes they are of a
month or six weeks' duration, with a total rainfall of less than an
inch. The serious effects of a drought at such a time are very great.
These effects are here shown by a concrete illustration: An acre of
Red Spanish plants that would produce 4,800 pineapples, 24's, would
make a crop of 200 crates and would sell for $650, or at the rate of
$'.. ':, per crate. The same fruit would not do better than to make 30's
if a long drought had occurred, and would sell for only $3 per crate, or
the whole crop of 160 crates for only $480. Thus, while there would
be a shrinkage of only 20 per cent in the number of crates, there
would be a shrinkage of over 26 per cent in the returns from the
markets.
CANNING.
Canned pineapple has long been known as an article of commerce..
Most of the pineapples canned are foreign-raised fruit, being imported
fresh or canned abroad and then imported, but mostly the former.
In this form pineapples are known in nearly all of the cities and towns
in the United States.
For general market.-Large canneries use from 25,000 to 50,000
pineapples per day. This means about 500 crates, or more than a car-
load a day, to run a canning factory of the size of some in the British
West Indies. The peeling and slicing are performed on benches or
tables. The men in Nassau canneries receive about 50 cents a day,
the women about 25 cents, and the children about 12J cents. In Porto
Rico and Hawaii it may be practicable to establish canning factories
for a large output, but in Florida, where labor is scarce at $1 to $1.25
a day during the pineapple season, it can scarcely be considered
opportune on an extensive scale at present. Smaller factories that
put up other fruit during the year would doubtless be able to take
care of a smaller amount of the overripe pineapples.
The process of canning is not complicated, and is practically the
same as for other fruit. Of course, experience is necessary to suc-
cessful work. The fruit is peeled and sliced, put into cans, and the
sirup added. The cans are then soldered and immersed in the steam
cooking or sterilizing vat. After removal from the vat the cans are
perforated to allow the steam to escape, and then the perforation is
sealed and the contents allowed to cool. The size of the cans and the
concentration of the sirup depend upon the market that is to be sup-
















plied. Two conditions-plenty of cheap labor and plenty of cheap
pineapples-are necessary to successful pineapple canning.
For home use.-The pineapple is easily canned for home use. The
peeling is removed carefully, the fruit quartered or sliced, and the
core taken out. The cans, preferably glass jars, are filled with sec-
tions and boiling sirup poured on to fill the jars. These are then set
into a kettle of boiling water for fifteen or twenty minutes, then they
are removed from the kettle, and the cap, which, with the rubber, has
been sterilized, screwed on.
Another way is to prepare as before and boil in sirup for fifteen or
twenty minutes, then fill into scalded glass jars and put the sterilized
rubber and screw-cap on as before. This is more easily done than the
former way, but there is more danger of introducing live germs.
For flavoring.-For thfs purpose the pineapples are secured as fully
ripe as practicable. The peeling and slicing is done much as for can-
ning. The sections are then ground and put up in cans or jars of suit-
able size. Just as little cooking as possible is done when the fruit is
intended for flavoring. To avoid sterilizing by means of heat, pre-
servatives of various kinds are used to preserve ground fruit. For the
cheaper trade, such as the soda-water fountains in villages, this ground
fruit is put up in small tins holding about half a pound. For the
larger trade it is put up in larger cans, and for the best trade in glass
jars. This method of putting up fruit for flavoring is reprehensible,
and even small quantities of the preservative such as may be consumed
with each glass of soda water are likely to produce bad effects, especi-
ally on children and invalids. Even healthy persons would probably
suffer certain injury if small quantities of this preservative were con-
sumed by them daily for any considerable length of time. The fruit
to be used for flavoring may also be prepared by treating the ground-
fruit in 'the same way as the sliced fruit. This has the disadvantage
of losing a part of the flavor, but more of the product may be used
and thus avoid the bad effects or the chances of ill effects of the pre-
servative used.
For medicinal purposes.-It is well known that this fruit contains an
active principle called "ananasine," which possesses active digestive
properties. Advantage has been taken of this fact in the manufacture
of pineapple digester and in separating the active principle for medi-
cinal purposes.
TO PREPARE FOR TABLE USE.
While canned pineapple may be used when the fresh fruit can not
be obtained, it is only an inferior substitute. To secure the full benefit
of this fruit it should be allowed to ripen fully, preferably on the plant.
No matter how daintily a pineapple is served it is not quite equal in
flavor to the dead-ripe fruit just picked from the plant and eaten out
of hand.















Sliced.-With a large knife remove all the peeling, being careful to
remove the last bit of the eyes that may remain. Any part of the
peel is liable to prove quite acrid. The crown may be used as a part
to hold the fruit by, or it may be removed and the fruit held by the
use of a carving fork. Beginning at the base of the fruit, slice off
whole segments three-quarters of an inch or an inch thick. Sprinkle
each segment with sugar to give the desired sweetness. After the
entire fruit has been sliced and treated with sugar set aside for twelve
hours. At the end of this time considerable pineapple sirup will have
formed in the fruit dish and the flavor and palatableness will have been
improved greatly, especially if it has been standing in a refrigerator.
A good pineapple should be so tender that it can be eaten with an
ordinary fruit spoon.
Dug-out.-For this purpose select a large pineapple. Cut the base
off square and take the crown out. Then with a thin-bladed, sharp
kitchen knife cut around just under the peel, so as to remove the
entire meat and leave the peel intact. Cut or shred the meat into
suitable shape for use and sprinkle thoroughly with sugar. Set the
cylinder made by the peel on a large plate, right end upward. Put
the prepared pineapple into this cylinder and place the crown in posi-
tion until ready to serve. This makes a very pretty ornament on the
dinner table, as it looks like a whole pineapple. To serve, the crown
is taken off and the prepared pineapple taken out with a fruit ladle or
a large fruit fork. Only large fruits can be used in this way, and they
must be used soon after being prepared, or else the sugar should be
withheld until the fruit is served.
Shredded.-Prepare the fruit in the same way as for slicing and then,
by means of a carving fork or other strong fork, begin at the base
and pull off the meat from the core. This leaves the fruit in a more
palatable condition than when it is cut into small pieces. Treat and
serve in the same way as in case of sliced pineapple.
To flavor other fruit.-Some fruits when put up to keep lack char-
acter or special flavor. A small amount of pineapple prepared with
them imparts a flavor and tartness that is pleasing. This is especially
true of oriental pears and quinces.

DISEASES, INSECTS, AND INJURIES.
Under this head are included manifestations of untoward conditions
that are usually recognized in the pineapple field, and whose causes
are more or less obscure. This includes ravages of insects and insect-
like animals, and also those conditions whose agent or cause is at
present not known. In studying the literature for diseases of the
pineapple one is surprised by the limited number of insects and fungi
that attack this species. Saccardo's Sylloge Fungorum records only
four species of fungi as attacking species of the genus Ananas, to















which the pineapple belongs. Insect Life appears to mention only
one insect that attacks this plant.
The reason for this immunity is not altogether clear. It may be
accounted for, in part, at least, by the fact that the plant has but
recently been introduced on an extensive scale into field cultivation.
To this may be added the fact that the plant is radically different from
any other in cultivation, so that insect migration or fungous infection
from other crops is greatly reduced. Ordinary insect and fungous
pests are not adapted to live on pineapples.
On the whole. it is best not to take care of diseased pineapples, but
to discard them and start with vigorous plants. It will be more
profitable in the end.
BLIGHT; WILTS.

This disease manifests itself by a change in the color of the leaves,
beginning at the tips and extending gradually downward. The tips
of the leaves wither and dry up. Usually this blight begins with one
or a few plants, and gradually the extent of the area is increased.
Cause.-According to Mr. Webber, a root-inhabiting Fusarium-like
fungus seems to be the cause of the disease. This would account for
the progress of the disease in the individual plant and its gradual
spreading from one plant to another adjoining. It seems to attack
all varieties of pineapples, but the fancy kinds are attacked the most.
Remedy.-The disease being due to a fungus that lives in the soil, it
is impracticable to use the ordinary fungicides for remedial purposes.
These, especially Bordeaux mixture, have been used with no apparent
beneficial effect. So far as fungicides are concerned they must be
considered as of little or no value in connection with this disease of
the pineapples.
' It has been recommended to take up the affected plants and cut off
all the lower portion of the stem until no more black or dark root
ends are visible, which seems to indicate that all diseased portions
have been cut off; then strip off the leaves as for setting out and reset
the plants. This seems to be the only method known that will save
diseased plants, and this will not pay for any but the higher-priced
varieties.
The usual method of treating a blighted spot is to remove all the
plants affected and also some plants beyond those that show blight,
then fertilize the spot thoroughly and set out to vigorous suckers.
There does not seem to be much danger from this disease holding over
if all of the affected plants have been removed. It is well, however,
to remove a circle of plants beyond those showing the blight, since
some plants in this adjacent area may be infected and not show it.
Such a plant would become a new focus for dissemination.















FRUIT MOLD.
Dr. Halsted, of the New Jersey Experiment Station, has found that
rotting of pineapple fruits was brought about by a mold known as
Chalara paradoxac (de Sey.) Sac. While it is not probable that this is
the only one of the molds that will cause rotting of the fruit, it is quite
probable that the ordinary rots of apple and peaches do not cause rot-
ting in pineapples.
Remedy.-Exercise all reasonable care not to bruise the fruit nor
break the peel. Before packing, the fruit shouldbe allowed to become
thoroughly dry, especially the broken end of the stem. This usually
occurs in the field between the time of breaking and hauling it to the
shed.
All refuse fruit should be removed daily from the packing house
and its vicinity and the surroundings be kept entirely free from any-
thing of that kind. The refuse pineapples, crowns, leaves, and waste
matter generally are propagating places for various molds, the spores
of which are liable to be carried to the fruit and wrapped with it
ready to induce decay on the first favorable occasion.
MEALY BUGS.
Apparently more than one species of this genus feeds upon the
pineapple. These bugs attack the plants at the base of the leaves,
usually uinderir.'- und. This insect is so generally distributed in the
pineapple section that the full damage it does is not appreciated. At
times it becomes so severe that the infested plants show a distinct dis-
eased condition.
Besides attackiuLn the leaves, the fruit is also attacked, especially
among the slips and in the eyes.
Remedy.-It is generally supposed that ants distribute the insects
and the eggs, but this does not account for their appearance in new
fields. As it is probable that they are introduce. : with the plants,
special care should be exercised to secure plants free from this pest.
Plants that are suspected as being infested should be discarded or
dipped into a spraying solution of resin wash or kerosene emulsion.
In the field these remedies have not proved of sufficient effectiveness to
warrant their use. Some good can be done, however, in the field by
applying a handful of tobacco dust directly in the bud, if this be done
before the bloom begins to appear. This destroys some of the mealy
bugs and their eggs and it does the plant good in the way of a fer-
tilizer. For preparation of resin wash and kerosene emulsion see
Farmers' Bulletin No. 127, by C. L. Mlariatt.
RED SPIDER (Stigmeaus floridanus Bks.)
This spider mite inhabits the base of the leaves below the green por-
tion. While the pests are present often by the hundreds, they are so














small that the amount of food they take from the plant must be
regarded as insignificant. The individual specimen is barely visible to
the average unaided eye. The damage is brought about, however, by
their opening a way through the epidermis for the entrance of rot
fungi. To discover the presence of this mite, pull out one of the outer
leaves of a suspected plant and brownish areas will be observed if the
mite be present (see fig. 2). After the mite has attacked the plants for
some time the leaves rot off at the base, the mites having migrated to
fresh leaves, followed in turn by the rot, until all the leaves of the
plant have been cut off and the plant practically killed.
Remedy.-The remedy for this is so simple and effective that this pest
is no longer a serious enemy. An application of tobacco dust in the
bud is usually effective. If one appli-
cation fails to kill all the red spiders, a
second application in two weeks rarely
I I falls to complete the destruction.
I 1|o PINEAPPLE SCALE.
This insect (Diaspis bromelim) is trou-
blesome in the drier districts, but rarely
'does much damage in Florida. It has
been found repeatedly on plants im-
ported from Hawaii, and has been dis-
S. seminated to many parts of Florida, but
has not become troublesome excepting
S, in a few places and in some greenhouses.
Remedy.-Dip plants as for mealy bug
/ or, if present in the field, spray with
resin wash or kerosene emulsion, using
only so much as is necessary to cover
the insects. (See mealy bug, p. 39.)
FiG. 2.-Base of a pineapple leaf show- SPIKE; LONGLEAF.
ing the effect of the red spider's work.
(After Webber, Y. B. U. S. Dept. Agr., These terms are applied to a peculiar
1895, p. 282, fig. 67.) growth of the plant, in which the leaves
grow long and narrow and the edges are inclined to roll in. In severe
cases the leaves stand nearly erect and remain so much rolled up that
the new leaves have no chance to unfold. In addition the leaves are
apt to be rigid. The roots are few, but appear to be normal,
Plants badly affected with spike do not grow out of it. They rarely
produce any fruit, and that not of a marketable quality. The disease
is transmitted to the suckers or other plants produced by spiky
parents. In severe cases no reproduction occurs, but the plant
lingers for two or three years and then dies.



.1















Catse.-No organism seems to be connected with this disease. It
seems to be due to a peculiar condition of soil or fertilizer. A large
percentage of plants set on shell mounds or soil that has much shell in
in it are subject to spike. They are also subject to spike if planted
over a rotting root or buried stump. Spots in fields where large piles
of wood have been burned and the ashes not scattered are also likely
to grow spiky plants.
Among the fertilizers which will produce spiky plants are acid
phosphate, kainit, sulphate of ammonia, and cotton-seed meal. In
fertilizer experiments carried out by the writer and referred to before
. it was found that nearly all the plants in plots fertilized with combi-
nations of the above-named fertilizers became spiky in less than two
years. It is probable that any one of the above-named fertilizers
might'be used in other combinations and .in small quantities without
bad effect. Cotton-seed meal has been used for years on certain fields
with no bad effects, but such fields were not destitute of other ele-
ments necessary for the use of the plants. Sulphate of ammonia has
been used in combination with other fertilizers with apparently good
effect. Acid phosphate and kainit produced more or less spike in
over three-fourths of their combinations.
Remedy.-There is no practical remedy for this condition and the-
only escape is to avoid it. All spiky plants should be destroyed, so
as to prevent any pr.-ilbilivy of transplanting any suckers with a spiky
tendency.
Avoid planting on shell soil.
If plants show any tendency to become spiky the greatest care
should be exercised in the use of fertilizers. A liberal application
may be made of bone meal, blood and bone, or dried blood, which
seem to be the best forms of ammonia. The potash should be applied
with some degree of caution; carbonate and low-grade sulphate are
believed to be the best forms. Frequent working with a shuffle hoe
seems to be advantageous in a spiky field. Plants showing a tendency
to grow spiky should be treated promptly.

SANDING.
Newly set pineapple plants are somewhat slow in beginning to grow,
especially if a dry spell follows immediately after they are trans-
planted. During this time the wind is liable to fill the buds with sand
and it seems to have a smothering effect. Subsequent rains beat it in
harder and aggravate the matter. If the plants be set a little too deep
the sand is liable to wash into the bud and then to fo-rm the same kind
of a plug.
Remedy.-Sanded plants are difficult to handle successfully. Some
pineapple growers have used hand bellows to blow the dry sand out,













and others have washed the sand out by means of a jet from a spray
pump. But these are slow and aggravating methods, and it is better
to avoid the trouble than to remedy it after it has occurred, although
sanding occurs at times in spite of extra vigilance. .
To prevent sand from getting into the bud fill the bud with a mix-
ture of cotton-seed meal and tobacco dust. This will form a solid
cake and as the new leaves grow out the plug is lifted and no harm
done to the plants. As the dews and rains dissolve the plant food it
is carried into the soil and the tobacco dust furnishes insecticide as
well as plant food. Mix about one part of tobacco dust to four or
five parts of cotton-seed meal.
Large suckers planted on the level are in no danger of becoming
sanded, but it will pay to make a similar application to them.
RIPLEY SPIKE; GOING BLIND.
Mr. Webber describes this disease as follows: "The diseased slips
and suckers, which appear perfectly healthy at first, grow vigorously
for a time, but finally throw out one or two rolled-up thickened leaves
from the apex, which grow out to considerable length, but retain their
thickened and rolled-up character. All growth of the plant now ceases
and it suckers from below as if it had fruited. In some plantations this
disease of the Ripley Queen affects nearly one-third of the plants and
thus it becomes a very serious malady if this variety is to be grown."
(Rept. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1896, p. 894.)
Remedy.-Mr. Webber's experience with the disease leads him to
believe that the disease is transmitted and that suckers from blind"
plants produce 63 per cent of diseased plants, while suckers from healthy
plants, but from the same plantation, produced only 4 per cent of
diseased plants. (Yearbook, U. S. Dept. Agr., 1898, p. 375.) There-
fore, avoid planting suckers from plants that have gone blind."

TANGLEROOT.
This disease will be understood by referring to figure 3. The upper
and younger roots have wound tightly around the upper portion of
the stem. In the figure the lower leaves have been removed to show
this condition. The cause' for this peculiar distortion is not well
understood.
BLACKHEART.
This disease manifests itself by the heart of the fruit taking on a
water-soaked appearance and finally turning dark. The fruit usually
becomes worthless before the water-soaked appearance has involved
the entire meat.
Cause.-The cause of the disease is not known, though what appears
to be the same condition occurs in Queensland, Jamaica, and the
United States.
















When the disease comes to notice the fruit should be consumed
as soon as possible. No attempt should be made to send it to any
but the nearest markets. There appears to have been more trouble
with blackheart during the
winter season and during rainy ,
weather than in the summer and \\ .
during dry weather. .'

PINEAPPLE SHEDS. \ .
As early as 1886 Mr. William 2
Saunders (Report of Depart-
ment of Agriculture, 1886, page
691) reported the use of a sort
of a protection built on posts in
the form of an elevated plat-
form and covered with palm
(palmetto) leaves to protect
pineapples against cold. It was
later discovered that the pine-
apples grown in partial shade
were more tender and juicy -
than those grown in the open.
The desire to protect this plant
from the winter's cold seems to '
have been the origin of our ,
present pineapple sheds, though
the protecting of pineapples by '
sheds has now extended to the
region where there is little dan-
ger of freezing. The value of
the half-shade condition in im-
proving the quality of the fruit FIG. 3.-Tangleroot. (After Webber, Y. .,U.S.Dept.
P i Agr., 1895, p. 280, fig. 61.)
is now so generally recognized
that this is the important consideration by many for building
sheds.
This is not surprising when we remember that the pineapple plant
does best in those places that have a mean annual temperature of about
750, with the smallest annual variation, the islands of the tropics being
their favorite habitat.
These sheds not only prevent extremes in temperature but also an
excessive evaporation; and, as Prof. Milton Whitney has shown, sheds
increase the amount of soil moisture during a drought. As this way
of growing conserves the soil moisture, it in a way replaces irrigation,
but the two go together to produce the finest types of fruit every year.















That land which never suffers from drought is apt to be too wet during
a rainy season, and there are very few fields that would not be bene-
fited every year by judicious application of water.
The cost of a shed prohibits its profitable use for the lower grades. I
Common or small fruits will doubtless continue to be produced stead-
ily in the open field for many years. The average man will consider
it a better investment to put out 5 acres in the open than to put out 1
acre under shed, as the two investments are approximately the same.
It will be best to continue to produce a large amount of common fruit
as cheaply as practicable for the bulk of the market and some fine fruit
for those who have the money and the inclination to pay for it.
Cost of shed.-The expense of erecting a shed will vary with the
location and the cost of the material and the labor. The maximum
cost should not exceed $600 per acre and it seems impracticable to erect


















FIG. 4.-Pineapple shed built of boards and planks, showing road at left, ways in foreground running
at right angles to road. (After Webber, Y. B., U. S. Dept. Agr., 1895, p. 270, fig. 62).

a substantial shed for less than $325 per acre, even under the most
favorable circumstances.
The methods of building the sheds vary about as much as the
material at command will permit. All agree, however, in leaving as
much space between individual pieces of the covering material as that
material is wide, thus allowing one-half of the sun's rays to pass
through. This is done merely because this happens to be an easy
way of constructing the cover. The cover should not be less than 6f
feet from the ground and it is preferable to have about 7 feet in the
clear. If plastering laths are used the cover may be 6 inches lower
than when boards are used. (See fig. 4.)
















The following statement gives approximately the amount of lumber
needed for building a lath-covered shed for about an acre:
398 posts (368 for top, 30 extra for sides) 4 inches by 4 inches by 8 feet.
: 204 pieces (160 for top, 44 for two sides) 11 inches by 1 inches by 20 feet.
900 pieces (840 for top, 60 for two sides) 1 inches by 1 inches by 15 feet.
80,000 laths (75,000 for top, 5,000 for sides) J inch by 1 inch by 4 feet.
The above amounts to about 7,000 feet of lumber, exclusive of the
laths. All material must be free from knots and of first grade. The
amount of lumber can be still further reduced by using galvanized
wire instead of the 1l inch by 11 inch by 15 feet pieces, and weaving
the laths in this, as in case of building a fence of the same material.
It does not seem practicable to make any further reduction in the
amount of lumber used and still have a shed that will withstand the
elements for a number of years. In the above shed the posts are set
9-1 feet by 14 feet apart, and the material covers a trifle over an acre
in a square form.
The following bill of lumber will cover an acre in the square form,
giving a shed similar to the one illustrated in fig. 4.
463 posts 4 inches by 4 inches by 9 feet.
266 stringers 2 inches by 6 inches by 16 feet.
5,900 boards 1 inch by 3 inches by 16 feet for cover.
450 boards 1 inch by 12 inches by 16 feet for sides.
This gives a total of slightly less than 35,000 feet of lumber. The
posts are set 7T feet by 15 feet apart. If the stringers are to be braced,
as indicated in fig. 4, it will take 196 pieces (2 inches by 4 inches by
16 feet) more. The cross stringers (shown in fig. 4) are omitted.
The boards used for cover hold the line of posts in place firmly, and
by cutting a notch in the top of the post to rest the 2 by 6 inch
stringers it will be held in place. So far as the strength of the lumber
is concerned, the posts might be set 10 by 20 feet apart, but this dis-
tance gives considerable annoyance from the warping of the covering
material.
The'cost of erecting a shed varies with the type of shed put up and
the ability of the superintendent. The labor will cost about $25, and
the incidental expenses will be a few dollars for such things as locks,
hinges, tools, etc., not including the cost of the nails or wire.

TREES FOR SHADE.
This side of the protection question has not received the earnest
attention that it deserves. The writer has seen repeatedly the benefi-
cial effect from the presence of cabbage palmettoes. They not only
seem to protect the pineapple plants from the cold of winter, but to be
an advantage to the crop in the summer. Hard-wood trees that have a
deep taproot frequently grow in the midst of a pineapple plot without
















any apparent bad effect and with considerable protecting influence.
It is not probable that such conditions would continue indefinitely,
since the fertilizer applied to the pineapple plants would sooner or
later draw some of the feeding roots of the tree to the surface, and
thus divert the fertilizer applied for the use of the pineapple plants.
Besides the fertilizer taken from the soil, the trees absorb more or less
moisture, which would be of some detriment to the crop during a dry
season, at least.
That trees and shrubs have a bad effect upon pineapples under cer-
tain conditions can not be denied. Pineapple plants set out alongside
of a strip of woods show the bad effect very soon, but this difficulty
may be remedied by digging a trench between the native growth and
the pineapple plants. This cuts off the feeding roots of the trees and
keeps them from taking the plant food and the moisture from the field
crop.
Mr. 0. F. Cook, in Bulletin No. 25, Division of Botany, United
States Department of Agriculture, brings forth very strong arguments
for the belief that the good effect produced by planting trees in coffee
plantations is to be accounted for by the fact that nitrogen-gathering
trees, such as belong to the order Leguminosme, add fertility to the
soil rather than by the direct effect of shade upon the coffee plant.
The writer has seen pineapples growing under royal ponciana trees
without bad effect upon the pineapple plants. That shade is desirable
for the production of the best fruit of pineapples seems to be well
established. If in addition such trees as the rain. tree, the royal pon-
ciana, etc., can add sufficient nitrogen to the soil, it will greatly reduce
the cost of producing the finer grades of this fruit. The building of -J
sheds is the greatest expense, and, aside from plants, the cost of ferti-
lizer the next most important consideration. If, therefore, a shade
can be produced by the use of leguminous trees, as the rain tree or the
royal ponciana, and they at the same time supply the amount of
nitrogen needed, it will greatly reduce the cost of producing the finer
varieties of pineapples. BY-PRODUCTS
BY-PRODUCTS.
The industry of raising the fruit for market is so remunerative that
no earnest attention has been given by the pineapple growers to the
use of the by-products.
Some attention has been paid to the preparation of extract for fla-'
voring and for medicinal purposes, but this was not for the purpose
of using up a waste product, but for the direct profit of selling the
extract. The pineapple digester, mentioned on a former page, is an
indication of some of the uses to which the -uiplus fruit may be put
if there should occur an oversupply.
Marmalade.-Small fruits and ill-shaped and defective specimens
may be prepared and worked up into marmalades, or what is some-















times called "preserves." For preparing and preserving in this man-
ner see discussion under the head of Canning."
Pineapple fiber.-The plant after maturing a fruit gives rise to one
or more suckers and later in the season dies to become a waste
in the field. In this form it is of very little use except that it forms
a slight covering as a mulch. During the dry season it may even
become a source of danger from accidental fires.
The following quotation in regard to pineapple fiber is taken from
Mr. C. R. Dodge's paper in the Report of the Secretary of Agriculture
for 1893, page 581:
Experiments with the fiber were only preliminary, but as far as they went were
most satisfactory. The fiber yields readily to machine manipulation and comes out
white and clean without washing by simply drying in the sun after being extracted.
The desideratum is an economical means of extracting the fiber, and as there are
over 20,000 leaves to the ton it will be seen at the outset that the economical machine
will be one that takes quite a quantity of leaves at a feeding. 'The machine used by
the Department at Cocoanut Grove was inadequate from the commercial standpoint,
as only a few leaves could be extracted at a feeding. It produced almost perfect
fiber, however, and enabled us to attain the object of the investigation, viz, the
determination of the quality and yield, although without regard to cost.
There are said to be about 60 pounds of fiber in a ton of green leaves-
about double the amount in a ton of green ramie stalks. The fiber
has many qualities that give it superior merit, and it will doubtless be
used some day in the textile industry.


O






























With the Compliments of

the writer













Notes on Citrus Investigation in Florida.

By P. H. Rolfs,
Florida Experiment Station.

I. COMMISSION TO FIX A CHEMICAL STANDARD FOR THE DETER-
MINATION OF MATURITY OF CITRUS FRUITS.
During the year 1911, the Florida legislature, in its biennial
session, passed a law prohibiting the sale and transportation
of immature citrus fruits. In a general way this law has been
spoken of as the "green fruit law." Proper penalties and
methods of procedure, as is common in such cases, were apor-
tion of the enactment. The session of the legislature occurred
during April and May. At that time there was, of course, no
immature citrus fruit in Florida which was at all likely to be
shipped, consequently when this law came up before the legis-
lature no one in the state seemed to be particularly interested
in amending it or changing it in any way.
During May of that year the Florida Horticultural Society
was assembled in annual session at Jacksonville. The ques-
tion came up on the floor of the Horticultural Society as to
what stand the organization would take in reference to the
"green fruit law." The matter was discussed to some extent
on the floor but there seemed to be no particular enthusiasm
against the passage of the law, everybody taking for granted
that it would be a good thing to have a law that would pro-
hibit the transportation and sale of immature citrus fruit.
A resolution endorsing the proposed law was overwhelmingly
carried, and the action of the Society immediately telegraphed
to the legislature as a further means of helping along the pas-
sage or the green fruit bill.

THE CARRYING-OUT OF THE LAW.
Between the time of the passage of the law and the time that
the fruit was maturing on the trees almost nothing was heard
in regard to this new law, but when the fruit began to mature
in the fall and the earlier varieties were arriving at the point
where they were about three-quarters grown, some interest
29










30 STANDARD FOR MATURITY OF CITRUS FRUITS.

was manifested as to what would be the effect of the law; and
before the earlier varieties were really mature the agitation
and discussion rose to about fever heat, the Florida Citrus
Exchange being arrayed on the side of enforcing the "green
fruit law" and a portion of the independent shippers arrayed
on the side of ignoring or setting it aside.
At this juncture a very natural condition became apparent,
demonstrating how human nature plays an important part
in the regulation of commerce and in the regulation of human
action. It was impossible to find anybody in the state who
was not in favor of enforcing the "green fruit law" so long as
it regulated the shipment of the other man's fruit, but when
it came to one's own premises he immediately became the
only authority on the question as to what was immature fruit,
and if anyone differed as to opinion he was immediately
assigned to membership in the Ananias Club. This difference
in opinion led to a considerable amount of acrimonious dis-
cussion in the papers, and was promptly followed by litigation,
shipments of fruit being held up and the owners thereof cited
to court, fined, and naturally appealing their cases, thus
staying the execution of the law.
When it came to the matter of- enforcing this "green fruit
law" it soon became apparent that nowhere in law books,
court procedure, text-books or scientific works could be found
the definition of what was immature fruit. Consequently
the courts seemed somewhat powerless in deciding this ques-
tion, and juries likewise had no great predilection for estab-
lishing a line of demarkation between maturity and imma-
turity.
THE STANDARDIZING COMMISSION.
In July of 1912, Commissioner of Agriculture M,:iric
appointed certain persons of scientific standing as a commis-
sion to meet and formulate a definition for mature citrus fruit,
or to point out the line of demarcation between mature and
immature citrus fruit. This commission consisted of Pro-
fessor H. H. Hume, president of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society; State Chemist R. E. Rose; Dr. E. R. Flint,
professor of chemistry at the State University; Prof. S. E.
Collison, chemist to the experiment station; and P. H. Rolfs,
Director of the experiment station.










STANDARD FOR MATURITY OF CITRUS FRUITS.


Immediately upon appointment the various members of the
commission consulted literature on this subject, and brought
together all the technical information that could be obtained.
In addition to the published literature on the subject, the
commission had before it sixty-two analyses of oranges made
by a private laboratory in Philadelphia and two hundred and
eighteen analyses of oranges made by chemists in Baltimore.
After holding two meetings and discussing the matter fully,
the commission made a report to Commissioner of Agricul-
ture McRae as to its findings. The report had the unanimous
approval of the members of the commission. As it was very
brief I will give the findings.
"First. All round oranges showing a field test of 1.25 per
cent or more of acid, calculated as citric acid, shall be con-
sidered as immature.
"Second. Provided, however, that if the grower (or shipper)
consider the fruit mature he shall have the right to appeal
from the field test to the State Chemist for a chemical analysis.
and if this chemical analysis shows that the p'.r:Jin(.t:_- by
weight of the total sugar, as invert sugar, be seven times or
more than the weight of the total acid as citric acid, the fruit
shall be deemed mature.
"Third. That the juices of not less than 5 average oranges
shall be mixed, from which a composite sample shall be drawn
for the field test.
"Fourth. That the juices of not less than 12 average
oranges shall be mixed, from which shall be drawn a composite
sample for laboratory analysis."
After securing these findings by the technical men compos-
ing the commission, a convention of growers was called, who
met in Gainesville, August 15, to receive .this report. Pre-
vious to the meeting of the citrus growers it had been gener-
ally held by those who wished to have a high standard that
the ratio of acid to sugar should be one to seven. The com-
mission, therefore, introduced somewhat of a novelty in the
report when they found that citrus fruit may be considered
mature at any time when the amount of citric acid present
in the juice is less than 1.25 per cent. The citrus growers
were ready to accept the findings of the commission, but made
some amendments to the report of the commission The










32 CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.

following two brief amendments were made, which to some
extent changed the findings of the commission, but did not
materially alter them.
First amendment. "Resolved, that it is the sense of this Con-
venton that the report of the Commission shall be adopted,
and shall obtain until the 5th day of November in each and
every year; provided, that after the 5th day of November in
each and every year the standard shall be 'that if each orange
is two-thirds its total area colored yellow, it shall be con-
sidered as mature and fit for shipment.'"
Second amendment. "That no variety of oranges or grape-
fruit shall be allowed to be shipped before October 1 of
each year that has bloomed during that calendar year."
This, it seems to me, makes a somewhat unique departure
from the general way of determining when fruit is mature.
I think it is the only time when a state has actually made a
chemical standard the basis for determining the maturity of
any fruit.
II. CONTROL OF SCALE INSECTS AND WHITEFLY BY
PARASITIC FUNGI.
The question of control of insects by means of natural ene-
mies has received much attention, at times attaining to what
we might call notoriety. In America the matter has been
given probably more serious and systematic study than any-
where else in the world; at least this would seem to be the case
from a study of the literature.
Among the workers along this line may be mentioned
Doctors Snow, Forbes, and Burrill. Much work has been done
by each of these men, but for want of time and opportunity
the follow-up work could not be continued, and consequently
much of the good. has been lost.
In Florida the climatic conditions -*'*,,m especially favorable
to the use of such methods for the control of gregarious insects,
especially those belonging to the families Coccidme and Aley-
rodide. Insects that lead a more solitary life do not lay
themselves open to vulnerable attacks to the same degree as
insects that are inclined to be gregarious and live a stationary
existence during a portion of their life cycle.
The period of this work in Florida began in about 1894,
when Doctor Webber discovered a parasitic Aschersonia of the










CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.


whitefly Aleyrodes. About the same time the writer dis-
covered a fungus Sphcrostilbe coccophila, parasitic upon San
Jose scale. This discovery was not accidental but was the
result .of giving a considerable amount of time and study to
determine the cause of a natural mortality among San Jos6
scale. The observations were published, and were .received
with an unusual amount of incredulity.
FUNGI WIDELY USED IN FLORIDA.
Ni'li-.L else in the world have fungi been so widely and
successfully used for the control of insect pests as in Florida.
I have already called attention to the fact that climatic condi-
tions are especially favorable to the spread of insect diseases.
Peculiarly enough, the particular forms of insects which are
most advantageously controlled in this way are very abun-
danmt in the state. The species are numerous and the indi-
viduals belonging to the species are likely to be present in
excessive numbers when conditions are favorable to their
health,
The rainy season occurs in the summer time when the tem-
perature is highest, pi',.luiiin an atmosphere that may be
likened to the air in a moist chamber. The condition of
growth of the trees is likewise such as to produce an abundance
of shade and further reduce the evaporation that-would occur
from radiation. With the intense sunlight comes abundant
development of foliage. The sunlight, however, does not
become so severe as to be a deterrent to the development of
foliar spread. Under these natural conditions the introduc-
tion and dissemination of fungi become an easy matter com-
pared with the conditions in regions where the atmosphere
may be dry during the warm portion of the year or cold
during the moist portion.
These natural conditions being present and favorable to the
growth of fungi, the experiment station has encouraged so far
as possible the development of private enterprise for the dis-
semination of scale and whitefly diseases. During the spring
and summer of 1909 one man alone with his helpers treated
127,'000 citrus trees with Aschersonia spores to produce dis-
eases aimoig whitefly. This work was done under contract
at two cents per tree treated. This, compared with spraying









34 CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.

with insecticides, was a very light cost, since spraying the
same trees with insecticides would have cost about twenty-five
cents per tree. During 1910-11 we do not have the record as
to the number of trees treated, but it would go up into the
millions.
The introduction of fungi for scale insects is carried on in
a somewhat different way from the introduction of the fungi
against whitefly. Diseased scales are introduced into healthy
colonies. This can be most easily accomplished by trans-
ferring sprigs or pieces of branches upon which diseased scales
occur. Placing these in contact or nearly so with the healthy
scale readily transfers the disease, while rains, dews and other
conditions do the rest.
Naturally in the introduction of diseases there is an oppor-
tune and an inopportune time at which to do the work. Under
advantageous climatic conditions little difficulty is inexperi-
enced; under adverse climatic conditions the work has to be
repeated. The experiment station has carefully worked out
the details connected with the successful introduction of the
various fungi. At times rather long periods occur when the
fungi are not readily introduced, or there may be other condi-
tions existing in the grove which militate against the rapid
spread of the insect diseases. During such periods it becomes
important to use the ordinary artificial remedial measures.
As these details, together with the names of different species
of fungi, as well as the names of the species of host insects,
occur in the experiment station bulletins, I will not burden
my hearers with reciting them here.

