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 Introduction
 The Florida agriculturist
 Writings on horticulture
 The transportation question
 The insect and disease control...
 Rise of contact insecticide
 Diseases thirty years ago
 Later introductions of insects
 Spraying machines
 Cooperation
 Losses accruing from lack...
 Rise of the vegetable crop
 Rise of fruit crop other than...
 Rise of citrus fruit crop
 Summary horticultural crops
 Conclusions
UFLAC


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E. O. PAXITER AND PLORIDA EORTICULTJBB.


I / Intrdta$4onn o
I am proud to be on the program and to .be able to present to

you a snort paper- on ir. 0E. .Painter andr norida Horticulture.

I will not presume in this discussion to speak f Mr. -Painter as a

man. We have let here this afternoon not to eulogize his many vir-

Stues, his abilities and his greatness. These would only te arred

by our attempts. Wd e ei out of the gratelflness or our hearts to

oamemDrate his life as an influence over us. There was no nrVere-

=seit proposed for the betterment or horticulture but round his ready

response. In y many calls at his office, I have never found his

door closed for a moment;: it always stood open to my entrance. The

many conferences were always ost pleasant and inspiring. Optimism

might be said to be his primary trait.

I have traveled with him, labored with him, and oren sept

in the same bed with him. He always seemed a companion rather than

a co-worker.

While he may be absent in body, his spirit is round about us.

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I feel his influence as if he were present at this .ameting. Th ;
ever -
spirit of our departed friend is with us to -."ourage" us and urge us

on to ever better and nobler work.. God in His infinite iTi oy 'has I

permitted him to journey Into that bourne from whion no traveler

returns. This boue lies within us, about us and beyond us.

The great and lasting good that is wrought in this wr r3d is

broiught.:-Out by.gradual development. Catacjyamsa rarely produce

a lasting result. The greatest epoohsin the advance of civiliza-

tion are wrought n the everyday toll of the masses. our common

education has inculcated into our minds that the great events and

epochsmare ushered in by great heroes. This hero worship~drilled

into us from the mnnrary twrougit the college course. Rarely is

any account taken of thel masses who have toiled to mike it possible

to have'a hero to worship. Lest we forget, X re-mind you that the

great work wrought for the advance of Florida Horticulture was done

by such men as Mr. E. O.Painter. His name was rarely seen attached

to long articles. S6lf assertion had the least thought in his mind.


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In scanning the horticultural literature of ti"e State one

Is surprised by the few times that his name appears in pu'blil print.

r know, however, that when it came to,giving ral anda- ad financial sup-

port to a wholesome an- wortyccaus e find E. 0. Painter'-foremost

in the list. -

The pleasant task of bringing to your attention lhis ire and .-

works in other directions tan tlhe broad one of Plorida horticulture

has been assigned to co;;ipetent and worthy associates, who each nave

a message for you.

Sources of Information

In preparing this paper for you I have drawn on Wa own memory

extending over nearly twenty-three years, as.well as published data

occurring in zy private library as well as the data in the Experiment

Station library..

The amount of the horticultural literature available for the

period covered by ?Mr, Painter* life is so great that it a2enfa

large volume. The usefulness of what I am presenting to you today

will depend entirely upon whether or not I have the pep skinl In







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selection and ability to present it in proper form.

The Florida Agriculturist

h: ave no intention of entering on extendn ed dciscurssien;

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of The Plorida Agriculturist. Tha lase'or the program obe)o a /

to one of ny able colleague. I rastth, m.hoevpe, mPtion iis jour-

nal, founded owned edited TB Mr, Painter, as it is necessary to

: H thesis. I laK a profound effect on the horticulture of Florida.

'go paper as o oomp3etely covered the fled and served the needs '

of i s readers so satisfactorily as did The F3orida Agricu3 trist.-


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Writings on Horticulture..


Mr. Painter could not be classed as a voluminous or gifted

writer. In his earlier work especially while editing the Florida,.

Agriculturist, frequent papers from his pen appeared, but before ong :

his larger business affairs absorbed so nic}n time that it was a dif-

ficult matter to get a paper fro.; him, even before the H'.rticultural

S' Society. '

S-ia fand of wit and is aptitude for /, pervaded his writings

as we33 as his everyday conversation. n presenting a pap r on -

S- Bermu r a Onions at'tue Ormond meet g, 1892, he opened his ta]l: i th

tlhe quotation Sm ( )onion there is strength~,, I want to aa

here an extract from -is paper presented at the Interlachen meeting

Sin 1891. It gives us ias style of writing fairly well and is.also;,

1` of special interest to us at tnis Palatka meeting since it r de rlbe

- -Hastings as she was twenty-three years ago. I remember V13ating

S the cucumber house referred to, :




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Sast August the plave mow known 4asastin srlh as only flat

woods, and indeed they are flat woods It would be hard to find as

many acres in one body anywhere in the State s6 nearly on the sa1e



perfoo .. drainage can be ad by itching .

..'The sol s i-iar to other flat woods,,with hard-pan from

ir one to three feet. below, -with oansiderable prairie land intermi~xed,

which after draining needs only .. -plow to b reak it up to render it

ready for oltivation.
fAst Abefre state plaee now lugust, Eastings wa not, ont slon
woods, and indeed they are flat woods6 It would be hard to find aS












later he, Pto a ap appearan o e, ed jetdgitngh f gram hatl sl so toa-









plished we should say a good deal of Basting-ts), has been done.

perfe built drainage can e and barns amdit ng the pine and used t
prai te tad foril i gsmlar tnd asoer flat aroud withe prmpanro
oae to three feet below, with considerable palrie land interutixud,

which after draining needs only a plow to break it up to render it



rAs .before stated, last August, Hsstings was not, Ibt soon




pishiaed we should say a good deal of Hastlng.s) has been done..

" .. He built his house said bam. among the pines and used the



and see the tomato plants loaded with fruit, some growing, too, on

a land that has never felt a plow; cuoumber vines that are about

13, 71. 3 fryl : s. ; i









through bearing, yet still oan boatst of "*caes over two feet ti


length, cabbage ti huge iles that a being fed to frazor baoka


instead of being shipped to fill the coffers of the railroads ant


asemmssion merchants, we ns't help but wonder, how did he do it


all.


SWe soon discovered the great factor of it all in a four-inch


Sartesian well. This well s but 350 feet deep, yet the volume that


arises is enormous aad with seah force that no pmps are needed to


elevate the water to any part of the house or ban, the temperature


of the water remalne at about the sase- 79 degrees- the year around,


which is a great advantage in gardening during the winter season.'


Close to the well the oadJ heuse is built, being 156x23,








Ift-Adoes not Bbe 0 bi B as strongly protected against oold and ha ano


B ;i ainiing appasatua T he hating of this house during the oold


spells that ccurr during December, January and February ia quite


novel as well as original, and we venture ethe asertion that na where


in the world $* it done theoo s saoe w. hn the psignso indicates 1n



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a -& 1 night lA approaching, the well is opened, and th stream of

|i water it conducted to the tekoi house were it flows under the bod

in streak from three to six inches deep. This current of water






iinide a'" d o
S keeps the temperstare &t a average et HI degre on sold nights,

frrequently Bahsng & difference of taoa 20 to 30 degrees between

S inside ea~t outside, .*******************************

f Here we saw the finest potatoes that lw have ever seen

grownlg t the State. Large satse, Saooth Akin and thoroughly ripe.

AU. thIs w~ done with the a4d of irrigation, the artesian well fur.

raising the supply, although nearly half a mile ol f. Irrigation i-

done by means of ditohes dug along one aide of the field. When a

certain piece of land to needing water, the trenches on both aidee

of it are daiamed and the water a allowed to fill the Intervening

tranehes tl av1 w v^ ie surpae, and Is then damoed in and left

Seoiate through the sea- whiqt f it will 4. a. very short time.

We have reserved to the last one grand feature of the irri*

gated land and oen whieh will, we believ, aer long, bring many a del-

lar to our Tborders. ie sti raising rice, After vegetables are ail

hatvested and the laud plowed, it S planted to rtie and the water







u 4on. In a great deal shorter time than oan would think the

ground is thoroughly saturated and the rloe Osso sproate sad a good

stand l4 the result, Thus the land na be Ikpt i continued se the

year rOans. AU that oan be dnas on this land remains yet to be prov-

ea,. fr the work that bha been done is only a beginning, for would

be Impossible for any one or two men to develop It in s short a taoe.

Mr 6 hatiags has #tarted the ball rolling sa others an join in psh-

ing It aa "**************

1na ai43nin a would state that Mr. Hast wings nfo3ms is

that he i making arrangements with a German to make into sauerkraut

all the cabbage that lt not shipped another season, also say start

a tomato canning factory f the outlook warrants."





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T hi e Tranusportation bQestion

SThe transportation question has always been a worrying one

among the Florida hortieu3turist S. In the seventies it was mainly

a woe of getting the fruit to the Marke. dIn tijse days It meant

getting them to Savarnaah or New Yok. Threrere no trtirl lines

of railroads and every pluj line was doing aal in its power appar-

antly to ki33 off tle other roads whether a comapeting one or a

oolmecting one. I St apparently, because the policy adopted an

carried out could not have been Eore discouraging to the slOipper of

perishable fruits. The steamship and boat lines were somewhat bet-

ter but served only a few of the growers.

Transportation has not reached a perfect .tage yet, still we

,ill get a large grain of comfort by listening 9af ctrot. The

make one feel as he does after awakening from an attack of night

mare. The following Is taken from a paper read ly Mr. X. G. Hill

of Lawtey, at the Deland meeting In 1890. /








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r I have seae staitictis from California showing what

freight the CalifornUans pay on their shipaente to New York,

and I find that we pay more fro Florida tan they de. Tbey

have an organiatmon it California known am the Shippers' tUnon,

and they ship in train lots. Seven Oars institute a train,

and this train takes the preference over any other train on

the roads. They are loaded by the shippers and placed ahead

Of the epress trains whioh are not allowed to pass them.

For that service they pay $44, per oar-load, and the time la

seven days. We pea $85 efor the eare service. They will

oarry ay kind of perishable frulto plau, peaches and any-

thing that can be shipped in aar-load lots to New York in r.;

4igerator eara with the wsBe eervioe that we have for strawberrieM

S I for "475 per esa. For that same service we pay $1,040.

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The following extract is taken from the presidential address


of Dudley W. Adams, delivered in 1891 at Ormnd, who was one of the


most forceful and vitrolic of hbbrtlcultural writers we have had.


































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PThe norida Truit IEchange reports its gross sales this

season at about *1.75 per box, and net the grower about $1. This
,, A^x. 4oc ^Z. 1:c 9, zo LO "z7
analysee thus a Grower, 54#; box, Oto., 450; Fruit Exchange, 14#i

transportation S62; total, $1.75. The grower gets a trifle under

one-third what his oranges sold for, and someone else gets two-thirds .

The transportation from Florida is more than double What it

is from California, per *1*, notwithstanding otr roads are largely

sustained by way of business, while the PoAlfio roads ru hundreds

ef 1iles through an uninhabited waste, and over grades and our es

that to our own coast lines a unknown. A maa in ]inneseta can

send a bushel of wheat to Liverpool, 4,500 miles, for less mony

than I can send a box of oranges to Jacksonville. In a matter like

this, where the success of a business depends on a fair division of

income, it ought to be amicably ar ed, o th prodouer and car- ,

3ier can each have a fair proportion. auoh was hoped from o 8u State

railroad commission, but it proved such an abject failure that the

legislature legislated it out of existence, and very few tears have

-een shed over its grars, That same legislature proved itself a




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flatter failure than the commission, by failing to enact something

better in its pla4e,

f the fruit growers of the State have any influence, it

should be steadily and actively exerted in favor of such legislation

as will hbav the rates of transportation fixed by & competent and d4-

interested tribmual, which will deal fairly and justly with producer

and carrier.

ft Oe of the burning question which confronted us As how to

sell our fruit, WO have made perceptible progress in growing fruit,

but not in marketing it, It takes very little penetration to seo

that oonsaining our frut to the tender mercies of the commission

merchants, in distant markets, is a crude and unsatisfactory way,

but as yet we have found nothing better./ ********

Shave me some sta tics from California showing what freight

the falifornians pay their ahipea to w ork, and I find that ;

we pay more fram. Fl I than they do. y have an organization in

California known the Sh pers' Uni they ship in train lota.

