This formation is oharacterised by the almost invariable
preaseoe of Pinus CllA u and which at the same times is te dominant
apciea. The number of species present is very small and all are
well adapted to a xerophlytic existence. In brief the scrub may oe
described as an inland or an extinct sand adne. The species peculiar
to the scrub are rinus Clouea, Quercus Myrtifolia, ceratiola ericoidea
and Oassytha filiformni. The latter occurs also on the pine woods
formation by attains its fullest development in the scrub. mere
ia parasitic cuscuta like species often covers several rods of
Moal8, or may completely envelope a tree.
4*2 General Conformation (oont) (2)
extreme cases may reach 15 degrees F, It rarely rizee above
95 degrees F. lith the extreme at 101 degrees. Throughout the
southern extremity the temperature rarely goes down to freezing
and rarely above 69 degrees F.
The rainlall for the northern section it rather uncertain as to
time eft-ccurrene. The average annual amount being about 50 inches.
ror the southern section, the average annual rainfall is about
Go indhes occurring mostly during the summer months. The fall, winter
S and spring months are usually dry. For these tne average is about
2 1/u incnes per montn.
SIf we keep the map of rlorid* in mind we will see that it it a
r broad peninsular with no elevations rising above M7b reet.
Sase gently, the climate cannot be influenced perceptibly by the
altitude. The state, however, stretches through 5 1/2 degrees of
latitude wnich has a very perceptible influence on t hevegelation.
The southern portion of the state is still further favored by the
presence of the iulf stream which flows along the banks and strikes
the coas t at attude 27 degrees. The soil is uniformly sanry.
Chrysophyllua mia"Mp mp "iu
Bumelia microha Small.
Calonyotion aouleatum (L.) small.
Solanum verbaaoifoliume. .
Capsicum frutescens L.
Lyoium Carolinianum Welt.
Psychotria tennifolia 8#7
Psychotria undata JaCq.
Baccharis haliwfifolia L.
S85 Cooos nucifera L,
831 Laagunoularia racemoea (L.) Gaertnf.
831 Gonooarpus errcta L.
834 Rhisophora Mangle L.
937 Rhabdadenia biflora (Jaoq) Muell. Arg.
1016 Av~oennia nitida Jacq,
Pteridium cawdatum (L.) Maxon
26 Zamia Floridana JpC.
27 Pinus Palustris Mill.
27 Pinus Elliottil Selng TH.
188 Stenophyllue Stenophyllus (~1I) Britton.
189 Dichromena Floridensis Britton.
222 Sabal megacarpa (Ghapm) aSall.
223 Serenoa serrulata (Mohx) Hook.
231 Xyris communis Kunth.
238 Laohlocaulon glabrum Korn.
273 Yucca filamentosa.l .
280 bmilax Beyriohli Kunth.
340 Querous pumils Walt.
372 Polygonella gra4ilia (Nutt) Meisn.
678 LeWcaena glauca (L.) Benth.
584 Cassia Bahamensis Xill.
609 CGacoa Floridana Vail.
824 Amarpha herbacea Walt.
628 Petalostemon carneus Miohx.
(2) Hammock (2)
The cabbage palmetto occurs rather commonly in tre nammocks
and in many cases becomes the dominant species and under certain
exceptional conditions may oe almost the exclusive aroorescent
representative as is shown by the four views taken in somewhat
widely separated portions of Florida.
closely allied and very similar to the hammock is the so-called
bay head. The dominant species are the same as in a hoammock but
the undergrowth is very different since the soil for a portion
of the year is under water. The shrubs in this area are various
species of fleex. 6phagaruum moss beds occur frequently/
The features present in the namnock are so radically different
from those present in the pine woods tnat-one cannot be convinced
easily that there is not a difference in soil or supply of
moisture or other physical factor that determines the presence of
the hard wood area. I have triea all along to bring out the fact
that there is a very s-uarp demarkationbetween the two plant
* formations, not only as to the species but also as to the behavior
of species that are able to exist in both formations.
ie have three very strong arguments in favor of our belief
that the soil is not responsible for the change in plant formation
The difference between the chemical analysis of hammock soil and
pine woods soil is no greater than the difference between analyst
of different samples of pine wood soil. The mechanical analyses
likewise gives us no constant difference.
By far the strongest argument that we have in favor of the
belief that there is no essential difference in the original.