REASONS FOR FAILURES.
The most important and serious reason for failures with our
work has been lack of scientific knowledge as to what condi-
tions were favorable and what were unfavorable for the rapid
development of diseases among the insects. There is no
difficulty in securing the infections, though often in this line
the beginner has more or less trouble. After studying the
question for a decade and a half or more, and doing so in a
technical and systematic way, many facts have been brought
together. These can now be so formulated that the average
layman can make use of the information. Many times, how-









CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.


ever, it is difficult for the non-technical man to understand
that the processes must be carried out exactly as directed by
the scientific man. The layman will not understand why
some other method, some short cut, which apparently accom-
plishes the same work, will not do just as well.
Another reason for the lack of popularity is the fact that
zealous people have over-advertised this method of controlling
pests. This is not so likely to be the case with the scientist,
since he is likely to under-advertise his discoveries, but the
popularizer of scientific material is likely to induce the layman
to believe that all lie has to do is to introduce the fungus
spores and then go away and leave them, and the fungus will
do the rest. These same persons would not be likely to advo-
cate that it was possible to raise a citrus grove by simply sow-
ing a few orange seeds here and there in our pine-woods or
hammock, yet their imagination leads them to believe that
this kind of careless work will be all right with the "invisible."
Under the old methods when the difficulties of securing a
large infection were not well understood, it frequently hap-
pened that the introduction of the fungi gave negative results,
and this naturally led to condemning the method.
OPPOSITION TO THE METHOD.
At first glance it would seem as though it was ridiculous
to talk about there being any opposition to this method of
handling agricultural pests. However, the scientist needs
but to start in the field and he will find that there is real live
opposition to it.
The advance agent of the spray manufacturer at once sees
that when scale insects are eliminated from the grove by
natural means his sales of spraying machinery must neces-
sarly be reduced. Consequently he makes it his business to
repeat and re-repeat all the stories of failures and supposed
failures. It is not unusual to find a layman who considers the
introduction of fungus diseases a failure long before the infec,
tion has had time to kill off the first lot of insects that were
infected, and long before the fungi have had time to fruit and
make secondary or tertiary infection.
Along with the spraying-machine man comes also the
manufacturer of insecticides and his agents. Their businesses










36 CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.

necessarily interfered with as soon as the natural methods for
the control of scale insects are advocated; and since the profits,
especially on the proprietary brands of insecticides, are quite
considerable, they naturally believe that handsome stories
must be told to keep up the popularity of their particular
brand.
Singularly enough, from -a source entirely unexpected,
opposition comes from old-line entomologists. For the most
part these men have been trained in regions where climatic
conditions are not favorable to the introduction and spread of
fungus diseases of insects. The literature has been pretty
thoroughly reviewed by them and studies made of the situa-
tion, their deductions being based on experiments and work
done under conditions quite different from those occurring in
Florida and to some extent along the rest of the Gulf Coast.
These entomologists, as a rule, come into the field in a scep-
tical state of mine, if not indeed in a prejudiced one, and not
infrequently miss the point altogether by their want of famili-
arity with the fungus side of their question.
Under the conditions it has been necessary for the experi-
ment station, practically single-handed, to disseminate the
information and to establish this method of handling scale
insects and whitefly. Like all other methods of handling
these pests it must be used with discretion and with knowl-
edge. There are conditions under which the method will
succeed only indifferently and where the artificial methods of
control should be used.










Full Text










PINEAPPLE GROWING.


INTRODUCTION.
SThe aim of this bulletin is to give a concise statement of the general
operations connected with the production of pineapples in the field
and on a large scale. The literature on this subject is limited and
scattered through a score or more publications, thus putting it out of
the reach of the man engaged in growing pineapples in the field.
A few pages of this bulletin are devoted to diseases, canning, and
similar closely related topics.
No attempt is made to give information in regard to the growing of
pineapples in glasshouses. Such information would be of little value
to the people who grow this crop out-of-doors, as the method is so
radically different that it should have a separate treatise.
Importance of the fruit.-The flavor of the pineapple is so agreeable
that no one has to acquire a taste for it.
The time at which the main crop in the United States ripens has
something to do with its popularity, as it comes into the market after
the strawberry has become somewhat common and before the main
shipping season for peaches. There are pineapples on the market the
entire year, but those sold at other times than during the main-crop
season are so high priced that the average man can not afford this
luxury. The main shipping season is from the middle of April to the
middle of July.
The area.-A considerable area in the United States is adapted to the
cultivation of this fruit, and with the increased demand for it there
can be no doubt that this will be greatly extended. The State of
Florida doubtless contains the largest tract of pineapple land in one
body. Southern California has some land that will produce pineapples
profitably. All of Porto Rico and the Hawaiian Islands are free from
frost, but the soil and climate are not uniformly adapted to the pro-
duction of this crop. In the Philippines there is more land adapted
to the production of pineapples than will be utilized for several gen-
erations. Mr. H. J. Webber estimated that Florida produced 3,000,000
pineapples in 1895, and the production has increased largely since that
time. The Hawaiian Islands exported $14,423.17 worth of this fruit
in 1897, according to the statement of Mr. Walter Maxwell. Much of
this fruit was sent to California









fruit to toss it .to the man in the pathway-one side of a land being
picked over at a time.
The lands are laid off in varying checks, favorite distances being 18
by 18 to 22 by 22 inches for the smaller varieties, 22 by 22 to 30 by 30
inches for the medium sized, and from 30 by 30 to 48 by 48 inches for
the largest varieties, or the distance between the rows may be greater
than that between the plants in the row. A favorite distance.for Red
Spanish is 18 by 22. Smooth Cayennes are often planted 20 by 30
inches apart.
The method of planting in beds about 15 feet wide under sheds
has been practiced for a. considerable time and is gaining in favor.
Thisallows the laborers.to use the,shtffle hoe without.. going between
the..plants, and also to apply the fertilizer by merely stepping among
the plants of. the first two rows.- It -is always necessary to.exercise
the greatest.care in order to avoid breaking the leaves.
On the Keys the laying off of lands is impracticable, but,plants must
be set wherever there is room and enough soiL.
.When _the planter has determined the-size of his.'ands and.the dis-
tance between the plants in the row and the distance between the
rows, the rows.and checks are laid off,.either by h,:nd,or by.a horse
marker. It is not worth. the.while to exercise-great care to have the
rows exactly straight nor the plants placed at. mathematical distances,
as in twelve months one field will look as well as another. If the soil
be somewhat firm the.rows may be opened with a small plow. Various
other methods are adopted to meet the needs of. the individual field.,
In planting under sheds the lands, or beds, are laid off so as to leave
the roads and ways -free from posts, the beds being.made as wide as
the greatest distance between the posts, with the rows of posts running
down the.middle of the beds. The location of the roads will depend
npon.the needs of, the individual-sheds.

PLANTING.
Suckers are planted for the main crop of the common varieties.
Slips and crowns take too long to mature a crop to be utilized except-
ing when suckers'are nbt to be obtained. Well-matured suckers will
produce a crop in fourteen to eighteen' tonth's from time of setting
out.
It is desirable to strip off the lower leaves of the suckers aid to
trim the butt end as shown in fig. 1. Not to strip off these leaves
givesa tendency to "tangleroot." After cutting the end off square, the
leaves may be stripped off until the newly formed roots are visible.
(See illustration 6, fig. 1.)
The sucker should be set 3 to 5 inches deep, according to size, care
being taken not to set it so deep that sand can be easily blown into
the bud. Many planters prefer to clip off the ends of the leaves to









30 STANDARD FOR MATURITY OF CITRUS FRUITS..


Swas manifested as t.o what would be the effect of the law; and
before the earlier varieties were really mature the agitation
and discussion rose to about fever heat, the Florida Citrus
Exchange being arrayed on the side of enforcing the "green
fruit law" and a portion of the independent shippers arrayed
on the side of ignoring or setting it aside.
At this juncture a very natural condition became apparent,
demonstrating how human nature plays an important part.
in the regulation of commerce and in the regulation of human
action. It was impossible to find anybody in the state who
Swas not. in favor of enforcing the "green fruit law" so long as
it. regulated the shipment of the other man's fruit, but when
it. came to one's own premises he immediately became-the
only authority on the question as to what was imnmature fruit,
and if anyone differed as to opinion he was immediately
assigned to membership in the Ananias Club. This difference
in opinion led to a considerable amount of acrimonious dis-
cussion in the papers, and was promptly followed by litigation,
shipments of fruit being held up and the owners thereof cited
to court, fined, and naturally appealing their ca-es, thus
staying the execution of the law. '- -
When it came to the matter of-enforcing this "green fruit
law" it soon became apparent that nowhere in law books,
court procedure, text-books or scientific works could be found
the definition of what was immature fruit. Consequently
the courts seemed somewhat powerless in deciding this ques-
tion, and juries likewise had no great predilection for estab-
lishing a line of demarkation between maturity and imma-
turity.
S THE STANDARDIZING COMMISSION.
In July of 1912, Conunissioner of Agriculture MIcRae
appointed certain persons of scientific standing as a commis-
sion to meet and formulate a definition for mature citrus fruit,
or to point out the line of demarcation between mature and
immature citrus fruit.. This commission consisted of Pro-
fessor H. H. Hume, president of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society; State Chemist R. E. Rose; Dr. E. R. Flint,
professor of chemistry at. the State University; Prof. S. E.
Collison, chemist to the experiment station; and P. H. Rolfs,
SDirector of the experiment station.








. Carbonate of potash.-This form of potash is not on the marketexten.
sively, but is one of the best forms for pineapples-. It contains about
18 per cent of potash. ,
Low-grade sulphate of potash.-This fertilizer is also called the double
potash salts, being a sulphate of potash and of magnesia. In addition
to the beneficial effects derived from the potash contained in it., the
magnesium sulphate is supposed to have some beneficial effect upon
this crop. The amount of potash present varies from 22 to 26 per
cent. As the price of the potash salts is fixed by the amount of potash
present, it may be advantageous to buy this form to secure the
advantages of having the magnesium sulphate present.
High-grade sulphate of potash.-This substance is composed almost
entirely of the sulphate of potash, and usually contains more than 95
per cent of sulphate of potash, or nearly 50 per cent of potash. From
the standpoint of bulk this Would be considered a more economical
fertilizer than any of the foregoing,, having almost no, waste product
to handle. Its reputation among pineapple growers is good.
Muriate of potash.-This salt is known to the chemist, and to some
extent to the pineapple grower, as potassium chloride. It contains
nearly 50 per cent of potash, an'd so is a fairly pure substance. As a
potash fertilizer it is well thought of by many growers; by some it is
believed that the pineapples grown on land fertilized with it are tender
and "bleed" easily.
Ashes.-Various forms of ashes are offered for sale in the markets.
They have no value, as a rule, beyond their potash content. They are
sometimes used for insecticidal purposes, but. can not be recommended
for that purpose. They may be obtained from cotton-seed hulls, hard
wood, saw palmetto, and other sources. The potash content of the
cottonseed-hull ashes is fairly constant, but that of the bard wood and
saw palmetto are exceedingly variable. Cottonseed-hull ashes may
contain as high as 20 per cent of potash, but that of hard wood will not
average much over 8 or 9 per cent. Ashes are unudubtedly good fer-
tilizers for pineapples, but their reputation has been greatly damaged
by large quantities of poor or worthless ones being placed on the market.
,Any one desiring to use ashes as a fertilizer should secure a guaranty
from a reliable source that the particular shipment that he expects to
buy has not been leached and that it contains a certain quantity of
carbonate of potash.
PHOSPHORIC ACID.
The amount of phosphoric acid needed by the pineapple plant for,
its fruit seems to be only one-tenth as much as the amount of potash.
If cotton-seed meal is used as a source of nitrogen it will supply nearly
as much phosphoric acid as seems to be needed, judging from a chem-
ical analysis of the fruit.