Seven oars eons tute a trainand a train as the preference

over any other train on the roads They are leaded by the shippers













a r ?t of tt4) signed Cy O ascBaeon,. W. Wbodwort&,


an I XIeaa n J x [ t sAiou l noaa srE te ft



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bAssured that there ar wrongs to be righted, there somes

the all-important question: How may this be aocomplishedt?

I would first sugest a State Railroad Commasliot, with

absolute power to make maximum rate, and power to enforce the '

same, and if the courts should oversrle asch acts of ommisseion-

era, let the people nominate and elect court Judges that will go

on the principle that the government is made for the people, and

not the people for the government. Create a general Government

COnmtesson, who shall have absolute power to make and enforce

Inter-State rates, from which there shall be no appeal. Third,

the Nationalization of railroads and use the eame at absolute cost

in the interest of the people and for the people. 1*k-.*I&-%


lXt takes time to bring about these great reformations,

and the dear people must be educated up to think and act for

themselves and not allow a lot of politicians t think and act


for them. And until these things can be done- allow me to make

one more suggestion- let us, as fruit and vegetable growers, do a

little transportation for ourselves,'







l 'h

Let us, as & company, raise $100,000. build three iron,
i' 'U 2 \'Z
t hips oa 1,000 tons carrying capacity each, fit them or

carrying our products to market, by well ventilating and heating

pipes, plate then on the line between Jacksonville and New York,

and Iarry oranges and lemons at 25 oents per box and vegetables..

at same rates; and have owr ships pay a a. profit of 0S percent

on the investment This t1 practicable and can be done; seoh

ships can be run at a cost of about $300 per day, and ill carry

10,00 boxes of oranges and leave storage room for 400 toas of

miscellaneous freight. Are there 99 men who will unite with

me in putting up $1,000 each and try the experilant7

SThis would solve the problem of heap freight rates.

















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In 1894, tm low pries again made matters serious Lor the




Burope. m it1 :li pmets e re made the previous year. In

the spring of 1894, the 11ip Etbhelwoold was chartered to take a

load of fruit to ~land. Mr. Painter consented to go as super-

cargo and look after the business end in England. The freezes

of 1894 and 1895 put ai end to the work in this directions













At the beginning Of r. Painter oaarAtbi a we a
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no Sl uol science as plantt Patholor asa Entomology. The whoie 3J I


feature relating to the combatting of plant diseases and to the Oon-


Strol of inset pests, has been written aince that date. It ie ta.e
S <.f .

that volumes had been written on the descriptions of fungi and in-


sects, but the eremedlif treatment ns purely of an academic nature.


As an illustration of. tef I want to repeat an aneod(te told me by


an orange grower at Estis about fifteen years ago. tai orange


trees were badly infested with the round scale and so he applied to


his, broth.er-ln-law, a practicing prySnielan in kew jersey. t "

mail the orange grower received a bottle of .Iodine in solution aad


a camel~i a hair rush with the written assurance that this would fix


the bugs. Me directions were to use he 0 'ls hair brush but to


be careful and not let asy of, tati e touch the leaf.


The progress In the study of plant ,iaeases has een a little


more


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g mat ort e attention to to te astU of insect morphology while the


plant pathologists hawe laid greater stress on the study of fungus


and ~lrsiology. Thlis trend in the studies of the two branches a s


dlreotly traceable to the lesaers In these sciences.


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A study into the chapter of Insecticides and fungioides is

proaaby the maet interesting of all in connection with this resume.

A glSmpse into the literature IS like studying a fairy-tale'1 "M

the latter part of the seventies the only rills- that seemed to be

fall a ctrus grove in lorida wee sale insects, and if only thtU

could be controlled the eitrus grower relt t thtall he hla to do

was to pick the golden fruit and jingle te golden dollars. A*
at .ltA 1'4*-- ^ i -1-S^4 a1cAi 4 4 s
(d early a 1881 rof. H. G. ABibard was stationed in Florida to inves-

tigate the insaets of citrus, He was located at Crescent City,

and responsblbe to Dr. O. V. Bailey, Chief of the Division of nStomol-

oeg. As a result of Professor lubbarz~s work in Plorlda a bulletin

was issued from the. Division of Entomology covering the ground of

citrus insects more ht t a n anything that has since appeared.

This bulletin has long gonm. t lof print and although originally it

could hare been obtained for the asking, it now costs about ten

cents a page to buy the bulletin, and even at that price there appear





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to be more buyers than sellers.

Coincident with the work done by Prof. Bnubard in Floridai

was the rise of contact insecticides. Prelious to that time the

poison, insecticides had been used largely in the form of Paris Green,

and used, for the destruction of the Gol0ortado tato Beetle and in

some cases for grasshoppers. There was, however, a large class oX

insects which obtained their food supply by sucking it from the in-

terior of the plant tissues that were not reached by the poisonous

inseattaides. Er. A. J. Cookl, who is at the head of the California

Horticultural Commission, appears to have been the first to publish

a on the use of Ierosene emulsion for handling Insects of this. elass.

"" "
Mich. Agl3. xp. 8ta. 1890. L.Q1H. uWl. 58. 5.

This pu blication brought aboua wdy a adr t onious batt e between

Drs. Cook and Biley Prof. Hidlbard before Uhat, tlime hbio n'sing

kerosene enulsion at Cresceat City, though apparently thts had not

been published tote w a the wo as te experents were going on and

methods were being perfected. During 1881-82 Prof. Hubbard was









making experiments with kerosene emulsion made from conPensed dilk

and ]erosene.

Ann. aept. U,s, Cor. of Afrio., 1881-2, 113, 114.


It appears from the reorods that Dr. j. C. .eal, then located at

Archer, Fla. wrote to Dr. Riley (Oct. 10, 1882) tn regadi to their, l

oil soap and kerosene emision formaaa that ie tised. Ths formula

is practically the sae as is used at the present timne. Re also

hada formula that was made up of ordinary laund& y soap and Ierosene

e~masion. It appears, however that these gentlemen were all ante-

dated by Mr. ~eorge Cruikshanr of Whitinvaille, iass., who seems to

have begun the use of a mixture of whale ol and kerosene emutlsion

as early as 1870.
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*T, X.,, Gaziener1s Monthly, 1875, ~eb., ..45.
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It is quite probable that these are a number oi indepenendt discoy-

eries of how to ake ceroosene ax with water and was the beginning o:r

our process in th rP*tSaoh. eL of contact insecticides.









From this period on there has been a rezry rapid movea.ent

and an Aalost .endless aglttplioation of contact inseoticides, un-

til now all you have to 4o Is ,to name your Wg and the specialist

can tell you just wbat form of anaesthet1t will put him permanently

to sleep. There is really little to be 4esared so far as insecticides

are coacerned in the direction of killing insects, We have now

arrived at the point where It is not so much a matter of the nedlclne

to be used as the method of administering it.















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Xiseass t^yn "r

We hae already discussed the 4di ooern of eotosene eM u]ian

wtch Inatroduced the period tae iapi dtreilop at Oourrad n the

soeintfie study of Insnetlcides and fungicides.

At the belmintg at this period we find that ami.43dt-.goa or

foot-rot was the disease ipparant In thie mints of oltrua growers

This dmbase rapes It an Its fury In the Aores from 1832, wtIen

in about a tea-year period, atf of the trees were destryit 1w itl

mn caie a quiesoant period at in 1873 the disease fha nearly die-

appeareda due to hand3aig It by preFntive ad curative methods,

In 18r5 it apreaL to ortugal and eastwanl rec m ing measina about

186$, tnor to BSioily. It is oanservatively estimated that at
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leiaat iaooo',ooo t awe was one, by it. Prof, lriozi, an Italian

S/;/ jat .ois re.lo jtbli hing on the disease ans regardiin
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tUe ~ unguts alats oriuu l imoni. Since the curative atd preentive

Metiodsa have been o well wored out and the renwsta t no nucoeaotf




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no very serious attempts lhae been smae in this country to estab-

li1a the identity of the causative agent.

Tho disease does not appear to bMre reached California, lg in-

vestigations there lead ms to boaler1e tat flat is frequetl3t called

foot-rot in Californla is quite a distinct disease. Profe oOr lawoStt

who has spent a great dea more time in the study of citnru disease

in OCaifornia than I Ihate, conMurs in thief cMno2alon.

Zn Anstralia the disease was fou nt to be destruotlve around

8dneys as early as 1867.
have
to d1isee seemz to been absent from the Asiatic countries,

Japat, China as d tia, during the time wien it was quite prevalent

In mrope, America aiA Auftra3ia, This rather inaicatos that tie

disease was of earopean origin.

The first printed anthietl nottoe of it In rforica dates back

to 1876, and as late as 3180 it waMs of ,ath ul "c rncea sma

that t ime on the d iseaiB e to, lave Mae rather rapld progrewp
1/ r / tt ... ; .s;1 .
at has eaen disaflnatted to a bia trnt, Sgrmctfg rto/i'tn

State,. ring the aAtile laneties it appeared to reaot its oulaln-

ation of destructivmSeSa.









bea to produced It the fungus inoim as C)aiosporuia oltri.

This wa desorlbed IrV Prof. lamaon sorteLi r

Bt.ll- Torr. Bot. Club, Vi,. 3X2Xl7, ?- 2 81.


T]e origin tf this disease is pretty certainly Asiatic. It was not

noticed to ar~ great extent until the latter part of the eighties.

Dietaac as probably been with' s from the beginning aince

it appears to be due to plwBlological ionaltions. In the early part

of the stuzleg it was omtnted wrth other troubles. tn one apbli-

cation, for instance, we aure a ftie colored plate of dieback and

the suggestion that it is due to insect attacks.

The earl ft Infonration that we can pt about igt iseem s to

date bak to about 1878, wen *ome trees n Lae County were at-

feoted Ty a aqsterloiu Aisease that later was connected au wt what i

we know to be bligbt.

Inseots tc~t4u af sr

At the beginning of this period actrus tires wereer affeote

with a rajaber of Inaects that were thought to be eneedingly de-





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strut lve, and it was ti-hght that if only a remedy for thee Inaeots

ooud4 be obtained not atoh would tbe 2eft to be deires[ in the way

tof handing tnhis, tle Of pests. The early 21terature teems with

leaf-eating Uinetot that are SoarxSEy knownn tiady.

The mota prominent sca1e insects that tl2j had were thie ~ og

scan3e ) purple ecae ( )

chaftf scace ( ) and wax 8cae( )

At the present time no one think serWoualy about these pesIt

unIess perchance it is th!e novice in litrue growing.


later IntrodaetiRo of TI t m Diseaseg

Withertip and anthramcose are caO~sed by the sane furgus.

This was probably iatroduoed from south AMeriea during, the pi dcile

nineties, Wttile a rfma of the fungue COo33etotrichia i 0o.sporlolA ,sc

tad been known to eiftst for soie tMe iL' bfd e Oev Qe3oped into,

seripua proportionas, and was Lknwn on2y as spoc~lens In eb't ria. "

Du2Xig the l iddle e nineties'~na toward the beginning of the 3900s

a very YViUtalet outbreak o thifa disease ooouarred, trevous to this










tlUe ritz Noak had obseive tnhis disease as proving deetrtative In

patts o(a BHraatl.

Me0larnose and stem eaOW rot moay be medemic and smey a3 so bawe

beem bitroduced The tromqroba~i3 ty is in favor of e.leeing

that tit-i .dii introduced to the State. It seems quite improbable

that a disease wilich can be so destruotiTe aould escape attention.

trom auob Rkeen observer s as 4 WP e ~se ana swng3e,, Dr. Irv Iin. ,.

Siaith,, Dr. .3 ierwooda peolalists on pIant disease.
Introduced
it is a.. t : disease it seecs quite aertai that its Uintroduo-

tion was some time -during the ninaties.