~,, ~LclA1 4-c~r KLn-X~ I
J~~,~ ~, -d7S V 9/ /5~jL~L-~J
THE PINEY WO0DS.
The striking features of this area is as the name indicates the
pine woods. In the northern section of the state P. palustris is
ia the predominant species. One may drive or ride -nany miles without
seeing a single other species of pine. The long straigth shaftlike
trunk reminds one strongly of the former northern pine forest.
Heirand there occur ponds, lakes and streams. The ponds are occupied
by Toxodium or by NyWta, depending upon the character of the pond.
Along Vhe streams are found hard woods of various species.
Toward the south below latitude 26 1/2 degrees occurs the slash
_pine or Cuban pine, P. Elliottii. The general aspect of this is the
Same as that of its more northern corgenor, P. Palustria. In the
densest of these forests the undergrowth is almost entirely absent.
Throughout the entire peninsular region Serenoa serulata occurs as
one oi the undergrowtns. Pteridium condatum also come in as a p
prominent feature in the Pinus Elliottii forests.
It is difficult to estimate the total area of this formation
but it certainly covers 75 *0e"s of the peninsular if we except the
Everglade region. One rarely meets shrubs that grow more than.30 or
40 inches high and these are usually characteristics of this formation.
Wees where the species attain the size of trees in the hammock
formation they remain stunted shrubs in the piney woods. As illustra-
tion of this peculiar dwarfy effect we have retotium MWtopium,
which makes a tree often $0 or more feet tall in the hammock but
remains a shrub less than three feet tall in the pine wood. in the
latter situation it proauees a large stumplike growth from which
Gene al Conformation k2)
extreme cases may reacn 15 degrees F. It rarely rises above 95
degrees k. with the extreme at 101 degrees Throughout the southern
extremity tne temperature rarely goes down to freezing and rarely
above 95 degrees F.
The rainfall for the northern section is rauner uncertain as to
time of occurrence. The average annual amount being about 50 incnes.
For the southern section, the average annual rainfall is about
60 inches occurring mostly during tne summer months. the fall,
winter and spring months are usually dry. For these the average
is about 2 1/2 inches per month.
If we keep the map of Florida in mind we will see that it is a
Mather broad peninsular with no elevations rising above 375 teet.
Consequently, the climate cannot be influenced preceptibly by the
altitude. The state, however, stretches through 5 1/2 degrees of
latitude wnich nas a very perceptible influence on the vegetation.
The southern portion of the state is still further favored by the
presence of the Gulf stream which flows along the banks and strikes
the coast at latitude 27 degrees. The soil is uniformly sandy.
v f I AMMDCK.
This formation occurasas islands in the extensive piney woods
The areas are very sharply defined as a rule and nearly always of a
circular shape. The exceptions to this rule occurs when the
hammocks border a body of water. The pine trees are doubtless the
first to occur from a historic point of view. This seems to be
borne out strongly by the fact that the portion of the peninsular
that is geographically the oldest, contains the most extensive
hammocks. In the southern portion, on the border of the Everglades
the hammocks are very small rarely more than a few acres in extent;
while in the northern portion they extend for miles.
SPhytologically, the hammock is the richest formation. The
total area amounts to only a small per cent of the tote&, yet
contains more than 80 r cent of the plant species.
The most surprising fact is that the soil of the hammock
is no different from that of the pine woods, yet the effect on the
6 ,native vegetation is most striking.
SThe hammocks are characterized by the presence or broad leaved
trees, shrubs, and vines. Quertus Virgir!iana is one of the dominant
species. in the northern portion of the peninsula i:-few pine trees
occar in them but in the southern portion where the species of
pines are fewer, a pine tree is almost never known to occur in a
hammock. Pinus palustris, I'. Taeda, P. Clousa,and P.,lliottii very
rarely occur in hammock formation while P. Glabra and P. Echinata
rather prefer the hammook,
"ai' -*"/- '" r : !- '.- .*" 'it
altogether due tonthe isolation of ..geob plantationg, MM 460'sa
I .. population bas r1 ulated the -bu.lda Of t .00d 18
I -. .
.The expense of building roads .and of .a 'vemen .' .
.- : ai egaet due ontdho Isolao /in the long blun t ae bne oby. ragl .. ca '..
sinc'e''tbe h land- iss the Chief source from which the revenue, ethlk
S .. .'.,. .
