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|The Florida agriculturist|
|Writings on horticulture|
|The transportation question|
|The insect and disease control...|
|Rise of contact insecticide|
|Diseases thirty years ago|
|Later introductions of insects|
|Losses accruing from lack...|
|Rise of the vegetable crop|
|Rise of fruit crop other than...|
|Rise of citrus fruit crop|
|Summary horticultural crops|
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
|Table of Contents|
The Florida agriculturist
Writings on horticulture
The transportation question
The insect and disease control question
Rise of contact insecticide
Diseases thirty years ago
Later introductions of insects
Losses accruing from lack of cooperation
Rise of the vegetable crop
Rise of fruit crop other than citrus
Rise of citrus fruit crop
Summary horticultural crops
E. 0. PAINTER AND FLORIDA HORTICULTURE.
I a,. proud to be on the program and to be able to present to
you a sort paper on I'r. E. 0. Painter and Florida Horticulture.
I wi31 not presume in this discussion to speak cf iMr. Painter as a
man. We have met here thia afternoon not to evlogize i-s -any Vir-
tues. his abilities and his greatness. These would only be marred
by our attempts. We sa out of tle gratefulness of our hearts to
coirrnemorate his life as an influence over us. There was no-'ove-
ment proposed for the bottormiiret of hortlci ture but found 1Ms ready
response. In y many calls at his office, I have never found his
door closed for I moment; it alv1Wys stood open to my entrance. lhe
mnny confere ces verce alaays n.o.-t -ileasant -and inspiring. Optirmism
uigdht be said to be his primary trait.
I have traveled with him, labored with him, and even sept
in the sa,-.e bed with li-;. 'Te alvraya seemed a coi,panloi, rather than
while he my be absent in body, his spirit ls round about us.
I feel his influence as if lie .-erie present at t ,ia meeting. The
spirit of our departed friend is with us to encourage us and urge us
on to ever better and nobler work. God in HiMs infinite aroy ias
permitted him to jounloy into that bourne from wbich no traveler
returns. This bourne lies within us, about us and beyond us.
The great and casting good that is wroughlt ii. this Iw-r3j Is
brought about by gradual development. Catac yasms rarely produce
a lasting result. Tie greatest .-pochsti the advance of civiliza-
tion are wrought in the everyday toil of the masses. Our co1maon
education has inculcated into our iinds that t: e great events and
epochs sare ushered in by great heroes. This hero worshipdrilled
into us froit the nursery throt the college course. Rar ly is
any account ta:en of thelt masses w o liave toiled to iathe it possible
to have'a hero to worship. Lest we fore foe, I rejind you t ,at the
great work wrought for the advance of Fjorida Horticu ture was done
by such men as Mr. O.2;ainter. Ils nu:,o was rarely seen attached
to long articles. Slf assertion had the least thought in his mind.
In scarmiItni the horticultura2 literature of t: e State one
is surprised by the few tii:es t:at hi n.a:.e appears in public print.
I know, however, that when it cane to giving norr.) and finAncia3 sup-
port to a 1olesorje and 1nortly':ccause we find E. O. Painter foremost
in the list.
The pleasant tas]: of brl:!ging to your attention .il 31i 2e .uid
works in other directions tian the broad one of ?3orlsa horticulture
hai been a.-sri to co.poteent and jortiy an;ociates, w'o eac;! iave
a Minssage f-or you.
Gources of Information
In T.roearingr this paper for you I have drawn on yr u:1n reneory
extend. .ig over nearly tvonty-thr.-o year, ins :'roll :. publi. 1-, l datta
ocmcrrirn in y rrIBrjt.e iV;ra.7y as .we]) as the data in the Tjr --rielent
The aj ount of the horticultural literature avt.i3ab]3 for the
period covered by Ir, Painter's life la so great tliat it f a2'a
large Vo3umne. The useftuness of what I am preseJ ting to you today
wi3l depend entirely upon whether or not I have the proper skill in
selection and ability to present it in proper form.
The Florida Agricul turint
i hoae no intention of entering on ae extended d.i scuusion
of the Florida AgriculturiBt. 'Iate" phase of trLe program be])ongs
to one of c[y able colleagues. I J.ust,.howiever, mention tl i .iour-
nal, founded,i owned wa edited iyr 7r. Paintcr, 3 it is neceas :,r to
iry thesis. I had a profoimd effect on the lorticul ture of 73orila.
ITo paper,,.'s eo completely covered tie flo3d ad serve tile needle
of is3 readers so satisfactorily as did The -Morit'a Arlricv3turist.
2 _ _
Writings on Horticulture.
hr. Painter could not be claused as a voluminous or gifted
writer. Iin is earlier wor'; especially w.h'1'e editig She Florida
Agriculturist, frequent papers front his pen a.p3a.red, but b-efore 3ong
i-is larger biuslness afifa.lrs3 aLorbed so '.nu.i tl me t i.at it ~.s a dif-
ficult matter to get a paT:.r froi .1.i even before thle I rticultural
is fund of ~wit a::d his aptitude for un pervaLoc nii writings
as wo 31 as ilis ev jry. ,r convS'rtion. In pre3:itnig a Ipn.'ir on
.-:riu,.,a Onions at 't:e oUrionjd iiectii:, 1 92, hje opened. i.; ta3l- ':ith
theio quotation "In (U)O~nion t.Lere is stroie th".. I want to a
here wU extract froxi his rp.er pre-.;cnt.d at t:ie Intcrlac..en leettlag
iL 1,.93. It tgi :3 u.. i:: i ;!'le nf f:.rti,: c fairly u.e]3 aid is also
of special interest to us at t. i3 Palatta n.:etln; sGince it describes
ITastings as slie w-a3 twenty-tlree y aro ago. I re;.:e mer visiting
tle cuclu.Il.mr l'ouse referred to.
(AtIBne cn893^ the reor of-fct vege~tAbe
committee .waC oeaw-a). Ipter aVow-:)
SLast August the place now known aslHastingslwas only flat
woods, and indeed they are flat woods. It would be hard to find as
many acres in one body anywhere in the State so nearly on the same
level, to all appearance to the eye, yet with a gradual elope so that
perfect drainage can be had by ditching.4
PThe soil is similar to other flat wouou, with hard-pan from
one to three feet below, with considerable prairie lana intermixed,
which after draining needs only a plow to break it up to render it
ready for cultivation.