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DISSEMINATION IEID 'EI45LG6FD_OOTS14' PACKAGE 'AA00000206_00092' INGEST_TIME '2013-10-08T17:49:14-04:00'
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
DISSEMINATION_REQUEST NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2013-10-14T14:51:19-04:00' NOTE 'request id: 296370; See rt ticket 21470. FDA to get rid of schema warnings' AGENT 'Stephen'
finished' '2013-10-16T09:40:00-04:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
FILES
FILE SIZE '144136' DFID 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file0' ORIGIN 'DEPOSITOR' PATH 'sip-filesAA00000206_00092.xml'
MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' ae49878159563000151fa1c87472d75e
'SHA-1' ab04d17951619336fe5e822bb84ee3a9016a1691
EVENT '2013-10-08T17:33:33-04:00' OUTCOME 'success'
PROCEDURE describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:53-04:00'
virus check
'2013-10-16T09:27:00-04:00'
xml resolution
'5638588' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file1' 'sip-files00001.tif'
50ab6455611abf4690dcdf3e4f3e2258
d78b6f235e4d0a77c8118d6fdb42ddef20e8c561
'2013-10-08T17:32:37-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:55-04:00'
virus check
'5695704' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file10' 'sip-files00005.tif'
0c0bf13d5a5d7d1c1d3ef18ad42105ef
e34b6050d87b8286a955d92124d02eaf18b7b606
'2013-10-08T17:32:16-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:30-04:00'
virus check
'25497264' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file100' 'sip-files00050.tif'
b6e01f4eb0bf364f06aedc7760098d4d
e4aab378b49b162f076d76449759167a546a9606
'2013-10-08T17:30:36-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:10-04:00'
virus check
'25397836' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file101' 'sip-files00051.tif'
5249e7d30ac648ce7a6d57f7181848ac
1d205f7fd2a0db6a25fd25e5889b0521b04508e2
'2013-10-08T17:30:13-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:47-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file102'
5249e7d30ac648ce7a6d57f7181848ac
1d205f7fd2a0db6a25fd25e5889b0521b04508e2
'2013-10-08T17:31:35-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:34-04:00'
virus check
'24453628' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file103' 'sip-files00052.tif'
625940b32518df6d3b9f81947ff12904
7bef6d59020b787a74c39d77b2c00c52d1f8d8f7
'2013-10-08T17:33:41-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:04-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file104'
625940b32518df6d3b9f81947ff12904
7bef6d59020b787a74c39d77b2c00c52d1f8d8f7
'2013-10-08T17:30:57-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:42-04:00'
virus check
'25622668' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file105' 'sip-files00053.tif'
b7a6dfa1fa8c933aeacaf076b6923b3f
808e3e8eadce0003a9d743331fac0c20d045e452
'2013-10-08T17:30:51-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:31-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file106'
b7a6dfa1fa8c933aeacaf076b6923b3f
808e3e8eadce0003a9d743331fac0c20d045e452
'2013-10-08T17:33:13-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:36-04:00'
virus check
'25108024' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file107' 'sip-files00054.tif'
03f4ecb19722eabc462e193b2d927497
b54086edb41cef7743854d19254ffbd827773282
'2013-10-08T17:34:11-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:39-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file108'
03f4ecb19722eabc462e193b2d927497
b54086edb41cef7743854d19254ffbd827773282
'2013-10-08T17:33:50-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:15-04:00'
virus check
'22870808' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file109' 'sip-files00055.tif'
f58a933e92cf5165bc2354d4fb4f3132
f316b09993370d654bd397431cd16197c8a7c9c7
'2013-10-08T17:33:08-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:29-04:00'
virus check
'5873924' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file11' 'sip-files00006.tif'
4022aad97c6f4a98589d2f5d59601f1c
a37dc5ccf864bfbcefb3636eb2febcfb2effe52c
'2013-10-08T17:32:54-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:14-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file110'
f58a933e92cf5165bc2354d4fb4f3132
f316b09993370d654bd397431cd16197c8a7c9c7
'2013-10-08T17:31:50-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:55-04:00'
virus check
'23313536' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file111' 'sip-files00056.tif'
2a0e839a5e46a0cbd585e5cc0db003ac
23b541e099a45ae67b7a3a679a272b53e73f62fd
'2013-10-08T17:33:42-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:05-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file112'
2a0e839a5e46a0cbd585e5cc0db003ac
23b541e099a45ae67b7a3a679a272b53e73f62fd
'2013-10-08T17:30:29-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:01-04:00'
virus check
'24297160' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file113' 'sip-files00057.tif'
73292ff762524daccb31bda5e2feb680
38f849933722955ad86c3c7a06e197964c9f6338
'2013-10-08T17:30:08-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:41-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file114'
73292ff762524daccb31bda5e2feb680
38f849933722955ad86c3c7a06e197964c9f6338
'2013-10-08T17:33:58-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:24-04:00'
virus check
'25426600' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file115' 'sip-files00058.tif'
0f7262e5650091df5a20027419454bbb
7279818c6df00a84aef061d054de4b7f7c7cd448
'2013-10-08T17:33:32-04:00'
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file116'
0f7262e5650091df5a20027419454bbb
7279818c6df00a84aef061d054de4b7f7c7cd448
'2013-10-08T17:33:55-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:20-04:00'
virus check
'23454064' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file117' 'sip-files00059.tif'
59c1ee5463bbb53e4b7abdee2e07265d
6b8b98e15c0c738c123485d63b8d28c511436155
'2013-10-08T17:32:05-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:17-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file118'
59c1ee5463bbb53e4b7abdee2e07265d
6b8b98e15c0c738c123485d63b8d28c511436155
'2013-10-08T17:30:12-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:45-04:00'
virus check
'23825984' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file119' 'sip-files00060.tif'
927e6ea4e412d49dee134d45c64dd802
b45b5dec5cb7c91f80e27fe94ec4aba0f5e23799
'2013-10-08T17:32:01-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:12-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file12'
4022aad97c6f4a98589d2f5d59601f1c
a37dc5ccf864bfbcefb3636eb2febcfb2effe52c
'2013-10-08T17:34:14-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:42-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file120'
927e6ea4e412d49dee134d45c64dd802
b45b5dec5cb7c91f80e27fe94ec4aba0f5e23799
'2013-10-08T17:34:07-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:34-04:00'
virus check
'24768504' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file121' 'sip-files00061.tif'
fc5cc5d680d7c86adacc8b6664d90273
24e889c9045faf25640e9b36e6196c8cd065f586
'2013-10-08T17:33:43-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:07-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file122'
fc5cc5d680d7c86adacc8b6664d90273
24e889c9045faf25640e9b36e6196c8cd065f586
'2013-10-08T17:33:29-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:48-04:00'
virus check
'24701936' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file123' 'sip-files00062.tif'
f08f3f4dcc4638ddb89a71ee15f37fe0
cd46551a67f1f7ab61939cc1c988eb4cd535efef
'2013-10-08T17:31:16-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:05-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file124'
f08f3f4dcc4638ddb89a71ee15f37fe0
cd46551a67f1f7ab61939cc1c988eb4cd535efef
'2013-10-08T17:31:27-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:19-04:00'
virus check
'23635956' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file125' 'sip-files00063.tif'
c4b5bf19e0bef3530bf3639f04d88ef0
f358c56cea0ede0ab03d17cfda57aa36cae8373e
'2013-10-08T17:31:26-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:17-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file126'
c4b5bf19e0bef3530bf3639f04d88ef0
f358c56cea0ede0ab03d17cfda57aa36cae8373e
'2013-10-08T17:30:39-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:15-04:00'
virus check
'24628820' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file127' 'sip-files00064.tif'
e4ad7eba6385139aca6f27684cb747ef
760b35c08ddd5a4a420d0bec389cc2e179abf4e1
'2013-10-08T17:30:31-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:04-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file128'
e4ad7eba6385139aca6f27684cb747ef
760b35c08ddd5a4a420d0bec389cc2e179abf4e1
'2013-10-08T17:32:13-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:27-04:00'
virus check
'14562272' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file129' 'sip-files00065.tif'
9ca5e3b995ae8bbf2dbc89ed0ee2db73
bb05f57b3b1d46f8bede5ce22e5ad9a886e19c12
'2013-10-08T17:32:07-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:19-04:00'
virus check
'5686056' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file13' 'sip-files00007.tif'
b418dee1e6a5bcbc5675c888f7271835
f0a7963d148ce57ea3ff557359473378f33f0e80
'2013-10-08T17:31:56-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:04-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file130'
9ca5e3b995ae8bbf2dbc89ed0ee2db73
bb05f57b3b1d46f8bede5ce22e5ad9a886e19c12
'2013-10-08T17:34:13-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:41-04:00'
virus check
'14215912' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file131' 'sip-files00066.tif'
a94370b9f7d0e6b19744de8c6eb760a4
2e8cb0cf9bd7cb3eb78e030d3ce10d2fcdebdc59
'2013-10-08T17:33:53-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:19-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file132'
a94370b9f7d0e6b19744de8c6eb760a4
2e8cb0cf9bd7cb3eb78e030d3ce10d2fcdebdc59
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:33-04:00'
virus check
'13501888' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file133' 'sip-files00067.tif'
dfa8c6d13ac807ec0c611e8f85df958f
cbfc38d60696143f9aadd7955565d73cf0bcacf5
'2013-10-08T17:30:25-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:57-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file134'
dfa8c6d13ac807ec0c611e8f85df958f
cbfc38d60696143f9aadd7955565d73cf0bcacf5
'2013-10-08T17:30:49-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:28-04:00'
virus check
'13720740' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file135' 'sip-files00068.tif'
7f879d9965b4bc78049267c3aa0992b8
cdb81ebbd7c3011b12672112cbd977f2e8eea2ed
'2013-10-08T17:34:12-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:40-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file136'
7f879d9965b4bc78049267c3aa0992b8
cdb81ebbd7c3011b12672112cbd977f2e8eea2ed
'2013-10-08T17:34:15-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:43-04:00'
virus check
'13356564' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file137' 'sip-files00069.tif'
01e95fc46f7e00e233cee490304fbae4
3fa57f08bd566c87942a27927ee6ff3adbe375af
'2013-10-08T17:32:49-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:08-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file138'
01e95fc46f7e00e233cee490304fbae4
3fa57f08bd566c87942a27927ee6ff3adbe375af
'2013-10-08T17:31:05-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:52-04:00'
virus check
'13505376' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file139' 'sip-files00070.tif'
27fdf2b05242c23587e8f387a0d9d892
cc8de497d2261f347d4bd2ea1063ad7c63eeb07c
'2013-10-08T17:31:41-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:43-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file14'
b418dee1e6a5bcbc5675c888f7271835
f0a7963d148ce57ea3ff557359473378f33f0e80
'2013-10-08T17:29:54-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:25-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file140'
27fdf2b05242c23587e8f387a0d9d892
cc8de497d2261f347d4bd2ea1063ad7c63eeb07c
'2013-10-08T17:33:59-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:25-04:00'
virus check
'13581964' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file141' 'sip-files00071.tif'
66cd2a9a732b00d710541ffacb1dde18
e8f17733836590e9f5f5f9ecfd534f6385ca42d4
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:18-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file142'
66cd2a9a732b00d710541ffacb1dde18
e8f17733836590e9f5f5f9ecfd534f6385ca42d4
describe
virus check
'13059716' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file143' 'sip-files00072.tif'
7bd1fc382e8a9c1e067bd11e24ea4235
bd0e486757b73713f8289dd338acbc4cd08de5fa
'2013-10-08T17:31:28-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:20-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file144'
7bd1fc382e8a9c1e067bd11e24ea4235
bd0e486757b73713f8289dd338acbc4cd08de5fa
'2013-10-08T17:29:53-04:00'
describe
virus check
'12966100' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file145' 'sip-files00073.tif'
8f370eb770867dea922f2d40565f0a6f
df9bc0527fc7c2da5fec528c1227fbcc3600f8bd
'2013-10-08T17:32:56-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:15-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file146'
8f370eb770867dea922f2d40565f0a6f
df9bc0527fc7c2da5fec528c1227fbcc3600f8bd
'2013-10-08T17:30:10-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:42-04:00'
virus check
'13461552' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file147' 'sip-files00074.tif'
bd4825d91796921fe9d684524342940c
2f37ab146869c9d40632564e96dd55e4f57d484f
'2013-10-08T17:31:00-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:45-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file148'
bd4825d91796921fe9d684524342940c
2f37ab146869c9d40632564e96dd55e4f57d484f
'2013-10-08T17:31:57-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:06-04:00'
virus check
'13510012' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file149' 'sip-files00074a.tif'
61d683dcb73acf59a69fe44e350bc3c1
703048464e85bb6633e4d15479457b7db15750ac
'2013-10-08T17:32:21-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:37-04:00'
virus check
'5789272' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file15' 'sip-files00008.tif'
7751ea11ebe933d49b0cb80e98dae430
c1579c6ae8b2699b8eeb82dbab59083dde3531e5
'2013-10-08T17:34:16-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:45-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file150'
61d683dcb73acf59a69fe44e350bc3c1
703048464e85bb6633e4d15479457b7db15750ac
'2013-10-08T17:32:19-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:36-04:00'
virus check
'14564864' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file151' 'sip-files00075.tif'
124332c33087065c76812dcc91a1453f
8e17847a1211dce56261e2b9a4de4ae79e449c30
'2013-10-08T17:33:06-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:28-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file152'
124332c33087065c76812dcc91a1453f
8e17847a1211dce56261e2b9a4de4ae79e449c30
'2013-10-08T17:33:44-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:08-04:00'
virus check
'234061' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file153' 'sip-files00001.jp2'
bc81e6341a90f3daf849079b6bfdf131
c04ad93fc8d551127d716f3fc8d090fce8023e98
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:34-04:00'
virus check
'244046' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file154' 'sip-files00002.jp2'
278a888f6e28b1db9c88d728e2c5cd46
f7f4e8d976534fa9299076ea1989c790763c0d85
'2013-10-08T17:33:16-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:38-04:00'
virus check
'235084' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file155' 'sip-files00003.jp2'
727ca9ebc3310f08c092cbd01d4209be
48385484ee3a94f0c5244a587442ca8106c300aa
'2013-10-08T17:30:32-04:00'
describe
virus check
'243664' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file156' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
918a712b56d921fd3ca73193f6d37848
6ea1a6909b1b1f97b970c44fcb122ada09c73f9e
'2013-10-08T17:31:02-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:47-04:00'
virus check
'236462' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file157' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
26fadcc1bda6001ee6a039c2788d2e7f
52d3453f5a49c53b7edc1ec19c594d089859ccac
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:07-04:00'
virus check
'244263' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file158' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
f646f451578c96cfd7858984cac85509
b249badeef41174cc9f6ff654f0e4ac98c233f25
'2013-10-08T17:32:23-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:40-04:00'
virus check
'236464' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file159' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
fbe30de0ed3c83746c2434873c97b794
8373e0ca4e2430b2709da4ccd69ed983f1176443
'2013-10-08T17:31:40-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:41-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file16'
7751ea11ebe933d49b0cb80e98dae430
c1579c6ae8b2699b8eeb82dbab59083dde3531e5
'2013-10-08T17:31:44-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:46-04:00'
virus check
'240735' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file160' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
e4daf619766910d90cc968d139e2f88e
db127d8534d17b4f80c8c4df2548dff447c8909a
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:46-04:00'
virus check
'232517' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file161' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
06b93c063eb554d52a7c3ae4dd0d9e15
49645d89652005847d3e335430078e000700798f
'2013-10-08T17:31:42-04:00'
describe
virus check
'242662' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file162' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
66daaf801f319408f87918cf54a13a4e
73da98e00c9f8b21704265d2d00ef5f7e6099ce9
'2013-10-08T17:30:44-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:21-04:00'
virus check
'234252' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file163' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
e655a0648dd9e8b1db3786b49e4251b8
3290e20ac3f5b8b39d2f9c87c1f0075f0f5fcb37
'2013-10-08T17:30:19-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:51-04:00'
virus check
'241370' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file164' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
ba7fe1f207499c25a7b65b95f925643b
f6f24a26f177c9ca50f106bae66e2c76bd5f0f33
describe
virus check
'232521' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file165' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
dc2d65c71bcd499e99b509623ae61205
8eeab3c3628930adbf8e9434461eb21ab307b07b
'2013-10-08T17:30:17-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:50-04:00'
virus check
'242710' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file166' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
20cc469e65000f4052c7c17ae05208b7
401893a288b250d415301b02f248ea3824ea20d2
'2013-10-08T17:30:01-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:34-04:00'
virus check
'234961' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file167' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
20352c7f81bd64f804ea9176dffb7121
a9f784b2fe6129d71b581a2273252ef6430531e9
'2013-10-08T17:34:02-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:28-04:00'
virus check
'240646' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file168' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
5ae23e083f0ac727c659c5c2d3a802cb
813e7fd98b44efeca4f8806e590968791893e408
'2013-10-08T17:34:00-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:26-04:00'
virus check
'1051679' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file169' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
5904d72e5d86ca7a8e0a41cecb2d4b3f
30da3375dff885232b061da92cbacae805ef7731
'2013-10-08T17:31:06-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:53-04:00'
virus check
'5604148' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file17' 'sip-files00009.tif'
2b8828eab0af71444dcb1c56de1b8748
2b21b75d6cc3c74d55906f41d570f2045c99f547
'2013-10-08T17:30:35-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:08-04:00'
virus check
'1012249' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file170' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
28fb491cecd0253d8ffffff704a3a596
1486d95dbb5588f59d9dce7d97b302b0629c8224
'2013-10-08T17:30:40-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:16-04:00'
virus check
'213498' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file171' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
ada65e0fffab587decacd9922eae5fd5
d8198f1be7536a9de68b453ab43e2f38e7ace122
'2013-10-08T17:29:52-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:23-04:00'
virus check
'1027474' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file172' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
4716d3030a57b9cbec5b875b6c166a5a
255dd68d98599346f4414444ff4d43b9859bc29e
'2013-10-08T17:31:59-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:08-04:00'
virus check
'984398' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file173' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
ca63b91d55fd910ee1b6de6516b3fc25
864d346906b7e43738bdae3d6dbaece1b92fb9ec
'2013-10-08T17:34:04-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:31-04:00'
virus check
'1048535' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file174' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
83132796c8ff937b312c07bb53939bd2
cef90ab1df657f3494f965c361bc627d2a46bde6
'2013-10-08T17:30:33-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:05-04:00'
virus check
'1023662' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file175' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
a738371cb8063210dacbc27d01df2589
c1b1cc56a2e56d62dde53e54042efe1b8f9d2a3a
'2013-10-08T17:33:25-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:43-04:00'
virus check
'1003528' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file176' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
45083f1ecf722c2bcef211b548d67408
e152b2fd6267c5361ccc89e14fd1d50ebe4a8911
'2013-10-08T17:31:03-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:48-04:00'
virus check
'1037079' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file177' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
175a08ab45232a69e331ad1b2f13874d
2852183b2e640361395365b8b478ca87447618e0
'2013-10-08T17:34:03-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:29-04:00'
virus check
'983682' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file178' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
84ead8352968258cbdd0142915b94ba1
d83a23c907dbc2a271846b42076262d97b096e4c
'2013-10-08T17:33:03-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:24-04:00'
virus check
'984458' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file179' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
c3201f4d6cebefa92abd5700831f764f
f97ab27253f49c1c5370f5c10c5fde7d3721d09a
'2013-10-08T17:32:34-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:52-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file18'
2b8828eab0af71444dcb1c56de1b8748
2b21b75d6cc3c74d55906f41d570f2045c99f547
'2013-10-08T17:34:06-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:32-04:00'
virus check
'1049884' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file180' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
70302edf145daed2a7908e16ac9861bd
8b3e856490791179212ebf949ca845eff5a62f1a
'2013-10-08T17:30:23-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:53-04:00'
virus check
'1016797' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file181' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
9e2b9b9a82a65339598085525abe41df
16680968282bbb97e920bc92415409c13b54f265
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:18-04:00'
virus check
'1029367' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file182' 'sip-files00030.jp2'
47875ec3919ecc993eb888eeedf58e8f
2fca51fba790d0a17d4432f56265039e34ceedd4
'2013-10-08T17:30:59-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:44-04:00'
virus check
'1038639' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file183' 'sip-files00031.jp2'
c36d4ac8a4e74b5691c0265cd86acbfc
bce0e72fb53e211f2a726572794efd2ccfd57f90
'2013-10-08T17:30:03-04:00'
describe
virus check
'1004336' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file184' 'sip-files00032.jp2'
a188fa502f2b8810786cf60ac8d4a9b1
34919ad57fc601358d65f1d1ada800f23edd152f
'2013-10-08T17:33:17-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:39-04:00'
virus check
'1000238' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file185' 'sip-files00033.jp2'
ff3ef5babdecabad744e2da001a7f47f
c6dffdf76f5ff3f75d5fef397834acc02588548e
'2013-10-08T17:30:48-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:27-04:00'
virus check
'1019684' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file186' 'sip-files00034.jp2'
80738bb027f934f3f376cb8d7dc850f1
c19d07a79f8850d2a464593a54d8edd0b8764ed2
describe
virus check
'1068993' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file187' 'sip-files00035.jp2'
5691321499145913e463a9bdace7aaf7
49a35005074f9d88dceee3fc6bd929071397989e
'2013-10-08T17:32:11-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:23-04:00'
virus check
'994845' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file188' 'sip-files00036.jp2'
fcd1fedb5f6654c63904a83b1ab0b03b
68dc87f969697bd0f4553fb86ee8aec00fb07170
describe
virus check
'1051939' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file189' 'sip-files00037.jp2'
f083d6883642a2d7ed0e3d043d050dec
23209aadbff82a0f017f0e23714afc21883a8e9d
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:35-04:00'
virus check
'5839912' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file19' 'sip-files00010.tif'
2cbf1b83f7649d1759cad33c7abbf6fa
2f3a1eda0585c13766d2930dae871a84f266c6eb
'2013-10-08T17:30:04-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:36-04:00'
virus check
'1040481' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file190' 'sip-files00038.jp2'
176038f4e09b793baaadbd40cac1fa0f
89fc558617f327f8cbc733102cf5101fa6e7103c
'2013-10-08T17:33:15-04:00'
describe
virus check
'1042860' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file191' 'sip-files00039.jp2'
0fffd3b9f37048eec43278d733937385
4f6889c22a0e00bfd7e16bd9c6a9593628622689
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:43-04:00'
virus check
'992782' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file192' 'sip-files00040.jp2'
7a5e6a73596bb5e8f49c39df83d344ea
e676418a2d9e23ac02459d2a3a2a04087bb43725
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:29-04:00'
virus check
'1049558' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file193' 'sip-files00041.jp2'
a03ea7a2f06da81111f6647b6c160e7e
2dabe012d34b7a9cf35c43be7093b494eb9a444c
'2013-10-08T17:32:53-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:12-04:00'
virus check
'1040045' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file194' 'sip-files00042.jp2'
8d452c648a8386db8bfcc0f6e0637327
9da4ed0b9819f8be6b05f4aab3094200613307b6
describe
virus check
'1036021' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file195' 'sip-files00043.jp2'
786f12bf5d31c161568e1f7975767a91
548281b03d54af0d451bcbd4822721e4e9bd353e
'2013-10-08T17:31:10-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:57-04:00'
virus check
'930511' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file196' 'sip-files00044.jp2'
c95ffc4f86b3ee1814819b054c537d8e
e519de2e197fecc1c565898556a21095004d3e96
describe
virus check
'1064365' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file197' 'sip-files00045.jp2'
de976c2aee42890de3fa0eac16de0323
2f78681266884e471639710b4dff165aa066dc82
'2013-10-08T17:29:51-04:00'
describe
virus check
'1029787' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file198' 'sip-files00046.jp2'
56c0973b245d4fd4f29a7d50470b43c4
52c4d9374de3882bf0f1336caeb124a00ee38c70
describe
virus check
'955986' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file199' 'sip-files00047.jp2'
e7fecf7e2f26de176ed0cc335d94eea6
293b4ffe06e92f734f39bd511ca3c2753f010e2c
'2013-10-08T17:32:51-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:11-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file2'
50ab6455611abf4690dcdf3e4f3e2258
d78b6f235e4d0a77c8118d6fdb42ddef20e8c561
'2013-10-08T17:31:19-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:08-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file20'
2cbf1b83f7649d1759cad33c7abbf6fa
2f3a1eda0585c13766d2930dae871a84f266c6eb
describe
virus check
'958616' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file200' 'sip-files00048.jp2'
c1dd9313784c4cc01a99a8afe63aba9f
de949230e62edff1ee22f3c5408c5594c9f7009b
'2013-10-08T17:32:48-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:07-04:00'
virus check
'1027814' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file201' 'sip-files00049.jp2'
81c28066aa6a26397655d2f24b801dba
0582d2b094e09a80e104e0d7aa3e0190667f0980
'2013-10-08T17:30:20-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:52-04:00'
virus check
'1061934' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file202' 'sip-files00050.jp2'
6db2b16a33f2b3413866fefcd2dbaf5f
e5a7cbfd3174b7e28744c1772c0db91b6121c7af
'2013-10-08T17:32:59-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:19-04:00'
virus check
'1057768' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file203' 'sip-files00051.jp2'
a24e6eddec0a87a09eb166331c40a0a7
e2033217922221f72447a135424e3ebb618f9461
describe
virus check
'1018449' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file204' 'sip-files00052.jp2'
aa742608df51d8ccd9921546dd0aaf75
1e6ce62da21a6c8e4f6836d0297a561f6947451d
'2013-10-08T17:30:18-04:00'
describe
virus check
'1067132' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file205' 'sip-files00053.jp2'
e01936799553793e7fef2d5ae1161a5e
f5410b11bf1008cc01d432adb653b98a0a7ab9d4
'2013-10-08T17:32:18-04:00'
describe
virus check
'1045678' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file206' 'sip-files00054.jp2'
a8301d42ee35775037d0185458774cbb
489a643b5a70c192b833e970854d9508baa0864e
describe
virus check
'952498' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file207' 'sip-files00055.jp2'
5e2186b3cdd5718252fa8bd6e7014f24
4e60b33a5a14fa041308482e1b23e81064895f62
'2013-10-08T17:33:38-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:01-04:00'
virus check
'970943' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file208' 'sip-files00056.jp2'
f4389b2633451837273f25a6704d5549
5ec899dd1cb277725ed77d5a4607ad2eeff87493
describe
virus check
'1011921' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file209' 'sip-files00057.jp2'
e44cabfe453990424fa1a7f24b312891
7fb94fd496a3accb4659ee1a5619bc6563d48c9f
'2013-10-08T17:32:30-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:48-04:00'
virus check
'5642668' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file21' 'sip-files00011.tif'
82fe8c31fb92e12a592806c01d24b860
696b4ae04ca6cd66593bd1a38a3cec1c8412de1a
'2013-10-08T17:30:56-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:40-04:00'
virus check
'1058988' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file210' 'sip-files00058.jp2'
223993c869596e042df05ba4323c5d30
8db7789567681b3fab1f378285ad6784afdf7463
describe
virus check
'976794' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file211' 'sip-files00059.jp2'
4a0b218c09750b8bc25986f19d06468a
d4b0aadc1676c5dde0350e54c07e66201f6ac733
describe
virus check
'992293' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file212' 'sip-files00060.jp2'
3a178cb96057a00fedadd68cda9bf7eb
b2f69517268e9f6525b872ebf896636ebf0348cc
'2013-10-08T17:31:55-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:03-04:00'
virus check
'1031401' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file213' 'sip-files00061.jp2'
1c0c9b20a5b3ffb308dad215036e384d
6811856a1bd99dd987e6baa311d3819d2705619d
'2013-10-08T17:31:49-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:53-04:00'
virus check
'1028800' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file214' 'sip-files00062.jp2'
ab0f98194b7b52ce13b886d2c8fd6c40
1f2988a53a67a08037f35e4a248203bfbc07dad8
'2013-10-08T17:33:20-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:42-04:00'
virus check
'984299' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file215' 'sip-files00063.jp2'
9f7b5eac40cf453cc8e257c2bba62450
7a044c2271010d525c700c7236d64f883790e575
describe
virus check
'1025745' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file216' 'sip-files00064.jp2'
3ef89904b04382de37f52c560d077159
0d61c7a8a2bcc9a0422cc6447d809d2f0d1dff46
'2013-10-08T17:32:43-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:03-04:00'
virus check
'605992' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file217' 'sip-files00065.jp2'
77cee7d3f6f2100965b7c02e724640b7
f5c6b105e9745dc96772602bbc754592cc57cb31
'2013-10-08T17:33:39-04:00'
describe
virus check
'591797' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file218' 'sip-files00066.jp2'
5a8946a9d57b62a3a602904bed789df1
bd917cd0b33bc73a5febbf01e58b3a040f3f43fd
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:43-04:00'
virus check
'561732' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file219' 'sip-files00067.jp2'
9f46fb6d0d6ed75377ac74b55996a701
3b3e6f30b1905b90fdad385261bdbbba0eb0daf3
'2013-10-08T17:32:38-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:57-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file22'
82fe8c31fb92e12a592806c01d24b860
696b4ae04ca6cd66593bd1a38a3cec1c8412de1a
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:37-04:00'
virus check
'570824' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file220' 'sip-files00068.jp2'
328d795ad3351dd5d9b9733cfb8f4a1b
6d85166b073389c7ac353ed76c31597eb51789cb
describe
virus check
'555626' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file221' 'sip-files00069.jp2'
c0b1fec08d1189e4edcdc5e769a5b73b
34f8fc325ed4d52ed9834e94b9adb91ba6427ca7
'2013-10-08T17:30:14-04:00'
describe
virus check
'561864' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file222' 'sip-files00070.jp2'
700e3fa3af96be12e237f233af6ccf00
578749c969fb3d4abb5ceb10e8eb354a40c68bc8
'2013-10-08T17:34:09-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:35-04:00'
virus check
'565028' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file223' 'sip-files00071.jp2'
954b1fa405439a27985196e93e66c3cb
cca2406db05378059adcf8035070df38efd03258
'2013-10-08T17:32:15-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:29-04:00'
virus check
'543229' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file224' 'sip-files00072.jp2'
25de39caf15e0fb062b49fd4a71b05c2
ee7963d6aae0a7c791e321b202041a2be40d5c2f
describe
virus check
'539421' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file225' 'sip-files00073.jp2'
9454a850e30ada02e8d525edd5d853e2
d2ebd686b2734b048e5d60457a4518bec0b6ea32
'2013-10-08T17:31:15-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:02-04:00'
virus check
'560095' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file226' 'sip-files00074.jp2'
145475513740d540e7a683732afb780a
249823711902c1251fe55a15add9229c3374193b
'2013-10-08T17:31:31-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:28-04:00'
virus check
'562244' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file227' 'sip-files00074a.jp2'
f9df6fda309e224997051633e597a321
15e24f881d0d3a6f7f2df5f244500ec771ee3b2a
describe
virus check
'606230' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file228' 'sip-files00075.jp2'
d7cbea3ef7d12c98bcb69c57b64c03bd
8bfe26e643c695e2cb578d6e1370fd662fad3a5b
'2013-10-08T17:30:58-04:00'
describe
virus check
'170891' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file229' 'sip-files00001.jpg'
dba0932f9ff5577ed7dad15d7598b970
89be73830db57ad390acc92636518eb22ebee6b6
'2013-10-08T17:33:30-04:00'
describe
virus check
'5805892' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file23' 'sip-files00012.tif'
8639c99afa786e1a76ca17dfe99a47c8
00594d492683d357cdfee41a0bbd9e6d34a13729
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:31-04:00'
virus check
'59759' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file230' 'sip-files00001.QC.jpg'
efe3542b8ec765a3b60aa094688aedaf
7e56c07bd7bb0f7ea3e57bd17366e81f4b0a477e
'2013-10-08T17:32:24-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:41-04:00'
virus check
'179511' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file231' 'sip-files00002.jpg'
a729e2e74734649a2e2d4fcddf5c4c07
fdb1527d8a4a321834b026c09eb8c333c485fd59
'2013-10-08T17:34:01-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:27-04:00'
virus check
'55491' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file232' 'sip-files00002.QC.jpg'
ee059abbe2811b8882f3bc5eeb3684b9
7580fb278e752f06dfd038375afcce816f29f3af
describe
virus check
'179637' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file233' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
a6e15154dace6571359fdbb6f0e3361a
6907182e92ec5cb47ab4143b17a982b6870f5a1c
'2013-10-08T17:29:55-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:26-04:00'
virus check
'64564' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file234' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
822bfab5c7af4086dd4455e5a3ee1d0a
b36ffeea0d51d99207d300dfb0aa1944bdf3969b
'2013-10-08T17:32:12-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:26-04:00'
virus check
'187369' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file235' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
e00f92ecbd25ae4aefbcfe19100e9685
354cb7185a5c9ec301656cc556f9952c9102592b
'2013-10-08T17:32:14-04:00'
describe
virus check
'54126' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file236' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
d2d890b50007d0432a688dc3f6055c57
3316e6861456ba15dcd410d7d7e9a20908e3e603
'2013-10-08T17:32:42-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:02-04:00'
virus check
'175128' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file237' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
e56d3eeb76c648549842e890221c57c3
45c98360e39b40cd8245663ccf110da3673bb24d
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:39-04:00'
virus check
'61450' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file238' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
d4bf0a573610fa9a1d896cd5f8f898dd
10fa81d1e72d9f5e22eb5475e09f966b24a1a618
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:36-04:00'
virus check
'178808' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file239' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
093fc641a8ffd3df8b2e35853ce98679
8f57c668ac8d877531fcb5b819594e0c6ad124ce
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file24'
8639c99afa786e1a76ca17dfe99a47c8
00594d492683d357cdfee41a0bbd9e6d34a13729
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:33-04:00'
virus check
'54362' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file240' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
a85f58a150506977eb7ac27c0ff40c70
b72d2ac8f83df2977affc967d1f60d358bee4f78
describe
virus check
'160423' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file241' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
f67c93b29fa0f75c4ec159e31bfc4d61
f9d77ac50093a82887cc88b9ade1338e51a61c09
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:56-04:00'
virus check
'51243' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file242' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
4e9d83bec6284c504c0572166ca95d42
52585e3d946c2a04395246e7969a40a55fa86930
describe
virus check
'175127' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file243' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
0380b8011cdbc048d5737b6f802307da
9b2de6ff6283ae58e714f53ee9749c8b5cac8b4d
'2013-10-08T17:30:47-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:26-04:00'
virus check
'53503' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file244' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
2e057d0c837b21b284445502b77bec24
08b6619d36c756b878b88329d93e2ad068aa7864
describe
virus check
'178665' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file245' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
b781f35cf4ef8afb6f8724056ff6426f
c4c0f30f44aaeb835a62493bddbde39583138839
'2013-10-08T17:31:29-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:23-04:00'
virus check
'65271' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file246' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
63d020e51e5024f207632509ecd4dc32
9ff11ebb256fe1d36d09f64beb570b35c965cc4c
'2013-10-08T17:34:10-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:37-04:00'
virus check
'176609' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file247' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
c4497b30148b0e06194c69b93c8819e7
6bdec85304c6c942f342ec870186019a5748a8e9
describe
virus check
'54528' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file248' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
2c15aee429b99e3b255f882cc19f876d
40c4f4ecac9ea54a048db986a73952898d799f1e
'2013-10-08T17:31:14-04:00'
describe
virus check
'173992' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file249' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
d34240f3bf6918ff289c1f0f66c0c1fc
6cb4b362a85b01646ca286ad17d38f24203f13e0
describe
virus check
'5601124' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file25' 'sip-files00013.tif'
91562b533496f810f4c9e61cae249700
77911309c8dcfe82cd36726f339ea9925d9dd4d8
'2013-10-08T17:34:08-04:00'
describe
virus check
'61926' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file250' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
f16c4186cf4caa6536d3e75ef1f389e8
564f4d4cdf20f1077f1787ef9e37a0a5aebdf80a
'2013-10-08T17:31:13-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:01-04:00'
virus check
'179564' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file251' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
90d5386de9fc8133363d980746545ea8
83d3a137ce42d83a5b54ea644cd403ad1d09783a
'2013-10-08T17:33:11-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:33-04:00'
virus check
'54701' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file252' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
18f677b384039ccb345765761506b199
31e39294026e3dc2c395240f04147054c71ecfaa
'2013-10-08T17:31:11-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:58-04:00'
virus check
'162912' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file253' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
411f076c43258086d6ac92d377011181
76864a0634f094f9b2a72fa312f731a0ce5eb8b6
describe
virus check
'57533' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file254' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
e2725a5b9a973b121697838c4b410766
a45186481c3c580452ca115d23a6a9eb6d4f0c27
describe
virus check
'176709' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file255' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
045e1722575696a688f38e0081358fe8
94c0f1a18f487789765bc9477f9f425c6079c87d
'2013-10-08T17:31:01-04:00'
describe
virus check
'54033' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file256' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
1f3a2da2deb2dafec023886f7ac19943
ad4d348e47128bdab438a2bc49f3c6c4226b07fd
'2013-10-08T17:32:35-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:53-04:00'
virus check
'156679' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file257' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
4e3f2bf4861e37d689f66ead4b15e8d0
977bb77898f97318baa311e7af3e64b4e5e369a4
'2013-10-08T17:33:01-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:22-04:00'
virus check
'48342' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file258' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
588d5167dd08e09c15323a7657137e23
529a73a55be9225ff31b36ee55db5d5174e0b6ef
'2013-10-08T17:31:53-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:58-04:00'
virus check
'178952' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file259' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
3efdde96b550ec992636602acd48fce9
d12245cc9d95b1ee76a64027ffb7569a8d535a1f
'2013-10-08T17:30:02-04:00'
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file26'
91562b533496f810f4c9e61cae249700
77911309c8dcfe82cd36726f339ea9925d9dd4d8
'2013-10-08T17:32:25-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:43-04:00'
virus check
'55146' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file260' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
82822cc9d9f8d8dd22c7369bcbf9131e
1673f828d4fa6185f53e5db13be456f784d8eccd
describe
virus check
'141396' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file261' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
bedb69033f03558ec6cc6f6dbfcd7a9b
46c1916bb9c6c32e49edb5504021b13f2eb10a97
describe
virus check
'48849' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file262' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
ea5352e9db1b9b4729976a963ecddac3
9db8b8f84db7398da803511b21d46308d0e524a1
describe
virus check
'125463' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file263' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
90768ccb3a7e9c01bf4e1a75c06c9cd1
bd29d8d47f920f41373e94020210884dfaf7f1eb
describe
virus check
'36082' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file264' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
d909b49372136d4dc89cab819a65f104
eea251dcc59c8b457d740538a5d202ca26684a74
describe
virus check
'95932' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file265' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
89148763674ebef28abafc7b258e4f44
6cefd7ee91dfc8562ea8cffb9754ed20554c25fb
'2013-10-08T17:33:37-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:59-04:00'
virus check
'32586' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file266' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
216ba1fc0f83b8b2dcf25dd68241a640
3a2f40eb84545da0f8bfc40bf52abc3f47870849
describe
virus check
'181910' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file267' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
b39c1745ab1ed49f9684141522cfa632
ccc45cfd08c7acc39ed646ee3fdf719b4cf30885
describe
virus check
'53908' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file268' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
d2ffcb1e5831180980512a20abefc8c7
6c8225db227511a88a2ad06ff6fc4211d661b207
describe
virus check
'181610' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file269' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
cf86b29ace823c894eab9887e1cbd28d
131c84ba6a8df0578f85b9c3476caa67f32d2f06
'2013-10-08T17:32:46-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:05-04:00'
virus check
'5838548' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file27' 'sip-files00014.tif'
2ac398065971deb3237994fcf4ee7a6a
2e708f4767bdec742b456562e886e1c2a662001a
'2013-10-08T17:32:26-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:44-04:00'
virus check
'47272' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file270' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
4d7dff7baffd5f1eb20b2ff895acf7ea
f9e91e367f7b3b3343ae1ad7bc2f5620ab755522
'2013-10-08T17:31:54-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:02-04:00'
virus check
'183409' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file271' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
a8e55d191129727e1b1e251095390d24
119ceab870a49c1c8f7cd85669171259227adc73
describe
virus check
'50447' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file272' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
a88b3d6cf8367e52adcf0a91c0ba91ee
5085001bb977d1f2d8123b339e11b046ee96814d
'2013-10-08T17:29:58-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:31-04:00'
virus check
'192881' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file273' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
82473f93bac3bd332d9057943e10640a
5cde5f9f1f1081018c1cf35cd34a9f09ce313f1a
'2013-10-08T17:30:15-04:00'
describe
virus check
'53775' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file274' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
8d8d34688cef3b95ecce20f4e4383b49
30c7a63e55c25c70453727573ac2d4290107dfe4
'2013-10-08T17:32:44-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:04-04:00'
virus check
'197968' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file275' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
9bed22e74f98b58065615272ffdf8715
552fe4f09e3e7276f8614035520ba9d82ca0781f
'2013-10-08T17:31:58-04:00'
describe
virus check
'54171' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file276' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
0eafaa896c3bf63fd0b9b32f2aaa9b5e
2b3efcb122a15618958ff1d4f97f537975304bb2
'2013-10-08T17:31:32-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:30-04:00'
virus check
'186492' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file277' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
2ef4e34aea1be1eab2c2c2f4410d1ede
10d725b8bb1a534b48e6c7dd070837f729f2f9b7
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:09-04:00'
virus check
'52009' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file278' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
2cc435635527e4693f41814eb8f8787f
44fb0da568a333ea98965e491a5b262d7c798a7e
describe
virus check
'197907' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file279' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
56f669f23908264ef714103ce6528512
d8ae18ef68419131af91b3249088d0c2d7d9d172
'2013-10-08T17:32:58-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:18-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file28'
2ac398065971deb3237994fcf4ee7a6a
2e708f4767bdec742b456562e886e1c2a662001a
'2013-10-08T17:30:30-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:02-04:00'
virus check
'53673' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file280' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
d6c6e285dfd01aab9832c7b45d160b50
c20a97649430bc7999bc25c096537a891a61fdd8
describe
virus check
'197802' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file281' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
6c78d200743ec6f708d7b12c32ea9ad9
c293ba16a7842e0d15fb8fd2689d0b51f068f2cd
'2013-10-08T17:31:36-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:35-04:00'
virus check
'54077' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file282' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
61574f65e179e004b5e467f0b8be24b7
168f408b25af250a5bbb81f0dccfab80eafa6f67
describe
virus check
'188541' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file283' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
6c4be75f56a07ec388f14976093c1950
5ff79341b026ad5d7133dec1dd571529c9ba7aaf
'2013-10-08T17:33:05-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:26-04:00'
virus check
'51154' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file284' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
f4f61db6cbdaad0745d8bf7701663b61
e63199fe34af43ded9084a8b352ed3d213daa8f6
'2013-10-08T17:33:26-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:44-04:00'
virus check
'197311' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file285' 'sip-files00029.jpg'
9ea360e913373067ee804d27d1ccf5d8
e24eb81930f3903d93f3ccefca1aa8fa3dcf3aa2
describe
virus check
'54147' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file286' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
7aad24918d3ad8252aebf8a883b6df18
c4922359c45f0e8bbac7b45e920ed7edd2e321da
describe
virus check
'182903' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file287' 'sip-files00030.jpg'
948202879d701b0c1918e48e516ee075
f011c4e2b0c5d5b859783b12382b3f137f8eb209
'2013-10-08T17:31:46-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:49-04:00'
virus check
'50189' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file288' 'sip-files00030.QC.jpg'
f7fcf34942243502b9903f5ce5ab1a1a
6a1c4dd3caad22e1ebad6537acf115b75bd04e2b
describe
virus check
'198250' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file289' 'sip-files00031.jpg'
012af9dfdeacf872f0f010b31d6b776f
2b303e5d1ee6f7756c4362ba4b0ccc51fa9a4eac
describe
virus check
'5653944' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file29' 'sip-files00015.tif'
26ae7f96881d08af5b84b857b5719f9f
eca965e6b49629ed601bf8fe7fef2cc4f23d67fd
'2013-10-08T17:31:33-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:32-04:00'
virus check
'53140' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file290' 'sip-files00031.QC.jpg'
1dbc912e52d4363f0a8bfbf59cc9757c
58b4e28d47a9efc9d0945e95468faf118d571263
describe
virus check
'195848' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file291' 'sip-files00032.jpg'
06ea4db636e1913170434220e2ed39bb
36ee8d1db966f09341038325e553aaf5bbc65150
describe
virus check
'53315' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file292' 'sip-files00032.QC.jpg'
cfd192ff2191650fe4e3e6724967fa49
90f613120a7daf448c79c9924a6a2f9c38ee042c
describe
virus check
'206440' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file293' 'sip-files00033.jpg'
8711d380e8696a91fce0e281a8d64a2a
9e23d31b30f8aa6daa639aa5c563d73028da95ae
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:42-04:00'
virus check
'56013' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file294' 'sip-files00033.QC.jpg'
9a9e37198aabba73158fb6c373b59778
788722c9d2c5526ef66f0695116be541681315ff
'2013-10-08T17:31:07-04:00'
describe
virus check
'204787' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file295' 'sip-files00034.jpg'
1238945bdbbea6a30bb2d2083e0769f8
2db6a5af1735277ad0be0d871c4353c0a3c0b6e1
'2013-10-08T17:33:57-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:22-04:00'
virus check
'54856' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file296' 'sip-files00034.QC.jpg'
7cf187d7aa8f53db0624985b9cf8b4cd
c129697afe351e14f13be6b773e19d89df387c1d
describe
virus check
'198645' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file297' 'sip-files00035.jpg'
22d0f204d72b40f86179f386b9b30984
eb60c03d4cdfc36ca7febfb0e427ec31c4de0246
'2013-10-08T17:30:38-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:13-04:00'
virus check
'54851' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file298' 'sip-files00035.QC.jpg'
b2b608c355474b76fcc9503df4bb4c23
f1e5f1abdce802959883aa327f378c51ad3f7348
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:30-04:00'
virus check
'200523' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file299' 'sip-files00036.jpg'
15692112c881022830804304a33ceb17
2eb65798bad869bd624529eedf1498ba6ba07aab
'2013-10-08T17:32:55-04:00'
describe
virus check
'5869060' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file3' 'sip-files00002.tif'
c024208f3f752518f5c847e75f969c02
4fd5c063d9bb6830942d379dd7ac0d63ae0d8b37
'2013-10-08T17:30:54-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:36-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file30'
26ae7f96881d08af5b84b857b5719f9f
eca965e6b49629ed601bf8fe7fef2cc4f23d67fd
'2013-10-08T17:31:23-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:14-04:00'
virus check
'54871' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file300' 'sip-files00036.QC.jpg'
5aaba91c217134b8d55e560f8eea1468
135e27a41c92931e8fbd91b93b4d2f43971bd18d
'2013-10-08T17:30:26-04:00'
describe
virus check
'197049' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file301' 'sip-files00037.jpg'
b64ff9af60e2c14c53a1767d19901d7e
a3431cd3950e82e0cf11263c56e0a571a70c478e
'2013-10-08T17:33:52-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:17-04:00'
virus check
'60576' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file302' 'sip-files00037.QC.jpg'
45c14409ad3713f5d140cdf19710b5cf
59fcbf23d290fd0b1f9b8e4ba6ab9a785ec45ac1
'2013-10-08T17:31:30-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:26-04:00'
virus check
'184522' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file303' 'sip-files00038.jpg'
af0d2594851a83e5d67a49e42860ea01
f3ea91bc89a9ae71b727e6391ec95b230602fc79
'2013-10-08T17:32:45-04:00'
describe
virus check
'50343' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file304' 'sip-files00038.QC.jpg'
5ea6ff354558bd76c119800f3fddb1ee
13241299f6ed5f70a7da5b501a6eff2ff16c701e
describe
virus check
'201900' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file305' 'sip-files00039.jpg'
116da9bc1e16512d43a08ec4ed31598b
0472e1420716588d32e1cd820b02546cab5890c7
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:59-04:00'
virus check
'54410' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file306' 'sip-files00039.QC.jpg'
9394502b767851c3be5a47f622e5c122
d0b8f54ffd69febd1ee365996c76f93f107a04d1
describe
virus check
'203290' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file307' 'sip-files00040.jpg'
aeb1661826953f39a4c2db7b788c2824
c808851b8398466a23aff762d76649341bc4a87d
describe
virus check
'54846' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file308' 'sip-files00040.QC.jpg'
66aac51eae8dfeccc9de93ee038c4b8a
79b95834aa800908ac1e961d253bd589d82562cd
describe
virus check
'191272' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file309' 'sip-files00041.jpg'
d33fad6233a1a603be54a28243bc929c
eec60ce2a56adde970fd41e6577b6096b28d04cd
describe
virus check
'5789104' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file31' 'sip-files00016.tif'
e15413695a9cfa724a82f9df6a1e2572
8ff13a2af92e873bf19d0ce50c6088d9262c94e4
'2013-10-08T17:32:33-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:51-04:00'
virus check
'51947' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file310' 'sip-files00041.QC.jpg'
1e658e838ba675aaa5e07008afd76b92
4eb235eb5f5b0036fcc63bf8e1448b6bba14a9a4
'2013-10-08T17:33:51-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:16-04:00'
virus check
'192389' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file311' 'sip-files00042.jpg'
bfb48b1f45d38a827c34bc013693f120
feaa3284db536f93e64a303786a3923c41c04736
describe
virus check
'51571' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file312' 'sip-files00042.QC.jpg'
918fb92c8a870c0da3625726858ebc98
dadc0dd0f21cc4c19ec2c48569d0d7b84b9d4021
describe
virus check
'195171' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file313' 'sip-files00043.jpg'
0f7ea98b2712c83a0794a06dd4b7d2c3
f174898355efae0c79223208e5ce13f538151db2
'2013-10-08T17:30:21-04:00'
describe
virus check
'53035' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file314' 'sip-files00043.QC.jpg'
d4c4998bbeea92e6c48c6a135648a6fd
00dbc89a8e567e53d4cb1748045bdcb7315703c1
describe
virus check
'208483' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file315' 'sip-files00044.jpg'
c67e62c627ccfbbeff08ed90e9148e13
48a7ebc6e73cee30186c5ab38d279027187803e0
describe
virus check
'56488' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file316' 'sip-files00044.QC.jpg'
b6ff64625f18044501992251ec015e98
ce0e600aadf5c08afbd3a14d729047f30a270146
'2013-10-08T17:34:17-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:46-04:00'
virus check
'182044' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file317' 'sip-files00045.jpg'
a913efedc6b85e584bf7e0ef156c8053
1b22199185f8f054a9da8f97ee737122a285c2e3
describe
virus check
'49696' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file318' 'sip-files00045.QC.jpg'
6f09b33c02e1de1df6b091fdaaaf95ef
610e5c53539938d4134152dcfe7c20eabf0480c4
describe
virus check
'176274' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file319' 'sip-files00046.jpg'
74e6a508d6bf9fcc2148c40a675095a4
3b06889e83047e3f39d87a93b368142f11af0881
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file32'
e15413695a9cfa724a82f9df6a1e2572
8ff13a2af92e873bf19d0ce50c6088d9262c94e4
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:28-04:00'
virus check
'48541' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file320' 'sip-files00046.QC.jpg'
600ef426eb57ac1953d39bd701a24639
f5a6d54d583417546625ee77f0ba73537f677b5a
describe
virus check
'203186' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file321' 'sip-files00047.jpg'
f2ff0d55f8616fa3e4d5c58419a2f1dd
604a3ee05ad274f78dac71dc22d0ad6744b70639
describe
virus check
'55936' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file322' 'sip-files00047.QC.jpg'
72a0b3b5dff82ec5c3ef0a3f71d4cf31
200f9fb55ba8c52c4dad120f5e8db25fc10605f9
describe
virus check
'207994' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file323' 'sip-files00048.jpg'
0882358694787d71dc5a8b968b5cd659
93a14f94f908619eb5cae42b5cb5b9fb899bf8c0
'2013-10-08T17:31:17-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:06-04:00'
virus check
'56399' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file324' 'sip-files00048.QC.jpg'
b909d569fde23409a85905e2b38be754
727ec7548cdd77427189e7ebcee07794b0c368f7
'2013-10-08T17:32:41-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:00-04:00'
virus check
'193230' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file325' 'sip-files00049.jpg'
4d9c062d334b912858b4643fa21221a5
b985dee4e7a2ecd68499a5e035b0de02875c2760
'2013-10-08T17:33:27-04:00'
describe
virus check
'52596' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file326' 'sip-files00049.QC.jpg'
e3214a91f39018d685aa1a8fc986386f
f2b915f08ec2cf9b5b3c2350cee1d0a465f85e42
'2013-10-08T17:33:09-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:30-04:00'
virus check
'181179' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file327' 'sip-files00050.jpg'
00625924096f645911825096cf83926c
a19e3b2904425dd47ee7d5d3c986fa6583050343
'2013-10-08T17:30:37-04:00'
describe
virus check
'50686' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file328' 'sip-files00050.QC.jpg'
6438206c180f09779e47a6204f3e8710
498ecec426e7d6a291cb2370fe43637278784591
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:32-04:00'
virus check
'181593' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file329' 'sip-files00051.jpg'
0bd3706a7f6e77bc5dc4cda5305c07c9
bd3d4dd763f97d0d09fd682ab0fb15f0fadab640
describe
virus check
'25260060' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file33' 'sip-files00017.tif'
ee92f6906bf0922cc4b66254e07e7120
9e5b08f52d486df5f517dcd041acf891145c44b3
'2013-10-08T17:31:38-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:39-04:00'
virus check
'49947' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file330' 'sip-files00051.QC.jpg'
456eaf7cb3fcc215898ecdae5438c42f
4180f691f46417f5a9704c48a063ee8b09720ae8
'2013-10-08T17:30:55-04:00'
describe
virus check
'191490' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file331' 'sip-files00052.jpg'
e4d5a4fb890dcd66fef167a178924bfd
1a5c040b2ba82d5fc41064fbb2e70d77e99c709c
'2013-10-08T17:30:16-04:00'
describe
virus check
'52141' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file332' 'sip-files00052.QC.jpg'
9dc4b1f379663f4069b1be70cf051877
37e50f0d8b3dbded5c73ee774daabe76f7b34870
describe
virus check
'195062' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file333' 'sip-files00053.jpg'
44c22c7eb68e92f914eec751663161ad
b0911e578bd1a6bcfaddba0773e087c6bba948a4
describe
virus check
'52911' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file334' 'sip-files00053.QC.jpg'
1060080bfe6e0e8600a2d5a075475801
059ed120f36cf4d16d694c72e9301ae761f87510
describe
virus check
'201821' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file335' 'sip-files00054.jpg'
480c289220f2ccf5dbae6d003387661d
60e9def770d326e7b2975fc79080cdec03396d61
describe
virus check
'54930' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file336' 'sip-files00054.QC.jpg'
37dc7074b89ebf383b690b48bac2f9a7
a8628a0821073401ab7787aad83acac0cc52c7c3
describe
virus check
'195923' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file337' 'sip-files00055.jpg'
58f0c72b80d422787663850efe5f80ce
d36f6b46b0ee21f38bdcd17905ddfe5839a559fe
'2013-10-08T17:30:00-04:00'
describe
virus check
'53995' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file338' 'sip-files00055.QC.jpg'
c75cfccc1d708a43040bd357cbbffbe9
c6530468bcb6c6a26af40f66751f70a6b12caaec
describe
virus check
'192335' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file339' 'sip-files00056.jpg'
d7f1389cddaea0071473d7b9aac61d09
70265e0c70a6f7319531c6c7a0db4c802e1b78f7
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file34'
ee92f6906bf0922cc4b66254e07e7120
9e5b08f52d486df5f517dcd041acf891145c44b3
'2013-10-08T17:33:47-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:10-04:00'
virus check
'52842' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file340' 'sip-files00056.QC.jpg'
5ae6df817de77bfa64999532259d6c52
aa7883deb42714e180fc0d8a3a343efed2afd925
'2013-10-08T17:32:22-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:39-04:00'
virus check
'189926' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file341' 'sip-files00057.jpg'
745527f66b6109fc37c29b76b74ccdff
2fc21d35475d956988ef1d934a9bf17c55334cec
'2013-10-08T17:31:18-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:07-04:00'
virus check
'52850' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file342' 'sip-files00057.QC.jpg'
6a55c7ca031645389a5b2d195d429286
b6fb4eb28591919c07e1dd993305a5df6ab1e114
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:21-04:00'
virus check
'188755' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file343' 'sip-files00058.jpg'
1178ed2922f56000bd5ded226ea1cb6f
4d0b5d7116a64909cfe125f2ae4504f4abecc6b7
'2013-10-08T17:32:20-04:00'
describe
virus check
'51337' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file344' 'sip-files00058.QC.jpg'
c1544a837a7dedac0a9cf4af9f57dcdc
f101c2567a41ce38b6b9ab88901614e23cd81777
'2013-10-08T17:33:14-04:00'
describe
virus check
'194671' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file345' 'sip-files00059.jpg'
71fb8e3ee316d0f718270422e90539f9
8b1e80579d439a9e51eb93fe7ff91e3fc23a3adb
describe
virus check
'53721' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file346' 'sip-files00059.QC.jpg'
24c822e9abff4597307795d876f2d6cc
07d97fdd550ee98ab2a9a56d3b1d5d5b28a42388
describe
virus check
'189529' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file347' 'sip-files00060.jpg'
aec9a81f2a24c2487a8c4a23e1cc1ff8
778eac9724977aedb086e1b61d157df7a322fbf8
describe
virus check
'52541' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file348' 'sip-files00060.QC.jpg'
b68d32a7d520ee390730efee6cf29247
c89effa666f78e1ade8fcf7212d20c05e15ca7ba
describe
virus check
'192987' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file349' 'sip-files00061.jpg'
e77a98460ed3cce4081b288b7b5c2651
00c2f57bc90b33ae20a5fa95209fbd238146c79a
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:13-04:00'
virus check
'24303676' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file35' 'sip-files00018.tif'
8f849a2c1cf6522db509edecac9fc62b
6488b3b6b5c91b5374cd1899483d78542fbd50b9
describe
virus check
'52745' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file350' 'sip-files00061.QC.jpg'
6b11b1bf9f822749ab5ce0a052bef9bb
6b226a17a4c309f7a6dd99c6fd096c10c10dde2a
'2013-10-08T17:30:22-04:00'
describe
virus check
'190576' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file351' 'sip-files00062.jpg'
60a3a9048b42a6cece64365974a5d6f3
cf6914d3188b3e26074dfccc95ada3e3a31d5910
'2013-10-08T17:34:05-04:00'
describe
virus check
'51561' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file352' 'sip-files00062.QC.jpg'
708f07f50f45ad2488c40f3b2d1291ea
199cb8016e6f2c1e8c6daf2924c3a2ed1b5eafbd
describe
virus check
'201164' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file353' 'sip-files00063.jpg'
08a4cee2b79158fc9928f62871acc6cd
d9787df0995f422651a98c1927dde727b2a84b36
'2013-10-08T17:32:27-04:00'
describe
virus check
'55339' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file354' 'sip-files00063.QC.jpg'
5b6300d3e8b5646d3f54077e52859ea2
5d77b503ac8109565ed9edce22da6183ca7de2aa
describe
virus check
'152311' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file355' 'sip-files00064.jpg'
214d44fa65ce85f69d5bce1e8033e689
6367ef017127150adc5ad14b04927c3182166c68
describe
virus check
'43153' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file356' 'sip-files00064.QC.jpg'
85ef9b5a1757b69eb718ea8993b2bd8e
4ddc1bf7bbc01c79e7f0eca38062c74831ab8f5a
describe
virus check
'185581' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file357' 'sip-files00065.jpg'
c4110a3e48d8454a873904aeba9c8332
ca62788bd6f93fa38c8189c377b369d1e8c276ce
describe
virus check
'50136' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file358' 'sip-files00065.QC.jpg'
679739bf51acf364d42580005d003eba
1cfc99e9a7732785d03d1b874075efe03ae36be9
'2013-10-08T17:33:45-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:09-04:00'
virus check
'179418' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file359' 'sip-files00066.jpg'
5ca5c19b55c0425c8ac9ed04a17f1b36
3d569cdc4b811d6bc2ea7c35d749628bf674f8b2
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file36'
8f849a2c1cf6522db509edecac9fc62b
6488b3b6b5c91b5374cd1899483d78542fbd50b9
'2013-10-08T17:31:22-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:12-04:00'
virus check
'41682' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file360' 'sip-files00066.QC.jpg'
6e0b9c9add6f2dae6803af06dc571d29
192f07e6a7256f2a640f3cf11fc009b3a20a8363
describe
virus check
'239926' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file361' 'sip-files00067.jpg'
7ca73e9f80db99dd3fde08eca0f8cd1b
c7b82d5a64fd9c30baa30bbbfd936a1d819c0cd9
describe
virus check
'74994' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file362' 'sip-files00067.QC.jpg'
7368e233a6ce99454a19215ccf31af44
a3973b794d5f3ddd3a3aed1884cbe1bfba2c80ca
describe
virus check
'267832' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file363' 'sip-files00068.jpg'
2d5fde479ca995c23ffa69544f4ce548
0c282d0902e970eca7f69b688af1cfdcfb29db85
describe
virus check
'78548' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file364' 'sip-files00068.QC.jpg'
04c55134f61d78049fb7679ec07ae656
df51502e75b52bb7b7ff7e89420dca47110a08c0
describe
virus check
'259227' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file365' 'sip-files00069.jpg'
831f1b2813c2d372fd26fc114f0a0d1c
69e8d0c9b250a00ed8064401e9df59c2e2cc6cad
'2013-10-08T17:30:11-04:00'
describe
virus check
'77892' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file366' 'sip-files00069.QC.jpg'
85ca1381a55d70428fadc357e6d5824d
d0b4fb231e56b0c72335836a54cbf7342b4beb37
describe
virus check
'262423' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file367' 'sip-files00070.jpg'
02eca908cb9ea79173ef996e14b8881b
cc5552e6f3e7facccbdef0e543210d7aa1d5c0cc
'2013-10-08T17:32:52-04:00'
describe
virus check
'78890' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file368' 'sip-files00070.QC.jpg'
006a009335d4134f82ebbdc781be4754
eabbe73505384d2f0722c8183a4d2b3ee1a76519
'2013-10-08T17:32:31-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:49-04:00'
virus check
'252121' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file369' 'sip-files00071.jpg'
af7555821976a13156eabbb8913ad100
21c7a0950610db326a50ec0f27c9335ea14dcd45
describe
virus check
'5135056' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file37' 'sip-files00019.tif'
870fdeb0eb56aec63a4f874e0a9ad076
38fbc49cdd598144387edd8c4604a21f90237093
'2013-10-08T17:32:02-04:00'
describe
virus check
'77077' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file370' 'sip-files00071.QC.jpg'
56496dd409404d8dea816d32350226d9
8dd381fc965f471daf7ea84e003f722353b4f0b4
'2013-10-08T17:29:57-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:28-04:00'
virus check
'266045' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file371' 'sip-files00072.jpg'
9dc0ad815768cf519ff6e51ceb0be960
11b52fb54ef0c2b85f6c04d1f85fe8cffc612196
describe
virus check
'79453' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file372' 'sip-files00072.QC.jpg'
f79808928b02a55f61b2a22d75dc75fe
4d962d8c43d70dc18fa16e996f525923a73de30b
'2013-10-08T17:33:07-04:00'
describe
virus check
'265147' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file373' 'sip-files00073.jpg'
12eefd85a31566821c76f4ea479a000d
6ab004ed90373319acff7687a1a89ea8fe8dd9de
describe
virus check
'79513' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file374' 'sip-files00073.QC.jpg'
147e1d7e36ecdcb62a69ceec8e83a09f
393bb864d823899403f60070d961ca5fd705bb46
describe
virus check
'229881' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file375' 'sip-files00074.jpg'
3376e99c5472ab7469acf4e1b7ccd51e
5772302418883e62d00653af624b696f378ed48a
describe
virus check
'67551' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file376' 'sip-files00074.QC.jpg'
59596c2bb16f708ece8607e83a50ae38
cad6f96a433d6b26f0fe204c614c0cbc74e1e940
describe
virus check
'172668' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file377' 'sip-files00074a.jpg'
53c2cbd072b0906af63793cb87a34c27
8053663f7b0f425efdfb13cffe82da0aa856ecd8
describe
virus check
'47268' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file378' 'sip-files00074a.QC.jpg'
22660d6209dc5fc30ac3661055c71ab3
eb7f6ed6717c534b6bcc094a38a5fa2eaf954bdb
'2013-10-08T17:32:36-04:00'
describe
virus check
'157000' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file379' 'sip-files00075.jpg'
2825481c78206bde7173eb6b8fb83d03
5525946829ee909d98946451c270b4aeb4a074c2
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file38'
870fdeb0eb56aec63a4f874e0a9ad076
38fbc49cdd598144387edd8c4604a21f90237093
'2013-10-08T17:31:43-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:45-04:00'
virus check
'43853' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file380' 'sip-files00075.QC.jpg'
562438b5faf2b7aff5cf43356dd0c582
f83edcef59f9b6af128d4517913865a71f9522a2
describe
virus check
'30209' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file381' 'sip-files00001thm.jpg'
ad440b12be7ade3e46fb4dd56460722d
b36c436042d75ff9e5e990e8ff7eb1cc67856809
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:24-04:00'
virus check
'23260' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file382' 'sip-files00002thm.jpg'
aa661577769e125c299a13ad8a5be049
dd9febab1cc50be479f83c520a75218cc2521231
describe
virus check
'32443' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file383' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
c4c1dac320e561eecfa16766854bccfa
f7975be4275ac2a88fae26b25e2c2fd62643cad6
describe
virus check
'23266' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file384' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
87fba88dec2a46b6fc22ec08840b0bc0
3ae72546cc8bfeda856ade62374a2d12f9c21bb6
describe
virus check
'31448' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file385' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
7833e32c2b465f970159f9f90c0dc817
d9bc16b6c0cb8d6a638912f1e2df218b3e49beaf
describe
virus check
'23300' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file386' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
c7540b56c9f4d04513b44cea40e303a5
adc6cde7f86bebf17f2622242e241864d66bd3ff
'2013-10-08T17:33:04-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:25-04:00'
virus check
'21667' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file387' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
fb429cf0e4392803bc6f1701eee4a9ae
d12a64999545fce820b7720387790ba2359bcdac
'2013-10-08T17:31:37-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:37-04:00'
virus check
'23612' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file388' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
46eb3584fbfaf8de924be279a2e95128
928dd9cabd2ccbb68db5f92fe9a2433c8db0aa58
describe
virus check
'33668' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file389' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
0756416e56075fb51065d096100d78be
43d88b0303b6e3d3192fd4be885d1b31f8dcb657
describe
virus check
'24678744' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file39' 'sip-files00020.tif'
e1b28dab3bfda94ae87f79c9df84b522
6b71ec7eff37e14d457a0082ec163882ee041362
'2013-10-08T17:30:42-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:18-04:00'
virus check
'22936' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file390' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
a48131b77a8f727b6d687bc9df3ce58f
4f01cacf8c17a8f3f7f682bea13bd62c28ff7eb6
'2013-10-08T17:32:06-04:00'
describe
virus check
'31629' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file391' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
c2bfd674df1b8f5039f56064b73d1313
31144093837289b3c0285f4042dda25e4f16637c
describe
virus check
'22941' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file392' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
dea8f5b36b6e527cb9244a76d4dabd81
dec4b9b53bb888826408d4282e795fff3cbb210b
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:02-04:00'
virus check
'30021' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file393' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
8d3f6bdbc0024b5ce3ba67739fd232fd
72a38e9ca159aa1adc99a7f349a7ffd2acb303d0
describe
virus check
'22896' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file394' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
ea1caff1d3d62cb65c4ee3aa7d378030
4e470339f42a574cebb889e3914a0362dfa27e9f
describe
virus check
'20330' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file395' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
b4bf86f9a548422c367b013d6d92e791
ee81ec2714bdc02955968f8e5d49de9ab3e49630
describe
virus check
'23302' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file396' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
21e8c8424fa1a3f6256185b04fdf199b
271a84618df436c6e9168bc903f43622cd641745
describe
virus check
'28140' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file397' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
a83f884c2d660566ef8fd84c2ba754ce
2c50d71edc0e4d03b0543a395c04161a4bb9e74e
describe
virus check
'17331' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file398' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
4d029a8a6c0716dca40ecdd13096ef81
e18b071dd1bfa91ad063c74f653cd33eda6c6cb0
describe
virus check
'18092' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file399' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
6262c98912e3effc72941f37c65253c6
0561edc6d682a1ba5a70f8a18da4d89352592bd7
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file4'
c024208f3f752518f5c847e75f969c02
4fd5c063d9bb6830942d379dd7ac0d63ae0d8b37
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file40'
e1b28dab3bfda94ae87f79c9df84b522
6b71ec7eff37e14d457a0082ec163882ee041362
describe
virus check
'27889' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file400' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
346f1c5f0a43fb75c67e3b1a1eef9503
8be0c5adf3b8554e6ed80e1884d77e8607a8ac00
'2013-10-08T17:32:32-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:50-04:00'
virus check
'19225' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file401' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
f434d3b5271333df3b2750da794ed614
03e81de351f3fe3db29ecf8f00e808b86e2b4f1e
'2013-10-08T17:32:09-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:22-04:00'
virus check
'21034' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file402' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
70e642cbc769d0bafed1dedf3905f5ca
2a1bb4afd0e2385371eaa45c5232c66865be967b
describe
virus check
'22287' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file403' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
f49cb12ace5aa5a738a2a54f3c7ae97c
ebbd0789fd4e192a1a2a9a7dfc5d408a54076a04
describe
virus check
'22207' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file404' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
2a48b69b87a0f2ba7757f230582ba552
03f66a4bf15ffc2a2e3d263d9f8c0b461ce79e97
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:33-04:00'
virus check
'21144' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file405' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
32f9caf3071c8747127c7ce46d1a1f7f
f4e11faf192c3a39a282d0e04424b7e987a62b23
describe
virus check
'21974' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file406' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
9bd2e90f827fedfaadf9e5a176a6fe0a
e364b822b3e4ab89d11ca72af6c8a6488b7a7c09
describe
virus check
'21850' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file407' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
de3211408988c51a8a19d27ece1ccb4e
6e67003d1f539a0541163b911d1107018da041c3
describe
virus check
'21412' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file408' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
939d19fdea74692b6c12779c955c96f7
8425b84856c7c159aa8754399baaf2b7aba107b5
describe
virus check
'22123' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file409' 'sip-files00029thm.jpg'
dc4c3fd3f62bfbcdf70676df4e557577
fcd5b199125f06320ec0eed52f3bc72f83c71579
describe
virus check
'23635828' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file41' 'sip-files00021.tif'
16bce34095318997be5d3ebc63de8e5b
70e5c9284784e54ff3200af6f7eff664ff2465cb
'2013-10-08T17:31:47-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:51-04:00'
virus check
'21039' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file410' 'sip-files00030thm.jpg'
cc78c6e0eb6c51f18dc5e33d15d416cd
4af2c2c2a7cc90df7c56fbe0841a0e79aeb6352e
'2013-10-08T17:30:52-04:00'
describe
virus check
'21788' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file411' 'sip-files00031thm.jpg'
eaad8205729d27e88a5472d345fbc868
7a27de753f321db8a409d92d10c25c82bb7478d3
'2013-10-08T17:33:24-04:00'
describe
virus check
'21869' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file412' 'sip-files00032thm.jpg'
fe090229de40a62abcc8d84ca08c277b
642555c3eabb7cf42200cfc7c90da76acdfb6168
describe
virus check
'22518' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file413' 'sip-files00033thm.jpg'
d2fbf683a9014c0d7a8b940cf9938bb5
95ba2079e3cddf24dc656769d14c230b6a5244d9
describe
virus check
'22106' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file414' 'sip-files00034thm.jpg'
0a33e0d983e3b48421f2cb4cf64a2718
e9f04c74ad9cbcc578a039445479e0417809960b
'2013-10-08T17:32:47-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:06-04:00'
virus check
'22638' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file415' 'sip-files00035thm.jpg'
57c43a76c9e49e2096c529a9d9e3afa1
77eb5e6f83c1ca9775ef236ac438bfdc6431a3e8
describe
virus check
'22735' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file416' 'sip-files00036thm.jpg'
c469d04881f944c5ef4cdb1e7b8f8eb5
85a9dfb48939d75a27c5007d3361371d08a15780
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:27-04:00'
virus check
'31003' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file417' 'sip-files00037thm.jpg'
1636caa3a7e7f293da78f5f733319642
66b1770c3713c2ef4e266cf2576c81016770a95d
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:56-04:00'
virus check
'20995' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file418' 'sip-files00038thm.jpg'
7a0e58e2cc1a61fdbbc29f386b781c56
b218d857cbf8fe153e9f182583efd7cc0e3ce68e
describe
virus check
'22138' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file419' 'sip-files00039thm.jpg'
83e83935327af5a12314a60534361265
db8f58bdf608fd1b50452bee20f1868db4ced74a
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:54-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file42'
16bce34095318997be5d3ebc63de8e5b
70e5c9284784e54ff3200af6f7eff664ff2465cb
'2013-10-08T17:31:45-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:48-04:00'
virus check
'22511' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file420' 'sip-files00040thm.jpg'
260ffb683cf254409db494d06ab93ab4
db733dadf50fa71aa7b065a4006cd507daee640d
describe
virus check
'21683' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file421' 'sip-files00041thm.jpg'
e088e24df2e60e37274013cdd7212900
5ab7a39c7228c2c4bc0cc69096c49fa77fe8981c
describe
virus check
'21472' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file422' 'sip-files00042thm.jpg'
6255574864fae400db1c6ef68954acb8
d674a2c9595bd93a6f6c27fa131ef5e5e85870ac
describe
virus check
'21754' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file423' 'sip-files00043thm.jpg'
0197e736e400c3509afd03aeddc42d9a
a9792213514f6a971416332e5b1314e0e399da58
describe
virus check
'22640' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file424' 'sip-files00044thm.jpg'
4e173a7cbb0145729be3b31e1d19675f
8ba4bbc3ce8279c4a0b1ab3d6150894c44725282
describe
virus check
'20662' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file425' 'sip-files00045thm.jpg'
46cf38cf8f7e18d5e80fd385ae66b213
c356642aee69bd95094770ed2bb8f51f3ff739ac
describe
virus check
'20815' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file426' 'sip-files00046thm.jpg'
7323020549ffdc29df2598cb61c96e54
dd681fa5c0a8c3ca319709a8444e014cd709e8fc
describe
virus check
'22796' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file427' 'sip-files00047thm.jpg'
e4bc9ad7a3304190d6376715d3a27198
eeea29a2fc507ae495a2007916badcb0ee913b52
describe
virus check
'22639' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file428' 'sip-files00048thm.jpg'
1964d065cbfd25ff66f028a7fe77bedb
d6fc10b4486c4ee54944c054a014d771ece71bf9
describe
virus check
'21736' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file429' 'sip-files00049thm.jpg'
d428ab77b77b7596a9159e4893b720c0
07e5d7bf52d1c5bbbe78e602e54adb441dfb0f56
'2013-10-08T17:33:40-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:03-04:00'
virus check
'25177240' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file43' 'sip-files00022.tif'
b05940419a87e0bdff24e76d1fcaa36d
450fa289777fb219b9c2786cbc4df3f6a7c09bbf
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:00-04:00'
virus check
'21586' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file430' 'sip-files00050thm.jpg'
3d2263f0330b1f86999ee0252b346ec1
90845eb1a99442529f0b723ecc5eb70770bb0c37
describe
virus check
'20639' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file431' 'sip-files00051thm.jpg'
c79c8603990cff44f45eca288c2c7ffb
eedffe824fcb809c11ae971d314e5efd1c8a78bd
describe
virus check
'21631' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file432' 'sip-files00052thm.jpg'
45aa0fca2d3f19903e3fbb867eae72ad
1ea9833c91d0937b85188d46b694ea09552b9cbe
'2013-10-08T17:31:34-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:33-04:00'
virus check
'21848' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file433' 'sip-files00053thm.jpg'
3749c8aa5d0daaada0f3d99093bedfd5
57d57c939ce1d4887531d12fadf2a048c9835e04
describe
virus check
'22558' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file434' 'sip-files00054thm.jpg'
0dc7281dcf0548ed91a0a3df2e7167fd
e2668171c8ff08d972980767156fbf9a1f7af957
describe
virus check
'21785' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file435' 'sip-files00055thm.jpg'
9a41c9fe61c58715d5cb3c17fea791f0
5751e160ea4543cb7dfbf2ccd5b5da89ab4616cc
describe
virus check
'21816' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file436' 'sip-files00056thm.jpg'
dfd15667e44a8feb544771b293dd6bb3
c097f3c11f2df15f254a3db9da061eb77d352dce
describe
virus check
'22031' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file437' 'sip-files00057thm.jpg'
f4b99df65e982d7993b64cce9800888a
d2b1167a2ec856eceb0c661be95aeb22b6af31d3
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:31-04:00'
virus check
'21443' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file438' 'sip-files00058thm.jpg'
16d015ad576bd0fb37971b7a27385b0f
9c144a17c6e7801cd42d167e9e2553da231a0ad2
describe
virus check
'22286' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file439' 'sip-files00059thm.jpg'
6932d6a74c149beaf68e0ac9170c3813
53a28a4eaa193e03976cb16156cb8314e6c4a71e
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file44'
b05940419a87e0bdff24e76d1fcaa36d
450fa289777fb219b9c2786cbc4df3f6a7c09bbf
'2013-10-08T17:32:08-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:21-04:00'
virus check
'22213' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file440' 'sip-files00060thm.jpg'
b54fe4aab7cd92dcfa309312e6b4e0d0
1c98520890871760ec1043e303077fbb2d9010a2
describe
virus check
'21920' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file441' 'sip-files00061thm.jpg'
ece80d15db0165a482ed6d309081570c
3daa267848b8f3a938df0698f316cdb2caff1a71
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:13-04:00'
virus check
'21431' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file442' 'sip-files00062thm.jpg'
0ebeee8cb5e1f92a4e9d6c2a71f74017
cc479c5ca1a21eaad1c39a4f1d2867434b9b9be8
describe
virus check
'22296' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file443' 'sip-files00063thm.jpg'
c922712e771f6aecdeb29d7648eb2ce9
aa611cb8d99dc3b957e30efe28a2cb48c834251f
describe
virus check
'19286' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file444' 'sip-files00064thm.jpg'
112204b58d84504371dd5900c8483b73
013e5efff9b6b6e6511356951777e46919e594fa
describe
virus check
'25357' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file445' 'sip-files00065thm.jpg'
286b90ea241073cbe04adc314d3ee717
651845ea3d83449bbcc75fec1424824a6178c8f6
describe
virus check
'17002' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file446' 'sip-files00066thm.jpg'
45db3ce3bb52fdaf4b75c8879927dfc9
c359eab31691089d376dc9b8d830fa9f2232d17a
describe
virus check
'33511' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file447' 'sip-files00067thm.jpg'
9683be7a0d62df6fd98dca397735402f
47e7ec25d88816860f9d1baca1fb559f4bd99e0c
describe
virus check
'33507' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file448' 'sip-files00068thm.jpg'
7226808de8f5a81c73a198f98428f609
ae8ac759420a15c73d579586e2b6aa17bd3cb16d
describe
virus check
'34278' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file449' 'sip-files00069thm.jpg'
a9e3838d087bb8366188c6b1f7433366
0e81ad609036fb82a4cf29ff632c2538d154b06d
describe
virus check
'24579516' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file45' 'sip-files00023.tif'
6a49f119cc1a68fb12461bdda18ede61
224558800aae77147bfd8aa992100ecfa4937cd2
'2013-10-08T17:33:10-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:31-04:00'
virus check
'34742' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file450' 'sip-files00070thm.jpg'
304c2f49a50ba377f7d08c7620c7fff7
2f15bf2cd8435b56142b2ae872019ec1a8ad6cce
describe
virus check
'33853' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file451' 'sip-files00071thm.jpg'
f1114db94a65bb07d39dd1e0876f086d
25454297aff8c892beafffd5f246f4c480f2d494
describe
virus check
'34600' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file452' 'sip-files00072thm.jpg'
ddd1c01614f17b243afc21f6c4e2205e
ab04400d8c3923b61dd57c2dd67c1830fea631de
describe
virus check
'34585' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file453' 'sip-files00073thm.jpg'
c5aaa6c9f8429dae6a58bea329c62d76
1500472288d25c2c8e67142c54da10b147556333
'2013-10-08T17:30:06-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:38-04:00'
virus check
'31251' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file454' 'sip-files00074thm.jpg'
b85521636d2ab8c20c2a0f3ee57bd7bc
63d7a1f1ce62b024340d398bf991210f3b819791
describe
virus check
'22371' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file455' 'sip-files00074athm.jpg'
2574c959f319ab530f77a24729802007
9bf1640c75fdfe535987d2fdaf9eca0277f32084
describe
virus check
'21815' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file456' 'sip-files00075thm.jpg'
ac41569517d3298ba56b6af2da9b9025
4801afbdcdea3608ccd6edc4929d5e5dc270ac0e
describe
virus check
'4574' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file457' 'sip-files00001.pro'
3740408b0a47a3069f7f3c2d80194fb3
41d012f6ce419a496f0b06a9810c67090f944faf
'2013-10-08T17:32:00-04:00'
describe
virus check
'7402' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file458' 'sip-files00002.pro'
f903ccb226af5265e426777a08d4e817
662bd0462171e614fe7d20195258c3562d6d95a8
describe
virus check
'3218' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file459' 'sip-files00003.pro'
476b206fcafd0ee69f4d902fb136d6db
b769916d87a5aa0213852197ebb565ae96cd2c34
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file46'
6a49f119cc1a68fb12461bdda18ede61
224558800aae77147bfd8aa992100ecfa4937cd2
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:01-04:00'
virus check
'7699' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file460' 'sip-files00004.pro'
1d637f273e652ed1fb54500abcdad08c
1e1c95e9feb09990da5cd2956fe4d6cce38cbf85
'2013-10-08T17:33:18-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:40-04:00'
virus check
'6538' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file461' 'sip-files00005.pro'
a432cd84b7231fd2e23d5fbc73d325f1
96e49377058ec268ad79f383062e4968528db4e2
describe
virus check
'7466' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file462' 'sip-files00006.pro'
acd4bae0fcb1112d784bbe3bacfe02c9
64ffb94f3c78bb247af4667e6e737f196567a5af
describe
virus check
'4205' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file463' 'sip-files00007.pro'
bf34ed1976641c2783ef9c7395311856
016051568e106ba86495c77e314a7bcd6c71155e
describe
virus check
'7888' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file464' 'sip-files00008.pro'
84c8e9fc7f922fe57123560d3c0f1643
ec712c3931121d7a010d7fb9a861bf3bb9a5ac80
describe
virus check
'2996' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file465' 'sip-files00009.pro'
b86c448c4be0cce36ffa12e4aa6dd22b
8053088ee44b4425c9b219dd4435eb4b2327cc9b
describe
virus check
'8417' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file466' 'sip-files00010.pro'
5daf922bfd1a5e4168e878a81dffcc75
c62bf7aee0f8cdf57bfb91d5a1d33a68c13d245a
describe
virus check
'2373' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file467' 'sip-files00011.pro'
71cb36f5b48ef10844a90319eccd81a3
dded2bfdec60aa870504dbd59f6e6467ded90ce9
describe
virus check
'7874' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file468' 'sip-files00012.pro'
03fa071f9eda57b6a3c02b9ea1027ade
f08889a3582e33d5703f865bb3bacb9ec9f0ec79
describe
virus check
'5243' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file469' 'sip-files00013.pro'
d99d52b49393744cc1c60ebd24ba36b3
a6d1531178fab1719d4f7b3a949ced9f8d940205
describe
virus check
'24097004' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file47' 'sip-files00024.tif'
3fe03debd766b9cb4b03b8367cf01997
13d73ec0831a78b0d05f85605b6f3bc36a1fc60a
'2013-10-08T17:33:19-04:00'
describe
virus check
'5683' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file470' 'sip-files00014.pro'
496494293510d1dd4ed5b87d06c70bb7
df845c3c81afda8644201da9a810660ccb4b2f98
describe
virus check
'3870' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file471' 'sip-files00015.pro'
ba3246d076ff5b021e21439143f79bc4
472ca7daec78b9d41824317b46b8896817c6e18a
describe
virus check
'7658' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file472' 'sip-files00016.pro'
fc95660ad308b2883f325a7a4cf28a6f
5c9102db629b62667bf6dfcfefe43213d6c22cb8
describe
virus check
'11816' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file473' 'sip-files00017.pro'
9ecc76a03931e57e80e58dc68542ac81
cd8ac88c53881a10fb5592458a769714c82e5a4c
describe
virus check
'13113' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file474' 'sip-files00018.pro'
4b612771db6ada0e8c804d70a4636d7d
3a04d1741bed922e4464c6361dfa6bb90eeda2e9
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:29-04:00'
virus check
'2185' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file475' 'sip-files00019.pro'
7c3a43c5fb6ed09626b281158241afb8
ab5f1473963ba0dbb7ab16d7484e9731cd955c53
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:13-04:00'
virus check
'134286' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file476' 'sip-files00020.pro'
53451584391822d423b9d0df3a08ea3b
695881eb495587532e31b526f6237f23809d0445
'2013-10-08T17:32:28-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:46-04:00'
virus check
'130885' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file477' 'sip-files00021.pro'
943d63a8c7456798db5a38acecd82041
de8e691ba4aa2542e5e9902ebe837ede4c3f3be2
'2013-10-08T17:31:51-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:57-04:00'
virus check
'61243' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file478' 'sip-files00022.pro'
aa9fc5b60863ff0728ee7a5e2ca3aa9a
29b28969c8e280e4d1944353efd15779687115d1
describe
virus check
'68811' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file479' 'sip-files00023.pro'
edb648b6664c2e37a493d1061f976471
68a42ac3767804ee0032a30b726ef65a2a7f337e
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:54-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file48'
3fe03debd766b9cb4b03b8367cf01997
13d73ec0831a78b0d05f85605b6f3bc36a1fc60a
describe
virus check
'73216' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file480' 'sip-files00024.pro'
5f53bc85f6475d932bc03e34fc4aaf4d
88f253eb7654a4315ab88c90824b1be8ae24e575
describe
virus check
'70799' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file481' 'sip-files00025.pro'
b0c0b607bfa429ca7050a3162470ca6b
8278516b34e76825c193a1a7d096354465ba114c
'2013-10-08T17:33:28-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:45-04:00'
virus check
'85612' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file482' 'sip-files00026.pro'
499ff59f7076b22c00762acb051b25c0
700c8394026abf7158e44d8c13d10282f144b462
describe
virus check
'77620' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file483' 'sip-files00027.pro'
cea0ce466bb4099033683d592611fb1b
f8b850ba80c06531ef4402118c73d7bf60927727
describe
virus check
'71212' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file484' 'sip-files00028.pro'
308b000002fdd299cc137015f60f7826
4e1bcf51e1f17da45672c00aecf11f0d42d93f0e
'2013-10-08T17:32:10-04:00'
describe
virus check
'97722' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file485' 'sip-files00029.pro'
99a45356df3bdad06a453e3e73e725ee
06e8d4a61c20aa5e9df5779b0dd0c353f7ae6074
describe
virus check
'85160' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file486' 'sip-files00030.pro'
f0ed8ef2078724af4fa00ea29e5a0347
6773e21e83a5e75ddd46fa72851b141aeef445da
describe
virus check
'82745' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file487' 'sip-files00031.pro'
e319f54dd66e1f933211e252b79598d6
e2e43c73a8359b4976c3a6eff2d11de635a56878
describe
virus check
'75909' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file488' 'sip-files00032.pro'
d8405f0db69e55fa8e7be7de7f50d53d
8905e54f78ca6e46814692e4ec837a1200ab9060
describe
virus check
'76551' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file489' 'sip-files00033.pro'
5180808d9cdb40f7b7bf0b8fa6247cd3
c3e74c7500eccc14d2572c3c05e7de47771d54ee
describe
virus check
'24900884' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file49' 'sip-files00025.tif'
526dc90606f0be06fce68f37cd26c9e7
cd596f42d1b3f368713fa7727863cd1c7435c71e
describe
virus check
'80039' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file490' 'sip-files00034.pro'
647e698795dc66f39385e7d61a7b43d2
a0633812dc5478a295ba1204cd4b2028681a777e
describe
virus check
'78972' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file491' 'sip-files00035.pro'
bcf0cf180cec56fc63454763fb6052c0
3e5cd4ce608fbb12499a1d11403a4bbd32fa68b0
describe
virus check
'71001' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file492' 'sip-files00036.pro'
0cdcb201ef848ddce37ba6cf8d9525b9
bd2a1f1ace2df8ef2b6fbf8d8a19d45d4e2178bc
describe
virus check
'72239' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file493' 'sip-files00037.pro'
a05e26cd5f59aa44f2d4263f59e4c788
f2c715200365a75c8a0f4ec383e5f9cf08684ce0
describe
virus check
'72428' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file494' 'sip-files00038.pro'
8cd52fdea2daba6f2b8983cac3e1e049
26535f4a65937c2ea5b0c67384017bf3414258d0
describe
virus check
'76446' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file495' 'sip-files00039.pro'
3f9f7866bfa9bcdeb1802740c2efc460
7fc355fb297083970651f8756650887e061e72c2
describe
virus check
'74306' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file496' 'sip-files00040.pro'
734c8a41f15bd9f5cc86da92e46075c6
01d522270dcfb54e6881931be4c88254ec6fa416
describe
virus check
'73367' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file497' 'sip-files00041.pro'
287bcbd24e26aae5065d9ff63b030a33
98bfc8b4da2a50cc944f62b128bad085e7014899
'2013-10-08T17:31:08-04:00'
describe
virus check
'73339' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file498' 'sip-files00042.pro'
68bfc197d8f9621dedd4167d5adb02e5
d61e735e03f8e393511cb6e924c9bd481c8fa97a
describe
virus check
'73641' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file499' 'sip-files00043.pro'
2294740a44d921152ab43ef524b3c4e9
a025deafcceb1a2cd910fabe7ac5ab29a03b1ea4
describe
virus check
'5664740' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file5' 'sip-files00003.tif'
88886f8a1310b9b98d8327158ef455d2
631e3243685f4287a94a8be976c69b01732f5b7f
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file50'
526dc90606f0be06fce68f37cd26c9e7
cd596f42d1b3f368713fa7727863cd1c7435c71e
describe
virus check
'71945' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file500' 'sip-files00044.pro'
2f68adf0447c4911a78676ad020c79b7
5882eb27228f2b8c07e8554e611c51a969d355a6
describe
virus check
'71331' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file501' 'sip-files00045.pro'
93817486e73aad20e99269463c6ebbbb
3af0bf95a0599d3ea788815fa567a4ca5dc5ad5c
describe
virus check
'57977' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file502' 'sip-files00046.pro'
b4425f2722850225d3a0a4832a9dcbcb
1d37e2d2480af258ef9eac274e256635743e6197
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:16-04:00'
virus check
'70639' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file503' 'sip-files00047.pro'
97fc5d17839580225c743f5ba85fba3e
4f080f123fbc1a3f55e573c70a72e56daf98e85d
describe
virus check
'76303' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file504' 'sip-files00048.pro'
4e86eca37ef9f7f663cd6a6665cc5564
61edf303ff739744d8092ea1233975fa8215563a
'2013-10-08T17:30:28-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:59-04:00'
virus check
'71811' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file505' 'sip-files00049.pro'
8e9e75ad5bedb038dbac586431de7945
c89081c80e6c76f2b70cdc1c1c17a759c2993043
describe
virus check
'55874' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file506' 'sip-files00050.pro'
39f0f42600c937a48a1f551d3ea8a09a
8ac0b017a9f9859725117d186ced9049d7f1557f
describe
virus check
'71307' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file507' 'sip-files00051.pro'
e062d65cb0645032b7d2e44fe6502ffb
e8d47f3be1e9e97c3ead23144d512b0bb448074e
describe
virus check
'73819' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file508' 'sip-files00052.pro'
1dfd2bdfb3537dd09b91bbc4285b4261
9912a43b451a23dc52a2b9294398a4e2f0973c55
describe
virus check
'76491' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file509' 'sip-files00053.pro'
6a6ef7ba20ac6000ee0ee939bf9c89b8
cc79701dbae81bf84f86046c4a5bd46a96ee05ef
describe
virus check
'23626648' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file51' 'sip-files00026.tif'
cbe405ada1e25e6bb4ab203d098660a5
22a2bfe0d3c8bc420dded8d9089e247425e7bc4f
'2013-10-08T17:30:45-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:24-04:00'
virus check
'75828' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file510' 'sip-files00054.pro'
030f1b7335e6e7f94c7e5d6692177734
c2ef09931b7b8afc2b65e4d9ed5658d4ee532bb5
'2013-10-08T17:30:07-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:39-04:00'
virus check
'70728' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file511' 'sip-files00055.pro'
749ff247cfb32b5b2569a576df3fc9d0
7c644ff7caa524d7fa7c0dc1ac3032172abc1330
'2013-10-08T17:30:27-04:00'
describe
virus check
'68576' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file512' 'sip-files00056.pro'
d2dd71cf077f48cda9c29c38c0d1672c
b8eaab2653453fdd752aa9484218de28daaba126
describe
virus check
'62599' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file513' 'sip-files00057.pro'
a87028daf9903dec9efb3b847ea6a98c
a6716e8c7ecfba0a64ceb9e0d58bea35b87c2f50
describe
virus check
'69790' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file514' 'sip-files00058.pro'
7d42bed7ba316ba89620198847a72b1d
4b42bdfff886d581227d17dd96c3ce6d1969bd5c
describe
virus check
'67316' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file515' 'sip-files00059.pro'
6cf6ef8ee22da982c24ca57a26245cdd
3d812b98c1674d4e9b7dc755c7bc6ca2469c5904
describe
virus check
'51343' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file516' 'sip-files00060.pro'
b2ba46d9003445acec6924cbbc29e129
7fe6ebf548d81bbf1a423eb9f2ed7a934628454b
describe
virus check
'48175' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file517' 'sip-files00061.pro'
fb8ac256df4fca9ba2c3b64a50c08f2e
8fec92c1833c7f957b5ba8c530042c720ef8c8b0
describe
virus check
'72342' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file518' 'sip-files00062.pro'
9cb101b804de361d647a3ff37036f7ed
3ee6a89a6d20a95ea7b06c49bf53d6fd91d9a2e6
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:34-04:00'
virus check
'75753' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file519' 'sip-files00063.pro'
ac6cd6f1884e5fffc6248fd96dcaa613
5ae5fbf0b1a3751d1f616f1739102df19f31930e
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file52'
cbe405ada1e25e6bb4ab203d098660a5
22a2bfe0d3c8bc420dded8d9089e247425e7bc4f
describe
virus check
'42910' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file520' 'sip-files00064.pro'
1895ce0d0e8e8da796131fa330537aaf
6aebe5d241600a74dc40e4eb3b6435dc76c3f184
describe
virus check
'218' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file521' 'sip-files00065.pro'
ecc5a79de69bc7bc13281a3bc72c9fd4
c56e18121ae0c3e5e5b032691162793d53ea0e1a
describe
virus check
'1169' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file522' 'sip-files00066.pro'
40bf6a15bdfc2e54cc660d36ceb03784
c0e787e5025ecbcb23ea9813b6c84db288893055
describe
virus check
'50783' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file523' 'sip-files00067.pro'
85ece2ed14922ba13fcc77a3058fbf0a
bb303f790f2444d0b18cc5c8cd22630819106db8
describe
virus check
'60299' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file524' 'sip-files00068.pro'
9897cda2b3558a9a036377cc8767869d
5d91dfc906197a950b01544e9147a21457c92b21
'2013-10-08T17:31:24-04:00'
describe
virus check
'59763' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file525' 'sip-files00069.pro'
3a0174f4fcc8f56fd692aecebb68afc2
b9bb8359bdc9ffcdfc7826acf7bf33c359cb557c
'2013-10-08T17:33:48-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:12-04:00'
virus check
'57901' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file526' 'sip-files00070.pro'
373a7c00cade883d44ec1a20b02af2e8
45a95da626971b272fe85617451c243939fec76c
describe
virus check
'58631' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file527' 'sip-files00071.pro'
37dadb6f8187c7a3bdd80a38d40cbcd2
4a552dfe1349074e17ed18f50bb081f9454ae034
describe
virus check
'59592' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file528' 'sip-files00072.pro'
b6f8f96928181c219c418b41b0c4d447
2e1eebc9d8d65af80856eb9a4f708f06bc7d23f1
describe
virus check
'60148' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file529' 'sip-files00073.pro'
921ea47f5b89b209efe1541b5c10fc3b
c6dd64981c39a57cc0201ead50f8ae99a85e3170
describe
virus check
'23642588' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file53' 'sip-files00027.tif'
4a5c32fb32e416cd456758050908c603
0d255ea3576c16db266d6391e443df70ff94eb8d
'2013-10-08T17:32:29-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:47-04:00'
virus check
'40026' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file530' 'sip-files00074.pro'
b051f76749a34c60b395822fd90f5d00
a789f80d4a129e5036db4545952af7b88a203af6
describe
virus check
'219' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file531' 'sip-files00074a.pro'
4f46cf9096a11a0e5a6b5f1326d60246
7eecf9761f399d4ad254574dbb8f648aa99c6678
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file532' 'sip-files00075.pro'
b1fa2060fb5858cb4d24cce046ec2b2a
f4085ee8a54bf0a50cfa3796e8c9f363e132e7a5
describe
virus check
'318' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file533' 'sip-files00001.txt'
4bd2aef220100dc5ab06293632e8e2b7
82cbfab09212d07d42b5a6d0051332ee4616fbd8
'2013-10-08T17:30:09-04:00'
describe
virus check
'435' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file534' 'sip-files00002.txt'
a802b18b811f16467ce5d027b94c1607
eeadc3c698b99edd2bf3294f34c982b9d690e54a
'2013-10-08T17:31:12-04:00'
describe
virus check
'136' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file535' 'sip-files00003.txt'
ef29655af5b28b93583903f12bb2988d
a43192683714a820a9f2a8ceac13274e4069fc79
describe
Invalid character
virus check
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
Invalid character
'497' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file536' 'sip-files00004.txt'
2d0e8fd331fcf920f64bef269a6a760c
e420540f994957fac64d9c479fbccc2da8f89e62
describe
virus check
'367' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file537' 'sip-files00005.txt'
18a14e333f6c5619aeb0d5645109e372
78a9aac524b02ba0582a24b17182ee666c4903b0
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'494' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file538' 'sip-files00006.txt'
6895510a568f2fa95a21058537a353a9
f183e1510d8fae53fb02ae43955f3a54be1db436
describe
virus check
'252' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file539' 'sip-files00007.txt'
2a74d2c204d366320e540687841fc252
ae631933114e2ca37c00753d40ddfbb0c9a31b73
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file54'
4a5c32fb32e416cd456758050908c603
0d255ea3576c16db266d6391e443df70ff94eb8d
describe
virus check
'470' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file540' 'sip-files00008.txt'
ac1c3c919da4b35c32a07ad3d41979f8
1066214a900a52adea5526035ab8a69e3a3263c6
describe
virus check
'209' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file541' 'sip-files00009.txt'
2caf75df69ec6fcfa05701933312ad55
ae3fafc96ccb0390d9186d32e2d579ea61a6b210
'2013-10-08T17:32:17-04:00'
describe
virus check
'526' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file542' 'sip-files00010.txt'
9fe74d95fb1b8a6b132f157d4661cef1
0e50a74e7a637d3b3fe81ae87b276902fe768d83
describe
virus check
'135' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file543' 'sip-files00011.txt'
f6ba4ce7a9235a07713fbba61f43eeee
385e79736c6b2849919c993609a2e879996b7e03
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'501' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file544' 'sip-files00012.txt'
45cdd489608bc8b9787ba15433e0aadd
40c488b83d97033626128a81d8bef881bc609b39
describe
virus check
'343' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file545' 'sip-files00013.txt'
d976b6c885a66bea9eda46abac1ada8a
3b7b602a13b375793ee316fad33541eb5ee74ad4
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'279' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file546' 'sip-files00014.txt'
a91438304c01815101c1962100933326
eaaa872565df437df72bbf77e9797594fe4c7a8b
describe
virus check
'179' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file547' 'sip-files00015.txt'
148a1a230502e133e9ad85c39c166e5b
5d73896b3c4b89120d2ca4d4f40ebdc31ffcfa07
describe
virus check
'483' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file548' 'sip-files00016.txt'
44d13a47e4a36f8db4cb98b26718d780
b8d2969f40093b1253fb9e146caeacda3142bfbc
describe
virus check
'582' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file549' 'sip-files00017.txt'
5f7984de050073199ca938f6150fa0fc
97a7beeac984343b5dbec3d4307253a087e6460a
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'25216424' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file55' 'sip-files00028.tif'
928ad269291ae83e71be6b8505d7f1ad
aa91f4085c66c4dea4c1b4d460780cbd2bbf2003
'2013-10-08T17:30:34-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:07-04:00'
virus check
'751' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file550' 'sip-files00018.txt'
ac06d125720cc5969a857a00c7832cfa
4984a9b3c4e1453883cc95bfd5e793d1df0611f4
describe
virus check
'115' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file551' 'sip-files00019.txt'
68d9369640da830c23cf2528f8946d78
d8e4f6ccd85c5c2926eb468bd3a94e273d47511b
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'6375' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file552' 'sip-files00020.txt'
fb4777c1ad19c951a6985bdc828855a4
0b0fe0ce78d1d623fd6fe1a2cbf892716843a1f7
describe
virus check
'5578' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file553' 'sip-files00021.txt'
17c3239f028c3695eaeb7d418592cd9e
08a0fc3cb56c3599d387d2d6fbc28dea0938a837
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:05-04:00'
virus check
'2571' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file554' 'sip-files00022.txt'
9600875b5a16989b1bbb0c5b85bb0952
20b787cbf9b7101585f9968430caf1982f50a2d7
describe
virus check
'2693' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file555' 'sip-files00023.txt'
ec20d60ad882954113882120c5962da8
44df80f36eca2c382d8e9df7d7d26953697253f3
describe
virus check
'2878' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file556' 'sip-files00024.txt'
82c7c95537daec19de9e3cb7c7423209
3ca4a62fd5381c39c4eea29d5b09e660d58c0035
describe
virus check
'2850' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file557' 'sip-files00025.txt'
21ccb31f160d9372ef92e932cf3bcce9
0b586440ade625622962ceceefcfb5a6697e7fb3
describe
virus check
'3541' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file558' 'sip-files00026.txt'
6e412d8710f25c2b735f36881ebedcd3
c519aac9835a3e9f2543a0c5a40ed943fe9ce1b3
describe
virus check
'3038' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file559' 'sip-files00027.txt'
51e583622af7f8dc5025f397b25ed5e0
61fb7ce085c489408f47e971e7d711d0cd9b5d37
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file56'
928ad269291ae83e71be6b8505d7f1ad
aa91f4085c66c4dea4c1b4d460780cbd2bbf2003
describe
virus check
'2858' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file560' 'sip-files00028.txt'
93b3b8225e00009f589e3e4c6943f305
c8487617fcbd62aecb7d05b24ac1883d1b5e9c0a
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3923' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file561' 'sip-files00029.txt'
d38d3fc69010f49d8cdaef338f054efb
8c9ef14e9f3bacb425b77a48989befaae146e722
describe
Invalid character
virus check
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3764' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file562' 'sip-files00030.txt'
b0974ed57e4d695ff60fff9854ea6d75
d1f587b4b990cbb8b31cba3545c0f5976b7c00f2
describe
virus check
'3191' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file563' 'sip-files00031.txt'
0661fd4794c89172c396997dd08c0956
583f6079743f76596ba8a5ea24d7ed1e0157621b
describe
virus check
'2968' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file564' 'sip-files00032.txt'
c67e85416131b6c6323531e0be7f8f5d
f8541a9b32d8dbdbcef37b29e63904c3e0b66fa4
describe
virus check
'2965' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file565' 'sip-files00033.txt'
975d0f6f4bf4179ea7a3642f503c7e2a
4e5cf872e7041ca16e31517198410d11d20aca25
describe
virus check
'3128' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file566' 'sip-files00034.txt'
18f1bae08aae2651c45f02fdc4fc4314
9cda1724e3f64d7a2d47aec57057c0bec1ce9fb2
describe
virus check
'3150' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file567' 'sip-files00035.txt'
5870d2e23894b07bf06050080b63aa97
bdc3171f0aca99721515f2dd8537cda88e8455a5
describe
virus check
'2810' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file568' 'sip-files00036.txt'
c9cc730159fa75524c9e6b12265a1a23
df0510cf890fe83f54602dc79c7dca2b0fb3d495
describe
virus check
'2874' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file569' 'sip-files00037.txt'
f59f72e074359fa1cfe96959cb03d24e
5882ff04d9d458e9eb1ba1797d15a5ae60f88aa2
describe
virus check
'24416324' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file57' 'sip-files00029.tif'
d73305673f73fb2d6ffa4cd16266bead
6d4c409e2922366f628b1d8e3b95616d1f8157b8
'2013-10-08T17:30:43-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:20-04:00'
virus check
'3016' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file570' 'sip-files00038.txt'
602d91ebc8de20e1f39d4a6adf904591
9ccf7f99bd7aa5b74e659020998d38dada094bb0
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:38-04:00'
virus check
'3018' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file571' 'sip-files00039.txt'
49b3fe7c31eb89004504df44584baa03
da3e5f59f86df2ae97c8e7d756932d3dfff05fb5
describe
virus check
'2928' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file572' 'sip-files00040.txt'
f3411aa8d6bdd1da43bd59ecf060d7a6
b19025be39d5c05aa2a6ecb220734a02ca6ae359
describe
virus check
'2884' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file573' 'sip-files00041.txt'
d900546ada31015c4a39dc0d34763dc6
97873146b08890068603afe81ae69da48648c216
describe
virus check
'2867' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file574' 'sip-files00042.txt'
992c537d821213caefe82faea9ab254f
d3e620617ffc6a73aa9f615d77346d2960d1d97c
describe
virus check
'2886' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file575' 'sip-files00043.txt'
7b398219af8f1abb7c724c668a287b4b
1eaeed8bffe1ae7d3c8131af5799af0b5fcaf91b
describe
virus check
'2831' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file576' 'sip-files00044.txt'
043429292764289d3ae41b0d1c2c29d4
e34ade2e3d3b6a77b39d6141c6e3c2eb5dc452c8
describe
virus check
'2903' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file577' 'sip-files00045.txt'
9473d822914f2e9d3f46522902aafd0a
ac76548335cee86486842e1d7092be30012e64f6
describe
virus check
'2358' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file578' 'sip-files00046.txt'
2bf2439da797d1b6c15c4ded7f2a37d7
ed657625f147f2f1c91dd6d22086202b0184d2a9
'2013-10-08T17:31:09-04:00'
describe
virus check
'2795' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file579' 'sip-files00047.txt'
4fda6896ed97a04273fe7b7a169218bb
a5794d4b875ed9e65ed58bce49c7ae16b3414e66
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file58'
d73305673f73fb2d6ffa4cd16266bead
6d4c409e2922366f628b1d8e3b95616d1f8157b8
describe
virus check
'2974' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file580' 'sip-files00048.txt'
e430ebc222cd8d228a70a7bf7a678834
c221a7bada8800e8a08989a2f7268a21a1f39c9f
describe
virus check
'2811' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file581' 'sip-files00049.txt'
574173cabd2582d8aae91c47af9024f2
c7ffde325653d45d833de6a2434df1fc5154aa18
describe
virus check
'2241' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file582' 'sip-files00050.txt'
ab57d1f5b623ba2000b0b39c8bca8d65
f73485532e21c1d095b6facc19148885c02fc4dd
describe
virus check
'2820' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file583' 'sip-files00051.txt'
80dc079a27e3366dc7138dcd5fa043d1
866eea25ce8f4d7dacc23740c76a0410967ac884
'2013-10-08T17:30:46-04:00'
describe
virus check
'2880' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file584' 'sip-files00052.txt'
f4d7deae888188cdad0f2b545ec4982b
8fdf5924d14d06bf331ac60abea1a5547ae0cdb3
describe
virus check
'2980' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file585' 'sip-files00053.txt'
e41a52fdbb520d7f1070fcc573a54c32
d9c751766e65f2edc3e174ef1c310063048b992d
describe
virus check
'2946' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file586' 'sip-files00054.txt'
d25e0e7ec5723944d859228073571acc
7b5063d9f8860eeaf250ec42cc5c489f4d923b77
describe
virus check
'2779' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file587' 'sip-files00055.txt'
769c15f21816954017dc14babf89ac66
bcd8b541864d1ab8c0d8c0ab111245280a74d32b
describe
virus check
'2754' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file588' 'sip-files00056.txt'
98b35cf8ca937d6ae075bfb288cfe83e
cdc05f964eefcd5b8ac3beb8c5a6c46b466a80ab
describe
virus check
'3008' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file589' 'sip-files00057.txt'
90dcf5fa2b4044ff4989df1d21236eb9
8c9d7628c89527bc65d74b84d0db170b2e00f781
describe
virus check
'24715520' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file59' 'sip-files00030.tif'
7b8a7ac883f5e62db541251f05382cf8
6d11501f3509f927cdde8ebcba9fca1e758b202b
'2013-10-08T17:32:40-04:00'
describe
virus check
'2781' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file590' 'sip-files00058.txt'
60217839a979d25bca0f5a747d57025a
2a79882de867e2769e3240d3403a8a58691f31df
describe
virus check
'2685' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file591' 'sip-files00059.txt'
9c15f7f232587c8a25cc81c7bbb3aa87
1d770e96c4b43ccf6e1fbcf51ecbf17c5bf236c2
describe
virus check
'2080' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file592' 'sip-files00060.txt'
5283b08b5a724c98f2ce93c6c6f054c4
3abb75f72d1ac98ebe0acdf3291ccfcd41468095
describe
virus check
'1913' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file593' 'sip-files00061.txt'
6f04f1bc46eafbf7b6b4c91c183af972
8cb12b44432f24e080f034a62cb4055813582441
describe
virus check
'2907' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file594' 'sip-files00062.txt'
38bcd1c936291505baec32832dca747d
467970a6c8897083d1db6967389a32023de86763
describe
virus check
'2954' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file595' 'sip-files00063.txt'
9d92a910dee66a3c4bc422e845ee5251
9911e9c107e8b2b0186393e8f9f24a9454736d25
describe
virus check
'1774' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file596' 'sip-files00064.txt'
6eb49162b2dc380c98c47dca210a0511
725b7d1dec069e4fcf8b8de26a3e0b20d606b3d2
describe
virus check
'3' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file597' 'sip-files00065.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
describe
virus check
'95' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file598' 'sip-files00066.txt'
21546676e9e1b4c4777c91688fcd9bdd
87074d4778e7649fef54a8e83a6178b0556e24d2
describe
virus check
'2122' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file599' 'sip-files00067.txt'
0c13010b56d2bf6423e56039acb64800
c4094a92b9287c956ce09b89db4dbec558ee2d0f
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file6'
88886f8a1310b9b98d8327158ef455d2
631e3243685f4287a94a8be976c69b01732f5b7f
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file60'
7b8a7ac883f5e62db541251f05382cf8
6d11501f3509f927cdde8ebcba9fca1e758b202b
'2013-10-08T17:33:49-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:29:13-04:00'
virus check
'2370' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file600' 'sip-files00068.txt'
12ba898396c9bbfec40fd5938b9e937f
64182dc3f31886ff4cea298c46019dedfc5bdfd1
describe
virus check
'2344' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file601' 'sip-files00069.txt'
a1440cdd0fa6525a4d3c34371c58e5ab
cd56f987c750a575498ec514cd3b195b67b21763
describe
virus check
'2302' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file602' 'sip-files00070.txt'
dd507ca85d1bd6b655700f2909cee648
2590f5d19bb6bb372f4bb0d953ea6e177424d599
describe
virus check
'2310' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file603' 'sip-files00071.txt'
32553bf322e9c5d311b8d29fee6b3039
6b606c54b03251f6fe39e571a7a0980044bcb22f
describe
virus check
'2362' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file604' 'sip-files00072.txt'
9901ef61f00deee778d9764665d4c391
a4c3d804bb8993708508aab76d720b73e4d237c5
describe
virus check
'2374' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file605' 'sip-files00073.txt'
64b451d279db7c67704c1bec06ea85d3
7a12e88c8c162e5e6ae2d522632a7b66de674737
describe
virus check
'1646' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file606' 'sip-files00074.txt'
260148ebc6f83ea087f7cda500a89ef5
cc3433ed600ccc217141600052295f52648c12d2
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file607' 'sip-files00074a.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file608' 'sip-files00075.txt'
bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26
cbb8391cb65c20e2c05a2f29211e55c49939c3db
describe
virus check
'96241' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file609' 'sip-filesAA00000206_00092.mets'
f257126b4ec2cd89b29da55ffed431e3
69d16c9136fadb2eb37d9012913255facebbbe84
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:24-04:00'
virus check
'2013-10-16T09:26:59-04:00'
xml resolution
'24939528' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file61' 'sip-files00031.tif'
0357f6f9680353d6d8cbf9e909705af7
e4fb3982b5cf10f2a3f68d63b3b37d069a7ee3fd
'2013-10-08T17:32:39-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:58-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file62'
0357f6f9680353d6d8cbf9e909705af7
e4fb3982b5cf10f2a3f68d63b3b37d069a7ee3fd
'2013-10-08T17:30:05-04:00'
describe
virus check
'24114904' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file63' 'sip-files00032.tif'
6e4b367dc896674f20d19a11912533b4
74d38cf9bb9b3e07ee7b86f032c81bf093e9b161
'2013-10-08T17:33:36-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:57-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file64'
6e4b367dc896674f20d19a11912533b4
74d38cf9bb9b3e07ee7b86f032c81bf093e9b161
describe
virus check
'24017464' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file65' 'sip-files00033.tif'
116e93c175fe729b88f84f6194625c81
3c93c5e285789768c9b5b04c55d2d893f284d94c
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file66'
116e93c175fe729b88f84f6194625c81
3c93c5e285789768c9b5b04c55d2d893f284d94c
'2013-10-08T17:30:53-04:00'
describe
virus check
'24486076' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file67' 'sip-files00034.tif'
6380ba1af3bd082c7e8a3711c3b576de
38c27051827a916a70cc2589e51df0cb0ff789da
'2013-10-08T17:33:02-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:23-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file68'
6380ba1af3bd082c7e8a3711c3b576de
38c27051827a916a70cc2589e51df0cb0ff789da
'2013-10-08T17:33:00-04:00'
describe
virus check
'25670772' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file69' 'sip-files00035.tif'
6d78ac7bf6b136fc680b60f099b982aa
b7b3c3f5e967969c3701872710fb487ba16afca1
'2013-10-08T17:31:48-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:52-04:00'
virus check
'5860388' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file7' 'sip-files00004.tif'
198007ba138996a023262badc49b9788
f22a8dc28d73adf1d3442cd1cfc67b4866772e39
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file70'
6d78ac7bf6b136fc680b60f099b982aa
b7b3c3f5e967969c3701872710fb487ba16afca1
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:30-04:00'
virus check
'23888148' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file71' 'sip-files00036.tif'
16d08495f9cfa21effed1f9ac7a774fd
d200d6c92078d73e427c32643686f7eb463af1da
'2013-10-08T17:31:04-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:50-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file72'
16d08495f9cfa21effed1f9ac7a774fd
d200d6c92078d73e427c32643686f7eb463af1da
describe
virus check
'25266836' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file73' 'sip-files00037.tif'
2a93fbb6a9599f903accac6abf8a3b18
800966f3f892077f7926a513420be3bfbaa4f9da
'2013-10-08T17:29:59-04:00'
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file74'
2a93fbb6a9599f903accac6abf8a3b18
800966f3f892077f7926a513420be3bfbaa4f9da
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:40-04:00'
virus check
'24982984' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file75' 'sip-files00038.tif'
b389a322a3739964e5c58f01d78e0818
173823cb1351fbd5ff1151e3e04aa66486445dde
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file76'
b389a322a3739964e5c58f01d78e0818
173823cb1351fbd5ff1151e3e04aa66486445dde
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:49-04:00'
virus check
'25041172' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file77' 'sip-files00039.tif'
31ebd7d50e36a512b068a6600a283b4f
ca54b83ab051bb05c36b7989a901aa008cd45692
'2013-10-08T17:33:34-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:55-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file78'
31ebd7d50e36a512b068a6600a283b4f
ca54b83ab051bb05c36b7989a901aa008cd45692
'2013-10-08T17:33:31-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:51-04:00'
virus check
'23839076' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file79' 'sip-files00040.tif'
2c32644b75a26689200deea848ad7aab
2c68cd81647494fd367bac555bcbc5b28f7cd4fb
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:44-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file8'
198007ba138996a023262badc49b9788
f22a8dc28d73adf1d3442cd1cfc67b4866772e39
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file80'
2c32644b75a26689200deea848ad7aab
2c68cd81647494fd367bac555bcbc5b28f7cd4fb
describe
virus check
'25201644' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file81' 'sip-files00041.tif'
e377152a2fff7a29cf7b0c3f2956f4d8
b45769620385d9b2af7e839e67eae9518caa32d9
'2013-10-08T17:32:50-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:09-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file82'
e377152a2fff7a29cf7b0c3f2956f4d8
b45769620385d9b2af7e839e67eae9518caa32d9
describe
virus check
'24972028' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file83' 'sip-files00042.tif'
268e9520c4d8b1e2819dc943b17e89a0
10baa4a1ae2eebc17e66c2eb1f15c51f1bbbb06a
'2013-10-08T17:32:04-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:27:15-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file84'
268e9520c4d8b1e2819dc943b17e89a0
10baa4a1ae2eebc17e66c2eb1f15c51f1bbbb06a
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:17-04:00'
virus check
'24876964' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file85' 'sip-files00043.tif'
8d991aa8f015c970a623a67150018ef7
b9ec1af4f57b102e0659031b56edd40c0bcb1f69
'2013-10-08T17:33:12-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:35-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file86'
8d991aa8f015c970a623a67150018ef7
b9ec1af4f57b102e0659031b56edd40c0bcb1f69
describe
'2013-10-08T17:25:56-04:00'
virus check
'22343788' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file87' 'sip-files00044.tif'
e1472a329d1155179d9c311ac01496e7
c3f88ce1a591322dc630ee34f54ccf241b62ef0b
describe
'2013-10-08T17:28:10-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file88'
e1472a329d1155179d9c311ac01496e7
c3f88ce1a591322dc630ee34f54ccf241b62ef0b
'2013-10-08T17:29:56-04:00'
describe
virus check
'25555984' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file89' 'sip-files00045.tif'
f34a2d5b79c773fbf93bf598faefd615
58db15f0372a3ce74e0071fcc6d8382382ea46b5
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file9'
0c0bf13d5a5d7d1c1d3ef18ad42105ef
e34b6050d87b8286a955d92124d02eaf18b7b606
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file90'
f34a2d5b79c773fbf93bf598faefd615
58db15f0372a3ce74e0071fcc6d8382382ea46b5
describe
virus check
'24725832' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file91' 'sip-files00046.tif'
980039dd624e9268177193659e6db366
45c2e569bfc03887c6bb573017fc3fc0e2e08016
'2013-10-08T17:31:52-04:00'
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file92'
980039dd624e9268177193659e6db366
45c2e569bfc03887c6bb573017fc3fc0e2e08016
'2013-10-08T17:30:24-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:24:56-04:00'
virus check
'22954896' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file93' 'sip-files00047.tif'
cbc9720b489b99d38ff0329748541ab2
d8e97cf6d6c8d863280ad1ace63550e8aae04d53
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file94'
cbc9720b489b99d38ff0329748541ab2
d8e97cf6d6c8d863280ad1ace63550e8aae04d53
describe
virus check
'23021552' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file95' 'sip-files00048.tif'
ed14093e54319632367454a03a9b7300
a28a400a3277a0c498e0c80df0863d7b35bbba80
'2013-10-08T17:31:21-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:10-04:00'
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file96'
ed14093e54319632367454a03a9b7300
a28a400a3277a0c498e0c80df0863d7b35bbba80
'2013-10-08T17:31:25-04:00'
describe
'2013-10-08T17:26:16-04:00'
virus check
'24679556' 'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file97' 'sip-files00049.tif'
d40d4b5a293fa706ab89d92ea64bfab0
5204d0f7236787534eaa4bdc04dc296c9835d04a
'2013-10-08T17:33:56-04:00'
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file98'
d40d4b5a293fa706ab89d92ea64bfab0
5204d0f7236787534eaa4bdc04dc296c9835d04a
describe
virus check
'info:fdaEI45LG6FD_OOTS14file99'
b6e01f4eb0bf364f06aedc7760098d4d
e4aab378b49b162f076d76449759167a546a9606
describe
virus check