SIn popular Is derived s In muitsd ultmate analysis the upbuBi.llo ,'-
Florida depends on the upbuilding of the soi, Bdore agrelo .ure
: .. .. -.. ,
.aly fuild uP a sollt hat would remain permanently productive.
S .:^ ,' : ;-' _.' *. .; .. .. ..-.-,, '*
'. .. '- -
,. ,.Aan- tn"n hs, ch tl ni- o tece n., o.. wh .ch. -anea .. ""
**- i o ain a s stiulte the -bu* 'in" d o *c15;' -'e.:
w i, ,,- .s t w.ll, call *for m r ro d s .. .. .* .
S.-' 4 S *
: *- ,. .-
d... d.ile on the opposite, side of the- E rth -
:*.-'- S i- ; ;- ..
-The University of PFlorida has for its Ideal the sera t g of
every man and woman in the State of ForPlda, It's ctj. tIt n
the educational line &re not limited to the hundreds ofu men -
oh tbe campus; but, through the Extension Division kit 4h s to
Sa atid thdusarids Of our citizens in becoming better en nd te,
Swomn., Last year the orespondehoe Dfoutse In Agric lt 9 b,.
.- ""- :. C'. '
an 'nro lment of over five hundred, At the lecture Of t bhei' s *
S.lstitutes duriLng the last three and one-half years'.there- hav 4
been 28,269 hearers. Tilae Lecture Bureau of the university aff oAd ."
Sto our sbpols5 Cities, towns and opportunitieBs to attend discourses'
^;;* on many important or interesting toplos of the day.
Sf, .. h eflnnaltams In attendaniot At ihese insti-
)' " or OontrQl- : ,
-'M -l.~ L taMattepdano@
.2i; an4 during -: .:
I--'4; -" ., ,'--i
S04 8 1 'Wh -
.ouA _d'ttho -. *--_3
,too s l c-lies, ownsand oppotunlte~s o a t~nhd sca-e -(V
J '' (soRUB (S9a l).
28 Pinus clausa ehapm.
823 Se2rnoa aerrulata (Mphx) Hook.
348 Querous myrtifolia wnld.
286 Ceratiola oricoides fhx.
822 Oassythe fillformni L.
881 Bejaria racemoea Vent.
Hydrocatyle umbellata L.
Gratiola ramona Walt.
Gerardia fasoiculata E11.
Utricularia oligorporma St. Hil.
Utricularia cair~ta Michx.
Lobelia gandulosa Walt.
Helenium Helenium (Nutt) Small.
Mesadenia lanceolata (Nutt) RIf.
CarduBs vitatus Small.
The ooast of Florida from latitude 29' on the east to 28' on
the west is practically lined with this growth. The plants belonging
to this formation not only occur along the sea byt extend up into
the brackish waters of the many estuaries. In many cases the
islands shown on maps are no more than acres of mud held in place
by the interlacing brace-like roots of Rhizophos Mangle. This species
st usually t e dominant one. ose nucf era is conspicuous below
lstitiade 25'. Other rather constant species are Laguncularis
ra acemosa, canocorpus erecta and Aricenia nitida. Rhabdadenia
biflora occurs as a very common liana,
S l.J Dryopterti patent (Sn) Kuntze.
15 Dryopteria unita (L.) Kuntre.
31 Taxodim distiohum (L.) L.t.Rloh.
39 Balas flexilis (Willd) Rostk.& Sohmidt.
1682 yperus panioulata Rottb.
175 Fuirena squarrosa Micht.
190 Schoenus nigricans L.
197 Rynchospora perplexa Britton.
199 Soleria verticillata muhl.
235 Eriocaulon Ravenelil Chapm.
288 Aletris brqoteata eorthrop.
307 Canna fla .da Hoscoe.
321 Limodorum Simpsonil (Chpm) Small.
340 Salix longipes Anders.
$62 Fious populina Willd.
450 magnolia Virginiana L.
784 Asoyrwm tetrapetalum (Lam) Vail.
820 Persea sp.
838 Ludwigia macrooarpa Michx.
raj. Ir ntocure
.. .. i :." .. ...... r: '> *v
i-n Florida The FaJme, si-. Institutes are really colleges of :..I
agriculture holding short sessions. The large' attendanop at
tie institute e s isa gu arantee that the worK e..-teff tiVe and 6Is
:i:t rairi opmea ,. -It ha taken more than :. cent,, .