As As before stated, last August, Hastings was not, but soon
after he rut in an appea-ance, and judging from what he has accom-
plished we should say a good deal of Hastingj(s) has been done.f
"He built his house and barns among the pines and used the
prairie land for his garden, and as we walk around the premises
and see the tomato plants loaded with fruit, sore growing, too, on
a land that has never felt a plow; cucumber vines that are about
through bearing, yet still can boast of cukess" over two feet in
length, cabbage in huge piles that is being fed to *razor backs"
instead of being shipped to fill the coffers of the railroads and
commission merchants, we can't help but wonder, how did he do it
SWe soon discovered the great factor of it all in a four-inch
artesian well, This well is but 250 feet deep, yet the volume that
arises is enormous and with such force that no pumps are needed to
elevate the water to any part of the house or barn. The temperature
of the water remains at about the e-me- 79 degrees- the year around,
which is a great advantage in gardening during the winter season.f
PClose to the well the fouke5 house is built, being 156x22,
containing four beds which run the whole length. This house is
covered with glass and built similar to greenhouses North only that
it does not have to be so strongly protected against cold and has no
steam heating apparatus. The heating of this house Iduring the cold
spells that occur during December, January and February is quite
novel as well as original, and we venture the assertion that no where
in the world is it done the same way. When the Isigns1 indicate th&
a cold night is approaching, the well is opened, and the stream of
water is conducted to the *cuket house where it flows under the beds
in a stream from three to six inches deep. This current of water
keeps the temperature at an average of 60 degrees on cold nights,
frequently making a difference of from 20 to 30 degrees between
inside and outside. ****************************
"Here we saw the finest potatoes that we have ever seen
growing in the State. Large size, smooth skin and thoroughly ripe,
All this was done with the aid of irrigation, the artesian well fur-
nishing the supply, although nearly half a mile off. Irrigation is
done by means of ditches dug along one side of the field. When a
certain piece of land is needing water, the trenches on both sides
of it are dammed up and the water is allowed to fill the intervening
trenches till level with the surface, and is then dammed in and left
to percolate through the soil, which it will do in a very short timee,
ffWe have reserved to the last one grand feature of the irri-
gated land and one which will, we believe, ere long, bring many a dol-
lar to our borders. This is raising rice. After vegetables are all
harvested and the land plowed, it is planted to rice and the water
turnlA on. In a great deal shorter time than one would think, the
ground is thoroughly saturated and the rice soon sprouts and a good
stand is the result. Thus the land oan be kept in continued use the
year rounti All that can be done on this land remains yet to be prov-
en, for the work that has been done is only a beginning, for it would
be impossible for any one or two men to develop it in so short a time.
Mr. Hastings has started the ball rolling and others can join in push-
ing it along.**************
IrIn conclusion we would state that Mr. Hastings informs us
that he Is making arrangements with a German to make into sauerkraut
all the cabbage that is not shipped another season, also may start
a tomato canning factory f the outlook warrants."
The Trans rotation Question
S Tie transportation question has al-rays been' a .Yioriying one
a:lono, tle Flori a liorticulturists. In the seventies it wvfs mainly
a vcIyof Gott tt:,e fruit to t e waarknt. In t!one dGays it mearit
gottin tle t:-o Sava.'wr.an or How Yorl;. 'i'here ero no triuilk lines
o' rail ro:. t3 ai. ev~ 'rli 3) in '-r.s doinjA 3 aaln in its power a] .ar-
c't 'y to kill off the other rou:s vrliether a cormetlrg one or a
OO1L',i.CtlsW" OJL;.C I q..r ajpare:-t3y, because the policy :dloptcd and
c:a'rrti out could not have been iore discouraging to the saiiyper of
*cris-rhabe f- 'l.rtits. Tice 5t:a, sitr ::a.J boat bin.s vwere so:.ei.n.t bet-
ter but servo-ld oI:ly a rew of thie growers. (
Tra. sport.ition. l-..tau .ot reaped a I.erfort t-j:oe yet, still we
-.'1.3 ct a large rrain o2f onmfort by listening ~i eXtraQlt, Tnei
make ono feel as lie does after Mwa:ening from an attack; of L)t lt
are. "h; fo33owing is taken fro. a paper road lMr T G. Hil)
of I awtey, at the Del.and mnotirg in 1390.
RI have some statistics from California showing what
freight the Californians pay on their shipments to New York,
and I find that we pay more from Florida than they do. They
have an organization in California known as the Shippers' Union,
and they ship in train lots. Seven cars constitute a train,
and this train takes the preference over any other train on
the roads, They are loaded by the shippers and placed ahead
of the express trains which are not allowed to pass them.
For that service they pay $44. per car-load, and the time is
seven days. We pay $815 for the same service. They will
carry any kind of perishable fruits, plums, peaches and any-
thing that can be shipped in oar-load lots to New York in reg-
rigerator cars with the same service that we have for strawberries
for $475 per car, For that same service we pay $1,040."
2-A q7 ]
The follovring extract is talen from; the presidential address
of Dudl ey Adans, d(jliver,-r iin 3 6923 t Oruond., who was one of tne
most forrc1uul 'mL vitrolic o..' :ortioultural writers we have h1id
fThe Florida Fruit Exchange reports its gross sales this
season at about _1.75 per box, and net the grower about $1. This
~^ ~3NI -5;&,WASL. jI JO-.. /9, zo L/ *
analyzes thus: Grower, 54r; box, etc., 450; Fruit Exchange, 14#;
transportation 623; total, 1.75. The grower gets a trifle under
one-third what his oranges sold for, and someone else gets two-thirds
The transportation from Florida is more than double what it
is from California, per mile, notwithstanding our roads are largely
sustained by way of business, w:ile the Pacific roads run hundreds
of miles through an uninhabited waste, and over grades and curves
that to our own coast lines are unknown. A man in Minnesota can
send a bushel of wheat to Liverpool, 4,500 miles, for less money
than I can send a box of oranges to Jacksonville. In a matter like
this, where the success of a business depends on a fair division of
income, it ought to be amicably arranged, so that producer and car-
rier can each have a fair proportion. Much was hoped from our State
railroad commission, but it proved such an abject failure that the
legislature legislated it out of existence, and very few tears have
been shed over its grave. That same legislature proved itself a
flatter failure than the commission, by failing to enact something
better in its place. r
SIf the fruit growers of the State have any influence, it
should be steadily and actively exerted in favor of such legislation
as will have the rates of transportation fixed by a competent and die-
interested tribunal, which will deal fairly and justly with producer
(One of the burning questions which confronts us is, how to
sell our fruit. We have made perceptible progress in growing fruit,
but not in marketing it, It takes very little penetration to see
that consigning our fruit to the tender mercies of the commission
merchants, in distant markets, is a crude and unsatisfactory way,
but as yet we have found nothing better., *******
I have some sta iatics fro!i California showing what freight
the oalifornians pay their shipment to Y Tork, and I find that
we pay more from. F ida than they do, ey have an organization in
California known the Sh pers' Union an they ship in train lots.