Mat1-head rust (c3adosporlXu h1ertarw also fIoa n 3in orida

as scaly baTrX is oonfined to a very sWal3 portion of the State,. Its

,g ml4-, -.;:; t art aEb.S4 to point very strong-y to its

ailng an introdnet 42ease s Aen < & _
___ .2
A33 or tie occurrences io the State biave 1bd i traced back to

me nursery. Portmately this irseJ~iymn distributed a very ma3I.

awuOt of Stook) l

Diplodia rot (Diplodia natalenais) has at no time assume






i2


A j


destructive proportions th gh it is met with froM time to time.

wSe hae not staled the conditions sufficiently to enable us to

form an opinion as tO wbheVr It ~s nat ie or iLtroduoet,

flack rot (Alternaria oltr) i Is quite I n-

troduQtion frO Ca ifonia. This has never proven to be wirsu olent.

3y destructive to be o- serious 3onsaequemc to us as It Lt mainly

a rot of the navel orange.

aOtrus oafser, the newest and probably one of the anet ig*-.

orous of the disease, is knooking lustlly at our doors to be at,

emitted. AS a matter of foot If It had m.t beet for tne viguiance

-of our nraery inspector, 3r.S. V. Berger, it woua4 probably have

been dissemlited In fMorlda In aulh a way that It omld not be

stayed ot. We believe, however, that the measures adopted will

clert the State of ay of tin8 dies~ea AS- nearly as we can toll

from tue *wornL that baas een &nae by Pror, Sterana, It would prove t

tery manh ucre formldabl e di4eaws to haSMale than either sSab or

withertip with probably a2ll o the destrwtive qualities of anmtha

nose









A--"' e%-4C-i fInseats.

. 1,:Among the Insects that are of later laportation those that Z

mention in the fo lowing paragyaps could easily have Teen kept out

Sthe Stti an efficient horticultura3 inspector working under

a satisfactory Xar. Immediately after the introduction of the first

Sof these pests, the San Jbse calSe, native steps were taken to have

Slaws passed for the control of diseases ada insects in the State.

A committee was appointed ~r the Horticultural Society to draft a.

Slaw and have thliU presented to the 7lorida legislature in 1897.

SThe committee consisted of nvyelf, Dr. Webber aAd

. We used the best state laws then in existence as models and work~

tt out on the most economioa3 plan possibMe.. It failed of passage

on account of the fact that little effort outside of the committee

was made to further the Interests of the horticulturists.

The oottony cushion scale was accidentally introduced into

FilPtt 4 the tine it was discovered it occupied a very small

territory, only a sialtr fraction of an acre being infested. Just




..a









as vigoroUsn.rozi as the State laws permitted was aade By the iAnto..

1. n o; )logrst thne 1 9rio ent Sfation, he was, however,. powerless under

Ithe lg tb tdo more than recomanad what should be done and then

stand bty anX give his services hearty in carrying out the work,

Iater the State spent a considerable amount of money, both from

public ft nas and also from private fundS to suppress thae pest, and

we are now losing amua3ly more from its depredations than would

have bought out the entire premises and destroyed every living 'plant

Spfn it. As later introductions maiy be mentioned the Amngo scaXe

and the Ca3ifornia citrus scale. There are many others that are

kno. ing lustily at our door. We are waking up somewhat tardily

Sto the fact. tat wre need an efficient policeman at Our gate to keep

out the rogues.

The whitefly was introduced either directly or indirectly

from ITmdia, and the ravages of this ies t have caused the loss of

Na1y mil ions of dollars directly in fighting itj i say nothing of

the loss that has been caused by its presence lhen there is still

that larger loss whioh has deterred the investment of =g4taillioan



J i:N Kri









S i AbouanB and possibly millions of amr, in the business. At the

close of the great freezes of 1894-95, Pro. f Go Hzbbar, seo-

anded try Dr. Webber and a self, pointed out strongly how we hat tW

opportunity of limiting the spread of this pest. Drastic and active

Steps taken at that time wouid have limited the spread of It very

materially. Rven so orade a form of limiting it as would have

been brought about by a conscientious nairery inspector with peoeer

to act would have kept it from hundreds of centers where It now oo-

curs. There are still sections in the State of W]orida that are

not infested with whitefly, and erary effort should be amae to

suppress it should any outbreak occur in these sections. That this

can be done has been the outbr ak that

O6
.r
in tee California citT growing section. .

Ax. e latest introduction Is the woolly whitef3y (Ale rode.

S Howard h) from Cuba. fortunately the woolly whitefly has a native





S,: '. r r ,- .r '*' i '.- ,
parasite which causes vezy large Inroade on the pest. Prof., J X




will present a paper on the subject later. We can say, however,

L !p








St.at ta npresence of this CheX-inate on the woolly whiteflny

nothing to the credit Ot us as hortioulturists it i simalgy a matter

', .of ing a fortIunate coIbinat&on of oondlttions
"'x ,A / ;'* ... L" "-
Shere are. roteo r pests might enhmeOrate of aner impor-Z

StanThe, bu thee are autcisent to asow clearly that whatever progress

we ay have made as horticulturists the pests of the horticultural

crops hae been nuC maore aggressive and4 W -;l 'An agin

nr-it t n it tn Mt
^f~ite^ e^ ^i^t
t/ ea rt







a. _. .
8Wpaying Machinea


At the beginning of the epoh about w ich I am writing at

S praying mhnies were really not inwmiinei at all

S. in the parent sease of tile wOa, 'Mer wi lrey toy8 ana meina -

shifts, As long as our principal Inseaticide work was oina6

to apply ang Parisa Oren little -was needed beiade a aprninking can.

With tahe introduction o ~ir'e perfect methods for app ying tis ma-

terial Oams the siaed advantage of .doing the woro U In atta a t0oroug1

iannerlst sfet time wse given to the question from an engineering

tanwaroint. TShe sall i3ap-sack sprayer in which one carried. 5 or

10 gallons of at over the shoulMer proved to be a very

great step in advance. The a. 8. Diviont of Plant Patho l og under

tne .eadership of ou present efficient Assistant Seoretair of Agrl.-

oulture", dd a grLt deal to advance the work of produitng effiolent

spraring ma IeOS. athos of uS who have carried, a !nap--aok apr~"yr

a35 (ay long in a tmaato fialda ca well remeaber t iiiwac

ant the aches anl pains endured ater tie da ay*a wot ma over,

Pro tVal was raptdly 4Im f ti barrel sprayer and finally the







r


spraier mounted on wheels add tiose uafe on a wagon. At the pnr-


ent time we hae he raying chnes that are run ty gasolene engines


A \ d s fitwated ln mab wa tat treW work oan to carried on eff iciat-


3y ain wi th tie Mnima 3nmt of Aiaooftort. These saoines mre


e bpetj bts$ iidwna tre moast sa6u5ae draamis of those Ito carried theia


Sol 4 ap-sack sprnayera. o spring acahine is now thought to be


worth plU,* either for the trtk field or the citrus orahard


aineas it can develop a pressure of 80 to 120 pounds.


--2.- t' ..


:jg n


;:i:;

'"`


''
'''
r~


,
, .i i: ..








OOPMRATI12


It is a wnl known principle in anchanica that a ttam conB-
? .*. '. *-. '


r ." ', .-



.pOp qf two horsat will Ao areefeffottve work when it comes to
-J
avy ftij ian can be done by two horses acting singly,
_ -.'" .. ..- +,- ...... +- + .
t' th i ti all through our sool3. organization by combning


z s... .
a t a t 3ast and finally into nations.

'The interests of the nortiouatural people, however are Itken-*

ly to be so varied that there la a great dea3 of reluctance to give

i up the personal independence that co.es from go ig it aone. H ow.
S.i .








e er, it. is very certain that if o t ruit growers reutually agree

to hafnd le their stuff In exactly the same way and in the form adopt-

ed by the best grwer, more eff client service will be ha a

larger profit acorue than Iy each going it a himself. The question

; of cooperation or no cooperation to more largely founded oa the in-

harant sentiment o everyone regarding htasef to be superior in

S alln respects to is. neighbor. Practical experience, however, ea

when tVat t his t an Mrraneats way of looting at our existence.
..*. .. .. ** : -
]~~e tli tr meatrm asrysa nteDmaot






2


The basis ia to meh of our~:troub*e in Florida is this one fact

S that apparently every man thinks he knows mare about everything

than does anyone elsea I meet this constantlyV and espeolally is

it true of the man who knows the least .about an particular subject.

Take an illustration from the fieid n whlch I am most likely to be

spending inr actiities., the citrus grove, The man who comes to

the State and has had about six months experience in handling oitrau

trees is the one who is most likely to iDportune me very greatly

.about advice and reoommendations, and then in about thirty minutes

Sprove to : tat I do not 'know anything about the business

Ve know so little about practical and thorough cooperation in

'l3orlda that we are very unwiU l ng to take up the yoke and follow

S i1 te it below' dictation as to how we sha2l pack our fruit,


wIh;wen Pwe shall. market l ^ i whnwe ought to spray and what other opo

S-erations W ne iouia carry on.

She Florida fruit industry, however, has gotten into some

S 'ey serious dirticulties froa pursuing this Imsependlent and 'go as

you please' method. Just as soon as our fruit production reaches






:3

the point where we nearly apply the demsrdas of the existing market,

our prices drop so low that it is abso3utesy impossible for the

average grower to come out even with his expenses,

The Florida ruit Xxchange was organized in 1884, according to

the Florida Dispatch, (MarOch 23, 1885, p. 272) wtth a capital stook$


of $50,000. T2is was increased the next year to $390,000, This

Exchange handled citrus frults, vegetables and pineapples One to

the objects of the Eiohaage was to force the buyers to come to the

State, This it succeeded in doing very ad.mirably anr the result

S of te he working of the xbhaage were satisfactory to quite a number

of the members.

On A-pril 2cIn,19, a convention Ias held &n Orlando to froMa.-

!. p a' l anes whioh matured in the formation of the Plorida Fruit and

, ,, Vg table. Growers issioclatioi. The immediate e for the formlS

Stion of these two orpanizatlons was that both fruit and vegetables

were bringing less than the cost of product ion. It was either a

question of organizing and doing away with some of the disadvantages




" '- ". .' : i : : : "*L .... : <.





of in4ivitupgfbt', or? uitting te business. Both or these org-
<./4 ,QD ^ /, hI or t wi
G, n Qlitlon~sa ames to an timely '. s tf.reezes of the winters

6atf 894 -a,_5, ~" t'curring on the night of December 29,

1 94, axd: the second on the 9th of Yebruary, 1895, As is shown by

the statistics attached to this paper there was a very Jarge suimn

in the amount of both vegetable es and fruit produced in the State.

This in a measure evened up matters and did away wth the necesstW '

of organization, However if the organizations had been continued'

it would undoubtedly have proven prof itab2e to the members1 of the

Associations. These and a number of sacceeding very cold wintea

culminating in the very low temperature of february 33, 1399 seeae:

to put an end to all opens .of citruss growing in the northern portion

of the peninsula of YForica. Bad the freezes of '94 and '95 occurred

singly the damage would not lare been aI serious. Likewise had

the freezes of *94 and '95 not occurred the succeeding cold winters

would not have upset tihe citrus industry so badly.4

In the early ninetiea thel Indian River and take Worth ine-

pplm Gnowers Association was tormed for the handling of pineapple


Sr'.: r, .i rxia Ftples





V


in that region. This continued in existence until after shipping

the orop of 191..

azny people have said that the great freezes were a blessing

in disguise, but the disguise is so completely veiled that even the

keen scrutiny of statittIcs will not rweav t low these op--

timists are successful in seeing the blessing is more than I can

tell. The Visible blessing is certainly not to be taken into eorn

sideration. Brery industry in the State felt the fffeota of these

disastrous freeze and even those lines of work that .we would have

expected to b bbenetitted 1'r the freezing out of the citars rope

angulsaed as a result,

It took Florifda magy fourteen years to catch up with the

Procession, in other words it was-not until 1908, i dis er

again caring us: in the fac oth int e T1 ta and itrus line,

's disaster being lue to the individualized efforts that 4.. /

put forward n the last decade or deoaae and a half aJnt the freezes.