Sof pioneer work to develop tho agriculture in'e t the 8taa itcce. ;S-a s
S I lnto a system The -scattered condition o0 the "armis, due teo;: -
lack of good roads and quick means of transportation "from onea ers ;
S debce to another : made farm life often rather monotbnous l and de den-.
-: The large inerease in rural populat lon has made it poss;bie
by b united effort -tor greatly: i prove the means of Yrapmunication-.
: God land is evertyhere bein pressed into t se rvice of a griculture,
iand larger crops are being demanded frrm there lnrd. d y the uts
.: '::/ :: : ..: '. -..-" : :" :" % ': .- ". '' * *' : "^ : ... .. : ":' .* .. : > -:. "
mof improved implements much i o On the rarm that was formerly sheer
drudgery has been obaned .einto rerPul variedand pnleasant toil.
* ~ Agriculture in Florida and especially ..frming hasfor .afn .:
S. ears followed MAdoid :conservative or Pioneer lines. This was -:
- ', ., : ..
S .' ... : .. ..
Egtonsio. no .r.
Serly it was considered that a student went to an institution of
higher.learning to put his Ofnd through a course of mental acro-
Sbatlos,,. Those students who succeeded in performing-definite courses
of mental gymnastics to the satisfaction of the faculty were given
diploidas, The idea of learning as an end in itself no r. atter-
ha t.t amiht be the subject matter was ca'frled so far that in some
quarters a University was defined as a place where only those
S. A ;
things are taught that cannot be of. 'use to anyone. It was formerly
considered that the universityy should confine the range of Its '
activities within the bounds of the campus upon which its buildings
The present ideal University, however, is one which teaches
.. -- < ".*-'- '^
only those things that are of vocational.value to the poeple whose .
servant it is. -The activities of the great up-to-date inst-tui oso --
: n gow. ramify .to al-lands of the world. The Obicago University
as Studerts 'taKing. studies In its correspondence school who a '..
14 .. onastho0eooe ittoralis a
181 Untela panioujata L.
183 Eleocharis capitata (L.) R. Br. (Net coast).
225 Serenoa soxrata (44hx) Hook.
S9S Alternanthers maritima St. Hil.
569 Chrysobalanus Iaoso L.
S91 Phyllanthus Garberi small.
16 Cpuntia austrina mall
819 Persea littoralta Small.
982 Ipomoea Peoi-Caprae (L.) Sweet.
989 Solarum Bahamense L.
992 Lyaium Carolinianum Walt.
1013 Leatona idorata L.
1110 Qensipa ousiifolia (Jacq) Griseb.
1110 grithfelis frultios8a L.
1112 Chiooocca rsateosoa L.
1115 frnodga ittoralls Sw.
GENERAL OON OKHMATION.
The northern tier of counties beginning with Baker, about for-W
miles west of Jacksonville to Pensacola partake so much of the nature
of the adjoining states to the north, this portion may be called
Northern Florida and is not considered in this discussion.
The general trend of the peninsula as we all know, is nearly
southward. The highest lands accur west of a line drawn down the
middle of tne peninsula. This is the primary axis of the peninsula.
The elevation of this- region varies from about sea level to rarely
more thtn two hundred feet.
East of the primary axis aid running parallel to it is a secondary
axis, varying in width up to about forty miles. Lying between these
axs6 is the St. Jons. River and a series of Lakes terminating in
Okeechohee, at the northern border of the everglades: the st. Johns
river-is- really only a series of fresh water lakes connected by wide
streams. The source of the St. eJhns River is only about twenty
feet above sea level and as it is over 200 miles long measured by its
tortuous route to the ocean, we see that there is no chance for rapid
Along the east coast is a series of salt water lagoons usually
spoken or as rivers. tozairs-ihe east of tnese lagoons are narrow
islands which rise only a few feet above sea level. On these s W
Peninsular ilorida stretches about 400 miles from north to south
and is about 130 miles broad at its widest.
A/ Minimum temperature in the northern part is about 20' F. arfd in
S, ...a" +.0 -" '
. I -
/ The northern tier o counties beginning with Baker, about
forty miles w+vt of Jacksonville to Pensacola p*rtake so much of the
/ nature of the adjoining states to the north, this portion may be
called Northeb Florida and is not considered in this discussion.