Seven cars cons tute a train and th/s train tkees the preference
over any other train on the roads. They are loaded by the shippers
Te re t of th signed 1y O* .. Baconr Ij W. 'Vo.odlworth,
and E J. .,o) x 1 mnt 0 ua3y no if 0 -1 a utf
7Assured that there are wrongs to be righted, there comes
the all-important question: How may this be accomplished
I would first suggest a State Railroad Commxission, with
absolute power to make maximum rates, and power to enforce the
same, and if the courts should overrule such acts of orrii.ision-
ers, let the people nominate and elect court judges that will go
on the principle that the government is made for the people, and
not the people for the governruent. Create a general Government
Commission, who shall have absolute power to i.ake and enforce
Inter-State rates, from which there shall be no appeal. Third,
the Nationalization of railroads and use the same at absolute cost
in the interest of the people and for the people. !'it~at-& t-
fIt takes time to bring about these great reforzrations,
and the dear people must be educated up to think and act for
themselves and not allow a lot of politicians to think and act
for them. And until these things can be done- allow me to make
one more suggestion- let us, as fruit and vegetable growers, do a
little transportation for ourselves,
(LLet us, as a company, raise $100,000, build three iron
steamships of 1,000 tons carrying capacity each, fit them for
carrying our products to market, by well ventilating and heating
pipes, place them on the line between Jacksonville and New York,
and carry oranges and lemons at 25 cents per box and vegetables
at same rates; and have our ships pay us a profit of 20 percent
on the investment. This is practicable and can be done; such
ships can be run at a cost of about $200 per day, and will carry
10,000 boxes of oranges and leave storage room for 400 tons of
miscellaneous freight. Are there 99 men who will unite with
me in putting up $1,000 each and try the experiaant?
This would solve the problem of cheap freight rates.
In 1894. the low prices again arxe matters serious for the
cityus.growers, and an effort was marte to establish a market in
Europe. Some trial shipments were made the previous year. In
the spring of 1894, the Ship Ethelewoo3d was chartered to take a
load of fruit to England. iMr. Painter consented to go as super-
cargo and 3oo0 after the business end in Encland. The freezes
of 3 694 and 1;;95 put an end to the work in this direction.
At the bergiinning f irr. -ainter's career in '3lorida we i-a
no such 3!lence nas P)at P:ithao]ogy a1 utomo3)o:y. The ..o)w lit-
erature r'Jlatilng t' tlhe cNi-banttinrg of Ta,.nt diseas,3s alnd to the Con-
trol of Insect pests. 1ais been written since that date. It is true
that volumes had bet n vritteoL on the descriptions of fungLi ni in-
;..ots3, iut tl .eArer diA treatmnint wts purely of an acJ,.'mlc n-J.ture.
As',an il lustration of tf*-c I ;rant to Ieroat a i a.ecd te to)ri r.e by
an orani-c: rTro'er at Elstis about fifteen years ago. His o uge
treen e ere bdily infested :-ith tie ro~rLJ j..ce id s, he aF- allied to
nis brot:-ir-in-Jaw, a pj acticing phyaiclan in lewl Jersey. j, r2rn
raLil the orarne grower rceceliv.rl a I ottle of Iodine in so3ation and
a carme3's hair bru3h irlvth tne written as ur.au:e that this -~ouiJ3 fix
the bugs. The dirctiona3 vrere to usee .th e le's hair bru's)but to
be careful axiid not let an of t!JImiaje touch tlie 3noaf.
The progress in the study c. pln.at diseases has been, a little
more 1jtl 'd W61 I
A-lfc~-M-^ :^ b CY .CI-*ll.ld
given more attention to the stu~y of insect morphology while the
plant pathologists have laid greater stress on the study ot" fungus
and plhsiology. This trend in the studies of the two branches is
directly traceable to the leaders in these sciences.
A study into the cheaper of insecticides and fungicides is
probably the most interesting of all in connection with tllis resume.
A g3 iinpse into the literature is like studying a fairy-tale In
the latter part of tlhe seventies the only 1333s that seemed to be-
f.-31 a citrus grove in Florida were scale insects, and if o ..y this
could be controlled the citrus grower felt that all he h'id to do
r.i to pick tiie golden fruit and jingle the golden dollar. a2
(if eirly a 1881 Prof G. Hubbard was stationed in F3orida to inves-
tigate the insects of citrus. He '7?as located at Cre:cent City,
and responsible to Dr. C. V. Riley, Cliief of the Division of EnLtomol-
ogy. As a result of Professor Hubbard's work in :?orida a bulletin
w-.s issued from the Division of EntoIology covering the gro;iLd of
citrus insects more ttda than aiytning that has since appeared.
Tis bulletin has long gone out of print and although originally it
could have been obtained for the asking, it now costs about ten
cents a page to buy the bulletin, and even at that price there appear
to be more buyers than sellers.
Coincident with the work done by Prof. Hubbard in F]orida
was the rise of contact insecticides. Previous to that time the
poison^ insecticides had been used largely in the form of Pa'is Green,
and used for the destruction of the Colorado Potato Beetle and in
soiic cases for grasshoppers. There was, however, a large c3ass of
insects which obtained their food supply by sucking it from the in-
terior of the -p3ant tissues that were not reached by the poisonous
insecticides. Dr. A. J. Cook, who is at the head of the ;alifornia
Horticultural Cormission, appears to have been the first to pub3ish
on the use of kerosene emiulsion for handling insects of this class.
hilch. Agl. Exp. Sta. 1S90. H1.C.H. Bil. 5SP 5.
This publication brought about a wordy and acrimonious battle bet-Teen
DrS. Coo]: and Biley. Prof. Hubbard before that time had been uAiing
kerosene enilsion at Crescent City, though apparently this h:d not
been published to the world as the experiments were going on and
methods were being perfected. During 18c--82 Prof. Hubbard was
making experiments with kerosene emulsion made from condensed milk
Ann. Rept. U.,. Com. of Agric., .113-2, 313, 114.