The following statement gives approximately the amount of lumber
needed for building a lath-covered shed for about an acre:
39S posts (368 for top, 30 extra for sides) 4 inches by 4 inches by S feet.
204.pieces (160 for top, 44 for two sides) 1I inches by 14 inches by 20) feet.
900 pieces (84- for topi 60 for two sides) 1I inches by 14 inches by 15 feet.
80,000 laths (75,000 for top,.5,000 for side.) j inch by 1 inch by 4 feet.
The above amounts to about 7,000 feet of lumber, exclusive of the
laths. All material must be free from knots and of first grade. The
amount of limber can be still further reduced by using galvanized
wire instead of the 1. inch by 1 inch by 15 feet pieces, and weaving
Sthe laths in this, as in case of building a fence of the same material.
It does not seem practicable to make any further reduction in the
amount of lumber used and still have a shed that will withstand the
elements for a number of years. In the above shed the posts are set
9A feet by 1- feet apart, and the material covers a trifle over an acre
in d square form. .
The following bill of lumber will cover an acre in the.square form,
giving a shed similar.to the one illustrated in fig. 4.
d463 pbsts 4 inches by 4 inches by'9 feet.
266 stringers 2 inches by 6 inches by 16 feet.
5,900 boards 1 inch by 3 inches by 16 feet for cover.
450 boards 1 inch by 12 inches by 16 feet for sides.
This giv:es.n total of slightly less than 35,000 feet, of lumber. The
posts are set T- feet, by 15 feet apart.. If the stringers are to be braced,
as indicated iu fig. 1, it will take -196 pieces (2 inches b-y 4 inches by
16 feet) more. The cross. s.tringers (shown .in fig. 4) are-omitted.
The boards used for covet Whld the line of p6sts. in place firmly; and
by cutting a notch.in the top of the post to rest. the 2 by i3 inch
stringers it will be held in place. '.So far as the strength of the lumber
is concerned, the posts might be set. 10 by 20.feet apart, but. this dis-
tance gives considerable annoyance from the warping of. the covering
material.
The cost of erecting a shed varies with the type of shed put up and
the ability of the superintendent. The labor will cost about $25, and
the incidental expenses will be a few dollars for such things as locks,
hinges, tools, etc., not including the cost of the nails or wire.