SThe general trend of the peninsula as we all know, is nearly '
southward. The highest lands occur west of a line drawn down t .
middle of the peninsula. This is the primary axis of the peninsula."-
elevation of this region varies from about sea level to rarely
thm two hundred feet.
Sl:at the primary axis running parallel to it is a secondary
lting i dth up to about forty miles. Lying between these -
axes IS tls^e4. Jobfa River and a series of lakes terminating in
S.t t he northern border of tSevergladea. e St. Johnsa
river is really only a series of fresh water lakes connected by wide
Streams. The oerwe of the St. Johns Kivers is only about twenty
S feet above sea level and as it is .over e00 miles long reas:ured by
its tortuous route to*the ocean, we see that there is no chance for -
rapid flowing streams.
Along the east coast is a series of salt rater lagoons usually
spoken of as rivers. owards the east of these lagoons are narrow
islands which rise only a few feet above sea level. On these aas "
low sand dunes e-v
Peninsular florida stretches about 400 miles from north to south
Sand is about 140 miies broad at its widest.
SMili amum toqP eratur* in rhe northern part is about 200 qF in
r A- -
The piDy woods po~ds and their studies are sufficiently
interesting to entitle them to a separate paper. In passing, I
.ay say that they form an Important diversion in this vasr sea of
pine woods aomotony. The character of the ponds depent# upeo
naturall conditions. There are various kinds,- grassy, weedy,
Tupelo (JSysa) and cypress with various gradations,
, 2). j
The Piney Woods.
arise twigs producting flowers and fruit. Serenoa serrulata often
produces standing trunks ten or more feet tall in hammooks, while
in the piney woods the trunks creep on the ground or even remain
Ii Hammocks (3)
constitution of hammock and of pine woods soil is round on the grouns
of the subtropical laboratory. A portion of the area was originally
covered with hammock, another portion with pine woods. Rows of
citrus hybrids and other plants are planted so as to cress from the
pine woods areas to tne hammock area. Yet no difference can be
detected in the vigor or vitality of the plants located on what was
originally very different plant formation. Let me make my meaning
clear at this point. I mean to say that -rigirally there was no
difference in the soil of the nammock formation and the pine woods
formation and that the increased productiveness of the hammock soil
Sis to be credited entirely to tne presence of the hard wood species.
Artificial hammocks are frequently established and they not only are
able to maintain themselves but may become aggressive.
The origin of a hammock as I take it is entirely a matter
accident. In south Floridawhere hammocks are or smallest size,
Quercus Virginiana, is the nucleus, most frequently, about whidh
r elements are assembled. It should net be inferred, however,
t this species is the only one that can start a nammock, but that
it seems especially well adapted for the task in peninsular Mlorida.
/" I^ i-"----- "* l/j c' /
< '2* 1?Z6-w /jiL^^^ ^ U S ^^
1_ m~L~~ill ~ ~ 7 .riwu v I --- ~ i--l~l s~sPP;L~~C-~n-~i U
:. ecoies a tree with a strong- trunk. Sorte .specimens grow: twelve
to fifteen feet tall. Chysobalamus: Icoca is affected very much
like Gee-oLbi Both produce an, edib-le fruit.
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2.4j~'9rci ~ l
PIRnY WOODS (Cont'd.)
,647 QGaett*r --tatatXic=Ml.
889 Polygala Rugelii ,huttlew.
714 Cha~saesyae pilulifera (L.) Small.
726 topiu topiummtop (L.) Small.
7?1 Poinsettia Havanensis (willd) btmall.
735 Grossopotalum Floridanum Gard.
794 Piriquetfa Caroliana (%alt) Urban.
798 Heliantherum coryibosum Michx.
822 Cassytha filiformis L.
949 Asolepiodora viridis (Walt) A Gray.
965 Jaoquemontia Curtisali Peter.
1110 Randia aculeata L.
1173 Laoiniasa gracills (Purshj Kuntze.
1181 n Chryropsis graminifolia (M^chx) utt.
118J Salidago striota Ait.
1245 Berlandiera subacaulis Nutt.
1821 Cyperus Pallardi Britton.
Serenoa seorlata (Mehx) Hook.