It appears from the records that Dr. J. C. leal, then located at
Archer, fa. wrote to Dr. Riley (Oct. 10, l3,2) in regard to .he whale
oil soap and kerosene emulsion forruila that he U3ied. Thlisf formula
'is practically the same as is used at the present time. He also
hadoa formula tiat was maJe up of ordinary laundry soap and kerosene
emullsion.X It appears, however, t thtthese gentlemen were ao3 ante-
dated by Mr. Ceorge Cruikshank of Whitinsrille, ;'ass., who see.:s to
have begun the use of a mixture of whale oil and kerosene emu3 sion
as early as 3.870.
"T. .*, Gardenerts Monthly, 1875, Feb., 4.5.
It is quite probable thit these are a number of independent discov-
eries of how to make kerosene mix with water and was the beginning of
our progress in the production of contact insecticides.
From this period on there has been a Very rapid movement
and an almost endless mnltiplication of contact insecticides, un-
til now all you have to do ls to name your bug and the specialist
can tell you Just what form of anaesthetic will put him permanently
to sleep. heree is rea3iy little to be desired so far as insecticides
are concerned in the direction of killing insects. We have now
arrived at the point where it is not so much a matter of the medicine
to be used as the method of administering it.
iRrfffP -AtR TRIMArw -rE
Disease cs &-w r
'we hnve already discussed the discovery of kerosene eulsion
*lich introduced the :period when rapid deve3oprmnt occurred in the
scientific study of insecticides anrd tf.nicide-3.
At .he beginning of this period wie find that nal-dl-goirj, or
foot-rot ra, tlhe disease uppermost bin t;e rindq of citrus grorrer
This disease rages in a33 its fury iL the Azores from 3835, wl:en
in about a ten-year period, 25;" of the trees were destroyed Io it.
i cun wine a quiescent period :ad in 1873 tle disease iad ne:ir3y dis-
a peared, due to handling it by preventive .i d curative meti'ods.
In' 1845 it spread to rortugal and eastward, r -.chilng jessina about
3c6Z, thence to Sicly. Ir. Is conservatively estim:.tto tiat at
least *2,000,000 damage was done by it. Prof. Briozl, an Ita1Jan
plant pathologist records publ3 hing on the disease :--id regarding
the fungus Pueisporiun linoni. Since ahe curative and preventive
methods have been so we33 worked out and the treatment so successfM
no very serious attempts have been made in this country to estab-
lish the Identity of the causative agent.
ili disease does not appear to have r ached Cai tfornia, r, in-
vestigations there load rue to be3love that what is frequentlJt called
foot-rot in Ca31fornia is quite a distinct disease. Proife3.or F-acett
who has spent a great deo3 mre time In t.e Vtiudy of citrus; diseases
in CO3lifonia than I have, concurs in this co:c3'usion.
In Australia the dia ase waa found to be destnrctive around
Sydney as e.LrIy as 3867.
Tho 'Jisease seems to been .bsent from the Asiatic countries,
Japan, C.hina and India, durlite the tl':e ihen it was quite ipreva3ent
in lArope, Amerrica ad Austraia, Ti l rtr inicates tat the
disease was of European origin.
The fir..t printed authentic notice of it in iPorida dates back
to 3876, and as late as 2S80 it was of rather rare occurrence. From
thattt ihe on the Cisease scomFi to have rmae ralthclr' r id progress
and has b.:on disseminated to every citrus growing region of the
State. During the middle nineties it appeared to reach its culmin-
ation of d(structiveneas.
scab is produced by the fungus ]nmown as C3adosporium citri.
This was described ty Prof. Laiuon Scrlbner
Bull.. Torr, Bot. Club, Vol. XIII, p. ]S1.
The origin fr this disease is pretty certainly Asiatic. It was not
ntl:ed to mny great extent until the latter ).aIrt of tloe eicties.
ietback har probably been with us froi tie beginnlnrl aince
it appears to be due to plyeloJogica2 conditions. In the e-Lrly part
of the studies it was confused with other troubles. In one publi-
c'ilon, for instance, we have a fine colored pl at of dlietbjck amd
t e suggestion that it is due to insect attacl:8s.
'The earliest Inforration t'an.t we cav gt ~bout bigj t seens to
date back te alout 3 .?78, rwen some trees in akec County were aF-
flctod by a mysterious diseauce that 3ater ttas connected up with wHhat
We ~anow to be b3l~ht.
At the beglning cf this period citrus trees were affected
.with a number of insects that were t: oumgt to be exceedingly de-
structTe, and It ?w:i3 t!.oug'it that if on3y a re.ed.y for the.o insects
could be obtained not nuclh wou3d be 3eft to be rdeslcrr in the way
of handrt3n' t.ts- 3. ine of pets. Tle ear3y 3iterature teei.. witl-i
leaf-eatin-: insect that are Bcarce3y kriowri today
The most prom"li'elrit 3C.3e insects thilt t r.' Simid wrere tie 'ong
Bc.3e 0 ) prn2ze acEoe ( )
chaff aca]e ( ) and wax sca)e3( )
,t tlo present time no one t!;inl.; seriou:!y about tioMe pests
un3 eL3 porcl'ance it is t-. novice in oitrli *:rowirg.
Later introlBtlions of T m Diseasef
'.';ithelrtip a. !d anthlracnoso :are ca.a.3od y the :a; e bte:u ',s.
Thi.3 "'js T.r ba113'.y Lntroluoced froyr; South' A'merica during t1lec 'ir:3c
ntneties. .',13 e a rr. of1 t e gfiu i1s Co33etotric'Amu :~Joesporioldes
bad been K1nonm to exist for some time it had never leve3oped into
serious proportions, and wras known or3y aa specir, nr 'i i hraria.
During ti e ri ld33e nineties -in. toward the beginning of the 39008
a very virulent outbrealr of t.-,i, disease occurred. Previous to this
time Fritz Noak had observed tils disease ,as proving dostructive In
parts of Bra'-i3.i
.:clarno uE- uiC sto... on:. rot ma be endemic anm aay a so have
be.I introciucrd. 'n1 strong. robabi litv is iJI fnvror of l 31irnng
that introduced to the itatc. It s:oc:..a quite ilmron~~l3e
t.t a .tdist.c c r .lcuL o, be so C Cetnuctive sr.ouid. enca),C "7tCILtiQl
'roui sucv .l en observers r.u Dr'. 'Vebl.or a.d Ait rn,3 e, nr. Inrin.' F.
f: ith, Dr. 1,. 7 Ulxdenvood, a23 specia3ists on 3 -ouit c i30on'j, If
liIti- t i.uced.
it Is 8 d t-.?aue it n- :;; quite certain tLat its itrvcduc-
tion w\- non:ie tinae -Lurin. t;.oe ;.in;tles.