TREES FOR SHADE.
This side of the protection question has not received thei'earnest
attention that it deserves. The writer has seen repeatedly the beneri-
cial effect from the presence of cabbage palmettoes. They not only
seem to protect the pineapple plants from the cold of winter, but to be
an advantage to the crop in the summer. Hard-wood trees that have a
deep taproot frequently grow in the midst of a pineapple plot without






Q9 3e /L jl iP


9~C 6~~wi~L z/ "4' -~ 'I







37


SSlieed.-With a large knife remove all the peeling, being careful to
remove the last bit of the eyes that may remain. Any part of the
peel is liable to prove quite acrid. The crown may be-used as a part
to hold the fruit by, or it may. be removed and the fruit held by the
use of a carving fork. Beginning at the base of the fruit, slice off
whole segments three-quarters of an inch or an inch thick. Sprinkle
each segment with sugar to give the desired sweetness. After the
entire fruit has been sliced and treated with sugar set-aside for twelve
hours. At, the end of this time considerable pineapple sirup will have
formed in the fruit dish and the flavor and palatableness will have been
improved greatly, especially if it has been standing in a refrigerator.
A good pineapple should be so tender that it can be eaten with an
ordinary fruit spoon.
Dug-out.-For this purpose select a large pineapple. Cut the base
off square and take the crown out. Then with a thin-bladed, sharp
kitchen knife cut around just under the peel, so as to remove the
entire meat and-leave the peel intact. Cut or shred the meat into
suitable shape for use and sprinkle thoroughly with sugar. Set the
cylinder made by the-peel on a large plate, right end upward. Put
the-prepared pineapple into this cylinder and place the crown in posi-
tion until ready to serve. This makes a very pretty ornament on the
dinner table, as it looks like a whole pineapple. To serve, the crown
is taken off and the prepared pineapple taken out with a fruit ladle or
a large fruit fork. Only large fruits can be used in this way, and they
must be used soon after being prepared, or else the sugar should be
withheld until the fruit is served.
Shredded.-Prepare the fruit in the same way as for slicing and then,
by means of a carving fork or other strong fork, begin at the base
and pull off the meat from the core. This leaves the fruit in a more
palatable condition than when it is cut into small pieces. Treat and
serve in the same way as in case of sliced pineapple.
To flavor other fruit.-Some fruits when put up to keep lack char-
acter or.special flavor.. A small amount of pineapple prepared with
them imparts a flavor and tartness that is pleasing. This is especially
true of oriental pears and quinces.