Th-e demoralization of the work due to lack of organization

reached its mamian aA the winter of 1907-08. At this time the










Oitrus cr- p in California was very heavy but the Plorida rop had

not reached the porportions it attained in 184.

In 1908 the florida Orange Groata Compdanyr was organized,

mainly through the activities of gr. bJoslah Var3 z

Suit and Produce News, Noveember 3, 1908, p. 9.


2his was a step in the right direction but most of the -ltrus g aw..

erv in the State thought it was not saficient to remedy the trouble.

As a result of the agitation and c~.~ r to California, a convention

was called for a mxre perfect organization of the citrus growers.

This was held at Tsnpa on July 22, l908, and the 3Forida Citrus

Sxchangie, with M. EX. Gillett as manager, was organized.

In 1913 arrangements were .ade for the organization of the

:3 crida Growers and s ppers Protective league. This-l gatin<' :

-culminated In at~e e aey t o-f t Prof. layd S. T.arl as Se drea '

and Manager for the Association. a-c- lh.c.



AL Of a *










SLosses Aeoruing from lack of Cooperation


Almost every business with which we oome in contact either

on the selling or purchLasing end of our business, we meet face to

face Indi vidual s who belong to strong organizations and who are nopt

fighting as individasla but are fighting under the nagewt of abl

;leadership. Th e losses that accrue to us from la0c of cooperation

are may anR: below I gIve a few that hare pccurred to. a

1. Zosbes 4t tie Marketing bnd of our Musiness.

( a) Thousandas of olart rey year are lot n the just

c3alame that we have against transportation companies. Either our

clalams are so badly made that the transportation companies 6mst loot

Supon them with suspicion or if they are maee oarreotly we are worn
.'. o 24. oorreo

im .2I _. ... red tape connected with the questions,. I

q *- :q y o-tmal experiencee n this matter Xt noey different rrom that>! i\

-... :, 1 -
cited to m'e br numerous other intiviaals. At one time I paid $6.35

o-n a stipmnt of live trees ta transportation expenses of wich Iad

been pald but the ,113 ba become separated from the shlipent. X



r. 1 : :: I
'.. ..- i_.. .
,.. *.',,: : ,., ." .- ,. ,. "- _, ..- ". '. .. .









paid the freight olalm and was assured that it woult be re-paid to

me as soon as the prepaid bill arrived. When the documentary natter

was all straightened out it was found that the cash had been sent

to the treasury of the railroad. To make a long story short I was

about eight months in getting the refund, and by keeping actual ac-

count of ai time found I had spent over $30 worth of time to get

back that #16.

(b) Our lackof o organization has also made us the prey of dis-

Shonest and shady commission men

(6) Our lack of cooperation has also made it impossible to make

oolleotions from sales of our fruit when ir we had been members of

an organization the bills woald have been paid promptly.

2. Losses at the Growing En of our BWsiness.
(a) we suffer LmB losses in our citrus crop in a kaingi i

Proper grading of our fruit. t does not a ery uh d ereae

What the stencil Is on the outside of the box. Whn the o i s bplen-

. d and Eamined and founa to contain a lot of seconds no matter if

75% of the box is frtrts, ihe whole sells as seconds.


f"\' "'"\^" -'"' .-*'- 1-:;









(b) Rough handling, either In the grove, packing house, or tr

j [the loal railwep hands is very largely eliminated by being thor-

S...-:: oughly organized, making it a serious matter for anyone who is

hauling the fruit or transporting it, to handle It Mare roughly

than should be.

(o) Through lack of organization every man has to organize his

own picking orew. He has therefore no experience to fall back on ex-

cept his own as to whether the individual he Ihres for picnkig pur-

poses Is naetally or ~pasicahly unanited for the position as plio k

or handler of the fruit. This experimenting e~sivim and trying to

fia n efficient men becomes a costly experience every year. r ef-

feotive cooperation the individual who,proves to be unsuited for the

work would have .po flifficulty Infl Im i Pjjui 3t)1Wa ncnig




3. Losses from Insufficient Information Relative
to Market Conditions.

This is probably the most difficult point to handle, yet with

efficient cooperation eaery man who has a oarloaA of fruit to VtOp


/ J i~\ /.


44~










apbpuld lo 6"St W < unm xviI

t*e market and should be able to know just where it could be 1pacedi

4. Dosses accruing from Conditions that .ae i w
Directly US1er our control Looa :

(a) Ir proper State laws we can keep 0it, as;ores of inuecti that

are now ready to pounce upon our crops. This has been demonstrated

i nF tiwic- t-at s e dictum of the scientists of twenty-five years

ago pakroven to be correct -f

(b) There are in addition to the insects scores of diseases some

of which are as bad as any of those with which we now have to deal,

and while the minor diseases would probably not in themselves attract

nuoh attention the% are siMply adding that nuch Are weight. to our

burden, and some of them might prove to be the proverbial Olast straw'.

(at One of the directors in which we have been most dilatory and

recreant is that of discouraging or stopping local dissemination -a

insects diseasese. We a1We been so prone to stand on our persan-

al rights that we bave stinly permitted a&. sorts of diseases in the

State to be di:3seminated at wil-1 with iapanity. X could cite case
A .' '










after case mutil it would fill a volume of illustrations to bear

out this particular point. The amount of good that has been ao-.

comQplshed by our State N1Ersery Inspector, Dr. B. w. Berger, C~a

never be fully realized by the citrus growers of Florlda. From the

Evidence at hand it is safe to sag that te e oe of controlling

and stamping out of citrus canker is worth one hbhdred times more

to the citrus industry of F3orida than the boost of running the hole

inspection service.

















1i ; !




~) -~-~

41


RIS OrP TEX NOGETANBs CROP


Tomatoes
abageb
Watermelons
Beans
Cucumers
Irish Potatoes
Eggplant
squash
English Peas
Beets


Vegetab a


4350
2240
2700
804.
76T
1619


.06
93
91


Crop 1890.


503,000 or.


1491 carLs
84.000 cr.
650oo00 6r.
40,700 .iM.
4, 400 Sbb s.
7o400 b3 s.
4w500 cr.
2,900 ba.


Value
#337,500
270,000
96.000
73*800
61,800
5.300
12,800
9, o00
6,400
2,700


3a, *83


I~r


r
1
i
\i
'
I


$904 J-0


_ _I_ ____ __


i ~-.
i ,


i













Vegetable Crop 1893


STomatoea

'Tom~toes
cab: ge




IrItg potatoes

Watermelons


Acres

4,800

2, 254





3+387

4.82

209

360

290
ago

,8,


8quasheas



cuousers

Eng2 1st ?eas

Beet

Canteloupe


3613, 000 bb e.

176,000 lbb3

2 07,700 Or.

59,000 Iti.

3 ,633 cars

25,000 bbl s.

S 74700 abb1

25,500 or.

35,321 or.

19,000 ,or

_2, 7o0 bbls.


value ;

471 ooo00

197,000

152,900

S74,,000



342,000

26,700

2 ,500



17,000



.2,071 +,400


34,391
I









f" > .


~


LJ


ir~..,.,.: ~. -;r~eri, i~::;. ;~. 'I,~ii-`riirrUru~:.I --i


:i L,


"
d
ii'


":












Vegetable Crop 1896


tomatoes .


ater~elons
Irish Potatoes
Cabbage
Eggplant
$ngl ri Peas
CuouSors
squashes
asets
Canteloupe


Acres
5I529
2,770

3,375
13,278
z,504,


479
495
309
199
220


246,000 r.
3,243 cars
103,000 but.
77*600 bo3 a.
18,000 bblsa.
469o00 or.
38,000 or.
21,000 bbl a.
20,800 cr.
10,560 bbla.


value


297,500
16,0ooo

124,000
104,000




4,000
27$000
22,300
12,600


16,129














/


$1,292,800


'N-
1, ~


___~_CI _Y _I~ __I__


B










Vegetable


Crop 1901


Tomatoes

watermelons

Irish Potatoes

Beans

Cabbage

Cantaloupe

Eggplant
Cuousbers .

Lettuce

ngl ish Peas

Squashes

Ca1 e:y .
Beets

Peppers


Aores

6,675

3,256

2,517
2,118

1,820

2,507

471,

497
68

544,
235
25

104,

19


770,60 .

2,380 cars
180,6,44 tbu

152,000 or,

141,770 or.
81,670 or.

38,750 or.
47,000 or,

48,163 or.

47, 600 or.
16,800 or.

20,739 or.
15,000 or.

3,442 or.


Value

$928,000
222,000

2131,800
202,000

175,800
95,400

Ia*500
49,600

49,100

46,300

23.500
20,900

14,900

5,300


S0 ,856




*< / / ,*


$216JQ


-I


,"V


-i '


I/


9


4>


_ __ .___ ___


i_ j _L


-r
i:
Q '




,-m-II ~ k


Vegetable Crop 1912


Tomaatoeu
Irish Potatoes
Lettuo
Deans
waterae3onsg


Cuousibers

Caibbage
Pepper
Cantaloupes
Squash
Onions
gVp3 ant
Beets

tig ash Peas


Acres
33,2313
20,647

2,598
6,297
15,72
932
2,081
2,307
1,062


547
624

4389
283
263


2,082,215 blu,
625,000 or .
768,300 or,
6,895 oars
420toooo or*
363,000 or.
19.,000 or,
253,000 or,
280,600 or,
98,400 or..
65200oo or.

39500 ort.
234123 or.
32,100 or,


ValtlAl I !
$2,2213,000 '
1,641,000


798,000
5n3,ooo
483,000
344,ooo
295,000
288,700
285,000
133,000
302,000
40,000

35*000
.2,000


sl 458 #7i907,700


















,:, l a1Potmaes m


Strawberries
Peara
Grapes


BiMs
7u-198


Rise sof frit Crop other than Cit mr


Fruits other than Citrue 0
AtC
24oeoo tree o s.
v,7-6,o000 Tmrits
602 acr-e 1,08810,00 boxes
129,000 trees 21,000 bbls.
2,o4o aores
32 000 baChe,
4,600 bat,
'38, 400 bu.


#450,000
:a -oooo
317400
96*000
57,000
52,000
15P,oGO
6,000

5, 00
5soOO


I/ *t ,ooo


.i











than citrus


Pineappaea 3

rapees



Pears


Goaras
Beans=
pigsa
PluRs (no record)


mruit othLer


5,972o000 931


797
239,000
940ooo0


tz'eea


1,852 tree


3,670,oo


1: 20,000
36,600
67,000
3a ,ooo
31,000
18023
2.900


;ba.
qts.


bbls.
beha.
or.
tu.,
bui..


$679,000
293,000
97|6000 J
89,000

59,000
30 000
22*800
5+600
3,100


*1,278 ,00
1 7 a


i



i


1893























Qrapes


Pecana

ana.nas


3

39
II


2


lndts other than COtrus 389




,043 aores 3,295,000 qta.
10,34 trees 96,950 b'u.

4,591 trees 62,i000 1bas.

1,528,000 3ls.

12,500 or,

o0451 trWee 2.030 1t,*

12,500 bok

764 't,s


6


$182,000

361,000
123,000

97<100

76,000
S22,400

9,000
6,200

2,250


n \
b \ *r-l *


Ve
'*** *

" 1 it


$656,550
i t -- : '. ,


'rr
*- -"\ r
/.-z r; ^ *
a,/ ?^{4r.


i"N


1'i
i1


7. 7.: ~


--- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ If ------- i IL-~-~-~* Ur


`
Z .-

















Pisnapples

8traaberries

Peaches

PearaS

Grapes

nuavas




ntgs


sxuts otner tUan Citrus 1896




2,0043 aorne 1*295,000 qta,

391,344 trees 96.950 bu

114.,591 trees 62,000 lbls.

1,528,000 3be.

12500 or,

210, 5 trees 2,030 ma.