Thni3-W:,d r.M.st (Ca3aosportium Hrb:.riun S :j30 s ion ~5.:. F orida
as 3ca3y t::.;.rl, is confined to a v7ry; 3s:/J portion of t11. Zt.tc. Its
_ C are Oauch, as tc point ver0- t.ro-.t;1y to Its
being an introduced ldiseaaic -" du-e nou ,juri A!
.. A o3 of the occurrences In the State Iae ve be treated back: to
one nursery. Fortunatel.V t"is nurseryman distributed a very, small
amount .-,f stool: t t. i--1
Dlr3odla rot (Diplodia nata3ensis) has at no time assumed
destructive proportions though it is met 'iti froio time to time.
W have not studied the conditions sufficiently to enablet us to
form ax, opinion as to whether it is njat e or introduced.
aJac;. rot (Alternaria citri) 1i q:itto u- in-
troduction from 0Ca3ifornia. iTis ha. nner pr'roven to be sa'uicient-
:y destructive to be of serious consequence to us as it is rai.nly
a rot of tie navo3 orange.
Citrus cakier, the newest and probably one cf tVe roet vig-
orous of t:e diseases, ii, knocking lustily at our doors to lio ad-
nitted. As a iattor or fact if it had not bece for tr-e vigilance
of o r nuraery inspector, Dr. .E- Berger, It would probnaby I.ave
been di~ser2natcd in rJorlda 1i :zucha a twaz t.:': it ooCuil not b'
sta:U'.ed oat. We 'be leave, however, that the treasures adopted will
clear the State of any or t:;-a iis8ea03. AS nurly as IT can tell
f.-on tihe world that has been done by Prof. Stevons, it would prove a
ve-.y m ic :lore formidable disease to handle thla, either scab or
withertip witr probably a23 cf the destructive qualities of anthao-
Among the insects that are of later importation those that I
mention in the fo3 o7ring! pragragraphs cou3d easily have b(men kept out
of thi, State by ai efficient borticultura) insl.pector :.'orzing under
a satisfactory 1-a. .i_,ediat.ly after the introduction of the first
of tiese posts, the 3an Jbse scale, active steps were tal:en to have
3 aws passed for the control of diseases ad.d insects in the State.
A corunittoe -',as appointed byI tlhe Horticultura] Society to draft a
3aw and h.ve tnis presented to the Florida legislature in ;9i7.
The com.ittoe consisted of jy;elf, Dr. Webber add.
We used the best State la13 then in existence as ao~els ,z3d wtorkIed
it cut on tne r-est economlic.3 rpan posalb0.o. It failed of pas.3age
on :ccount of the fact that. little effort outside of the co;mirittee
was nade to frtheto rter e interests of the horticulturists.
The cottony cushion sca3e was accidentaJly introduced into
ra ria thie time it was discovered it occ.uped a very sm.aal
territory, only a sa.11 fraction of an acre being infested. Just
as vigorous work as the State avws permitted was made by the Ento-
mologist of the Experim ent Statlon, ne was, however, po:;erjeaO under
the conditions to do more than recommend rzrat nhou,3d be done and then
;t.2nd by ?.nd give his services heartt3y ih c.arryinLg out t- e work,
Tater the State spent a considerable a,:ount of Lmoney, both froi.u
public funds and a)so fror private funr c to si.ppress the pcst, and
re are now losinz a'nual3y more from its deprednt ons thal.n w'ou11.
have bourllt out tle entire prerlses an3 destroyed every living plant
urdn it. As later introductions may ble mentioned the mango scale
and the Ca3ifornia citrus sale. There are anny others that are
knocking, 3usti3y at ouir door. We e are waing up so3aenr7at tardily
to the fact.that we need an efficient po ica .in.z at our gate to keep
out the ropges.
The whitefly was introduced either directly or indirectly
from India, and the ravages of this 'pest have caused the loss of
many inl3] innn of do3lars directly in fighting itt io say nothing of
the lo.s that has been caused by its presencegetien tiere is still
that larger loss wmich has deterred the investment of imrsy -dillions
thousands and possibly mil] ions of meas, in the business. At the
close of the great freezes of 1894-95, Prof. H. G. iHbbara, sec-
onded by Dr. Webber and nyself, pointed out strongly hovr we hadt the
opportunity of limiting the spread of this peat. Drastic and active
steps taken at that time would h.Lve l:,.:ited t''e 3preap of it veory
materia3y. Even so crude a form of limiting it as would have
been brought about by a conscientious I1rsery inspector witl powTer
to act would have kept it fro: lhun.dreds of centers w;ere It now oc-
curs. 'There are still sections in the State of Florida that are
not infested witl w::ite3y, and every effort should be made to
suppress it slou3G any outbreak occur in these section:;. Tlat this
In the California citrus growing section.
J, eIf se latest introduction is the woolly whitefly (A]eyrodes
Howardii) from Cuba. Fortunately the woolly whitefly has a native
parasite w ich causes very large inroads on the pest. Prof. J. R.
Wiatson pre--.. ..-O- s r a eer
will present a paper on the subject later. We can sq, however,
that the presence of this check-mate on the woolly whitefly is
nothing to the credit of us as horticulturists it is simply a matter
of having a fortunate combination of conditions.
There are many other posts we might enumerate of minor impor-
tance, but these are sufficient to show clearly that whatever Trogress
we may havr made as horticulturists the pests of the horticultural
crops hay; been much nore aggressive and
ricHTtn n tnT.-r^ 1'int l-n- ^MULi~d -^ -YY ^^
At the beginning of the epoc about r.ich I atu: wrtirn at
b,-ig ,. .ga -, praying machines were rea]y rot rachlinei at 313
1:: the preiont sense of tl:. word. ay wore rmere3y" toys a;d -i:e-
shifts. As 3ong a. our principal iknccticliJe or!: ~.as no if in.rd
to a. iL,'3yi ParL. :aron 31tt3e Tvr:i,. neeced bcido a .-,'rithlinrr ca,.
"Tith tlhe introduction of i'.ore perfect fltCoxis for .r:;3yti.g t m
tcri:L.;Q i. o ti, rc.l. .dv nt '.-; (' djoirJ : t':" or: ;~-, n t: orolgh
mra. er., ,t .c tire Bte Wi.n to ':se auetion rror ar 'gir "ri!1!
st:u.n;.;oint. .. o .a)3 3l' -- ".r? .. .. e 7.i n: 0. cau rrir', 5 or
30 .ral3nial O.L .r 3ter 3un; over the u.'ou3lder proved to be a very .