DISEASES, INSECTS, AND.. INJURIES.
Under this head are included manifestations of untoward conditions
that. are usually recognized in the pineapple field, and whose causes
are more or less obscure. This includes ravages of insects and insect-
like animals, and also those conditions whose agent or cause is at
present not known. In studying the literature for diseases of the
pineapple one is surprised by the limited number of insects and fungi
that attack this species. Saccardo's Sylloge Fungorum records only
four species of fungi as attacking species of the geius Ananas, to








Porto Rico, the Bahama Islands, Jamaica, San Salvador, and Trini-
dad contribute to the pineapple supply of the United States. Porto
Rico is thought to be especially well adapted for the locating of
canneries.
TERMS-TSED ON, PINEAPPLE PLANTATIONS.
Every industry has terms that are used in a restricted sense, and this
is true to a limited extent in the pineapple industry. The ffoowing
terms are used more or less generally:
Rattooins.-When a bud occurs oni the underground portion of a pine-
apple stem it produces roots by the time it gets to be 12 to 15 inches
high., These make strong, vigorous plants,and are left in the field
undisturbed unless too many occur together.
Suckers.-Plants produced from buds that originate fromna portion
of the stem above ground. These are nourished from the main plant
and are late in producing their own roots if they remain attached to
the parent plant. They are the usual commercial, commodity. In
buying pineapple plants, suckers -are understood- unless otherwise
stated .
Slips.-These are plants that originate from buds produced at the
base of the fruit. There is greativariation as to the number of slips
produced by different varieties and by different specimens of the same
variety. Slips usually remain on the plant after the crop has been
gathered, and often grow to be 8 to 12 inches long by winter. In the
common varieties only the largest slips are used, but in the high-
priced varieties all slips are saved and planted.
Crown slips.-These are plants that originate at the upper end of
the fruit. In some of the varieties, such as the Enville, the crown
is wanting and a tuft of crown slips is produced instead. Crown slips
are utilized only in the high-priced varieties.
Crowns.-The tuft of short leaves at the apex 6f the fruit; wanting
in some varieties, such as the Enville. It takes these a year longer to
mature a crop than it does large suckers, so they are not employed
extensively. "
Pine.-The ordinary abbreviation for pineapple both on the planta-
tion and on the market.
SSanded, or sanding.-Referring to sand being blown into, the buds of
newly set plants, (See diseases, p. 41.):
Spike.-A pathological condition produced by untoward fertilizer
or soil conditions. (See diseases, p. 40.)
Shed.- A structure which produces half shade, used to eq ulize the
extremes of temperature.
Tangleroot.-A condition in which the roots or part of them are
wound tightly around the stem of the plant. (See diseases, p. 42.)
Spruce pine (Pinus Clazsa (Englem.) Sarg.).-A species of pine
restricted to the south Atlantic and east Gulf coast.








and th.b qualityof the fruit shipped. Red Spanish are usually wrapped
in ordinary brown straw paper, fine smooth Cayennes and Queens in a
number of thickness. of finer paper, and some are wrapped intissue
piper` staiuped with the plantation name.:, It is quite important, to
wrap pineapples to keep them from breaking the skin? of one another
in transit.. In addition to lessening-the danger of breaking the skin
the wrapping protects them from wilting and from- dust while being
shipped and'carted.." Pineapples sell largely upon their looks.
Packing..-The sizes of packages adopted by the Florida growers
are the barrel and half-barrel crates. The former is 12 byO 20 by.36
inches; the latter, 12 by 10 by 36inches. The:latter size seems to be
'the one in most general use. : This is uhdoubtedly'the more coiveenint
size, as the unit of this size holds about. as much fruit'as the- odiiiry
fruit dealer or grocer wishes to have on handd at onetiime; and it'-makes
a convenient size to handle. As the industry is extended, more tten-
-tion must be given to the convenience of the individual arid small
buyer. .-
In packing a crate the fruit must be pressed down firmly so it. will
not shake in transit., and, on the other haud, it must not be squeezed
down to the extent. of mashing or bruising. :The method varies greatly
Some of the fine large varieties when quite ripe have to be wrapped'in
bti wor more thicknesses of'soft paper and then packed in excelsior'Or
Spauish moss. ,This adds greatly to the cost of 'packing and prepar-
ingfd6rmar-ket, bit is usually more than compensated for by he higher
price they bring. .
For long distances.-Fine specimens of fruit that are to be shipped
.aigreat distance need special preparation-to stand the trip. When
the fruit is sufficiently fine to pay the cost, and sufficiently mature,
the plant. is cut off at the ground aind-the whole wrapped carefully:and
packed firmly in a crate or barrel. Sufficient ventilation is allowed
oo the plant will continue to live during transit. This method of pack-
ing 0for shipping requires experience aiid care. The vitality of the
plant, will be drawn into the fruit during transit, serving to matiureit
in a way much more like the fruit that is matured on the plant in the
field than the fruit that is cut from the plant and allowed to mature in
that way; Simmonds, in Tropical Agriculture, mentions another way
that is practiced in shipping fine fruit from the Azores. He says that
the stalk is cut several inches below the fruit and an ordinary large-
size flowerpot is then filled with mold, into which the stalk is inserted.
These are then shipped in skeleton cases to avoid bruising or injur-
ing, the fruit being wrapped in paper to further insure its safety. .
The bencbes.-The tables or benches on which the fruit. is delivered
from the field should be built about 30 inches high on the side where
the-laborers stand who do the wrapping-work. The top sh old-have
10049-No. 140-6--3









soil of the east coast will be of great importance in understanding the
fertilizing of pineapples on other soils. ; ;i i:.'::

; WHO SHALL MIX THE FERTILIZER
The appliances necessary to mix fertilizers consist merely of a good
packing-house floor and an ordinary sand screen, such as is used by
plasterers. One hundred or 200 pounds of ditlerent elements may be
mixed at a time. The fertilizer houses make a point that the pineapple
grower can not mix the elements evenly, but by running the fertilizer
through such a screen several times the material will usually be mixed
sufficiently if all the elements were present in the proper proportions
in the beginning. As a rule, two or three thorough screenings is all
that a mixture needs.
There are reliable fertilizer houses which will mix any combination
of fertilizer elements for an additional cost of $1 per ton over the
amount that the elements cost in their establishment. We hare no
evidence that the pineapple fertilizer improves by being kept after it
has been mixed, nor is there any reason why each element should not
be added separately as the particular part may be needed by the grow-
ing plants. Above all other ordinary considerations the pineapple
grower should know the origin of each element in his fertilizer, and
the fertilizer house ought to be required to guarantee this before the
fertilizer is purchased, if one buys a prepared pineapple fertilizer. It
is much more important with the pineapple crop than with the truck
crops, and it is fully as important as in a tobacco or an orange crop.

FERTILIZER FORMULA.
The formula given below is thought to be such as will supply the
needed amounts of plant food to soil that is nearly destitute of the
principal forms-nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid.
The pineapple grower is the only one who is able to tell whether
his particular field needs more potash, more phosphoric acid, '6r
more nitrogen, and he can tell it only after definite experiments. The
following formula will be found useful:
Per cunt.
Ammonia.......................................................... 4
Potash ................. ......... .......................... ...... 6
Phosphoric acid.................................................. 1
Use about. 1.II00 pounds per acre of the above formula for the first
application, after the plants have been set out and'are well rooted.
Use about 1,500I pounds for the second application, hqd then determine
from results whether to increase the amount for the third application
or not. These figures and formulae are approximate only and may
not be equally good for any two fields or for any two lands of the
same field. .










32 .CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.

following two brief amendments were made, which to some
extent changed the findings of the commission, but did not
materially alter them. :
First ametndut.,ii. "Resolved, that it is the sense of this Con-
venton that the report of the Commission shall be adopted,
and shall obtain until the 5th day of November:in each and
every year; provided, that. after the 5th day of November in
each and every year the standard shall be 'that if each orange
is two-thirds its total area colored yellow, it shall be con-
sidered as mature and fit for shipment.'".
'Scond a(nZendiocil. That no variety of oranges or grape-
fruit shall be allowed to be shipped before October 1 of
each year that has bloomed during that calendar year."
This, it seems to me, makes a somewhat unique departure
from the general way of determining when fruit is mature.
I thilk it is the only time when a state has actually made a
chemical standard the basis for determiningthe maturity of
any fruit.
II. CONTROL OF SCALE INSECTS AND WHITEFLY BY
PARASITIC FUNGI.'
The question of control of insects by means of natural ene-
mies has received much attention, at times attaining to what.
we might call notoriety. In America the matter has been
given probably more serious and systematic study than any-
where else in the world; at. least. this would seem to be the case
from a study of the literature.
Among the workers along this line may be mentioned
Doctors Snow, Forbes, and Burrill. Much work hasbeendone
by each of these-men, but. for want of time and opportunity
the follow-up work could not be continued, and consequently
much of the good has been lost. '
In Florida the climatic conditionsseem especially favorable
to the use of such methods for the control of gregarious insects,
especially those belonging to the families Coccidae and Aley-
rodide. Insects that lead a more solitary life do not lay
themselves open to vulnerable attacks to the same degree as
insects that. are inclined to be gregarious and live a stationary
existence during a portion of their life cycle.
The period of this work in Florida began in about 1894,
when Doctor Webber discovered a parasiticAschersoniaof the








; Bone meal.-Ground or pulverized bone has long held anmimportant
place as a fertilizer for general, firm crops but has .not been recom-
mended extensively for a pineapple fertilizer. The esteem in which
it is held as a general purpose fertilizer places its price considerably
above what the pineapple grower can afford to pay for it, atleast from
a technical standpoint. Its value as a fertilizer on our present basis
of calculation would put itatabout.$12 per ton, which is much.below
its market price. The question as to whether the phosphoric acid it
contains is available to plants or nothas not been definitely settled.
The good effect upon pineapples produced by bone meal seems to be
.greater than can be accounted for on the theory that the nitrogen con-
tents is all that is available to the crop. .. ,
Acid phosphate.-Dissolved rock has been used so extensivelyin fer-.:
tilizing crops that it has been considered as an essential constituent.
Experience has shown, however, that this form of phosphoric acid i: .
,injurious to the pineapple crop under the Florida east-coast conditions.
For a time it was thought that the acid phosphate contained free sul-
phuric acid and that this was the cause of the injury, but by doub-
ling.and quadrupling the amount applied it was demonstrated that
.the cause for the unusual behavior of the plants after the addition of
phosphoric acid must be explained in some other way. The experi-
ments demonstrated, however, that the source of this element, phos-
phoric acid, should be sought elsewhere.
Other sources.-Guano, or the dung of sea fowl that has not been
leached is also an excellent source of phosphoric acid. Its high price.
has kept it out of the hands of the pineapple growers.
Fish scraps have been utilized to the best advantage. The whole
carcasses of otherwise worthless fish may be used as a fertilizer.
REMARKS ON COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS.
From extensive experiments carried out by the Florida Experiment
Station under the charge of the writer it seems that, blood and bone
gave the best results as a source of ammonia, nitrate of soda stood
second, and cotton-seed meal third, while sulphate of ammonia stood
last. .
Of theforms of potash used the potassium magnesium carbonate
stood first, low grade sulphate of potash second, high grade sulphate
of potash third, muriate of potash fourth, and kainit last. Bone meal
gave better results than did acid phosphate.
In a general way blood and bone gave good results with any form
of potash. Nitrate of soda in combination with acid phosphate or
with kainit did not seem to do well.
Just why these combinations did not do well has not been explained.
The general deductions obtained from the experiments on the sandy










Fertilizers-Continued. Page.
Phosphoric acid ..................................................... 26
Bone meal ................................................------ 27
Acid phosphate ..---............------...------------------------- 27
Other sources ............-...-.........---..-------------------- 27
Remarks on commercial fertilizers ............-----------....... .-------- 27
Who shall mix fertilizer ..............-...... ..---------------- ------- 28
Fertilizer formula ..................................---------------------- 28
Amounts of different fertilizers.--................... ..-------. -------- 29
Home-made fertilizers ...........-- .....----------------------------- 29
Mulching .... ......-....... ......................----------------------- 30
The land.............-- ..... .......................----------------------- 30
Clearing .---....--.. ...------....------...----..--------------------- 30
On the Keys..-..................----------- --------------------- 31
Laying off the land .....---.........-............-------------------------- 31
Planting .......--...--- ..--.......... .....------------------------------ 32
Time of planting......-................................--- -----... 33
6iltivation -........-................-..-...--...----- ------------------. 34
Avoid breaking the leaves....--................---------------------- 34
Irrigation...--..---....................-..........-------------.--------- 34
Canning ................ ... ............................. -- ... ..---...... 35
For general market- ....-......................----------------- 35
For home use.............t---..--...-.. --...-------------------. 36
For flavoring .--.....---..--.......---------------- ----------... 36
For medicinal purposes......-.............--------..... ----------- 36
To prepare for table use .....................-.......-... ...-.----------- 36
Sliced.....................---------..-------------------------- 37
Dug out .......---------.............----------------------------------- 37
Shredded......- ...-..-....---- --------------------------- 37
To flavor other fruit..--....-- ........------.--------------------- 37
Diseases, insects, and injuries ..........--.......--------------------------- 37
Blight; wilts-..-....-....................-- -- .----------------------- 38
Fruit mold...............---...-...--.... -------------------------- 39
Mealy bugs .............---------- --------------------------- 39
Red spider (Stigmaeus floridanu Bks.)........-- ..-- .....------- ..------ 39
Pineapple scale ........... ..-------------------------------------- 40
Spike; longleaf .........--- .....-------------.----------------------- 40
Sanding ................. ...-------------------------- 41
Ift -s------------------------------
Ripley spike; going blind..----..-....--.....--------.---------------------- 42
Tangleroot..-.............----..----------------------------------- 42
Blackheart ...............--------------......------------------------------- 42
Pineapple sheds.......-------........- -------------------------------- 43
SCost of shed---.............---..- --------------------------------- 44
Trees for shade ........... ..........-------------------------------- 45
By-products ........-....... .--..---. .. ..----------------------- ------- 46
Marmalade ......---.........--- --------------------------------- 46
SPineapple fiber................................................ -------------47





ILLUSTRATIONS.



Fig. 1.-a. Pineapple sucker, trimmed ready to set-..............-......-... 33
b. Base of properly trimmed sucker........................----------. 33
2.-The base of a pineapple leaf, showing the effect of red spider's work. 40
3.-Tangleroot.......---------------.- ------------------------- 43
4.-Pineapple shed built of boards and planks, showing road at left,
ways in foreground running at right-angles to road............... 44




F


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY,
Washington, D. 6., August 1, 1901. .
SIR: I transmit herewith, and recommend for publication, the man-
uscript for a Farmers' Bulletin on Pineapple Culture, written by
P. H. Rolfs, pathologist in charge of the tropical laboratory of veg-
etable pathological and physiological investigations of this Bureau.
Respectfully,
B. T. GALLOWAY,
Cht.kf rT' Buratu.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
!,.c&retaryl f Agriculture. c










CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI. 33

whiteBly Aleyrode.s. About the same time the writer dis-.
covered a fungus Sple,'os'ilbi coccophiila, parasitic upon San
Jos6 scale. This discovery was not accidental but was the
result of giving a considerable amount of time and study to
determine the cause of a natural mortality among San Jose
scale. The observations were published, and were received
with an unusual amount of incredulity.
F !FUNGI WIDELY USED IN FLORIDA.
Nowhere else in the world have fungi been so widely and
successfully used for the control of insect pests as in Florida.
I have already called attention tothe fact. that climatic condi-
tions are especially favorable to the spread of insect diseases.
Peculiarly enough, the particular forms of insects which are
most advantageously controlled in this way are very abun-
dant in the state. The species are numerous and the indi-
viduals belonging to the species are likely to be present in
excessive numbers when conditions are favorable to their
health.
The rainy season occurs in the summer time when the tem-
perature is highest, producing an atmosphere that may be
likened to the air in a moist chamber. The condition of
growth of the trees is likewise such as to produce an abundance
of shade and further reduce the evaporation that would occur
from radiation. With the intense sunlight comes abundant
development, of foliage. The sunlight, however, does not
become so severe as to be a deterrent to the development of
foliar spread. Under these natural conditions the introduc-
tion and dissemination of fungi become an easy matter com-
pared with the conditions in regions where the atmosphere
may be dry during the warm portion of the year or cold
during the moist portion.
These natural conditions being present and favorable to the
growth of fungi, the experiment station has encouraged so far
as possible the development of private enterprise for the dis-
semination of scale and whitefly diseases. During the spring
and summer of 1909 one man alone with his helpers treated
127,W00 citrus trees with Aschersonia spores to produce dis-
aes among whitey. This work was done under contract
it. two cents ,er tree treated. This, compared with spraying








be universally used depends entirely upon being able to distribute it
to all portions of the world at a price that brings it. within the pur-
chasing power of the inhabitants. As the transportation becomes
cheaper and more expeditious the area to be supplied becomes greater.
*uIn America.-During the time of slow sailing vessels and uncertain
railroad transportation the markets in this country were limited to the
Atlantic seaboard and the'ports of the Gulf coast. Since the advent
of the steamship and close railroad connection the cities as far inland
is Chicago, St. Louis, and Minneapolis have been regularly supplied.
From these as centers the secondary cities are furnished, but no special
effort, has been necessary to get rid of the fruit, so the inhabitants of
the smaller cities and towns rarely have an opportunity of' purchas-
ing it.
"The west. coast. of the United States is supplied mainly from the
Hawaiian Islands.-: : ..
In. Europe.-The markets of Europe are regularly supplied from
Madeira, the Canaries, and the Azores. Large shipments are also
made annually from Jamaica; Trinidad, the Bahamas, and the West
Indies. Trial shipments have also been made from the United States,
and it has been fully demonstrated that the markets of Europe are not
'too far off nor too difficult to reach when the needs of the United
'States shall have been supplied. The common varieties and inferior
fruit will never be profitable for this maiiket, but we shall have to
produce a finer fruit at a lower pried thaniis produced in the Tropics.


The price paid for pineapples varies with the time of the year and the
market to be supplied. The fancy market will pay a handsome price
at any time for superior fruit. During the winter months the prices
are better than during spring, summer, and fall. The reason for this
is partly because the markets are full of other desirable fruits at these
seasons and partly because the supply of pineapples is limited during
the winter. Fifty cents apiece, even in Jacksonville, Fla., during the
winter is a common price for a pineapple that weighs 8 or 10 pounds.
Just before Christmas the prices run up to $6 and more a crate for fine
fruit. Christmas is a time of high prices for all rare fruits, and Lhese
prices must be regarded as somewhat abnormal.
SMedium-sized fine fruit brings a good price at all times, rarely less
than $2 to $2.50 per crate, while the small fruit sometimes sells too
low to pay for gathering and shipping. The product brought into
the markets for canning is usually sold in bulk, either by weight or
measure. :; : i
C' OST OF ONE ACRE.
Pigeapple growing as a systematized industry is so new that it
requires great care and constant attention to avoid failure. Enough








FRUIT MOL3D. :
Dr. Halsted, of the New Jersey Experiment Station, has found that
rotting of pineapple fruits was brought about by a mold known as
C7alnra paradox (de Sey.) Sac. While it is not probable that this is
the only one of the molds thatwill cause rotting of the fruit, it is quite
probable that the ordinary rots of apple and peaches do not cause rot-
ting in pineapples. -,
Remedy.-Exercise all reasonable care not to bruise the fruit nor
break the peetl. Before packing, the fruit should be allowed to become
thoroughly dry, especially the broken end of the stem. This usually
occurs in the field between the time of breaking and hauling it to the
shed. ':
All refuse fruit Ahonld be removed daily from the packing house
and its vicinity and the surroundings be kept entirely free from any-
thing of thatlkind. The refuse pineapples, crowns, leaves, and waste.
matter generally are propagating places for various molds, the spores
of which are liable to be carried to the fruit and wrapped with it
ready to induce decay on the first favorable occasion.
MEALY BUGS.
Apparently more than one species of this genus feeds upon the
pineapple. These bugs attack the plants at the base of the leaves,
usually underground. This insect is so generally distributed in the
pineapple section that the full damage it does is not appreciated. 'At
times it becomes so severe that the infested plants show a distinct dis-
eased condition.
Besides attacking the leaves, the fruit is also attacked, especially
among the slips and in the eyes.
Remedy.-It is generally supposed that ants distribute the insects
-mad 4he eggs, but this does not account for their appearance in new
fields. As it is probable that they are introduced with the plants,
special care should be exercised to secure plants free from this pest..
Plants that are suspected as being infested should be discarded or
dipped into a spraying solution of resin wash or kerosene emulsion.
In the field these remedies have not proved of sufficient effectiveness to
warrant their use. Some good can be done, however, in the field by
applying a handful of tobacco dust directly in the bud, if this be done
before the bloom begins to appear. This destroys some of the mealy
bugs and their eggs and it does the plant good in the way of a fer-
tilizer. For preparation of resin wash and :kerosene emulsi-on see
Farmers' Bulletin No. 127, by C. L. Maria tt
RED SPIDER (Stigmensu floridanus Bke.)
This spider mite inhabits the aseof the leaves belowthe green por-
tion. While the pests are present often by the hundreds, they are so









CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI. 35

ever, it is difficult fdr.the non-technical man to understand
that the processes must be carried out exactly as directed by
the scientific man. The laryman will not understand why
some other method, some short cut, which apparently accom-
plishes the same work, will not do just as well.
Another reason for the lack of popularity is the fact that
zealous people have over-advertised this method of controlling
pests. This is not so likely to be the case with the scientist,
since he is likely to undlr-advertise his discoveries, but the
popularizer of scientific material is likely to induce the layman
to believe that all he has to do is to introduce the fungus
spores and then go away and leave them, and the fungus will
,do the rest. These same persons would not be likely to advo-
cate that it waspossible to raise a citrus grove by simply sow-
ing a few orange seeds here and there in our pine-woods or
hammock, yet their imagination leads them to believe that
this kind of careless work will be all right with the "invisible."
Under the old methods when the difficulties of securing a
large infection were not well understood, it frequently hap-
pened that thlie introduction of the fungi gave negative results,
and this naturally led to condemning the method.
OPPOSITION TO THE METHOD.
At first glance it would seem.as though it was ridiculous
to talk about there being any opposition to this method of
handling agricultural pests. However, the scientist needs
but to start in the field and he will find that there is real live
opposition to it.
The advance agent of the spray manufacturer at once sees
that when scale insects are eliminated from the- grove by
natural means his sales of spraying machinery must neces-
surly lie reduced. Consequently he makes it his business to
repeat and re-repeat all the stories of failures and supposed
failure. It is not unusual to find a layman who considers the
introduction of fungus diseases a failure long before he infec,
tion has had time to kill off the first lot of insects that were.
infected, and long before the fungi have had time to fruit and
make secondary or tertiary infection.
Along it.h the spraying-machine man comes also the
-manufacturer of insecticides and hisneents. Theirbusinessis






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times called preserves." For preparing and preserving in thih-man-
ner see discussion under the head of Canning."
Pineapple fiber.-The plant after maturing a fruit gives rise to one
or more suckers and later in the season dies to become a waste
in the field. In this form it is of very little use except that it forms
a sliht, covering as a mulch. During the dry season it may even
become a source of danger from accidental fires.
The following quotation in regard to pineapple fiber is taken from
Mr. C. R. Dodge's paper in the Reportof the Secretary of Agriculture
for 1893, page 5S1:
Experiments with the fiber were only preliminary, but as fargas they went. were
most satisfactory. The fiber yields readily to machine manipulation and comes out
white and clean without washing by simply drying in the sun after being extracted.
The deeideratum is an economical means of extracting the fiber, and as there are
oveit?20,000 leaves to the ton it will be seen at the outset that the economical machine
will be one that takes quite a quantity of leaves at a feeding. The machine used by
the Department. at Cocoanut Grove was inadequate from the commercial standpoint,
as only a few leaves could be extracted at a feeding. It. produced almost perfect
fiber, however, and enabled us to attain the object of the investigation, viz, the
determination of the quality and yield, although without regard to cost.
There are said to be about 60 pounds of.fiber in a ton of green leaves-
about double the amount in a ton of green ramie stalks. The fiber
has many qualities that give it superior merit, and it will doubtless be
used some day in the textile industry.






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When the disease comes .to notice the fruit should b. consumed
as soon as possible. No attempt should be made to send' it to any
but the nearest markets.' There appears to have been more trouble
with blackheart during the-. :
winter season and during rainy ., A "
weather than in the summer and I
during dry weather.
PINEAPPLE SHEDS.
As early as 1886 M1r. William
Saunders (Reportt: of Depart-
mentof Agricultire, 1S86, page
691) reported the uie of a sort
of a protection built on posts in
the form of an elevated plat-
form and covered -with -palm -
(palmetto) leaves to protect
pineapplesagainst cold. It was
later discovered that the pine-
apples grown in partial shade
were more tender and juicy
than those grown in the open.
The desire to protect this plant
from the winter's cold seems to
have been the origin of our -
present pineapple sheds, though '
the protecting of pineapples by
sheds has now extended to theo
region where there is little dan-
ger of freezing. The value of
the half-shade condition in im-
proving the. quality of the fruit FG. 3.-.Tangleroot. (After Webber, Y. B., U. S. Dept.
Agr., 1895, p. 280, fig. G6.)
is now so generally recognized
thift this is the important consideration by many for building
sheds.
This is'not surprising when we remember that the pineapple plant
does best in those places that have a mean annual temperature of about
750, with the smallest annual variation, the islands of the tropics being
their favorite habitat.
These sheds rot.only prevent extremes in temperature but also an
excessive- evaporation; and, as Prof. Milton Whitney has shown, sheds
increase the amount of soil moiisture during a drought. As this way
of growing conserves the soil moisture, it in a way replaces irrigation,
but the two go together to produce the i nest types of fruit every year.









"be laid down. The distance from the market, the condition of the
weather, and the variety planted are all factors which must be:
considered.
Care in handling.-Handling begins when the laborer has seized the
fruit to be broken, and ends, so far as the grower is concerned, when
the fruit is on the railway platform or on the steamboat. dock. The
laborer who: goes among the fruit is usually provided with a pair of
leggings that reach above the knees and a pair of mittens made of
canvas.. .. .. .
He seizes the pineapple usually in both hands, and gives it a slight
twisting-bend to cause the stem to snap off a half inch or so below the
fruit "Breaking pines requires skill and attention. If the stem be
broken off too near to the fruit it is apt to rot in transit, ad if the
stem is broken too long it has to be broken again at the shed at a loss
of considerable time. Only the more intelligent and better laborers
are sent into the land to break or to cut pines. After breaking, the
pineapples are tossed to a laborer standing in the pathway between
the beds, who catches them and lays them down carefully. From this
place they are collected in large baskets or in field crates and hauled
to the packing shed.
In gathering sbme of: the fancy varieties the stems are cut several
inches long, the fruit taken to the packing house, and the stem cut
off even with the fruit. In some cases the cut ends of- stems are cov-
ered with paratfl n wax to prevent, as much as possible, evaporation and
the loss of.flavor.: Under proper conditions it pays to take all of these
precautions, but for the ordinary fruit the advantage gained would
Anot be worth the time consumed.
Grading.-At the packing house the fruit is sized and sorted.- Under
ordinary circumstances there are only two grade", 'fruits and culls.
It sometimes happens that the pineapple grower. has three grades 6n
hand besides; the culls-ripes, greens, and mediums. The first, grade
must be packed and sent out as soon as possible, either by express or
to some near-by market. The mediums allow more choice of method
of shipping and of market. The greens may be kept in the packing-
house: until they have ripened fo a suitable degree, oi they may be
shipped by freight to the most distant market ordinarily supplied.
In sizing, the fruit is known by the number it. requires to fill a half-
barrel crate, viz: 18's, 24's, 30's, 36's, 42's, 48's, and 54's. The last-
named-size is not crated unless the crop is very short. There is no
machine which can be used to determine the sizes, so this has to be done
by -guessing the grade to which the particular fruit belongs. The
laborer who does the sizing soon becomes expert at the practice, so the
wrappers find no great difficulty in packing the fruit.
Wrapping.-Pineapples thatareshipped in crates are usually wrapped
in some kind of paper, the grade varying with the taste of the grower




*4.


34

CULTIVATION.'''
in the sandy region of south Florida very little attention is directed
toward the matter of cultivating after the field has been set out. This
is by no means due to indifference or carelessness, but rather to the
result of years of experience. Many different types of labor-saving
implements have been used and nearly all possible ones have been
tried, but under the present condition of labor and profit ih the culti-
vation of this crop there will be very little change in the matter of
cultivation, simply because the present methods are the best under the
existing conditions.
Cultivation as it is now practiced consists in agitating the surface of
the soil to the depth of about an inch with a shuffle hoe three or four
times a year. Some planters hoe the pines as often as once a month.
The roots of the plants do not, penetrate the soil deeply. The soil is
made up of so large a per cent of sand that it can not bake or form a
.ard crust. While the hoeing would conserve the moisture to some
extent, it does not have so beneficial an effect as on clay soil.
As there are comparatively few weeds, they can be easily kept in
subjection by pulling them up.
On the Keys nothing in the way of cultivation can be practiced.
The attention given the crop there is restricted to cutting off such
large weeds and woody plants as happen to spring up.
In-Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands a different class
of soil is utilized for producing pineapples, and more attention must
be given to the cultivation of this crop. In all of these sections pine-
apple growing is still undeveloped, and consequently the cultivation
varied and often indifferent. In Jamaica implements that. might be
called plows are used as ordinary cultivators. This method should
reduce the cost of production to some extent, but cultivation is not
the heavy item of expense.
Avoid breaking the leaves.-During the growing season the leaves of
the pineapple plant are very easily broken. The peculiar and com-
plicated structure of the pineapple leaf makes it very resistant to
'drought, hut if the epidermis is broken it soon loses moisture to an
* excessive extent,-and damage to the plant results. Whatever imple-
ments are uAed or whatever operations are performed in the field,
special care mUist be exercised to avoid breaking leaves.

IRRIGATION.
Whether irrigation is profitable ori not must be determined on each
plantation and by each individual grower. Where the rains are well
distributed and abundant there may not be sufficient advantage from
the application of water during a short drought to compensate for the
costof an irrigating plant. Whare the grower has gone to the expense








.to appropriate them. It is: possible, therefore, that a particular soil
-.may have a large quantity of a certain element and yet be benefited
by an application of that element in a different form.
:n studying the effects of fertilizers it is always:important to take
into consideration the kind of soil, the amount of .cropping that "has
been done on it, the location, and even.the varying conditions of the
same field. Nor should too .much confidence be placed in the results
bof one or itwo years' experience. The pineapple soils of New Zealand
appear to be abundantly supplied with potash, while those in the
United States seem to be deficient in this element. There are, fields
that have raised several crops without the addition of this element
except in a limited amount in the form of cotton-seed meal or tobacco
stems. The latter substance contains a considerable quantity of- pot
ash, but in the cases referred to- it Was used only as'ii insecticide,
and, therefore, in asimall quantity. -

SCOMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. :-
The greater number of conmmercial-fertilizers are sold as complete
articles-that is, they are supposed to contain in proper proportion
every element of plant food that the particniar soil needs to make it
produce pineapples. "
The general reports as to what. fertilizers are the best are very con-
ficting, and even the reports as to what fertilizer elements are required
by a particular soil are not uniform. These conditions arise partly
from an imperfect understanding of what the fertilizer is supposed
to supply an. partly from the variable conditions attending different
applications. : .
The pineapple soil of'themainiland of Florida is so nearly sand and
insoluble matter that it is the ideal soil in which to experiment with
fertilizers on this crop. "
Time of applying.-The time of applying the fertilizer is by no means
well understood; so we may find people applying it at all time. of the
year with precisely the same end in view. Many growers prefer to
make one application during November or December and another just
after the crop has been gathered. Others make only one application,
and that. during the summer or in the early fall. Other growers make
three applications-one just after the crop has been shipped, the sec-
ond during the fall, and the third in the spring or winter just before
the blooms appear.: Even among the growers tbht niake the same
number of applications there is no uniformity. The practice among
the different growers is so variable that it is not improbable that a fer-
tilizer properly prepared may be used at any time of the year with
good results, although there inay be a time of the year or condition
of the soil when the fertilizers will prove to be of greater value than'
-'at any other time; also this tiiie must -be ascertained independentlyt







13

Florida pineapple soil is deficient in all the necessary elements- except'
*lime, and Table No. 1 shows that it is deficient in this element in the
favorite 'class of soil (yellow soil).

T.i~Bn No. 2.-Comparison of Floreda soils r;ith Hilgard's averages.

HBlgird's Florida pineapple 6i;li
Substance. average ofi --
u 1. Soils. Submils. Meanofall.
Prer cnt. Pcr ce.t. Per cent. Per c ant.,
Potash .............................................. 0.216 0.016 [ 0.0230 0.0199 ,
Lime ..................................... ............. .510 2.b03 1.5131
Phospbonr: acid ............ .......................... .l1 .0298 .049i .0393
Magnesiw ....................................... ... 5 251 .0 2 .0296
Nicrr:gen .............................................. ............ 019 .012 .0181

Table No. 3 gives the averages of the mechanical analyse of pine-
apple soils. The most striking peculiarity is the small amount of
- moisture and organic matter present. The small amount of moisture
'is doubtless dte to the small amount of silt, fine silt, and clay con-
tained in these soils.

STAiLE No. 3.-Mechanical analysis of soils arid sulz.o;l. (a)

WREL Palm Beach Rocklcdee spruce-
pineapple land. pine scruD.
Substance. S i ubi.il abiweil
S. OLI ( U i6 to >36 I$ .n oe t '6
6 inene, inches, 6 WCe-, iLrh6e
depuhof).depho.) depubo, 0.depo.

Moi-ture in air dried sample................................. 0.15 0.07 0.15 0.25
Organic manner ............................................... 1.21 .31 1.06 .45
Grarel (2-l mm.)....... .................................... .23 .06 .65 .66
Coarsesand il-0.mm.i....................................... 8.02 3.08 12.36 .9.07
Medium sand 10 5-0 25 mm. .................................. 61.11 57.50 41:42 32.58
Fine sand t0.25-0.1 mm.).................................... 33.76 37.78 -1.18 52.13
Ver ine sand (0 1-0.06 mm.).............................. .. 54 .59 2.40 3.26
Silt 0.05-0.1mm.)... .................................... .22 .07 .16 .23
FinesiIt (0.01-0. 5) mm.).................................... .06 .13 .06 .18
Clay (0.00uMt'.i0 mni ...................................... 0 .52 .35 .51

aDiyJion f Soils, U.S. Dept. of Agr., Bul. 13, p. 2a. (Averages.)