12,500 beah

764 bou,


$182,000

161,000

933,000


76,000

2 2*400

9,000

6,200

1250


$656,550


,-~
f'..t


'N


x,


.. ~.i__._ -i ----' --LL.. II-- Ilr~r~re~LI ------------


*`~
I












Fruits other than Citrus


Pineapples
stratwberriee
Peace"
pears
Grapes
Pecans
Guavas
Aveeadoes

Banana
Pigs


950 ao.
193,000 trees

47,300 trees


5,483 trees


6,531,000 frits
1,664,000 qts,
142,000 bUs
32,800 bbls.

503,000 lbs.
2,561 bu.
10,353 or.
3 ,90 bbla.
30,000 Un.,
394 IQU


Vawue

$717*600
322,000
352,000
3S 900
2:,000

10*000

7v,00
6,000


70oo
700


S$,274,200


~tr.


_ ---- ---- -----I------ --II rCI3lllllr


19a


~&ULud C












Prilts other than citrus


tr1es t


Pifneapples
^ieqares
Peachea

strawberries
Pecans

Pears
Orapes
Arocadoes

Guavas

Mangoes
pigs
uswum



Cocoana~ts


Sapoadnos
sugar Apples


233,373
1*785 ac.i
20,409

53*55
9,063
67,108


82,095


21,352


77, 19
'44,838


-2


non-
bearing


355,658
92,829 178,566

3,513.,08 q
,306,459 16,893 s

36,790 313000

17*673 3,054,945 1

319,373 o

56,172 o:

26#559 e

;\ f16,531.4 o
12,216 17.726 b

S 27,063 bet

227,550 m

.,3 76 c
4,t051

2,r00 o


Value


or.
a*
ts.


als.
bs.

r.

r.
3P,


r.
P1

ns.
its




r. r *


147,500

94,900

78,300
74,6oo

535700
419,o00

26,600

25,600

235100

18,600

8,400
6,700
5,200

4,200


3$,225.500


- -~-----lgc---


' ~ ~--l-~.-L-- I ---ii--- ---1 --~---~-


2912










ase of cita=s tmit orop



CItru 31890

Tre s
_^.- -


OLaarm a ,

orapfrmit

1aljea

3Bmng


Bearing

1,895,300



136800

20,2oo00


3,92#9O0


Non-bearu+ n






78,800


5,075,141


BOX-
2,665,000



7.800




S2,709*300


value

$2,70o0000

20,400

59500
29,500


$t755,00oo


^tj~~~ iJJ^-^ ^ *
.. ..*J q( .-.r ?0
\ n ; : i V N t ''"


,"ii '' ~ '. ...,


: t:
!.
V "









+i... .l -


Ct -


I -~ -`---------- ---- --











COJal 1893


OraiigoSl
Graperarlt
Li1o3e
1emieso


2,687,000
6i ,ooo


3 beoaring2*





305,200


52,000 ~6,o000


57 0 coo75,500


a, 803%000


3,a829,20

1


*ilr,35j.7Q0.


*L7


-- ----------------- -- -- --- ----~ ---~


~:

:r
-
;
; I;


I


i:

.-,. .




AA ~.


N


Citrus 1896


Value


Oranges

Grapetruit

Limes

Lemons


88,355

60,100

94600

1,690


2,808,000





50,000


2,8vs8,000
A

o-.. ; .


52,I434


-n*a


*.. /,,. ''
1Y :\( \


6,580



559

713


$65,000

5,153

714

1,000


159,*745


71 ,86 9
r -- .


q .~
t \


~Bearlng


----- -rr- --


Son bearing


~"


r.


a
;ii ~
I'






J'
' '-...


Citrus 1901


oranges

Grapefrult



lemons


Trees

Bearing Non-bear"ng

56,ooo 2,95,00ooo


A, 900



4*900


11,000


Boxes



973,000

22,800

4.,3 00

1,500;


Value



$1, 471, 400

142+000
2 ,oo

9.,300
29#57


75:6 200 ,2,956,000
*-1 j


3,001, 400


1,625a,687T


I > ,
J
,.__ i^ {i_ .... ...... r
'' ; ^ '/'v 1 -
v< \-/ '. *";*..... ,,
," *^
/ > *
...... /" \* r."^




S' 7 ', .



'* .. .. v 4' + *" *


if.


'/4


___ LI____ __ __






V.
It~'


Oltrus 3912


; orEBage

orapernilt

Limes
t / '- r.. ." "; '' ,. -

I t'si i.






































L. '
", ;, :,^
rr
,+k
-


*-'.'* '. T.. ees ;;-

(Bearing ison-bearling

2.76,526 1,836,G16

794, 48 739,923
f "p'q. *


S9,196
::. z es s


S3,617,702


V4,079


BOXsa


%.4769, 312

3, i 4038



nu mSo


2,~~ 1V*CO15


6, -87


$5,665,500

2,6g4,5oo



32,800


484J$M4,f6B0



rV


: .




^^.--*"W- ^n v -
c .1 .- ,\ .. ..
C- ^ -" ." ,+ .. ] ," ..'.. '7: ."* .....

k' f +' \J Y" --
.w <- .' xJ


'
1.- :-;


*: .* m::


- I -1~- --- --- -- ------ -- ~~H~


i.
':r
:i:
: ,
i


-





;
::




i

~: ':
.:


b: `~ .i~i ;
ti:.


i,


:


~' 1:




wItr




*iaf


e a 'o c' t .:1*








Vesea~ahlasl ^Honr-oituae Cinrus 'Eo


4904,700


$499 ,000


4 12


S,071 ,00


1.6


42,755<4400


66


1,278.500 -


19


65


. 0:


WS,665,o60


3 00


1896


1,;292,800


% of
whole


2, 126 80


6 *6550

5a ::.


71,869 2,921,219

g oo


1,274+200 ,625,687 5 025,987

25 /> 3Z 1/3


7,907,700

45'


2,225,500


8 W,4,600


. 7 577,800
i: .^ m


I


;i


*D.)-


% oe


'








ala A.a. "
/ ^ '


1893


Whol e


-1, v


1912

%ol e
whole


i



E.'






i ,
.I


_ __


__I ~


___ I___


~------~--- ---- I--


_ __ _,


,iii~Las!


f -: ':~
;- ;.~


ti

i
.





"
''
"3
I-~ ::
'' .'
I


.:.

i ~


'
; ~


?
'



L;
'r.


+baS~




-- -;


I,4' y '-


Oan$*=

'$9S-' ** ** .:


.1:I


-i t

L ~ r'


1'~


After er eiwt the holo hrtloultral aetuatlon I can see






-C a bM 1 een .A o o mn t it sam quseti O n bie ,lVemn



man a reasonase onutan ISO been tant ats ethls Ons ODe


abt w oas ntre*ly or largely ats.e at o.ur am regz o

y u san sm hsoR ave bon saSg larelsy W e esa tab-.




li iab=iat of a n=-partian tmfiRatate onsmeroe omiAselon with powar



to aot, W sme don our anare or the work to brtUf this about.

@/ ar present falijatI Comaisuan osa be traced dirotly



to the orti0aiturists at florida.



MI/ tHe ntwoafotlon, peopagatt and ad IanaM o or valiae


unitsa, vegetables ata onrnastaak has been due aentrely to our



efforts. 2k the last twentyfour years tIe Vegetable pop as toin



e rex am" S 900 poavtr tO e nas fruits rnare inorsasfsl o00



percent, la of the tact that it aS to ba entirely rehabito.



teatf. he other frits iaare rteaaed o er 250 opraotent.


I j


3


-

:



c~.-^


* J


fr
i~. :
~:v 'k


1.. '..:1...


.
r










S() Te obapter on frt 3 ization ti the aat brilliant one that

wa have written. toWre else in the wound W13 1 y1ou fiM suoh a

marge fund of inrfornaton an tils dbjgeot as it possessed by th"f how
ofi fp or r- orie-a b 'ners s i -o -e rti i:


F; i%,i J / iso so) id a roursano.Z r e a hrt s-e1Z c&a

6 Tme agapnter on the xnowladge of daseases Mat .aIs ts it also

an extremely tbrimnst one. Mhe aoentiats hre 4." tWeasTea

nationally ang International2y famous It hast howawer, *a n a

ly dl scuraging side to it, The culturistsas a aboy are tar


A4/ The olapter on cooperation sotsA t beginning to: e written,

A great maany tigora s attelte are been made bat Wa of thesaeJave

fan3en tar aort of receaiing the hearty cooperation or the persons

interested

The whole Iortloultaral situation as brought out IVy wy

history of its dareloanmt In the last 25 years way be suammd i

$n the one sentetence, ur wost as intiaW Iualu bas been the aoat


* .


ft.


\w


i:-




E j



I,:





K.









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rt
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- .















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vir
F'.-

























L~L P
, 'i.
E, J


T. -, ,-r *'
W: "

S
t ..


1"4 ; 4, .. -




brilliant that Ca be tont anywhere n thoe worfl, but our te



aM has taluaa tar uaonrt of what it out to hare beot that as


\1.,Aon*~t % O j4 sfreutA a uglfpl-,tfa aW* w WaUamtloa, both

I j *: ; l: ... : : i


S t2 A i .' ...

g lay before you, ladles and


tlea a brief staOy rf the darIopeant CC hotfmtte3ls i nortaa



.as fit has oaurretduaing the uie aoft L B 0. a 2 baar


bTrotgt out cleay that ie mas nra amb to do witt s corret "-



eg3oBapmnt than oar 3 Ut yoger =a mer. ca reanaiae


... :




K.


Lt*b:42t'- s-,.*.. .


; -. 1 *
!i *I *. i i ^,


i~ ~ i l :i i


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/ *! / .'"-*

'' a if ;, ,y ^ Y,. '.


:~~ :
ri '':' ~ r
: 1 ::~. i
..t .
~* c.
.
* j_ j : :,.:
r 2

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a
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:
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.-'"'`-




I
-L- -:i~ -I. UI


,..-.r-
~i- r.- -----


k~rr
At '.,


..I1


9'




I..




PRIVATE ITEM Digitization of this item is currently in progress.
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000206/00088
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Peter Henry Rolfs Collection
 Material Information
Title: Painter and Florida Horticulture.
Series Title: Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description: Unknown
Physical Location:
Box: 3
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Painter and Florida Horticulture.
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00000206:00088

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The Florida agriculturist
        Page 4
    Writings on horticulture
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The transportation question
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The insect and disease control question
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Rise of contact insecticide
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Diseases thirty years ago
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Later introductions of insects
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Spraying machines
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Cooperation
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Losses accruing from lack of cooperation
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Rise of the vegetable crop
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Rise of fruit crop other than citrus
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Rise of citrus fruit crop
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Summary horticultural crops
        Page 63
    Conclusions
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text






E. 0. PAINTER AND FLORIDA HORTICULTURE.


Introduction

I a,. proud to be on the program and to be able to present to


you a sort paper on I'r. E. 0. Painter and Florida Horticulture.


I wi31 not presume in this discussion to speak cf iMr. Painter as a


man. We have met here thia afternoon not to evlogize i-s -any Vir-


tues. his abilities and his greatness. These would only be marred


by our attempts. We sa out of tle gratefulness of our hearts to


coirrnemorate his life as an influence over us. There was no-'ove-


ment proposed for the bottormiiret of hortlci ture but found 1Ms ready


response. In y many calls at his office, I have never found his

door closed for I moment; it alv1Wys stood open to my entrance. lhe


mnny confere ces verce alaays n.o.-t -ileasant -and inspiring. Optirmism


uigdht be said to be his primary trait.


I have traveled with him, labored with him, and even sept


in the sa,-.e bed with li-;. 'Te alvraya seemed a coi,panloi, rather than


a co-worker.


while he my be absent in body, his spirit ls round about us.

Ak










I feel his influence as if lie .-erie present at t ,ia meeting. The
ever
spirit of our departed friend is with us to encourage us and urge us

on to ever better and nobler work. God in HiMs infinite aroy ias

permitted him to jounloy into that bourne from wbich no traveler

returns. This bourne lies within us, about us and beyond us.