,r;reat steT in ,Jv:~U. T'ho vision oe -:: .-Lt Pat oi' Mu ider
to'c 3er )i.:-.-i;iip or our r-..;ont efllcient Ass.itant ''ecr-t:ar of Agrl-
culture. did a great deal to .dvaice tie .wr!. 0,' rorc:l.d m eLl'icient
sprnyln-' machines. Toeo of u13 who irae carri'xcd 2!7mna-sePk spra'er
a33 da' ]ong in a toLaato field csan well reue hber t+ e-A-P =*I
aS t!e Lches and pains mid.ured after the J.Vys wrori: was over.
From this was rarjply 6at the barrel sprryer and finally tie
sprayer mounted on wheels :ad tho se usd n a wagon. At the pres-
ent time we have spraying aacines that are run by gaso3ene engines
and mounted in such a ay that the work can be carried OTi efficient-
2y aid witi the minimum amount of disoonfort. These machines are
perfected beyond the most sanguine dreams of t..ose who carried the
old knap-sacc sprayers. No spraying machine ls now t.oughit to be
worth Vliile, either for the truck.field or the citrus orchard
unless it can develo-- a pressure of 80 to 120 pounds.
It is a vIe]] knovn principle In mechanics that a team com-
posed of two horses wil3 do Bore effective work When it comes to
hIeavy hauling. tl mi can be dr.ne Tl tvwo 2lorses acting singly. We
recognize ti is all tl]roulgh our social or -niz.ation Iy corbilnIlg
iiitt fa:i-lies, groups of f'ailies, coi.~!initie., C.-uitics, statess
and a t las an fina33 y into Liti)jis.
The. interests of t' o hortlci 3 tural 3peo-le, however c.r, 3Jike-
3y to beo so varied tiat there is a great -ecG or reluctance tu give
up tie .eorsouna3 indejplendence that cor.c(os f-o ~o going it ajone. How-
eovr, it is very certain tlat ir tfo trult groerj ~uttcai3y a::ree
to hiande .i eir stuffi'n ixasct3y t' a:e .;-y l. 1:. the form adopt-
ed by the best groveur, mrore efi cient service will be ihadj andd a
larger -rofit accrue than by each going it ty h'nr.u.eJ3. I ;' e question
of cooperation or no cooperation is ro -e largely fouzided on the in-
herent sentiment of everyone regarding himse3r to be superior in
all respects to his neighbor. Practical experience, however, has
shown that this is an erroneaum way of looking at our existence.
The basis for mi1h of our.trouble in Florida is tilis one fact
that a-parently every man thinks lie knmors iore about eveyrthing
th!i doe anyone else. I imeet this constantly, ad especially is
it true te of te wan lO~ows the least abot t a y particular subject.
,ake an i 3ustration fro,, tile field in w ,icl I al. :os3t 3il-coy to be
,' ending 1i;, activities, tbie citrnm grove. T'e rin .7 .o cV-0 to
the State and has had .aout six months experrienice in hrndlinl oitrua
trees is tLio one wl.o i i,.ost 11ik)]ty to i1'ortfrne :e very greatly
about advice ajid recoi,,:ieniations, un-LL ten in abLo t thirty minutes
prove to t at I do nit k_-ov; a.iytllin T ..c'.t tie bus-inesa.
We ]-now sc- little about practical .l',d tlorouri, cooperation in
Flori.ia tl.j.t. we ar( very unwi23 iig to tale up t:-e yoke and follow
the other fe'3llov's drctation .s to 1hov wvie orana2] pacI our fruit,
when we slall rmarl;et it, wiren we ought to U.-:r;vy ki.d '.!at otiL-r op-
erations we ahou3d carry on.
The Florida fruit industry, however, has gotten into sore
very serious difficulties from pursuing this independent and 'go as
you please' method. Just as soon as our fruit production reaches
the point where vwe ncar'- sujyply the demands of the existing nmLrket,
our prices drop so low tlhat it is abso3utel]y iro.j;ib3e for the
average gro.-er to coie out even with his expenses.
'The F)orid; IErult Exchlane was orrumized in 3Ss4, according to
the F)orida Dispatch, ('n.rchl 23, 1J35, p. 272) With a capital) atock
of 50,000. T'.ls was increased t-:. next year to UOOs,uUo. This
Exchange lhaunded citrus fruits, vcgota~rl s '3id li-L.:',.pT3e8, Olne of
the objects of the Ex;c age was to force theo buyers to co;oe to le
tate, T' is it succeedcc in doing very a- ;irvi..y ird the re-Silts
of the wor]in1i of the Exchan;,e were satisfactory to quite a i,,nimber
of the mio2bcr3.
__On A]ril 24, I.94, a convention ~as held in Orl;ado to formu-
3i.te pNans i7vrlih matured in the formation of the Plorida Pmrit and
Vegetable Growers Association. The immediate for the forma-
tion of these two organizations was that botr. fr.it and veget.b3es
were bringing 3cr than the cost of production. It was either a
question of organizing and doing away with some of the disadvantages
of individual effort, or quitting the business. Poth of these org-
anizations came to an untljme]y end by the freezes or the winters
of 1L94 and 3895, the first occurring on the niEgit of December 29,
3,..94, a dI tlc second on the 9th of February, 3395. As is s1iorn by
the statistics attached to this proper there "-:.. a very 3arge sluir
in, the ai1nount of bot-i vegetable) and j fruit produced. in the t.tate,
TiUis in a ir.,asure evened up matter. av I d-.d a,-,'y ithp the necessity
of oraliization. iowvever if t;.e orga.izatlons h;itd been continued
it -7uld 1uidoubted]y hiave Jroven Trofitable to the !i.enlerFc of the
Associations. 'i,.ese .aw.] a nu L'br of succeeding veiy cold winters
cu i nnating in the very 3ow toiperatture of }Ybru..r/ 33, 3;:99 seemed
to p. t an end to a3Jl hopes of citr-s grov.'ing in the northern portion
of the ;Cenin;Lrua of i-'jori o;.. Ha i the freezes of 1'.9 ard '95 occurred
singly tne garage wo:Mld not have been sa serious. Likewils.e u:d.
the freezes of '94 and '95 not occurred the msuccedilng oc-,3d winters
would not ,ave upset the citrus industry so badly.
In the ear3y nineties the Indian River and Lake Worth Pine-
aiple Growers Association was formed for the handling of pineapples
in that region. This continued in existence until after shipping
the crop of 3911.