SHow it is that pineapple plants can grow and produce a crop on a
,soil that seems to be so deficient in the chemical constituents that are
necessary for plant growth has not been explained satisfactorily. It
is true that heavy applications,,of the necessary elements of plant
food-potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen-are made annually to
maintain the productiveness of the fields, but the quantities added in,
the form of fertilizers would not amount to.more than the chemists'
"trace" when compared with the soil in which the plants grow; that
is, the amount of these elements of plant food added in the form of
fertilizers is so small comparatively that the chemist would not esti-
mate it in the analysis of the soil to which it might have been added.
That this plait should need a soil of such mechanical analysis as is
shown by Table 3 is not so surprising when it is remembered that it







:29


AMOUNTS OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZERS.
The following statement shows the amounts of diferen fertilizers
that. should be used for an acre:
As sure of ammonia-
500 pounds blood and bone, or
:. 200 pounds dried blood, or
150 pounds nitrate of soda, or
-100 pounds cotton-seed meal, or
120 pounds sulphate of ammonia.
As source of po:.ta.h-
350 pounds carbonate of potash, or
250 pounds low-grade sulphate of potash, or .
120 pounds high-grade sulphate of potash, or:.
S: 120 pounds muriate of potash.
As source of phosphoric acid-
120'pounds bone meal, or
-120 pounds guano ( bird dung., or
120 pounds dried fish scraps.
If blood and bone he used as a source of ammonia the bone will
doubtless supply a sufficient amount of phosphoric acid.
If cotton-seed meal be used as a source of ammonia there seems to be
no good reason for-adding any substance to secure more phosphoric
acid; that is, cotton-seed meal and a potash seem to form a complete
fertilizer for pineapples.
If guano' or ish scraps be used as a source of phosphoric acid the
amount. of ammonia-furnishing substance should be decreased by one-
third.
From the experiments completed the indications are that the amounts
named in the foregoing table are approximately what. is needed on an
acre of a good quality of spruce-pine land. The substances thought to
be best. are named first under each fertilizer element. ,
HOMEMADE FERTILIZERS.
These usually include the manure from domestic animals and the
decayedmass from straw or other organic matter that has been col-
lected for other:purposes than that of the manure or fertilizer produced.
At times this vegetable and animal matter is collected on purpose for
the rotten material that it will produce. This material is sometimes
mixed or composted with commercial fertilizers to give to the material
the elements needed for plant food.
SThis kind of fertilizer is excellent for pineapples, but the supply is
,so limited that it is scarcely worth considering. When homemade
fertilizers are used the vegetable matter should be thoroughly rotted
before it is applied.
Eelgrass and seaweeds generally give good results especially if used
in a well-decomposed state. In most cases, however, therddVartagea









That land which never suffers from drought is apt to be too wet during
a rainy season, and there are very few fields that would not be bene-
fited every year by judicious application of water.
The cost of a shed prohibits its profitable use for the lower grades.
Common or small fruits will doubtless continue to be produced stead-
ily in the open field for many years. The average man will consider
it a better investment to put out 5 acres in the open than to put out 1
acre under shed, as the two investments are approximately the same.
It will be best to continue to produce a large amount of common fruit
as cheaply as practicable for the bulk of the market and some fine fruit
for-those who have the money and the inclination to pay for it.
Cost of shed.-The expense of erecting a shed will vary with the
location and the cost of the material and the labor. The maximum
cost should not exceed $600 per acre and it seems impracticable to erect


















FIG. 4.-Pjneapple shed built of boards and planks, showing road at left, ways in foreground running
at right angles to road. (After Webber, Y. B., U. S. Dept. Agr., 1895, p. 270, fig. 62).

a substantial shed for less than $325 per acre, even under the most
favorable circumstances.
The methods of building the sheds vary about as much as the
material at command will permit. All agree, however, in leaving as
much space between individual pieces of the covering material as that
material is wide, thus allowing one-half of the sun's rays to pass
through. This is. done merely because this happens to be an easy
way of constructing the cover. The cover should not be less than 61
feet from the ground and it is preferable to have about 7 feet in the
clear. If plastering laths are used the cover may be 6 inches lower
than when boards are used. (See fig. 4.)









and others hare washed the sand out by means of a jet, from a spray
pump. But these are slowand aggravating methods, and it is better
to avoid the trouble than to remedy it after it has occurred, although
sanding occurs at times in spite of extra vigilance.
To prevent sand from getting into the bud fill the bud with a mix-
ture of cotton-seed meal and tobacco dust. This will form a solid
cake and as the new leaves grow out, the plug is lifted and no harm
done to the plants. As the dews and rains dissolve the plant food it
is carried into the soil and the tobacco dust furnishes insecticide as
well as plant food. Mix about one part of tobacco dust to four or
five parts of cotton-seed meal.
Large suckers planted on the level are in no danger of becoming
sanded, but it will pay to make a similar application to them.
RIPLEY SPIKE; GOING BLIND.
Mr. Webber describes this disease as follows: "The diseased slips
and suckers, which appear perfectly healthy at first, grow vigorously
for a time, but finally throw out one or two rolled-up thickened leaves
from the apex, which .gcow out to considerable length, but retain their
thickened and rolled-up character. All growth of the plant nowceases
and it suckers from belowas if it had fruited. In some plantations this
disease of the Ripley Queen affects nearly one-third of the plants and
thus it becomes a very serious malady -if this variety is to be grown."
,Kept. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1896, p. 894.)
Remedy.-Mr. Webber's experience with the disease leads him to
believe that the disease is transmitted and that suckers from blind"
plants produce 63 per cent of diseased plants, while suckers from healthy
plants but from the same plantation, produced only 4 per cent of
liseased plants. (Yearbook, U. S. Dept. AgT., 1S98, p. 375.)-' Thede-
'ore, avoid planting suckers from plants that have gone blind."

TANGLEROOT.

This disease Will be understood by referring to figure 3. The upper
ind younger roots have wound tightly around the upper portion of
the stem. In the figure the lower leaves have been removed to show
this condition. The cause for this peculiar distortion is not -wel
understood.
BLACKHEARXU.

This disease manifests itself by the heart of the fruit taking on a
water-soaked appearance and finally turning dark. The fruit usually
becomes worthless before the water-soaked appearance has involved
the entire meat.
Cause.--The cause of the disease is not known, though what appears
to be the same condition occurs in Queensland, Jamaica, and the
United States.





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Notes on Citrus Investigation in Florida;

By P. H. Rolfs,
Florida Experiment Stlaion.

I. COMMISSION TO FIX A CHEMICAL STANDARD FOR THE DETER-
MINATION OF MATURITY OF CITRUS FRUITS.

During the year 1911, the Florida legislature, in its biennial
session, passed a law prohibiting the sale and transportation
of immature citrus fruits. In a general way this law has been
spoken of as the "green fruit' law."Proper penalties and
methods of procedure, as is common in such cases, were a por-
tion of the enactmenfi. The session of the legislature occurred
during April and May. At that time there was, of course, no
immature citrus fruit in Florida which was at all likely to be
shipped, consequently when this law came up before the legis-
lature no one in the state seemed to be particularly interested
in amending it or changing it in any way.
During May of that year the Florida Horticultural Society
was assembled in annual session at. Jacksonville. The ques-
tion came up on the floor of the Horticultural Society as to
what stand the organization would take in reference to the
"green fruit, law." 'The matter was discussed to some extent
on the floor but. there seemed to be no particular enthusiasm
against the passage of the law, everybody taking forgranted
that it would be a good thing to have a law that would pro-
hibit the transportation and sale of immature citrus fruit.
A resolution endorsing the proposed law was overwhelmingly
carried,and the actionof the Society immediately telegraphed
to the legislature as a further means of helping along the pas-
sage or the green fruit. bill.

THE CARRYING-OUT OF THE LAW.

SBetween the time of the passage of the lawand the time that
t.he fruit was maturing on the trees almost nothing was heard
in regard to this new law, but when the fruit began to mature
Sin the fall and the earlier varieties were arriving at thepoint
where they were about three-quarters grown, some interest











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STANDARD :ORB MATURITY OF CITRUS FRUITS.


Immediately upon appointment the various members of the
commission consulted literature on this subject, and brought
together all the technical information that could be obtained.
In addition to the published literature on the subject, the
commission had before it sixty-two analyses of oranges made
by a private laboratory in Philadelphia and two hundred and
eighteen analyses of oranges made by chemists in Baltimore.
After holding two meetings and discussing the matter.fully,
the commission made a report, to Commissioner of Agricul-
ture McRae as to its findings. The report had the unanimous
approval of the members of the commission. As it was, very
brief I will give the findings.
"First. All round oranges showing a field test of 1.25 per
cent or more of acid, calculated as citric acid, shall be con-
sidered as immature.
"Second. Provided, however, that ifthe grower (or shipper)
consider the fruit mature he shall have the right to appeal
from the field test to the State Chemist for chemical analysis.
and if this chemical analysis shows that the percentage by
weight of the total sugar, as invert sugar,:be seven times or
more than the weight of the total acid as citric acid, the fruit
shall be deemed mature.
Third. That the juices of not less than 5 average oranges
-shall be mixed, from which a composite sample shall be drawn
for the field test. -
"Fourth. That the juices of not less than 12 average
oranges shall be mixed, from which shall be drawn a composite
sample for laboratory analysis.'".
After securing these findings by the technical men compos-
ing the commission, a convention of growers was called, who
met in Gainesville, August 15, to receive this report. Pre-
vibus to the meeting of the citrus growers it had been gener-
ally held by those who wished to have a high standard that.
the ratio of acid to sugar should be one to seven. The com-
mission, therefore, introduced somewhat of a novelty in the
report when they found that citrus fruit may be considered
mature at any time when the amount of citric acid present
in the juice is less than 1.25 per cent. The citrus growers
were ready to accept the findings of the commission, but made
some amendments to the report of the commission T'he











S B.-P: .- -

SU."S. DEPARTMENT
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V.P. P.---.7


OF AGRICULTURE


+.


FARMERS' BULLETIN No. .40.












PINEAPPLE GRE WING.

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', -'_'_ ,- ., --';, ." '; i.'d'-" ,." ~ l

i


P.. ETER H. ROLFS,'
PATHOLOGIST, IN CHARGE OF TROPICAL LABORATORY,
VEGETABLEE PATHOLOGICAL. AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, :.
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.


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CONTENTS.


Page.
Introduction....------... -----....--.--------.. .........---------------. 5
Importance of the fruit ..-------------..............-------------- 5
The area...-- --------- ------......--...... -------------.. '5
Terms used on pineapple plantations ........-- .... ......---------------. 6
The pineapple family...-----...---...-...---....-------................--------...---------.......-------- 7
on --------n------------------------------------------------ 7
arises -- -..--........-------..-...............................---------------- 7
agarieties -----------.--.--..............--..--..-.....---------------...--------- 8
Description of 18 varieties-----...--------.........------------------... 8
Lines of improvement ..---..------.----.. ------.....------ -------------. 10
Climate ....------------..------.. -----................-------- ----..---- 11
Soil ,..--..... ....--- -.. .................-------------.. 11
Florida mainland .............-------.-----...-............--........---------.----------- 12
Spruce pine as an index...-----------................------..-------------.....---. 14
The Keys--------..........------ ...- ..--------------------- .-- 14
Porto Rico ---.--------------------..................--- ---- ------ 14
Hawaii..----- --..........----------- -- --................ -- ------ 14
Philippines -------........................----------------------------------- 15
Gathering ..------. ----... -..--..- ..---.----- ------...------------------ 15
Selecting .......----------- ---------------------------------- 15
Careinhandling----------------------- --------- ----------16
Care i handling ...------------------------------------------- 16
Grading ---------------......................---------------------------- 16
Wrapping ...........-------------.............---------------------------------- 16
Pakin .........--..---..-...........................------------------------------------ 17
Ses-----............................---------------------------------------- 17
S hes ------------ -- -- 17
Shippin c-------- ---------------------------------- 18

InBy express---- .-...-...................------------------------------------------ 19
In brage .. ---..........-----.--..--------------------------- ... 19
y ere ....... --..------------------------- ---- --------------------- 19
Co A esto ri ----.....---...-.. ------------------------------- --. 201
In Europe .............................--------------------------------.....-..----. 20
Markets --------.------------------------------------------------------- 19
In c mericas .---------..-----------.--. ----------------------------- 20
In Europe g.-------------------.------------.------- ------------ 20
PricesA-----*ni....-.--------------------------------- --------------------- 20
Cost of acre ..... ....--......---------- ----------------------------------- 20
Starting without capital.......-------------------- ..------------------------ 21
Fertilizers ........----- --------------------------------------- 22
Commercial fertilizers .........----...--- ..-----.......--.-------------. 23
Time of applying-...---.... -------.-----.. --------------------- 23
Ammonia--.---....--...----.......-------------------------------- 24
Cotton-seed meal..........--- .............-- -- ....--------------- 24
Dried blood-----..--....-------...........-------------------------------..... 24
Blood and bone ..- ......-------..-.. ....----------..------------- 24
Nitrate of soda ...-......... ..................................--... 25
Sulphate of ammonia --..--... -..........-..--.......------------- 25
Potash----------------------------------------------------------- 25
Kainit ------------------------------------------------------- 25
Carbonate of potash ------------------------------------------- 26
Low-grade sulphate of potash ----------------------------------- 26
High-grade sulphate of potash...........--..----------------------------- 2
Kainit........................................................... 25
Carbonate of potash ................................. ........... 26
Low-grade sulphate-of potash ..................................... 26
High-grade sulphate of potash ................................. ... 26
Muriate of potash .----....--... ......-----........----------------- 26
Ashes ..................-----.. .....----------------------------- 26
3










36 CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.


necessarily interfered with as soon as the natural methods for
the control of scale insects are advocated; and since the profits,
especially on the proprietary brands of insecticides, are quite
considerable, they naturally believe that handsome stories
must be told to keep up the popularity. of their particular
brand.
Singularly enough, from.a source entirely unexpected.
opposition comes from old-line entomologists. For the most.
part these men have been trained in regions where climatic
conditions are not favorable to the introduction and spread of
fungus diseases of insects. The literature has been pretty
thoroughly reviewed by them and studies made of the situa-
tion, their deductions being based on experiments and work
done under conditions quite different from those occurring in
Florida and to some extent along the rest of the Gulf Coast.
These entomologists, as a rule, come into -the field_in' a scep-
tical state of mine, if not indeed in a prejudiced one, and not
infrequently miss the point altogether by their want of famili-
arity with the fungus side of their question.
Under the conditions it has been necessary for the experi-
ment station, practically single-handed, to disseminate the
information and to establish this method of handling scale
insects and whitefly. Like all other methods of handling
these pests it must be used with discretion and with knowl-
edge. There are conditions under which the method will
succeed only indifferently and Where lhe artificial methods of
control should be used.







46

any apparent bad effect and with considerable protecting influence.
It is not probable that such conditions would continue indefinitely,
since the fertilizer applied to the pineapple plants would sooner or
later draw some of the feeding roots of the tree to the surface, and
thus divert the fertilizer applied for the use of the pineapple plants.
Besides the fertilizer taken from the soil, the trees absorb mor'or less
moisture, which would be of some detriment to the crop during a dry
season, at least.
That trees and shrubs have a bad effect upon pineapples under cer-
tain conditions can not be' denied. Pineapple plants set out alongside
of a strip of woods show the bad effect very soon, but this difficulty
may be remedied by digging a trench between the native growth and
the pineapple plants. This cuts off the feeding roots of the trees and
keeps them from taking the plant food and the moisture from the field
crop.;
-Mr. 0. F. Cook, in Bulletin No. 25, Dihision of Botany, United
States Department of Agriculture, brings forth very strongarguments
for the belief that the good effect produced by planting trees in coffee
plantations is to be accounted for by the fact that nitrogen-gathering
trees, such as belong to the order Leguminose, add fertility to the
soil rather than by the direct effect of shade upon the coffee plant.
The writer has seen pineapples growing under royal ponciana trees
without bad effect upon the pineapple plants. That shade is desirable
for the production of the best fruit of pineapples seems to be well
established. 'If in addition such trees as the rain tree, the royal pon-
ciana, etc., can add sufficient nitrogen to the soil, it will greatly reduce
the cost of producing the finer grades of this fruit. The building of
sheds is the greatest expense, and, aside from plants, the cost of ferti-
lizer- the 'next most important: consideration. If, therefore, a shade
can be produced by the use of leguminous trees, as the rain tree or the
royal ponciana, and they at the same time supply the amount of
nitrogen needed, it will greatly reduce the cost bf producing the liner
varieties of pineapples.: '
SBY-PRODUCTS.
The industry of raising the fruit for market is so remunerative that
no earnest attention has been given by the pineapple growers to the
use of the by-products.
Some attention has been paid to the preparation of extract for fla-'
voing and for medicinal purposes, but this was not for the purpose
of using up a waste product, but for the direct profit of selling the
extract. The pineapple digester, mentioned on a former page, is an
indication of some of the uses t6 which the surluis fruit may be put
if there should occur an oversupply.
Marmalade.-Small fruits and ill-shaped and defective specimens
may be prepared and worked up into marmalades, or what is some-









needs and special localities. By growing the finer varieties under the
sheds and selecting from these the hardier strains,'more perfectly
adapted varieties will be obtained. '
The eighteen varieties listed by the Florida State Horticultural
Society'in 1900 are all of foreign origin. The report says:
The Red Spanish, Porto Rico, Abakka, and Smooth Cayenne are grown most
extensively for market. The Egyptian Queen, Ripley Queen, Blood, Pernambuco,
and Sugar Loaf are grown less extensively. In the numerous and expen-
sive shedded pineries of Orange County and the West Coast, which are cultivated on
the intensive system, the Smooth Cayenne is planted most extensively.

LINES QF IMPROVEMENT.
With a fruit so nearly perfect it would seem useless to attempt any
improvement, but there are several directions in which there might be
a change for the better. The new environment has laid the species
open to new enemies and to new methods of attack from diseases, but
this will be discussed under the heading of diseases.
--Many of the finer varieties have originated in the glasshouse, and,
having become accustomed to glasshouse conditions, are not profitable
in the open or under sheds. Such varieties need to be changed.by
selection or crossing until they will become productive in the open.
This can be brought about only by patient work and careful attention
to breeding. Much of this work has already received thought and
careful attention from this Department.
In the case of the Red Spanish the line of improvement will be in
securing larger fruits and a better quality. The general method
adopted for setting out fields is not conducive to the production of
the best strains of a variety. As a rule the prospective planter buys
the plants by the thousand, either delivered or at the railway station.
The man who sells these plants is interested only in keeping his field
properly stocked with plants and then to deliver them at the least
expense to himself. This method of selecting gives the advantage to
specimens that bear a small fruit or none, because the plant being less
exhausted by bearing a small fruit is able to produce more suckers
and of a larger size than the plant that has been reduced in vigor by
bearing a large fruit. Thus, in a measure, have the pineapple growers
been selecting from the inferior plants and starting their new fields
from them. Since the demand for plants of this variety has been
practically supplied, there is an opportunity to improve it by judicious
selection.
The use of the proper fertilizer ingredients will likewise do much
to improve not only the appearance of the fruit but also the taste.
Some of the varieties produce an abundant crop, but the fruits are
either so small, or so uneven in size, that a great deal of care is needed
to grade the crop properly, and even then much of it has to be thrown
out because it is too small to pay to ship, and .becomes a total loss.









keep the wind from blowing the plants over. This is not necessary
except in exposed fields and should be avoided if practicable.
Crowns are not utilized extensively for planting because they are
shipped with the fruit and it requires a year longer for them than for
suckers to come into bearing. In the vicinity of canneries they might
be used, but as a rule they are not worth the cost of saving. They
are set out just as suckers are, but there is less danger from sanding
and from being blown over.
Slips are usually so small that they are used only in the higher-
priced varieties, or when plants are scarce. They are treated very
much as the sucker, but need much more attention and care. They
can not be set more than 2 to 4 inches deep, and even then there. is
danger of their sanding or being blown over. It usually takes slips a
year longer to mature a crop than it does well-matured suckers,
though large slips planted at the right time may mature a crop in
twenty months.-












a b
Fia. 1. a, pineapple -ucker trimmed ready lo set; 6, base of a properly tunm= d uc ker. (After H.J.
Webber, Y. B. U. B. Dept. Agr., 1895, p. 279. Fig. 66.)
Seed is used only for experimental purposes, like originating new
varieties. It is said to take these ten or twelve years to mature a
crop.
Time of planting.-Plants may be set out at any time during the year,
but the favorite' time is during the fall after the suckers have made a
good growth and are somewhat hardened off. If set at this time of
the year they will make considerable growth during the fall months
and early winter. If set at the beginning of winter a considerable per
cent. may be lost. from various causes.
If there should be suckers fit to set out during the spring the pine-
apple grower should not permit any avoidable disturbance at that
time, because it is the time of fruiting, when the plants need every
advantage possible to produce the finest fruit. Practically the time
for setting out pineapple suckers is limited to the season from July to
November, and in a more limited way to the 1st of February.









One of the causes for this has been indicated in the above sugges-
tion regarding the improper. selecting of: plants. Again, it nay be
due to; carelessness in fertilizing. When it is due to unfavorable
weather there is some difficulty in remedying the matter. .
There is room for improvement in the quality of most. of the varie-
ties. In many of the fruits of the more hardy varieties the central
stem is large,-leaving considerable waste. This in itself is not so bad,
but it is usually accompanied with a coarse fleshy portion which char-
acterizes the inferior pineapple. The best remedy for this is to dis-
card all plants producing such fruits..

CLIMATE.
To the general observer it may seem that a climate whose temupera-
ture never reaches the freezing point is all that is necessary to pro-
duce pineapples, but when the matter is studied more closely it is
found that it requires more than temperature to produce pineapples.
A matured leaf will lie upon a table in a dwelling for two months
without decaying or drying up, but it. will rot in less than two weeks
if it be placed in an atmosphere saturated with moisture. Pineapple
plants may be shipped from the Hawaiian Islands to Florida if they be
kept dry.,. This fact merely indicates that. the healthy pineapple plant
does not suffer seriously from ordinary.dry weather.. It is one of the
class of plants that prefers an alternating dry and wet season.
The culture of this crop should not be attempted in a latitude Tvbere
winter frosts occur unless one is prepared to provide the proper pir-
tection. All of the region in Florida north of Palm Beach and Fort
Meade are subject to occasional winter freezes which cause' great
losses to the pineapple growers unless their fields are protected by
some artificial means. In this region there are some favored localities
that did not suffer during the recent severe freezes.
Neither does the pineapple flourish in the extremely hot portions
of the globe. Its largest acreage is confined to the islands or to the
seacoast.
S The best pineapple region in the world has a mean teiperatlre of from 75 to
;80. Key West, off the coast of Florida, has a mean annual temperature of about
76"; Jupiter, in the midst of the pineapple region, about 73'. The mean annual
temperature in a large part of the pineapple section of Florida is thus comparatively
low.'


The proper selection of soil for pineapples is.the most important
problem in connection with their culture. The requirements of this
plant in this respect are so different from the ordinary fruits that it
took many experiments to convince the would-be pineapple'grower
I Webber, H. J., Yearbook U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1695, p. 373.








years they will be rotten and-the pines will have spread over the place
previously occupied by the stump. So much of the cultivation and
other operations is by hand that not much interference with the work
results. After the grubbing has been done and all visible obstacles,
excepting the large stumps mentioned, have been piled up they are
burned. This clears the field of nearly every vestige of wood or other
material that would obstruct working the field. The land is then plowed
deeply and carefully, and the plowing locates any roots or stumps that
may have been missed in the first, work, especially the roots and under-
ground stems of many vines, such as the china briar (Smilar sp.),
gopher apple (Chrysobalarnus), and- perennial -herbaceous plants that
happen to be dormant at the time of clearing. The large quantity of
this material taken out at this time is burned when sufficiently dry or
-when convenient. If the pineapple soil contains much vegetable matter,
which is an unusual thing, it. is better to remove the trash from the
pineapple field before burning it. Usually there is nothing in the
pineapple soil that can be damaged. Finally, the land is-raked over
with a wooden -hand rake to take off the last vestige of trash or ash
piles that. might prove an obstruction.
The cost of clearing pineapple land varies with the character and
amount of growth. Poor pineapple land has been cleared for as little
as $8 to $20 an acre and land with a heavy mixed growth may cost for
clearing as much as $80 per acre. The average land will cost some-
where between these figures for clearing. Where the land is rocky
in addition to the native vegetation the cost of clearing is greatly
increased and may amount to as much as $200 per acre. :
On the Keys.-The method of clearing on the Keys is very different
from that on the mainland. Here is a coralline-rock foundation with
little or no soil upon it, so that plowing and grubbingare impracticable.
The pineapple grower therefore cuts the vegetation during the grow-
ing season, and when it is thoroughly dry it is set on fire. This burns
all the cut material and destroys most of the remaining vegetation.
While this method of clearing is very simple and primitive it is the
only one practicable. There being only a small amount of vegetable
matter or soil present the field becomes exhausted soon. The land is
then thrown out to be reclaimed by nature and a new field is cleared,
which in turn is thrown out when it becomes exhausted. This proc-
.ess can not, be continued indefinitely, since the area of the Keys is
limited.
LAYING OFF THE LAND.
After the field has been thoroughly cleared it is laid off into land
of widths to suit the purposes of the planter. A favorite distance,
where the field is extensive, is to lay the lands off about 60 feet wide.
This leaves a distance of about 30 feet for the man who breaks the




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which the pineapple belongs.' Insect Ife, appears to mention only
one insect that attacks this plant.
The reason for this immunity is not altogether clear. It may be
accounted for, in part, at least, by the fact that the plant has but
recently been introduced on an extensive scale into field cultivation.
To this may be added the fact that the plant is radically different from
any other in cultivation, so that insect migration or fungous infection
from .othbr crops is greatly reduced. Ordinary insect and fungous
pests are not adapted to live on pineapples.
On the whole, it is best not to take care of diseased pineapples, but
to discard them and start with vigorous plants. It, will be more
profitable in the end.
BLIGHT; WILTS.
SThis disease manifests itself by a.change in the color of the leaves,
beginning at the tips and extending gradually dowmwaird.- The tips
of the leaves wither and dry up. Usually this blight.begins with one
or a few plants, and gradually the extent of the area is increased.
Cause.-According to Mr. Webber, a root-inhabiting Fusarium-like
fungus seems to be the cause of the disease. This would account for
the progress of the disease in the individual plant and its gradual
spreading from one plant to another adjoining. It seems to attack
all varieties of pineapples, but the fancy kinds are attacked the most.
Remedy.-The disease being due to a fungus that lives in the soil, it
is impracticable to use the ordinary fungicides for remedial purposes.
These, especially Bordeaux mixture, have been used with no apparent
beneficial effect. So for as fungicides are concerned they must.. be
considered as of little or no value in connection with this disease of
the pineapples.
SIt has been recommended to take up the affected plants and cut. off
all the lower portion of the stem until, no more black or dark root
ends are visible, which seems to indicate that al diseased portions
have been cut ofl; then strip off the leaves as for setting out and reset
the plants. This seems to be the only method known that will save
diseased plants, and this will not pay for any but the higher-priced
varieties.
The usual method of treating a blighted spot-is to remove all the
plants- affected and also some plants beyond those that, show blight,
then fertilize the spot thoroughly and set out to vigorous suckers.
There does not seem to be much danger from this disease holding over
if all of the affected plants have been removed. It is well, however,
to remove a circle of plants beyond those showing the blight, since
some plants in this adjacent area may be infected and not show it.
Such a plant would become a new focus for dissemination.









:(5)) BLACK PRINCE, fruit medium size,, conical shape, orange-yellow color, fine
S quality, ripens in midseason, not prolific nor a vigorous grower.
(6) BLOOD, fruit small size, red-orange color, good quality, ripens in midseason,
vigorous grower and quite prolific.
(7) CROWN PaINis, fruit of medium size, conical shape, orange-yellow color, of
good ciuality, ripens in midseason, moderately rigorous and fairly prolific.
(8) CHARLorrE ROTHSCHILD, medium-sized fruit, conical shape, orange-yellow color,
quality very good, ripening in midseason, vigolous plant andfairly prolific.
(9) EGYPTIAN QUEEN, fruit of medium size, conical shape, yelow color, good qual-
ity, ripening early, a vigorous grower and prolific.
(10) LoRD CARRINGTON, medium-sized fruit, yellow color, conical shape, good qual-
ity, ripening in midseason, moderately vigorous and fairly prolific..
(11) PRINCE ALBERT, large sized fruit, orange-yellow color, fine.quality, ripening in
midseason, a vigorous grower and produces a good crop.
(12) PoRTo Rico, very large fruit, orange-yellow color, variable shape, good quality,
ripening in the early part of the season, produces a very large plant, fairly
prolific.
(13) PERNA.\TBoO, small fruit, of fine quality, fairly vigorous and a heavy cropper.
(14) RED SPANISH, fruit medium-sized to small, form somewhat variable, cone-
shaped, color reddish-yellow, fair quality, ripens early, a vigorous plant and
a prolific cropper.
(15) RiPL-E QL'EEN; medium-sized fruit, conical shape, fie quality, ripens late and
fairly prolific.
(16) SMoOTH CAYENNE, large sized fruit, orange-yellow color- very good quality,
ripens:in midseason,;a vigorous grower and prolific cropper.
(17) SuoGA Loar, samll fruit, yellow color, quality very good, ripenslate, moderately
Vigorous and a fairly prolific cropper.
(18) ENVILLE, medium-sized fruit, orange-yeillw color, fair quality, ripens in mid-
season, moderately vigorous and fairly prolific.
The Red Spanish is undoubtedly the most extensively grown in the
United States and may be considered as the standard variety for field
culture. It is also grown under pineapple sheds, but sheds should be
planted to varieties that produce larger" fruits that sell for ia higher
price, such as the Smooth Cayenne: Pineapples, like other fruits, have
varieties that seem to be better adapted.for particular localities. Some
of the varieties that prove successful under glass are failures when
taken to the fields, while the pineapple shed seems to furnish conditions
midway between the glasshouse-and the open field, and thus proves to
be a suitable place for some of the less robust varieties.
Mr.TWebber, in his study of the effects of freezes on this plant,
makes the following statement.:
Little difference could be observed in the hardiness of the different varieties other
than that due to difference in size. The large plants were usually) the least injured.
This the Porto Rico, the largest variety grown, was probably the least inj ured. The
Abakka and the Red Spanish probably come next in the order of size and consequent
injury, but the difference is very slight.'
As all of our varieties are introduced, we may expect great improve-
mient by way of breeding new varieties especially adapted for special

'Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1895, p.-171.
100-49-No. 140-06----2









small that the amount of' food they take from the plant, must be
regarded as insignificant. The individual specimen is barely visible to
the average unaided eye. The damage is brought about, however, by
their opening a way through the epidermis for the entrance of rot
fungi. To discover the presence of this mite, pullout one of the outer
leaves of a suspected plant and- brownish areas will be observed if the
mite be present (see fig. 2). After the mite has attacked the plants for
some time the leaves rot off at the base, the mites haviiig migrated to
fresh leaves, followed in turu by the rot, until all the leaves of the
plant have been cut. off and the plant practically killed.
Remedy.-The remedy for this is so simple and effective that this pest "
is no longer a serious enemy. An application of tobacco dust in the
bud is usually effective. If one appli-
cation fails to kill all the red spiders, a
il second application in two weeks rarely
'I i fails to complete the destruction.
S I I1 PINEAPPLE SCALE.
This insect (Diapis bromdilr) is trou-
'I 1blesome in the drier districts, but rarely
does much damage in Florida. It has
i been found repeatedly on plants im-
ported from Hawaii, and has been dis-
1 .,seminated to many parts of Florida, but
I has not become troublesome excepting
W\ r gi.fl in a few places and in some greenhouses.
R emedy.-Dip plants as for mealy bug
I or, if present in the field, spray with
Sresin wash or kerosene emulsion, using
only so much as is necessary to cover
the insects. (See mealy bug, p. 39.)
Fio. 2 -Base of a pineapple leaf show- SPIKE; LONGLEAF.
I ng the effect of the red spider's work.
(A.ter Webber, Y. B. U. S. Dept. Agr. These terms are applied to a peculiar
1., p. 282, BR. 67.) T e term-
., growth of the plant, in which the leaves
grow long and narrow-and the edges are inclined to roll in. In severe
cases the leaves stand nearly erect and remain so much rolled up that
the- new leaves have no chance to unfold. In addition the leaves are
apt to be rigid. The roots are few, but appear to be normal.
Plants badly affected with spike do not grow out of it. They rarely
produce any fruit, and that not of a marketable quality. The disease
is transmitted to the suckers or other plants produced by sp.ky
parents. In severe cases no reproduction occurs, hut the plint
lingers for two or three years and then dies.












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failures.have occurred to show several, ways in which we should not
g,o ,but.as a whole the most desirable plan has not been reached except
by a few. men. The markets are still able to take all the good fruit
.offered at a price that leaves some compensation.to the grower. The
question,. then, of financial success is not so.much of. being able tosell
a good:product as to produce one.

The outlfa per ucrrt.
Cost of land.......................................... $1.50 to $80.00
C'o-t of cleariug..................................... 20.00 60.00
CoEt of planti.'.... .............................. ..;.. 25.00 800.00
For fertilizer-................................. 20.00 150.00
.Freight, express,;etc......................... ..... 20.00 80.00
Labor .......................................... 25.00 75.00
Shed ............................................... 325.00 600. 00
Total ............................................. 436.50 1,845.00
This. estimate does not include the salary of the superintendent.
The first column is about as low as one would be safe in estimating;
while the amount might easily exceed the figures in the second
column.'
The receipts.
S For plabts........ ...................................... $ 00 to$.1,500
From frui. ............ ...... ............................. 150 750
:Total...................................... ............ 150 42, 250
The amountgiven in the second column has frequently been exceeded.
abd, under what appeared to be very favorable circumstances, an
amoniit less than that given in the first column has been realized from
the sale of products from an acre.
In Porto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, and on the Keys the largest
item of expense, the shed, is not incurred. To produce good fruit,
such as is'demahided by the fancy markets, the cost per acre can not
be reduced below $100. If the soil be fertile enough to grow a crop
without fertilizer the cost of clearing will be greatly decreased.
From the figures here given it will be seen that it requires consider-
able capital to grow pineapples extensively.

STARTING WITHOUT CAPITAL.

The figures seem almost prohibitive to many farmers, but it has been
demonstrated repeatedly that a willing laborer may become a pine-
apple grower. The absolute outlay in money may be reduced to the
cost of the plants, the cost. of the fertilizer, and the cost of land. This
puts the cost for the first year at about $50, and to carry this forward
to the ripening of the first crop about $20 more should be added,
making an outlay of $70 to produce the first crop on an acre. In the
pineapple-growing section of Florida there is sufficient demand for
o I- 0 =--4 1 !-;









for each section and possibly for each field. It, does not now seem
probable that any fixed rule will ever be formulated for this operation
that will not involve considerable loss at times.. Experiments.will
doubtless be able to demonstrate what substances are best, for -pro-
ducing certain kinds of fruit, but' the. amounts of those substances
dissipated or wasted by conditions not under control will not be
determinable. In addition to this, there is an amount of fertilizer
and a kind of fertilizer that will produce a maximum of plant growth
consistent with the best economy.