Morella serifera .)-2 -
guerous taurifolia Michx.
4terous Virginiana Mill.
Ficus area. T1hU-,
Treaa Floridana Britton.
Coccolo s laurifolia Jacq.
Chrysolalanus olaoo L.
Petalostemaon carneus Michx.
Simiruba glauca D u.
Bursera Simaruba (L.) Sarg.
'etopQa Metoplulm (L). Small.
Ilex assine L.
Vitis ohriacea Shuttle.
Muscadista Munsoniana (Simpson) mall.
Carioal apaya L.
0ootea katesbyana (Miohx) Sarg.
Eugenia Garberit arg.
Sideraxylon mastichodendron Jacq.
-- *- ---- : ..t
dwelling on the opposite side o'.f theV Earth." .-: -
S'Te u.nlvTersity ofi Joriaa has fort ts ideal the solving of
Sithe educational liie aro not limited to the hundreds yd ng men
on the campus; but, thr:tough the Extension :ivisipn it; stfriWs to
aaid thousands.of o citizens In becoming blett-e men and b ter
womI Lst : yeart e Corespondence : ; urse t ri Agricult-ue badc,
S- an enrollment of over fve -hundred, At the lectu res &f the ftiB ersi
-t': .Itns ut s diuilng t he last three and one-half yeairsthere- have, /
-lf -st 4a :
been 28,269 hearers. :The Lectiure Bureau of the University affoid4
:to 1 schools, cities, tws and opportunities ton a attend discourses
on many important or interesting topics of the day
SPrmerg' Ingstitut es.-. The increase in. attendance at btese insti- "
Studies has been -ap-d under the management of: our Board of Control,
During the yea ending fine 304 1998, txnoa the total attendance..:
w was 4,491i in 1909, it VaS 576; in 1910 lt was 9021;; and during
4,. the first half ofa' the present fiscal yea, it reached 8i81. The
number f sessions held during, the year ending une 30, 190 was
42; in 1909 the number was 54; in 1910, It was- and e a .i
*~~~ was-' An ~4
eaooharts capitata (L.) R. Br. (N~ocoat).
Sreuona s*Aata (Jsxb) Hook.
Alternanthez* maritima St. Hil.
brysobalzrlu I caso L.
Phyllanthaa Qarboerl Small
OpBUtia austrina smu .
Pets.a littoralia Small. V
XIpemo0 Pesm-Cprae (L.) Sweet.
Solanua Bahamease L,
Lyeolu Croliniasum Walt.
Loftona gdorata L.
Gaeipa olatfitolfs (Jacq) Griseb. y
lXitUal s tfnticosa L.
Chiocoocd raeoaosa L.
rnodfa 11ttoralia Sr. /
^-ee L r.
In. the more Northern States we ave the salt.niarsh and : ..
st 1-1d# il- along the Fl1rida coast a new. e lem"t he mangrove
at 'ef use. to be "-e- at aa from the ,.t'and- .odi.tion. -_i
',.'.- -, -. .
;".. Aust5 hinaPsea it orl .
-. -a-7 .,.
'' themselvess t other conditions... ,. erenoa. ,se rrulo a id ca
Sothatrefera w equally as well o the strand .ihe n e"d ri ti
" ,'_. .. ; ..e. .' ,' t'alh-oa"
... ,.. ~, 'rotin es. 0 untia Austrinag Pcea lioa. ,- l 'l -t."r,,ies,
ha _. s.
iIcioc-~"a.-- becous -me s a trailing. a o e n 4:od t n:' '
a -. -,.a I-.-:.i: :a.._. l'_ a. ;i o i E s rin P c .ea :. :
o. _,, ,; a- "" a --..
.. J L = j .,,- ,. .:-
:.- ." ..: ''. :.. ', : '. / :
". poon d bordering th' odi and gulf is not .'differ- .
The portions o",fj.The.'lanid bordering t -
*. .-, .'. , ., ., ., .' ,- .
lina 9nd Georgia. e o of for the most parg to
many different families. n general appearance the- resetblance is
irery t.r.kihng in thap t 'theyi' are well adapted to, the.xep.a, Sh yt r.o- '
d.it for the most ions.prt.on t
.'. -, '
-'~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ -- ; ;,N :
., -'. It .-. .-. ? .- ..-..- -
: -- t -.. .. -". "... ,, '