..a.ny people have said that the great freezes were a blessing
in disguise, but the disguise is so completely veiled tl'at even the
keil- scrutiny of statitiscs rill not reveal J.t .how thiMes op-
tiljists are succesoiul In seeing tje 3 essiriL is rore t]han. I can
tel), The Visible blessing is certainly not to be tal.-en into co:.-
silueration. Every industry in the St.j.'t felt tr .ffe.cts of t.iese
dil~astrous freeeso3 ajiLd een C e t.ose lli-'s orf 2ori. that *:I w3 ii) h1ave
expected to be benefitted by tle freezing out of the citrus crops
3l -.ng'ishlied a-, a result.
It took F1orica xma f fourtcen, years to catcli up with the
l.rcceas:ion, in otnhr wiorJd i.t '.-: not until 190,, &Sdisastor was
arain staring us in the face 4oth n, the vegetable an1d oitriiu line,
0j7is disaster being due to the individualized efforts that (d been
put forward in the last decade or decade and a half since the freezes.
The demoralization of the work due to 3ack of organization
reached Its maximum in the winter of 1907-08. At this time the
citru. crcp in Ca3iforniia v:3 VerTry heavy but the FMorlda crop had
not reached the porlortions it attained in 3 94.
In l903 th]e Florida Orn. (e Growers cojT.any was organized,
mainly throu,-! ttr activities of Jr. Joslan Varn .
Fruit ajld Produce IT-37, o':.'e7ber 3, 190p, p. 9.
t.is was a step in the rlgit direction u-t -.t of the citrn:; ,row-
ers in the ,t:.te tJ ouw t t it :r s not .i ficient to reiredy t]ie trouble.
As a result of toe agitation ra.d c- i to Ca] if( rnia, a con-'c.tion
was ca3fed for a jiore perfect or 3--iza'.on of t.oe citrus "rTo 'r.3.
T;i-s was hee3d at T- -iTa on July 22, 39o0; :1.i tie F3ori'3a Citrus
ExcLhangrLe, With i;. E. Gillctt as ,..a.;er, :~:. org'.,ized.
In 1933 u'rang~e...cntAs ".ere :.n-ue for the or.'izatio, of ile
I3cri'a Gro-.-ers aid Shalipp:.rs Pr'ot>,,;tive I.a^ne. Tils ogl.tation
culminated in the employment of Prof. Lloyd S. Telmey as secretary
and Manager for the Association. h 47/3. 4d4.
IV;& ^ <5 cZ~e^ 7 ^Z^ ^iSctpC^l ^K ^C) /^^*^>-r^er
& y A T ^/ ~ ^- a ^^- < -Y- P^y<
Losses Accruing from lack of Cooperation
Almost every business with which we Coi;e in contact either
on the selling or purchasing end of our business, we meet f.ce to
face individuals who belong to strong organizations and who are not
fighting as individuals but are fighting under the r.maageiment of able
leadership. The losses that accrue to us from JLLc): of coleration
are many a.d below I give a few tnat have occurred to re.
1. Losses at the ilarketing Ern of our Business.
(a) Thousands of dollars every year are lost in the just
claims that we have against transportation companies. eitherr our
claims are so badly jaade that the transportation conipMules aiust look
upon them rith suspicion or if they are mifauo oorrectly v.e are :orn
otiI-~m 1 B ~ea red tape connected with the questioLs. Iy
personal experience in this zmtter is no very Lifferent from that
cited to ie by numerous other inIividuals. At one tire I paid $16.35
on a siipjnent of live trees the transportation expenses of which had
been paid but the bill had become separated fror the shipment. I
paid the freight claim and was assured that it would be re-paid to
me as soon as the prepaid bill arrived. 'When the docyrimntary matter
was all straightened out it was found tV-'.t the cash had bee, sent
to the treasury of the railroad. To r,make a loni. story sort I was
about eight months in getting the refund, and by ]:ein. act .a ac-
count of yr time found I had spent over 2.30 vorth of tire to r7-t
back that i36.
(b) Our lic.ok of organization has a) so m- le us the prey rif dis-
honest and ahady commission men
(c) Our 3:lck of cooperation has also made it impossible to );wke
co3lections from sales of our fruit when if we had been nil~,er:; of
an organization the bi3ls would have bpon paid r-rorptly.
2. Losses at the Growing eRnd of our business.
(a) We suffer immense 3o sos in our citrus crop il maiU:ing im-
proper grading of our fruit. It does not makC very much difference
what the stencil is on the outside of the box. vWhen the box is open-
ed and examined and found to contain a lot of seconds no matter if
75j; of the box is firsts, the whole sells as seconds.
(b) Rough handling, either in the grove, p.:cking house, or by
the looca railway hands sl very largely eliminated by bei-'ig thior-
oughly organized, making it a serioi.s inatter f',r anyone wpT1o is
iaull in: the fruit or transporting it, to hIanr.i)o it more roui/iJy
than slou3d be.
(c) iThrougi lack of or,-auization every' mran has to orcaliz his
own picin: crew. He has therefore no experiences to fall bac: on ex-
cept hii am s to whether tie indl.vidua. he h;ireo for Ticli:tn paur-
poses is renta3ly or physicaJ2y unsuited for th. position as picker
or handler of the fruit. This experimenting famt ~mnd ttr''ing to
find efficient men becomes a costly experience over year. :r' ef-
fective cooperation the individual wbo,prove. to be unsultod for the
work would have gf'rat dirri 1 y+i- In i t..L .i11ntUJi -*lin
3. Losses from Insufficient Informiation Relative
to !?.-:rket Conditions.
'.Tl is pruobably the iost difficult point to handle, yet with
efficient cooperation every aan wio has a carload of fruit to 4Kentyr
should 'Gbta a.-.J J y L-LUtA 6V.ioinp +
the market and should be able to okow .!jut wv'lere it co-C' 1.'e T'acead.
oi-3. oss accruinLf, fro;.. Co;nditiorn t'hat ''e Have
Directly Under oir Control Locally.
(n.) .r' proper State laws we cai. keep out scores of insects that
are now r.If-" to pounce upon our crop. Tils has been demonstrated
s p tty 4."s *-at ne dictum of the scientists of twenty-five years
a.-'o h iT'rovenr; to be correctwi i-c '
(b) 7',-r'i are in addition' to t the insects scores of diseases some
of woiich are as bad as any of those vwitli v';ich \we now b.A.ve to (eal,
ancd vwri3 hethe iinor diseases vou3d )probabyj3 not in themselves attract
:;3ch attention they are simply adding that uch ;joru w'ei'ght to our
burden, and som i of them aighit i.rove to be tie- p-roverbiaJ "last straw".