The great and casting good that is wroughlt ii. this Iw-r3j Is

brought about by gradual development. Catac yasms rarely produce

a lasting result. Tie greatest .-pochsti the advance of civiliza-

tion are wrought in the everyday toil of the masses. Our co1maon

education has inculcated into our iinds that t: e great events and

epochs sare ushered in by great heroes. This hero worshipdrilled

into us froit the nursery throt the college course. Rar ly is

any account ta:en of thelt masses w o liave toiled to iathe it possible

to have'a hero to worship. Lest we fore foe, I rejind you t ,at the

great work wrought for the advance of Fjorida Horticu ture was done

by such men as Mr. O.2;ainter. Ils nu:,o was rarely seen attached

to long articles. Slf assertion had the least thought in his mind.










In scarmiItni the horticultura2 literature of t: e State one

is surprised by the few tii:es t:at hi n.a:.e appears in public print.

I know, however, that when it cane to giving norr.) and finAncia3 sup-

port to a 1olesorje and 1nortly':ccause we find E. O. Painter foremost

in the list.

The pleasant tas]: of brl:!ging to your attention .il 31i 2e .uid

works in other directions tian the broad one of ?3orlsa horticulture

hai been a.-sri to co.poteent and jortiy an;ociates, w'o eac;! iave

a Minssage f-or you.

Gources of Information

In T.roearingr this paper for you I have drawn on yr u:1n reneory

extend. .ig over nearly tvonty-thr.-o year, ins :'roll :. publi. 1-, l datta

ocmcrrirn in y rrIBrjt.e iV;ra.7y as .we]) as the data in the Tjr --rielent

Station library,

The aj ount of the horticultural literature avt.i3ab]3 for the

period covered by Ir, Painter's life la so great tliat it f a2'a

large Vo3umne. The useftuness of what I am preseJ ting to you today

wi3l depend entirely upon whether or not I have the proper skill in









selection and ability to present it in proper form.

The Florida Agricul turint

i hoae no intention of entering on ae extended d.i scuusion

of the Florida AgriculturiBt. 'Iate" phase of trLe program be])ongs

to one of c[y able colleagues. I J.ust,.howiever, mention tl i .iour-

nal, founded,i owned wa edited iyr 7r. Paintcr, 3 it is neceas :,r to

iry thesis. I had a profoimd effect on the lorticul ture of 73orila.

ITo paper,,.'s eo completely covered tie flo3d ad serve tile needle

of is3 readers so satisfactorily as did The -Morit'a Arlricv3turist.




2 _ _










Writings on Horticulture.


hr. Painter could not be claused as a voluminous or gifted

writer. Iin is earlier wor'; especially w.h'1'e editig She Florida

Agriculturist, frequent papers front his pen a.p3a.red, but b-efore 3ong

i-is larger biuslness afifa.lrs3 aLorbed so '.nu.i tl me t i.at it ~.s a dif-

ficult matter to get a paT:.r froi .1.i even before thle I rticultural

.,c aety.

is fund of ~wit a::d his aptitude for un pervaLoc nii writings

as wo 31 as ilis ev jry. ,r convS'rtion. In pre3:itnig a Ipn.'ir on


.-:riu,.,a Onions at 't:e oUrionjd iiectii:, 1 92, hje opened. i.; ta3l- ':ith

theio quotation "In (U)O~nion t.Lere is stroie th".. I want to a

here wU extract froxi his rp.er pre-.;cnt.d at t:ie Intcrlac..en leettlag

iL 1,.93. It tgi :3 u.. i:: i ;!'le nf f:.rti,: c fairly u.e]3 aid is also

of special interest to us at t. i3 Palatta n.:etln; sGince it describes

ITastings as slie w-a3 twenty-tlree y aro ago. I re;.:e mer visiting

tle cuclu.Il.mr l'ouse referred to.













(AtIBne cn893^ the reor of-fct vege~tAbe
committee .waC oeaw-a). Ipter aVow-:)


SLast August the place now known aslHastingslwas only flat

y-
woods, and indeed they are flat woods. It would be hard to find as

many acres in one body anywhere in the State so nearly on the same

level, to all appearance to the eye, yet with a gradual elope so that

perfect drainage can be had by ditching.4

PThe soil is similar to other flat wouou, with hard-pan from

one to three feet below, with considerable prairie lana intermixed,

which after draining needs only a plow to break it up to render it

ready for cultivation.

As As before stated, last August, Hastings was not, but soon

after he rut in an appea-ance, and judging from what he has accom-

plished we should say a good deal of Hastingj(s) has been done.f

"He built his house and barns among the pines and used the

prairie land for his garden, and as we walk around the premises

and see the tomato plants loaded with fruit, sore growing, too, on

a land that has never felt a plow; cucumber vines that are about








through bearing, yet still can boast of cukess" over two feet in

length, cabbage in huge piles that is being fed to *razor backs"

instead of being shipped to fill the coffers of the railroads and

commission merchants, we can't help but wonder, how did he do it

all.

SWe soon discovered the great factor of it all in a four-inch

artesian well, This well is but 250 feet deep, yet the volume that

arises is enormous and with such force that no pumps are needed to

elevate the water to any part of the house or barn. The temperature

of the water remains at about the e-me- 79 degrees- the year around,

which is a great advantage in gardening during the winter season.f

PClose to the well the fouke5 house is built, being 156x22,

containing four beds which run the whole length. This house is

covered with glass and built similar to greenhouses North only that

it does not have to be so strongly protected against cold and has no

steam heating apparatus. The heating of this house Iduring the cold

spells that occur during December, January and February is quite

novel as well as original, and we venture the assertion that no where

in the world is it done the same way. When the Isigns1 indicate th&








a cold night is approaching, the well is opened, and the stream of

water is conducted to the *cuket house where it flows under the beds

in a stream from three to six inches deep. This current of water

keeps the temperature at an average of 60 degrees on cold nights,

frequently making a difference of from 20 to 30 degrees between

inside and outside. ****************************

"Here we saw the finest potatoes that we have ever seen

growing in the State. Large size, smooth skin and thoroughly ripe,

All this was done with the aid of irrigation, the artesian well fur-

nishing the supply, although nearly half a mile off. Irrigation is

done by means of ditches dug along one side of the field. When a

certain piece of land is needing water, the trenches on both sides

of it are dammed up and the water is allowed to fill the intervening

trenches till level with the surface, and is then dammed in and left

to percolate through the soil, which it will do in a very short timee,

ffWe have reserved to the last one grand feature of the irri-

gated land and one which will, we believe, ere long, bring many a dol-

lar to our borders. This is raising rice. After vegetables are all

harvested and the land plowed, it is planted to rice and the water





A 4

turnlA on. In a great deal shorter time than one would think, the

ground is thoroughly saturated and the rice soon sprouts and a good

stand is the result. Thus the land oan be kept in continued use the

year rounti All that can be done on this land remains yet to be prov-

en, for the work that has been done is only a beginning, for it would

be impossible for any one or two men to develop it in so short a time.

Mr. Hastings has started the ball rolling and others can join in push-

ing it along.**************

IrIn conclusion we would state that Mr. Hastings informs us

that he Is making arrangements with a German to make into sauerkraut

all the cabbage that is not shipped another season, also may start

a tomato canning factory f the outlook warrants."










The Trans rotation Question

S Tie transportation question has al-rays been' a .Yioriying one

a:lono, tle Flori a liorticulturists. In the seventies it wvfs mainly

a vcIyof Gott tt:,e fruit to t e waarknt. In t!one dGays it mearit

gottin tle t:-o Sava.'wr.an or How Yorl;. 'i'here ero no triuilk lines

o' rail ro:. t3 ai. ev~ 'rli 3) in '-r.s doinjA 3 aaln in its power a] .ar-

c't 'y to kill off the other rou:s vrliether a cormetlrg one or a

OO1L',i.CtlsW" OJL;.C I q..r ajpare:-t3y, because the policy :dloptcd and

c:a'rrti out could not have been iore discouraging to the saiiyper of

*cris-rhabe f- 'l.rtits. Tice 5t:a, sitr ::a.J boat bin.s vwere so:.ei.n.t bet-

ter but servo-ld oI:ly a rew of thie growers. (

Tra. sport.ition. l-..tau .ot reaped a I.erfort t-j:oe yet, still we

-.'1.3 ct a large rrain o2f onmfort by listening ~i eXtraQlt, Tnei

make ono feel as lie does after Mwa:ening from an attack; of L)t lt

are. "h; fo33owing is taken fro. a paper road lMr T G. Hil)

of I awtey, at the Del.and mnotirg in 1390.








RI have some statistics from California showing what

freight the Californians pay on their shipments to New York,

and I find that we pay more from Florida than they do. They

have an organization in California known as the Shippers' Union,

and they ship in train lots. Seven cars constitute a train,

and this train takes the preference over any other train on

the roads, They are loaded by the shippers and placed ahead

of the express trains which are not allowed to pass them.

For that service they pay $44. per car-load, and the time is

seven days. We pay $815 for the same service. They will

carry any kind of perishable fruits, plums, peaches and any-

thing that can be shipped in oar-load lots to New York in reg-

rigerator cars with the same service that we have for strawberries

for $475 per car, For that same service we pay $1,040."

2-A q7 ]













The follovring extract is talen from; the presidential address

of Dudl ey Adans, d(jliver,-r iin 3 6923 t Oruond., who was one of tne

most forrc1uul 'mL vitrolic o..' :ortioultural writers we have h1id











fThe Florida Fruit Exchange reports its gross sales this

season at about _1.75 per box, and net the grower about $1. This
~^ ~3NI -5;&,WASL. jI JO-.. /9, zo L/ *
analyzes thus: Grower, 54r; box, etc., 450; Fruit Exchange, 14#;

transportation 623; total, 1.75. The grower gets a trifle under

one-third what his oranges sold for, and someone else gets two-thirds

The transportation from Florida is more than double what it

is from California, per mile, notwithstanding our roads are largely

sustained by way of business, w:ile the Pacific roads run hundreds

of miles through an uninhabited waste, and over grades and curves

that to our own coast lines are unknown. A man in Minnesota can

send a bushel of wheat to Liverpool, 4,500 miles, for less money

than I can send a box of oranges to Jacksonville. In a matter like

this, where the success of a business depends on a fair division of

income, it ought to be amicably arranged, so that producer and car-

rier can each have a fair proportion. Much was hoped from our State

railroad commission, but it proved such an abject failure that the

legislature legislated it out of existence, and very few tears have

been shed over its grave. That same legislature proved itself a








flatter failure than the commission, by failing to enact something

better in its place. r

SIf the fruit growers of the State have any influence, it

should be steadily and actively exerted in favor of such legislation

as will have the rates of transportation fixed by a competent and die-

interested tribunal, which will deal fairly and justly with producer

and carrier,

(One of the burning questions which confronts us is, how to

sell our fruit. We have made perceptible progress in growing fruit,

but not in marketing it, It takes very little penetration to see

that consigning our fruit to the tender mercies of the commission

merchants, in distant markets, is a crude and unsatisfactory way,

but as yet we have found nothing better., *******

I have some sta iatics fro!i California showing what freight

the oalifornians pay their shipment to Y Tork, and I find that
f

we pay more from. F ida than they do, ey have an organization in

California known the Sh pers' Union an they ship in train lots.

Seven cars cons tute a train and th/s train tkees the preference

over any other train on the roads. They are loaded by the shippers











Te re t of th signed 1y O* .. Baconr Ij W. 'Vo.odlworth,

and E J. .,o) x 1 mnt 0 ua3y no if 0 -1 a utf








A
-./. 44










7Assured that there are wrongs to be righted, there comes

the all-important question: How may this be accomplished

I would first suggest a State Railroad Commxission, with

absolute power to make maximum rates, and power to enforce the

same, and if the courts should overrule such acts of orrii.ision-

ers, let the people nominate and elect court judges that will go

on the principle that the government is made for the people, and

not the people for the governruent. Create a general Government

Commission, who shall have absolute power to i.ake and enforce

Inter-State rates, from which there shall be no appeal. Third,

the Nationalization of railroads and use the same at absolute cost

in the interest of the people and for the people. !'it~at-& t-

fIt takes time to bring about these great reforzrations,

and the dear people must be educated up to think and act for

themselves and not allow a lot of politicians to think and act

for them. And until these things can be done- allow me to make

one more suggestion- let us, as fruit and vegetable growers, do a

little transportation for ourselves,










(LLet us, as a company, raise $100,000, build three iron

steamships of 1,000 tons carrying capacity each, fit them for

carrying our products to market, by well ventilating and heating

pipes, place them on the line between Jacksonville and New York,

and carry oranges and lemons at 25 cents per box and vegetables

at same rates; and have our ships pay us a profit of 20 percent

on the investment. This is practicable and can be done; such

ships can be run at a cost of about $200 per day, and will carry

10,000 boxes of oranges and leave storage room for 400 tons of

miscellaneous freight. Are there 99 men who will unite with

me in putting up $1,000 each and try the experiaant?