AMMONIA.
..The terms nitrogen and ammonia, as used by the fruit growers in
connection with, fertilizers are nearlysynonymous, the only differ-
ence being that a fertilizer which contains 5 per cent of ammonia,
when expressed in the term of nitrogen, contains about 4 per cent
(4.059 per cent.) of nitrogen.. When th eterm.ammonia is used it does
not mean that the nitrogen present is there in the form of ammonia,
b it. it is simply a way of designating the amount of ammonia that
would be present if the nitrogen present were,combined with the nec-
essary amount of hydrogen to produce ammonia. Tle .fac.t,that larger
figures are,required to designate the amount in the form of ammonia
than in the. form of nitrogen has had something to do with the general
introduction of the term.
Cotton-seed meal.-This substance is used mainly for its nitrogen con-
tent, though it contains a small percentage of potash and phosphoric
acid. Some land, especially new land, is capable of producing a first-
class crop.with no other fertilizer, but it, is quite probable that nearly
all Florida pineapple soil needs potash, and possibly phosphoric acid
in addition, to produce a maximum crop. As a substance t b.e dropped
into the bud of newly set pineapple plants to furnish a small amount
of fertilizer and to protect the buds against, sanding, it is preferable to
anything else now in use.
Dried blood.-The nitrogen content of this substance is quite high,
running from 10 per cent.to 14.per cent.. The amount of potash and
phosphoric acid present is so small that it is usually not considered,
The nitrogen from this source is liberated somewhat slowly, which is
a point in its favor. It contains from two to two and a half times.as
much nitrogen as cotton-seed meal contains, a consideration not to be
overlooked; for all the fertilizer has to be applied by hand and shipped
a long distance. It may be applied directly into the bud without haim
to the plant. As a fertilizer it possesses all the advantages that cotton-
seed meal has and is more concentrated.
Blood and bone.-This fertilizer as found on the market contains an
indefinite amount of dried blood mixed with ground bone and fre-








belongs to a family a large per cent, of whose members are epiphytes,
i. e., grow upon other plants but. do not draw nourishment from them.
Spruce pine as an index.-The inclination of the earliest pineapple
growers on the mainland of Florida was to experiment with pines on
the low islands east. of the Indian River, which were thought to resem-
ble the Keys more closely than the mainland. As they produced
excellent oranges and large crops of vegetables, it. was but natural
to -consider them a proper place to grow all crops for profit. After
numerous failures on the islands it was discovered, almost by accident,
that. the spruce pine land on the Indian River contained the soil best
adapted to the growth of this fruit.
--The land with a yellow subsoil and covered with spruce pine mixed
with a fair sprinkling of hardwood. such as hickory and scrub oak, is
considered as made up of the ideal soil. In the interior of the State,
where more careful attention is, pid to the matter of irrigation and
drainage, ordinary high longleaf pine land is used with good results.
On soil with a hardpan subsoil it is necessary to bed the land up so as
to insure prompt drainage during rainy weather. Any soilfor condi-
tion that will hold water around the roots of the pineapple plant is
certain to end in diseased fields and cause disappointment.
The Keys.-These are islands near the coast of southern Florida.
They have a low altitude, often rising only a few feet above high-
tide limits. They have a coralline foundation, making a rather
Sporous substratun. Some of these Keys have large areas that are
nearly ideal as a pineapple habitat. ,The proximity to water keeps
down the high temperature in summer and their nearness to the trade
winds induces a dry winter. Inmany cases soil, in the ordinary sense,
can not be said, to exist. In some instances the pineapple planter is
obliged to choose the spot that has enough decayed vegetable matter
to hold the plant in place on the coralline rock. The greater part, or
nearly all, of the plant food is located in the small quantity of decaying
vegetable matter; consequently it is soon exhausted. The question as
to the best method of making these exhausted fields again productive
has not been determined. The method usually followed is to abandon
the worn-out field and clear new one, but as nearly all of the available
land has been cropped or is under cultivation it will be necessary to
find some way of making these abandoned fields again productive.
Porto Rico.-The largest variety grown in the United States and
Porto Rico originated in the Porto Rican islands, where a large por-
tion of the soil is suited to its growth. According to Dr. S. A. Knapp,
in his Report on the Agricultural Resources and Capabilities of
Porto Rico. 1901 (p. 23), this fruit may be grown in all parts of this
territory. The fertility of the soil will enable planters to grow pine-
apples there for an indefinite time without exhausting its resources.
Hawaii.- "In these islands the soil and climate seem to be as nearly
right as could well be expected." According to. Dr. William C.









labor to more than keep a man while he is growing his first crop.
Another plan adopted is for two persons to form a partnership, one
.working to supply the needed' cash while the other grows the crop of
pineapples. After the first crop has been produced the increase in
the number of plants will permit the extension of the area as rapidly
as financial conditions will allow. The one great drawback, to the
average man's succeeding in pineapple growing is that the returns
come in at one time and during a short period. So it is a case of
labor and wait for about eleven months in the year for the returns
during the twelfth month. The character of the pineapple land does
not permit many other-crops to be grown upon it successfully; conse-
quently the greater number of pineapple growers have to depend on
this crop alone. -
FERTILIZERS.

This term is applied to manures or substances used in the place of
manures. Those that are put up and sold on the markets are known
as commercial fertilizers. The most difficult, problem in connection
with the commercial growing of pineapples in the United States is the
proper use of commercial fertilizers. The chemical analyses of pine-
apple soils show conclusively that something must be added to the soil
before it can be productive (see pages 12 and 13). A soil so nearly devoid
of all the elements necessary to plant growth would, at first sight, be
considered the most unreasonable place to plant anything, but the
pineapple, and other fruits as well, are made up of about 90 per cent
of water, and less than 1 per cent. of them is made up of the mineral
matter which is added as a fertilizer. The amount of nitrogen
(ammonia) is also very small. Since these elements that have to be
supplied do not cost a prohibitive sum and water is free usually,
the need of commercial fertilizers becomes an advantage rather
than a drawback. Plants will take up almost any soluble matter
present in the soil at their roots, so that if a pineapple is placed in asoil
which is naturally fertile this will absorb the plant food regardless of
the fact that it may make the fruit insipid or nearly nauseous; but if
we have a soil in which there is no such matter to be taken up we may
supply those substances that will give the fruit the desired flavor and
keep it from ripening flat and insipid.
There is considerable land. that produces good pineapples without
the use of any fertilizer, but, it appears that the best and finest pine-
apples and likewise the largest crops are produced on land that has to
be heavily fertilized. Soils that are normally fertile become deficient
in some one or more of the constituents necessary to make them pro-
ductive. The soil need not be entirely deficient in the amount of the
elements required, to be unproductive, but these elements may be
.present,in such a combination that the particular plantmay be unable








12

that he has here a plant that demands a soil utterly intolerable to the
ordinary crops of vegetables. This crop can be grown:upon land that
will produce ordinary vegetables, but the soil must be of a loose and
open nature and not allowed to become water-soaked. It is not the
fertility nor the humus in the soil that is detrimental to the pineapple,
but, it is the want of free drainage.
The soil prepared by the gardeners who grow this crop under glass
illustrates this point. Their standard formula is about as follows:
Two parts decomposed fibrous loam, one part well-decayed manure,
another part one-half inch bones and pounded oyster shells. From
this it is seen that even where the control over temperature and
moisture is the most perfect the texture of the favorite soil is open
and decidedly loose. The directions for watering are fully as inter-
esting: Moderately in winter and freely in summer."
Florida mainland.-The soil of the Florida mainland will be consid-
ered first, as it is more thoroughly understood than that of any other
region. The following tables of i'ue chemical analysis' of some typical
Florida pineapple soils are exceedingly interesting, especially so from
the fact that they show the soils deficient in every constituent that is
thought to be a necessary element of plant food:

TABLE No. 1.-Chemical analiis ro prieappl eodr, Brevard County.

Type of s.il. Field Pa h S Pametto Yelow sl. White ,oU. en
8a.r.s-rob. ub -o-l.
SSoil Sol1 Soil SubEoil Soil uibs,:il SUi Subnr.il ISutS oil
Station number ........... 12 13 21 22 39 4' 11 35
Coarse earth............... 21.00 24.90 3.20 4.0 11.40 7.90 12.20 5 *.' 11.70
Fineearih................. 7.00) 7.5.10 96.80 96.00 88.60 9. 10 7.)0 91.80 89.20
Bumus ................... 2 .21 .71 .02 .18 .02 .16 .01 12
N'troagn ................... 137 .0(r2 .072 .0121i .0182 .000 0042 .01 .000
Moiarure at l C ........... .4000 .204 .4Mi .31 i 1820 10u 40-L) OO J 26 .


FINE EARTH.
Insoluble residue...........
Potash (K:Oi..............
Boda (NaO )................
Lime (CaOi ................
Magnesia i'MgO) ..........
Ferric cidd ( Fe-(.O) ........
Alimina (AI~CO) .......
Pbopphorus pinljxidtP .O )
Chion ...................
Sulpbur riosxid itOi)......
Carbon dioxid (CO, .......
Waterand organic matter.


97. 05 %5.2100 92. 635 862.&'0 97.'2875 7. .4 5 95.64B1 99. _4K 98. ^40
.00t. .0111 .0612 .05M4 Trace. ('77 .0.31 .0c'48 Trace.
.0510 128 .1911 .21 .16 .09 .6 0714 .0344 .076L
.210() .10?5 2 2325 7. 52)50 .0100 .0000 .uOUO .0000 .W00(
.02-a .0099 .027 Trace. .0Ouu .0i1 .0:34 .00S .0243
.2315 .1312I .61, .125 W.n .h &;t)' .1470 .31S0 .775j
.U lG; .U0 6 1 ** 7'146 .4011 .132 ..3 .3'63
.0336 .0192 0544 .OG72 .0116 '637 Trace. .0 10 .0112
Sra(-. Truce. .00W6 Trace Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace. Trace.
.014b .0103 Trace. Trace Trace. .0060 Trace Trace. Trace.
.0(0 .00u. 1.600 b.'2t .0l .0O .Ort .i (0(l 0l .(H00
1 7990 1.3127 2.8461 3.5500 1. 6(0 A(W0 .7060 .160 6250


Total ................. 100.000 u00.000; 00 100. OO 001K 100. 18.1 99. 9810 99. s j2 100.078 o100.1064


Table No. 2 compares the Florida soil with Hilgard's average. Dr.
Hilgard obtained this average by combining 466 analyses of soils from
the humid portion of the United States. He came to the conclusion
that. a soil which contains less than one-tenth of 1 per cent of either
lime, potash, or phosphoric acid may be regarded as deficient in that
particular substance. Referring to Table No. 2, it is seen that the

S ; ':'Persons, A. A., Bul. 43, Fla. Agr. ExL. Sta., p. 664






dd 18













,~. :-.. {, R ." ..,, :_
4 'r, ).( "
L iQ za^,.,<. /'* 9i




... f ". ..1. ,. /" '. ; .1, ..:.. .-.
1- A '- ,
/ ^-^ ^f<^u ^ ^ ^ -,.. ^,
'-;. ^ ^;' :V ^ !!:*: ). -? V .








the growing of any but the more prolific and coarser varieties. The
-fruit produced on the Keys was shipped in this way until quite recently.
-It was loaded into small sailing boats and taken to Key West or'some
other near-by port, and there packed for the regular market or loaded
onto larger vessels and taken to Northern markets and sold in bulk
4t canneries or to men who reshipped it to the consuming markets.
This method of shipping is not only unsatisfactory, but very liable to
lose a large part of the shipment.
By freight.-The bulk of the cropgoes into the market as freight.
For this purpose special trains are put on to pick up only pineapples.
These trains start out early in the morning, but since there is a sid-
ing" or depot every. mile or two in the pineapple belt it is ,well into
the heat of the day before the train begins to make much headway.
After the train has gotten out of the pineapple region it makes good
time, so that there is no great loss, ordinarily, from delay in forward-
ing by freight. ,
:.The, railroad laborers are -incl ed to handle the crates of fruit
rather roughly, but the growerecan minimize this by his presence and
-attention. The crates are so packed in the car, if it is a through car,
as to give considerable ventilation. This, together with the spaces
between the slats of the crate, allows the moisture to escape to some
" extent, and so keeps thlfruit dry and from sweating eve6 though the
Weather be somewhat warm. .
By express.-This is the ideal way of shipping, and although expen-
sive, is still in many cases profitable. Pineapples that are too. ripe to
go forward by freight may be shipped by express. The fancy varieties
that command high prices are usually permitted to develop until quite
;ripe before ,gathering, and such must be forwarded in the most expe-
ditious way possible, ,Where they are bought directly by the con-
sumer they are scarcely more expensive than those shipped by freight
and obtained from the dealers.
COLD STORAGE.
SExperiments in keeping pineapples in cold storage in this country
seem. to be wanting. It seems, quite probable, however, that this
method may be developed when the fruit shall become sufficiently
abundant and the cold-storage plants sufficiently numerous.
The experiment has been tried in New South Wales and reported
upon favorably. Since this fruit may be obtained at all times of the
year no great effortin this direction need be expected until the demand
shall have been supplied during the season in which the greater part
of the crop ripens.
*,MARETS.
With increased facilities for distribution the markets are being
greatly extended. %The question of nlkingi the pineapple a fruit to










34 CONTROL OF INSECTS BY PARASITIC FUNGI.

with insecticides, was a very light cost, since spraying t.he
same trees wit h insecticides would have cost about twenty-five
cents per tree. During 1910-11 we do not have the record as
to the number of trees treated, but it. would go up into the
millions .
The introduction of fungi for scale insects is carried on in
a somewhat different way from the introduction of the fungi.
against whitefly. Diseased scales are introduced into healthy
colonies. This can be most: easily accomplished by trans-
ferring sprigs or pieces of branches upon which diseased scales
occur. Placing these in contact or.nearly so with the healthy
scale readily transfers the disease, while rains, dews and other
conditions do the rest.
Naturally in the introduction of diseases there is an oppor-
tune and an inopportune timeatwhich to do the work. Under
advantageous climatic conditions little difficulty is inexperi-
enced; under adverse climatic conditions the work has to be
repeated. The experiment station has carefully worked out
the details connected with the successful introduction of the
various fungi. At times rather long periods occur when the
fungi are not. readily introduced, or there may be other condi-
tions existing in the grove which militate against the rapid
spread of the insect diseases. During such periods it becomes
important to use the ordinary artificial remedial measures.
As these details, together with the names of different species
of fungi, as well as the names of the species of host insects,
occur in the experiment station bulletins, I will not burden
my hearers "ith reciting them here.

REASONS FOR FAILURES.
The most important and serious reason for failures with, our
work has been lack of scientific knowledge as to what condi-
tions were favorable and what were unfavorable for thie rapid
development of diseases among the insects. There is: no
difficulty in securing the infections, though often in this line
the beginner has more or less trouble. After studying the
question for a decade aria half or more, and doing so in a
technical and systematic way, many, facts have been brought
together. These can now be so formulated that the average
layman can make use of the information. Many times, how-









tury. It is now grown by all the leading nations, either in glasshouses
or in the open. In many instances it serves as an ornamental plant.
Outdoor cultivation of pineapples in the United States dates back to
186i. According to: Tayloror efforts were m-adeas early as 1850 to
'grow them in Florida, but for some reason they failed.- It. is ndw
known that';'mire' than freedom from frost is required to grow pine-
apples successfully. :
S VARIETIES. '
Different markets require different kinds of fruits; not that dealers
disagree,a to .what constitutes a fine specimen, but that some markets
are able to pay for a first-class fruit while another market can afford
but a lower grade. The cauneries in the large seaport cities, of the
United States can pay only the lowest price, so that they are obliged to
use small fruit, or that from an overstocked market. For shipping to
European markets from the United States, none but the finest fruits
that will stand the voyage should be selected. With the increased
facilities Tor shipping by providing cold storage in transit and in erect-
ing cold-storage plants in the European markets, these markets will be
opened to our finer varieties of fruit in a more perfectly developed
condition., .
For distant American markets which have to be reached by express
.the medium sized fruit-about thirties-of the best shipping vari-
eti-s will be found the most useful. There an'e imany smallercities in
the United States where this fruit has not been in the n,' rket, and such
places will n6t pay a reasonable price for a superior fruit, but will pay
a much higher proportionate price.for a medium sized specim-r -.

-LEADIiNG VARIETIES.
STheinumber of varieties catalogued is not great, approximating one
hundred. Some of these names are synonyms and others: are known
only in glasshouse culture. .The pineapple, not. being propagated from
seed excepting for the purpose of originating new varieties, is a fairly
uniform plant in its varietal limits.
Description' of eighteen varieties.-The following descriptions are
-from the. report of the Florida State Horticultural Society,, 1900
(p. xvii):
(1) ABAKKA, fruit large size, oblong shape, orange-yellow color,.best quality, ripeffs
in midseason, plant :of, moderatevigor and very prolific.
(2) ANTIGUA, BLACK, fruit small size, oblong, shape, color orange yellow, best qual-
ity, ripens in summer, moderately prolific.
(3). ANTIGUA, WEITE, fruit medium size, round shape, yellow color, good quality,
ripens in mid season, a good cropper.
(4) BL.AC JA MAc., fruit medium size, oblong shape, orange-yellow color, goo(
quality, ripens in midseason, a moderate cropper.
'Taylor, Wmi. A., Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1897, p. 328.







30

from the use of these marine plants is not commensurate with the cost
and trouble of applying.
MULCHING..
M ost fnuit crops take kindly to a good coating of mulch, and the
pineapple is no exception to this rule. After the first crop has been
gathered most of the old foliage dies and makes a covering for the
soil. The leaves of the old plant do not die until the young plants
that have started from them have exhausted the old plants. By the
time the second crop of fruit is maturing the leaves of the plants that
produced the first crop form a considerable mulching.. To this will be
added from year to year the leaves and stems of the plants that have
produced a crop. In the course of five or six years this makes a con-
siderable covering over the ground or humic addition to the soil.
Any protection of the soil from the direct rays of the sun is a benefit,
but a mulching adds to the soil a small quantity of organic matter.
The beneficial effect of this is very striking.
STheapplication of organic matter for the purpose of mulching is
the exception. Mulching material is both difficult to obtain and haz-
ardous to use. The danger from fire is so gieat that no one. would
wish to apply it on a large scale. In some instances fires destroyed so
many plants that less than half the area burned over could be. set out
with the remaining plants. The cases referred to were in fields where
no mulch had been applied, but the fire caught in dead plants.

THE 1AND.
The places where this crop grows seem to be the nost unlikely ones
for [the cultivation of any fruit or vegetable. :-iThsis d-is btless-'the
reason for so many surprises in pineapple propagation. Its native
haunts appear to be in the shade of dry forests in some of the tropical
countries of America. Its near relatives live in moist atmospheres
but. in dry locations, in such places as on tree trunks and boughs, and
sat the feet of trees. .
Clearing.--One of the first requisites of the land is that it should
have a free circulation of water. The soil may become thoroughly
soaked, but-it must not be filled with stagnant water. Such land has,
.as a rule, very little heavy timber upon it, and so does not prove diffi-
cult to clear thoroughly, and when once cleared it does not send up
many suckers.
The Airstwork of clearing is to remove all large trees and shrubbery,
digging them out by the roots, or at least cutting the roots deep
enough under ground so they will not be struck by plows or other
implements. The stumps of the larger pine trees, especially if they
are over 10 inches in diameter, are usually left. It does not pay to
remove these unless more abundant than usual, and in three or four







18


pitch sufficient to cause the fruit to roll to the front of the table. These
tops may :be made of 1-inch stuff, 1, 2, or 3 inches wide, the upper
corners .rounded. These strips are fastened crosswise of the table and
covered with coarse cloth, such as fertilizer sacks are made of. On
the front of the table is an 8 or 10 inch board to prevent fhe fruit
from rolling off The width of the table varies to suit the convenience
of the packing house, usually about 40 inches.
The benches are usually built along the walls of :a shed at a siding,
on two or three sides, as: may be most convenient. Such sheds are
furnished by the railroad company usually,: or they may be private
property and located at a siding. During the shipping season work is
so pressing that it is not practicable for more than one grower at a
time to use an ordinary shed. The fruit from the smaller field has to
be hauled to the siding.or to a depot.
SHIPPING.
This fruit will stand more rough handling and keep for a longer
time than any other tropical fruit, that is transported in the fresh con-
dition. The length of time that a good pineapple will keep depends
greatly on circumstances but in a.dry atmosphere, such as an ordinary
living room, a fruit free from bruises may be expected to keep for two
or three weeks from the time it is picked for shipping. Its ability to
stand rough handling and its good keeping qualities make it possible
oewship it. toj.the centers of population of all the great nations of the
world.. Europe is supplied mainly from northern Africa, the Madeiras;
the Canaries, and the Azores; the eastern portion of the United States
is supplied from the West Indies,, the Bahamas, 'and:from Florida,
and -the western portion of the ,United. States from the iHawaiian
Islands. A large area of our country is still left unsupplied.
In crates.-The larger portion of the fruit comes to the market in
crates, and this.is the only way in which it should be shipped except
when the poorest grades, that are used for canning, are being bandled.
The crate makes a good unit for quotations, for transportation rates,
and for the commission merchants. It also gives the individual an
opportunity to establish a. reputation and the buyer a' good chance
to trace back any fraud that might be practiced by an unscrupulous
planter; ,This':, handy package" has done more to extend the trade in
fruits and vegetables than would' at first seem possible. The trade-
mark of a particular planter may at first seem a useless expense, but it
hasproved advantageous to many orange growers. In some cases the
markets know the trade-marks so well that the fruit sells upon them
without further inspection. Some of the orange growers have custom-
ers whom they supply directly; thus saving the commission merchants'
fees ahd having a definite market for their product. ; :
In bulk.-In the Bahama Islands and the West Indies the greater
part of the fruit is still shipped in bulk. This, of course, discourages









Cause.-No organism seems to be connected with. this disease. wIt
seems to be'due to a peculiar condition of soil or fertilizer.. A large
percentage of plants set. on shell mounds or soil that.has much shell in
in it are subject. to spike. They are also subject to spike if planted
over a rotting root or buried stump. Spots in fields where large piles
of wood.have been burned and the ashes not scattered are-also likely
to grow spiky plants.
Among the fertilizers which will produce 'spiky plants are ,aod
phosphate, kainit, sulphate of-ammonia, and cotton-seed meal. In
fertilizer experiments carried out by the writer and referred to before
it was found that nearly all the plants in plots fertilized with combi-
nations of the above-named fertilizers became spiky in less than two
years. It is probable that aniy one of the above-named fertilizers
might be used in other combinations and in small quantities without
bad effect. Cotton-seed meal has been used for years on certain fields
with no bad effects, but such fields were not destitute of other ele-
ments necessary for the use of the plants. Sulphate of ammonia has
been used in combination with other fertilizers with apparently good
effect. Acid phosphate and kainit produced more or less spike in
over three-fourths of their combinations. ,
Remedy.-There is no practical remedy for this condition and the
only escape is to avoid it. All spiky plants should be destroyed, so
as to prevent any possibility of transplanting any suckers with a spiky
tendency.
Avoid planting on shell soil.. :
If plants show any tendency to become spiky the greatest bare
should be exercised in the use of fertilizers. A liberal application
ay.ebe made of.bone meal, blood and bone, or dried blood, which
seem to be the best forms of ammonia. The potash should be applied
with some degree of caution; carbonate and low-grade sulphate are
believed to be the best forms. Frequent. working with a shuffle hoe
seems to be advantageous in a spiky field. Plants showing a tendency
to grow spiky bshoud be treatedpromptly. .. .i;.;, -i

SANBlDING.
* Newly set pineapple plants are somewhat slow in beginning to grow,
especially if a dry spell follows immediately after they are trans-
planted. During this time the wind is liable to fill the buds with sand
and it seems to have a smothering effect. Subsequent rains beat it in
harder and aggravate the matter. If the plants be set a little too deep
the sand is liable to wash into the bud and then to form the same kind
of a plug.
Remedy.-Sanded plants are difficult to handle successfully. Some
pineapple growers have used hand bellows to blow the dry sand out,









plied. .Two conditions-plenty of cheap labor and plenty of cheap
pineapples-are necessary to successful pineapple canning. :
For home use.-The pineapple is easily canned for home use. The
peeling is removed carefully, the fruit quartered or sliced, and the
core taken out.. The cans, preferably glass jars, are filled with sec-
tions and boiling sirup poured on to fill the jars. These are then set
into.a kettle of boiling water for fifteen or twenty minutes, then they
are removed from the kettle, and the cap, which, with the rubber, has
been sterilized, screwed on.
Anoth6i way is to prepare as before and boil in sirup for fifteen or
twenty minutes, then fill into scalded glass jars and put the sterilized
rubber and screw-cap on as before. This is more easily done than the
former way, but there is more danger of introducing live germs.
For flavoring.-For thfs purpose the pineapples are secured as fully
ripe as practicable. The peeling and slicing is done much as for can-
ning. The sections are then ground and put up in cans or jars of suit-
able size. Just as little cooking as possible is done when the fruit is
intended for flavoring. To avoid sterilizing by means of heat, pre-
servatives of various kinds are used to preserve ground fruit. For the
cheaper trade, such as the soda-water fountains in villages, this ground
fruit is put up in small tins holding about half a pound. For the
larger trade it is put up in larger cans, and for the best trade in glass
jars. This method of putting up fruit for flavoring is reprehensible,
and even small quantities of the preservative such as may be consumed
with each glass of soda water are likely to produce bad effects, especi-
ally on children and invalids. Even healthy persons would probably
'suffer certain injury if small quantities of this preservative were con-
sumed by them daily for any considerable length of time. The fruit
to be used for flavoring may also be prepared by treating the ground
fruit in 'the same way as the sliced fruit. This has the disadvantage
of losing a part of the flavor, but more of the product may be used
and thus avoid the bad effects or the chances of ill effects of the pre-
servative used.
For medicinal purposes.-It is well known that, this fruit contains an
active principle called "aannasine," which possesses active digestive
properties. Advantage has been taken of this fact in the manufacture
of pineapple digester and in separating the active principle for medi-
cinal purposes. ;
TO PREPARE FOR TABLE USE.
While canned pineapple may be used when the fresh fruit can not
be obtained, it is only an inferior substitute. To secure the full benefit
of this fruit it should be allowed to ripen fully, preferably on the plant.
No matter how daintily a pineapple is served it is not quite equal in
flavor to the dead-ripe fruit just picked from the plant and eaten out
of hand.








Stubbs, it is "extensively cultivated, nearly every small farmer having
a patch." 1- It is alsoreported that the plants have escaped from culti-
vation and are growing wild. The fact that plants may be shipped
from the Sandwich Islands to Florida and sell for less than the home-
grown ones illustrates the fertility of the soil and the suitableness of
the climate.
- Philippines.-" In -Niihu and the Philippine Islands,. where pine-
apples succeed well, the soil is disintegrated lava covered with a layer
of humus. There is but little cohesion in such soils, particularly
when, as in this case, they contain considerable lime. When clay is
present it is said to be important that. it should not be so abundant as
to hinder root penetration or to hold the soil- water, but a certain
amount to increase the water-holding capacity of the soil is apparently
very desirable."2
To be successful in growing this crop it is necessary to be thor-
oughly acquainted with the needs of each individual field. Thisinfor-
mation can be obtained only by continued experience on the particular
fields. In all sections there are spots in the fields that are liable to
peculiar diseases, elevations that suffer during long droughts, or
depressions that hold water too long during rainy weather. There
are also variations due to gradations in the composition of the soil.
GATHERING.
It is not an. unusual experience for the agriculturist to do all that is
necessary to bring a crop to excellent.maturity and lose it all or in part
for the want of proper handling at the time of gathering. In:no line
of work is it, more necessary to pay the closest attention to details in
gathering than in growing tropical fruits. This operation is the one
most directly under control, and yet it is the one most liable to be
slighted. I:t is the operation in ihvich judgment plays the most
important part. It can not be learned except by experience.: ._ :
-Selecting.-The fruit should be dry when gathered. The first actin
gathering is to select the fruits thought to be ripe enough to reach the
market inw the best condition; This is done by a laborer undei, the
direct supervision.of some responsible person who from time to time
instructs him as to whether to select more mature or less mature
specimens. The degree of maturity will depend upon the market to
which the product is to be shipped and to the manner of shipping,
whether by express, freight, orby water. In the summer, if the fruit
is to go forward as freight it is selected when it is just turning." If
it is to go by water it is selected a little less mature, and if by express
the fruit may be permitted to become quite well colored." The mat-
ter of selecting depends so much oh judgment that no fast rule can
SBul. 95, Office Experiment Stations, p. 39.
2 Webber, H. J., Yearbook U S. Department of kAgicultiire, 1S95, p. 273.









of erecting sheds it will doubtless pay to have a supply of water also.
Irrigating plants provided with spray nozzle and standpipes have been
used, but it is doubtful if this extra expense is compensated for. The
direct application of the water to the soil will doubtless prove just as
efficacious.
In the pineapple district of Florida droughts are liable to occur
between the time of blooming and ripening. Sometimes 4hey are of a
month or six weeks' duration, with a total rainfall of less than an
inch. The serious effects of a drought at such a time are very great.
These effects are here shown by a concrete illustration: An acre of
Red Spanish plants that. would produce 4,800 pineapples, 24's, would
make a crop of 200 crates and would sell for $650, or at the rate of
$3.25 per crate. The same fruit would not do better than to make 30's
if a long drought had occurred, and would sell for only $3 per crate, or
the whole crop of 160 crates for only $480. Thus, while there would
be a shrinkage of only 20 per cent in the number of crates, there
Should be a shrinkage of over 26 -per -cent. in- the returns from the
S markets.
CANNING.
Canned pineapple has long been known -as an article of commerce.
Most of the pineapples canned are foreign-raised fruit, being'imported
fresh or canned abroad and then imported, but mostly the former.
In-this form pineapples are known in nearly all of the cities and towns
in the United States.
For general market.-Large canneries use from 25,000 to 50,000
'pineapples per day. This means about 500 crates, or more than a car-
load a day, to run a canning factory of the size of some in the British
West Indies. The peeling and slicing are performed on -benches or
tables. The men in Nassau canneries receive about 50 cents a day,
the-women about 25 cents, and the children about 12. cents. In Poito
Rico and Hawaii it may be practicable to establish canning factories
for a large output, but in Florida, where labor is scarce at $1 to $1.25
a day during the pineapple season, it can scarcely be considered
opportune on an extensive scale at. present. Smaller factories that
put up other fruit during the year would doubtless be able to take
care of a smaller amount of -the.overripe pineapples.
The process of canning is not complicated, and is practically the
same as for other fruit. Of course, experience is necessary to suc-
cessful work. The fruit. is peeled and sliced, put into cans, and the
sirup added. The cans are then soldered and immersed in the steam
cooking or sterilizing vat. After removal from the vat the cans are
perforated to allow the steam to escape, and then the perforation is
sealed and the contents allowed to cool. The size of the cans and the
concentration of the sirup depend upon. the market that is to be sup-








quently with inert material to give it bulk. In using this substance
or mixture it is best to secure information as to its composition from
some reliable source. In addition to the value of the dried blood, the
ground bone contains some nitrogen and some insoluble phosphoric
acid, which the pineapple plant seems to be able to assimilate, at least
in a small degree. This form of fertilizer can also be applied directly
in the bud without injury to the plant.
Nitrate of soda.-This is a concentrated form of nitrogen. -When
applied it must be done with care, as it is quite caustic to the pineapple
plant, and if applied in- the bud is apt to kill it. As a source of
nitrogen it is quickly available and not considered lasting. If used,
a number of applications should doubtless be made during the season.
Large applications should not be made nor should it be left in bunches,
but distributed evenly and mixed thoroughly with the soil. When
pineapple plants appear to be growing too slowly they may be
"forced" along by an application of nitrate of soda. A little-experi-
ence with nitrate of soda and a knowledge of previous fertilizations
will enable one to use it to good effect. Some caution is necessary in
using nitrate of soda, as it produces luxuriant growth, but a tender
plant.
Sulphate of ammonia.-This is the most concentrated form of nitro-
gen that is used as a fertilizer. It contains about 201 per cent of
nitrogen. As a fertilizer for pineapples it. does not seem to produce
as good effect as-nit.rate of soda, and is usually applied in combination
with other substances; that is, as a mixed fertilizer.

S POTASH. b Vt
This substance is found in insufficient quantities in most of the pine
apple land on the South Atlantic seacoast. In the island pineapple
regions the soils have not been tested sufficiently to know definitely
just what is needed. In New Zealand the soil does not seem to be
benefited by an application of potash, and this will doubtless be found
true also in the Philippines and in the Hawaiian Islands or in other
volcanic regions.
Kainit.--This is a mineral substance composed of several salts in
combination as found in the mines. The principal constituents are
potassium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride, and a
small amount of potassium chloride. A strong objection to its use is
that it contains only a small percentage of potash, there being usually
less than 12 per cent. It does not seem to be the best source of
potash for this crop, but why this is so does not seem to have been
determined. The percentage of potash is too low to permit its use in the
greater number of mixed fertilizers. As a fertilizer, or an ingredient
to use in combination, it will be advisable to avoid it, at least for the
present.








Rhodes Grass'



Off. No. 252
Seed was received in; April '09, from Washington, D.C. S ed was.:
sown on April 12tn an.d good stand was obtained. By July plants
were about 3 ft. high. Bunches were well developed by August.
tr seeded heavily during Septeiriber. Was i il2ed to the ground by
37 deg. during December.*: Began to sprout in Marchi 910. Was
cut for nay in July, 3930, then 4 ft. high. H-~, was excellent.
Second cutting was made in Septelmber, auout 3 ft. high, aid.- in
Nov. it was in b3oomii a:aln. Was killed to the ground during the.:,:.
winter of 1910-11. Was 4- ft. high in June, 293], and was cut
for hay in July.,. Another cutting was made in October. It was
killed during the winter of 933-32. Young growth was killed
back by .3 deg. In March 19124. Was cut for hay in June, 193' :4
the fo]3owing summer (193 ) two cuttings were made but' trie hay was
inferior. .P3ar ts begaa to die .and were discarded in fa3l of 1935.

Off No. 3 629, S I.l 896 .
Seed was received 1: .Apri2,.8,1916, and, sown on April 26th.
Fair stand was. obtained; it was'in bloomi in July, and cut for hay;
another cutting was made in September. Tops were killed by 26
deg. in December and plants were killed to tne ground by 37-deg.
Feb. 3. and. 4, ..193 7, but roots were not injured. Began .to sprout
in March ( 7) .. :
A seconJi sowing wasmade from tthis seed in Julyr: 1936, .ut
stand ws poor. '

Seed of NQ.252 co3 ected on grounds was sown in 19.1., 3 91 ,:
and 1935. :; In 2931 an d 3914 sowings seed did not germinate pro b-
ably due to drought. The 3915 sowing was successful and a good.
stard was obtained.
T a mp a
Seed received from Crenshaw Bros. Seed.*Co./in 1914 .f ailed
to germinate..

'- .*:''" : :: :. .: :. .


.*












With the Compliments of

the writer









THE PINEAPPLE FAMILY.
,: This plant belongs to a very peculiar family, the Bromeliaceae, and
is the most important species in the genus Ananas. In its original dis-
tribution the family was confined to the Western Hemisphere, mainly
.to; South America, though the genus Tillandsia is represented by.a.
number of species in the Southern States. As a whole, the family is
either tropical or subtropical.- The long moss, or Spanish moss (Til-
landsia usneoides L.), is a peculiar plant common along the eastern
Gutlf and south Atlantic coast. This species of the pineapple family
grows abundantly in the moister localities of the above region a4id is
*largely employed in that section for making mattresses and stuffing
furniture. '
This family is characterized by plants of an epiphytic nature; that'
is. those that grow on other plants but do not derive nourishment from
them; but many of the species are terrestTial in their habits.' I
Florida they are frequently spoken of as orchids; doubtless due to the
popular belief that all epiphytes are orchids, which is incorrect. The
pineapple plant is terrestrial but might be looked upon as half epiphyte
in that it will remain alive for months without being in contact with
the soil. In contact with moist, loamy soil it soon sickens and dies.
It takes about four months from the time of blossoming to the
ripening of the pineapple. The main seasonjof blooming is during
January and February, though occasionally plants bloom through the-
entire year, the least number occurring in November and December.
Immediately preceding the bloom a number of bright-colored leaves
are produced as if to announce itsadvent. The blossoms proper occur
in a head springing from the center of the plant. Their color is usu-
ally a purplish blue, though there is some variation even in the same
vai iety. The blossoms though crowded into a head are quite distinct,
each having its own insertion on the central axis. Each blossom is
protected bya bract; The crown does not. develop until later and its
development does not depend upon the bearing of fruit.
The production of seeds in this fruit is rather the exception than
the rule. Some varieties produce more 'seeds than others. While
many of the species of this family have their seeds provided with a
pappus of down for transportation, the pineapple seems to secure its
dissemination.by means of the fleshy edible fruit.

EARLIEST CULTIVATION.
The discovery of the pineapple, as a fruit, was coincident with the
exploration of South America by the Spaniards. As early as the sev-
enteenth century it was cultivated in Holland and in England, but its
use was confined to royalty. Its cultivation in glasshouses did: not
become common in England until the beginning of the eighteenth cen-