(a) One of the directions in which we have been most di:l..or.'r and
recreant is that of discouraging or stopping loca3 di.3eriination of
insects k diseases. We have been so prone to stand on our person-
al rr1fets that we have simply permitted all sorts of diseases in the
State to be di emanateded at wil] with impunity. I could cite case
after oase until it would fi2 a volume of illustrations to bear
out this particular point. The amount of good that hans been ac-
compzlshed by our State Nursery Inspector, Dr. E. W.. Berger, can
never be fu33y realized Iy/ the citrus growers of Florida. From the
evidence at handx it is safe to say tliat the one of controlling
and stamping out of cttrue canker is worth one hiindrod times nore
to t:ie citrus industry of Florirl; than the boost of running tie vThole
Engl ish Peas
RISE OF THE VGETABI~ CROP
Vegetab e Crop 1890.
4350 503,00ooo cr.
2240 147,500 bb3s.
2700 1491 cars
80~4, 84,000 cr.
767 65,000 cr.
3619 1W0,700 ba.
13 4.400 b3 3s.
206 7,400 bl2s.
93 4,500 cr.
91 2,900 bu.
_ ~ __i_~_YI~
Vegetab e Crop 3893
Digl ish Peas
361, 000 bb] a.
7,700 bb3 s.
~ 1-, 400
Vegetable Crop 1896
77,600 bw s.
38,000 bb a.
23,000 bb s.
10,560 bbe a.
_LI~1~~~ _~~_I __1~_ Ir_ __I _1__1~__~
Vegetable Crop 1901
Vegetable Crop 3912
] glisl Peas
625,000 Or .
253 ,000 or,
98, 00 or.
_.__ (_ ____~X_^_~ IY~1~Y~
Rise of Fruit Crop other than Citrus
Fruits other than Citrus 0
240,800 trees ,000 .
602 acres 3,088,000 boxes
329,000 trees 22,000 bl s.
3 8,400 bu.
__ I _I___ __ ___ __ ---------~---)UI--- ---
Plums (no record )
Fruits other than Citrus
81 ,000 qts.
Fnits other than Citrus 3896
,04-3 area 3,295,000 qts.
1,344 trees 96,950 bu.
4,591 tree 62,000 bsla.
0,451 trees 2,030 bu.
_ _~_~_ W____ _~__ ____
Pruits other than Citrus
5, 83 trees
3 O 000 tcla.
- ~- -- I-- ICII~-IUIIO --~-
Pruits other than Citrus
trees o t.
92,819 178,566 bu.
506,459 36,89-3 bu.
36,790 33,000 bbts.
17,673 1,054, 9415 lbs.
32,216 37,726 bu.
---, ~ -- -~ -- ~1--1--1 ~-~1- --II-
Rise of Citrus Fruit Crop
_ ____ __I_ __ ___
$2, 755, 400
---- ---- --- -I /I
$1, 471, 400
_ ___ __ ____
2,776,526 3,856,0 6
794, 08 739,923
3,637,702 2,.610,,38 6~~a1, Gl 7 a;-;, --:,600
3s Ijon-citrus Citrus To
$ ,755,4 00
_ --C~ZII--LU---~ __ ~_ ~--C-~--~----- YILII
- ----U-------- -. ___-------U-l--DIII -U------l--
_ -.-I- Il-CI -- -- --- -- -I-
~~-- I --~----------II_ ----~----~IIIL _-U- I-~-L-----l ---
After reviewing the whole horticultural situation I can see
clearly how one 3arge question after another has coIme up, G.treous
efforts have been made to solve It. Some questions have been rj.tuded
until a reisonab3e solution has been found. Often t!=is las or.e
about by forces entirely or largely outside of our om reglcn.
l The traiLsportation question has been .'ett3ed 3arg:cy 1 t'.he est.ab-
3luju.cnt of a non-partisan Inter3tatt Com iorcce Cc; in.3Ion witi. no-aor
to act. wB have done our sWlaro of tl-e :rt: to bring t .is acout.
(/ Our preFennt PFilro.i cO;;ission can, be traced directly
to the :-orticu3turists of lor:ida.
0(/ Tie introduition, propagation and disii;o.iriation of va;,u:.l e
fnru ts, vegetable es ad ornraenta3 h1s been! due entlro3y t:- our
effort. Ii1 the 3st tweiL-.y-four years the vegetabL'e cro hFUS in-
creasad over 900 p-rcsnt. The citru fruit have 'icreamal 4C)
percent, in apite of tze fact that t I a tV be entirely rehalbi i-
tated. Ti~e other fruits have iicrea.ued over 250 ,perce.t.
She chapter on fertilization Is the rnot bri3r nt one that
we have written. mNofhere else in the world wl33 you find. sue' a
3arge umrd of inforniation on this subject an it posaseao! by thr hoN.-
tl0c3 tourists of I'lorlda. No' ero ei ne is theo fortl3izer ~biinies
on o so03 id a1 frounation.Ql _e. y^ < 44% 42-
/ T(d e cliapter on the kino;rltclge of diseases nd insects 1:3 a3 so
an extremely brl)liant one. T~e scientists hive imeo tihe:iselvea
nationally and internationall] fraous. It has, however, hi extreme-
3y cdlcouraging si.e to it. The i-ort cul turists as a bod are far
behind tiie most pogreao larr.e n r.rr o indlvidua] s ire tie
nost 3progresaive t.at c~i .be Vowidt
'1/ CTe c h-iptcr on cor.c' i.:.tio i3 lut be lin;n to be written.
A great many vigorous attempts have ben'r nade but a33 of th-e:;.e have
fal3en I'.ir short of receiving thie heart:; cooper-ztlon of tT'. :rsons
Tje wvrole ]!orticultura3 altvation as broui;: t oi.t by iy
':~itory o. its rlev eopImnt in the la-t 25 years my ble sanli; up
in the one sentence, Our work as individuala has been the iaost
brilliant that can be found anywhere in the wond, bVt our team
worp has fal3 en so far sort, of what It ouSht to have been that an
individuals we have had to aufTer the severest humilnations, both
p aonal ad financial.
1it U these concluding words I lay before .ou,, ladles and gen-
tlemen a brief study of the development of horticulture Ib F3i orlda
as it has occurred during, th.e life of !, r. o. Palnlr. I I'LLae
briouint oat clearty that he has had more to do Awith its correct de-
veIopment thni aty of the y.ouner ~enters fa reoa3ze.
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