This would solve the problem of cheap freight rates.









Ue


In 1894. the low prices again arxe matters serious for the

cityus.growers, and an effort was marte to establish a market in

Europe. Some trial shipments were made the previous year. In

the spring of 1894, the Ship Ethelewoo3d was chartered to take a

load of fruit to England. iMr. Painter consented to go as super-

cargo and 3oo0 after the business end in Encland. The freezes

of 3 694 and 1;;95 put an end to the work in this direction.












At the bergiinning f irr. -ainter's career in '3lorida we i-a

no such 3!lence nas P)at P:ithao]ogy a1 utomo3)o:y. The ..o)w lit-

erature r'Jlatilng t' tlhe cNi-banttinrg of Ta,.nt diseas,3s alnd to the Con-

trol of Insect pests. 1ais been written since that date. It is true

that volumes had bet n vritteoL on the descriptions of fungLi ni in-

;..ots3, iut tl .eArer diA treatmnint wts purely of an acJ,.'mlc n-J.ture.

As',an il lustration of tf*-c I ;rant to Ieroat a i a.ecd te to)ri r.e by

an orani-c: rTro'er at Elstis about fifteen years ago. His o uge

treen e ere bdily infested :-ith tie ro~rLJ j..ce id s, he aF- allied to

nis brot:-ir-in-Jaw, a pj acticing phyaiclan in lewl Jersey. j, r2rn

raLil the orarne grower rceceliv.rl a I ottle of Iodine in so3ation and

a carme3's hair bru3h irlvth tne written as ur.au:e that this -~ouiJ3 fix

the bugs. The dirctiona3 vrere to usee .th e le's hair bru's)but to

be careful axiid not let an of t!JImiaje touch tlie 3noaf.

The progress in the study c. pln.at diseases has been, a little

more 1jtl 'd W61 I
;r. ^Cj
A-lfc~-M-^ :^ b CY .CI-*ll.ld











given more attention to the stu~y of insect morphology while the

plant pathologists have laid greater stress on the study ot" fungus

and plhsiology. This trend in the studies of the two branches is

directly traceable to the leaders in these sciences.







0





A study into the cheaper of insecticides and fungicides is
"-h
probably the most interesting of all in connection with tllis resume.

A g3 iinpse into the literature is like studying a fairy-tale In

the latter part of tlhe seventies the only 1333s that seemed to be-

f.-31 a citrus grove in Florida were scale insects, and if o ..y this

could be controlled the citrus grower felt that all he h'id to do

r.i to pick tiie golden fruit and jingle the golden dollar. a2

(if eirly a 1881 Prof G. Hubbard was stationed in F3orida to inves-

tigate the insects of citrus. He '7?as located at Cre:cent City,

and responsible to Dr. C. V. Riley, Cliief of the Division of EnLtomol-

ogy. As a result of Professor Hubbard's work in :?orida a bulletin

w-.s issued from the Division of EntoIology covering the gro;iLd of

citrus insects more ttda than aiytning that has since appeared.

Tis bulletin has long gone out of print and although originally it

could have been obtained for the asking, it now costs about ten

cents a page to buy the bulletin, and even at that price there appear






2



to be more buyers than sellers.

Coincident with the work done by Prof. Hubbard in F]orida

was the rise of contact insecticides. Previous to that time the

poison^ insecticides had been used largely in the form of Pa'is Green,

and used for the destruction of the Colorado Potato Beetle and in

soiic cases for grasshoppers. There was, however, a large c3ass of

insects which obtained their food supply by sucking it from the in-

terior of the -p3ant tissues that were not reached by the poisonous

insecticides. Dr. A. J. Cook, who is at the head of the ;alifornia

Horticultural Cormission, appears to have been the first to pub3ish

on the use of kerosene emiulsion for handling insects of this class.


hilch. Agl. Exp. Sta. 1S90. H1.C.H. Bil. 5SP 5.

This publication brought about a wordy and acrimonious battle bet-Teen

DrS. Coo]: and Biley. Prof. Hubbard before that time had been uAiing

kerosene enilsion at Crescent City, though apparently this h:d not

been published to the world as the experiments were going on and

methods were being perfected. During 18c--82 Prof. Hubbard was






3


making experiments with kerosene emulsion made from condensed milk

and kerosene.

Ann. Rept. U.,. Com. of Agric., .113-2, 313, 114.


It appears from the records that Dr. J. C. leal, then located at

Archer, fa. wrote to Dr. Riley (Oct. 10, l3,2) in regard to .he whale

oil soap and kerosene emulsion forruila that he U3ied. Thlisf formula

'is practically the same as is used at the present time. He also

hadoa formula tiat was maJe up of ordinary laundry soap and kerosene

emullsion.X It appears, however, t thtthese gentlemen were ao3 ante-

dated by Mr. Ceorge Cruikshank of Whitinsrille, ;'ass., who see.:s to

have begun the use of a mixture of whale oil and kerosene emu3 sion

as early as 3.870.


"T. .*, Gardenerts Monthly, 1875, Feb., 4.5.


It is quite probable thit these are a number of independent discov-

eries of how to make kerosene mix with water and was the beginning of

our progress in the production of contact insecticides.




*-


From this period on there has been a Very rapid movement

and an almost endless mnltiplication of contact insecticides, un-

til now all you have to do ls to name your bug and the specialist

can tell you Just what form of anaesthetic will put him permanently

to sleep. heree is rea3iy little to be desired so far as insecticides

are concerned in the direction of killing insects. We have now

arrived at the point where it is not so much a matter of the medicine

to be used as the method of administering it.











iRrfffP -AtR TRIMArw -rE


Disease cs &-w r

'we hnve already discussed the discovery of kerosene eulsion

*lich introduced the :period when rapid deve3oprmnt occurred in the

scientific study of insecticides anrd tf.nicide-3.

At .he beginning of this period wie find that nal-dl-goirj, or

foot-rot ra, tlhe disease uppermost bin t;e rindq of citrus grorrer

This disease rages in a33 its fury iL the Azores from 3835, wl:en

in about a ten-year period, 25;" of the trees were destroyed Io it.

i cun wine a quiescent period :ad in 1873 tle disease iad ne:ir3y dis-

a peared, due to handling it by preventive .i d curative meti'ods.

In' 1845 it spread to rortugal and eastward, r -.chilng jessina about

3c6Z, thence to Sicly. Ir. Is conservatively estim:.tto tiat at

least *2,000,000 damage was done by it. Prof. Briozl, an Ita1Jan

plant pathologist records publ3 hing on the disease :--id regarding

the fungus Pueisporiun linoni. Since ahe curative and preventive

methods have been so we33 worked out and the treatment so successfM










no very serious attempts have been made in this country to estab-

lish the Identity of the causative agent.

ili disease does not appear to have r ached Cai tfornia, r, in-

vestigations there load rue to be3love that what is frequentlJt called

foot-rot in Ca31fornia is quite a distinct disease. Proife3.or F-acett

who has spent a great deo3 mre time In t.e Vtiudy of citrus; diseases

in CO3lifonia than I have, concurs in this co:c3'usion.

In Australia the dia ase waa found to be destnrctive around

Sydney as e.LrIy as 3867.
have
Tho 'Jisease seems to been .bsent from the Asiatic countries,

Japan, C.hina and India, durlite the tl':e ihen it was quite ipreva3ent

in lArope, Amerrica ad Austraia, Ti l rtr inicates tat the

disease was of European origin.

The fir..t printed authentic notice of it in iPorida dates back

to 3876, and as late as 2S80 it was of rather rare occurrence. From

thattt ihe on the Cisease scomFi to have rmae ralthclr' r id progress

and has b.:on disseminated to every citrus growing region of the

State. During the middle nineties it appeared to reach its culmin-

ation of d(structiveneas.










scab is produced by the fungus ]nmown as C3adosporium citri.

This was described ty Prof. Laiuon Scrlbner

Bull.. Torr, Bot. Club, Vol. XIII, p. ]S1.


The origin fr this disease is pretty certainly Asiatic. It was not

ntl:ed to mny great extent until the latter ).aIrt of tloe eicties.

ietback har probably been with us froi tie beginnlnrl aince

it appears to be due to plyeloJogica2 conditions. In the e-Lrly part

of the studies it was confused with other troubles. In one publi-

c'ilon, for instance, we have a fine colored pl at of dlietbjck amd

t e suggestion that it is due to insect attacl:8s.

'The earliest Inforration t'an.t we cav gt ~bout bigj t seens to

date back te alout 3 .?78, rwen some trees in akec County were aF-

flctod by a mysterious diseauce that 3ater ttas connected up with wHhat

We ~anow to be b3l~ht.

Insects /L

At the beglning cf this period citrus trees were affected

.with a number of insects that were t: oumgt to be exceedingly de-










structTe, and It ?w:i3 t!.oug'it that if on3y a re.ed.y for the.o insects

could be obtained not nuclh wou3d be 3eft to be rdeslcrr in the way

of handrt3n' t.ts- 3. ine of pets. Tle ear3y 3iterature teei.. witl-i

leaf-eatin-: insect that are Bcarce3y kriowri today

The most prom"li'elrit 3C.3e insects thilt t r.' Simid wrere tie 'ong

Bc.3e 0 ) prn2ze acEoe ( )

chaff aca]e ( ) and wax sca)e3( )

,t tlo present time no one t!;inl.; seriou:!y about tioMe pests

un3 eL3 porcl'ance it is t-. novice in oitrli *:rowirg.


Later introlBtlions of T m Diseasef

'.';ithelrtip a. !d anthlracnoso :are ca.a.3od y the :a; e bte:u ',s.

Thi.3 "'js T.r ba113'.y Lntroluoced froyr; South' A'merica during t1lec 'ir:3c

ntneties. .',13 e a rr. of1 t e gfiu i1s Co33etotric'Amu :~Joesporioldes

bad been K1nonm to exist for some time it had never leve3oped into

serious proportions, and wras known or3y aa specir, nr 'i i hraria.

During ti e ri ld33e nineties -in. toward the beginning of the 39008

a very virulent outbrealr of t.-,i, disease occurred. Previous to this











time Fritz Noak had observed tils disease ,as proving dostructive In

parts of Bra'-i3.i

.:clarno uE- uiC sto... on:. rot ma be endemic anm aay a so have

be.I introciucrd. 'n1 strong. robabi litv is iJI fnvror of l 31irnng

that introduced to the itatc. It s:oc:..a quite ilmron~~l3e

t.t a .tdist.c c r .lcuL o, be so C Cetnuctive sr.ouid. enca),C "7tCILtiQl

'roui sucv .l en observers r.u Dr'. 'Vebl.or a.d Ait rn,3 e, nr. Inrin.' F.

f: ith, Dr. 1,. 7 Ulxdenvood, a23 specia3ists on 3 -ouit c i30on'j, If

liIti- t i.uced.
it Is 8 d t-.?aue it n- :;; quite certain tLat its itrvcduc-

tion w\- non:ie tinae -Lurin. t;.oe ;.in;tles.

Thni3-W:,d r.M.st (Ca3aosportium Hrb:.riun S :j30 s ion ~5.:. F orida

as 3ca3y t::.;.rl, is confined to a v7ry; 3s:/J portion of t11. Zt.tc. Its

_ C are Oauch, as tc point ver0- t.ro-.t;1y to Its

being an introduced ldiseaaic -" du-e nou ,juri A!

.. A o3 of the occurrences In the State Iae ve be treated back: to

one nursery. Fortunatel.V t"is nurseryman distributed a very, small

amount .-,f stool: t t. i--1

Dlr3odla rot (Diplodia nata3ensis) has at no time assumed










destructive proportions though it is met 'iti froio time to time.

W have not studied the conditions sufficiently to enablet us to

form ax, opinion as to whether it is njat e or introduced.

aJac;. rot (Alternaria citri) 1i q:itto u- in-

troduction from 0Ca3ifornia. iTis ha. nner pr'roven to be sa'uicient-

:y destructive to be of serious consequence to us as it is rai.nly

a rot of tie navo3 orange.

Citrus cakier, the newest and probably one cf tVe roet vig-

orous of t:e diseases, ii, knocking lustily at our doors to lio ad-

nitted. As a iattor or fact if it had not bece for tr-e vigilance

of o r nuraery inspector, Dr. .E- Berger, It would probnaby I.ave

been di~ser2natcd in rJorlda 1i :zucha a twaz t.:': it ooCuil not b'

sta:U'.ed oat. We 'be leave, however, that the treasures adopted will

clear the State of any or t:;-a iis8ea03. AS nurly as IT can tell

f.-on tihe world that has been done by Prof. Stevons, it would prove a

ve-.y m ic :lore formidable disease to handle thla, either scab or

withertip witr probably a23 cf the destructive qualities of anthao-

nose.










*ID-ggtB.


Among the insects that are of later importation those that I

mention in the fo3 o7ring! pragragraphs cou3d easily have b(men kept out

of thi, State by ai efficient borticultura) insl.pector :.'orzing under

a satisfactory 1-a. .i_,ediat.ly after the introduction of the first

of tiese posts, the 3an Jbse scale, active steps were tal:en to have

3 aws passed for the control of diseases ad.d insects in the State.

A corunittoe -',as appointed byI tlhe Horticultura] Society to draft a

3aw and h.ve tnis presented to the Florida legislature in ;9i7.

The com.ittoe consisted of jy;elf, Dr. Webber add.

We used the best State la13 then in existence as ao~els ,z3d wtorkIed

it cut on tne r-est economlic.3 rpan posalb0.o. It failed of pas.3age

on :ccount of the fact that. little effort outside of the co;mirittee

was nade to frtheto rter e interests of the horticulturists.

The cottony cushion sca3e was accidentaJly introduced into

ra ria thie time it was discovered it occ.uped a very sm.aal

territory, only a sa.11 fraction of an acre being infested. Just










as vigorous work as the State avws permitted was made by the Ento-

mologist of the Experim ent Statlon, ne was, however, po:;erjeaO under

the conditions to do more than recommend rzrat nhou,3d be done and then

;t.2nd by ?.nd give his services heartt3y ih c.arryinLg out t- e work,

Tater the State spent a considerable a,:ount of Lmoney, both froi.u

public funds and a)so fror private funr c to si.ppress the pcst, and

re are now losinz a'nual3y more from its deprednt ons thal.n w'ou11.

have bourllt out tle entire prerlses an3 destroyed every living plant

urdn it. As later introductions may ble mentioned the mango scale

and the Ca3ifornia citrus sale. There are anny others that are

knocking, 3usti3y at ouir door. We e are waing up so3aenr7at tardily

to the fact.that we need an efficient po ica .in.z at our gate to keep

out the ropges.

The whitefly was introduced either directly or indirectly

from India, and the ravages of this 'pest have caused the loss of

many inl3] innn of do3lars directly in fighting itt io say nothing of

the lo.s that has been caused by its presencegetien tiere is still

that larger loss wmich has deterred the investment of imrsy -dillions









thousands and possibly mil] ions of meas, in the business. At the

close of the great freezes of 1894-95, Prof. H. G. iHbbara, sec-

onded by Dr. Webber and nyself, pointed out strongly hovr we hadt the

opportunity of limiting the spread of this peat. Drastic and active

steps taken at that time would h.Lve l:,.:ited t''e 3preap of it veory

materia3y. Even so crude a form of limiting it as would have

been brought about by a conscientious I1rsery inspector witl powTer

to act would have kept it fro: lhun.dreds of centers w;ere It now oc-

curs. 'There are still sections in the State of Florida that are

not infested witl w::ite3y, and every effort should be made to

suppress it slou3G any outbreak occur in these section:;. Tlat this




In the California citrus growing section.
Ov


J, eIf se latest introduction is the woolly whitefly (A]eyrodes

Howardii) from Cuba. Fortunately the woolly whitefly has a native

parasite w ich causes very large inroads on the pest. Prof. J. R.

Wiatson pre--.. ..-O- s r a eer

will present a paper on the subject later. We can sq, however,







that the presence of this check-mate on the woolly whitefly is

nothing to the credit of us as horticulturists it is simply a matter

of having a fortunate combination of conditions.

There are many other posts we might enumerate of minor impor-

tance, but these are sufficient to show clearly that whatever Trogress

we may havr made as horticulturists the pests of the horticultural

crops hay; been much nore aggressive and

ricHTtn n tnT.-r^ 1'int l-n- ^MULi~d -^ -YY ^^

f^C**^ e^Ay








spraying Machinee


At the beginning of the epoc about r.ich I atu: wrtirn at


b,-ig ,. .ga -, praying machines were rea]y rot rachlinei at 313

1:: the preiont sense of tl:. word. ay wore rmere3y" toys a;d -i:e-


shifts. As 3ong a. our principal iknccticliJe or!: ~.as no if in.rd

to a. iL,'3yi ParL. :aron 31tt3e Tvr:i,. neeced bcido a .-,'rithlinrr ca,.

"Tith tlhe introduction of i'.ore perfect fltCoxis for .r:;3yti.g t m


tcri:L.;Q i. o ti, rc.l. .dv nt '.-; (' djoirJ : t':" or: ;~-, n t: orolgh

mra. er., ,t .c tire Bte Wi.n to ':se auetion rror ar 'gir "ri!1!

st:u.n;.;oint. .. o .a)3 3l' -- ".r? .. .. e 7.i n: 0. cau rrir', 5 or
C- -
30 .ral3nial O.L .r 3ter 3un; over the u.'ou3lder proved to be a very .


,r;reat steT in ,Jv:~U. T'ho vision oe -:: .-Lt Pat oi' Mu ider

to'c 3er )i.:-.-i;iip or our r-..;ont efllcient Ass.itant ''ecr-t:ar of Agrl-


culture. did a great deal to .dvaice tie .wr!. 0,' rorc:l.d m eLl'icient

sprnyln-' machines. Toeo of u13 who irae carri'xcd 2!7mna-sePk spra'er


a33 da' ]ong in a toLaato field csan well reue hber t+ e-A-P =*I

aS t!e Lches and pains mid.ured after the J.Vys wrori: was over.

From this was rarjply 6at the barrel sprryer and finally tie





SL 6



sprayer mounted on wheels :ad tho se usd n a wagon. At the pres-

ent time we have spraying aacines that are run by gaso3ene engines

and mounted in such a ay that the work can be carried OTi efficient-

2y aid witi the minimum amount of disoonfort. These machines are

perfected beyond the most sanguine dreams of t..ose who carried the

old knap-sacc sprayers. No spraying machine ls now t.oughit to be

worth Vliile, either for the truck.field or the citrus orchard

unless it can develo-- a pressure of 80 to 120 pounds.





1


COOPERATION


It is a vIe]] knovn principle In mechanics that a team com-

posed of two horses wil3 do Bore effective work When it comes to

hIeavy hauling. tl mi can be dr.ne Tl tvwo 2lorses acting singly. We

recognize ti is all tl]roulgh our social or -niz.ation Iy corbilnIlg

iiitt fa:i-lies, groups of f'ailies, coi.~!initie., C.-uitics, statess

and a t las an fina33 y into Liti)jis.

The. interests of t' o hortlci 3 tural 3peo-le, however c.r, 3Jike-

3y to beo so varied tiat there is a great -ecG or reluctance tu give

up tie .eorsouna3 indejplendence that cor.c(os f-o ~o going it ajone. How-

eovr, it is very certain tlat ir tfo trult groerj ~uttcai3y a::ree

to hiande .i eir stuffi'n ixasct3y t' a:e .;-y l. 1:. the form adopt-

ed by the best groveur, mrore efi cient service will be ihadj andd a

larger -rofit accrue than by each going it ty h'nr.u.eJ3. I ;' e question

of cooperation or no cooperation is ro -e largely fouzided on the in-

herent sentiment of everyone regarding himse3r to be superior in

all respects to his neighbor. Practical experience, however, has

shown that this is an erroneaum way of looking at our existence.






2



The basis for mi1h of our.trouble in Florida is tilis one fact

that a-parently every man thinks lie knmors iore about eveyrthing

th!i doe anyone else. I imeet this constantly, ad especially is

it true te of te wan lO~ows the least abot t a y particular subject.

,ake an i 3ustration fro,, tile field in w ,icl I al. :os3t 3il-coy to be

,' ending 1i;, activities, tbie citrnm grove. T'e rin .7 .o cV-0 to

the State and has had .aout six months experrienice in hrndlinl oitrua

trees is tLio one wl.o i i,.ost 11ik)]ty to i1'ortfrne :e very greatly

about advice ajid recoi,,:ieniations, un-LL ten in abLo t thirty minutes

prove to t at I do nit k_-ov; a.iytllin T ..c'.t tie bus-inesa.

We ]-now sc- little about practical .l',d tlorouri, cooperation in

Flori.ia tl.j.t. we ar( very unwi23 iig to tale up t:-e yoke and follow

the other fe'3llov's drctation .s to 1hov wvie orana2] pacI our fruit,

when we slall rmarl;et it, wiren we ought to U.-:r;vy ki.d '.!at otiL-r op-

erations we ahou3d carry on.

The Florida fruit industry, however, has gotten into sore

very serious difficulties from pursuing this independent and 'go as

you please' method. Just as soon as our fruit production reaches










the point where vwe ncar'- sujyply the demands of the existing nmLrket,

our prices drop so low tlhat it is abso3utel]y iro.j;ib3e for the

average gro.-er to coie out even with his expenses.

'The F)orid; IErult Exchlane was orrumized in 3Ss4, according to

the F)orida Dispatch, ('n.rchl 23, 1J35, p. 272) With a capital) atock


of 50,000. T'.ls was increased t-:. next year to UOOs,uUo. This

Exchange lhaunded citrus fruits, vcgota~rl s '3id li-L.:',.pT3e8, Olne of

the objects of the Ex;c age was to force theo buyers to co;oe to le

tate, T' is it succeedcc in doing very a- ;irvi..y ird the re-Silts

of the wor]in1i of the Exchan;,e were satisfactory to quite a i,,nimber

of the mio2bcr3.

__On A]ril 24, I.94, a convention ~as held in Orl;ado to formu-

3i.te pNans i7vrlih matured in the formation of the Plorida Pmrit and

Vegetable Growers Association. The immediate for the forma-

tion of these two organizations was that botr. fr.it and veget.b3es

were bringing 3cr than the cost of production. It was either a

question of organizing and doing away with some of the disadvantages










of individual effort, or quitting the business. Poth of these org-

anizations came to an untljme]y end by the freezes or the winters

of 1L94 and 3895, the first occurring on the niEgit of December 29,

3,..94, a dI tlc second on the 9th of February, 3395. As is s1iorn by

the statistics attached to this proper there "-:.. a very 3arge sluir

in, the ai1nount of bot-i vegetable) and j fruit produced. in the t.tate,

TiUis in a ir.,asure evened up matter. av I d-.d a,-,'y ithp the necessity

of oraliization. iowvever if t;.e orga.izatlons h;itd been continued

it -7uld 1uidoubted]y hiave Jroven Trofitable to the !i.enlerFc of the

Associations. 'i,.ese .aw.] a nu L'br of succeeding veiy cold winters

cu i nnating in the very 3ow toiperatture of }Ybru..r/ 33, 3;:99 seemed

to p. t an end to a3Jl hopes of citr-s grov.'ing in the northern portion

of the ;Cenin;Lrua of i-'jori o;.. Ha i the freezes of 1'.9 ard '95 occurred

singly tne garage wo:Mld not have been sa serious. Likewils.e u:d.

the freezes of '94 and '95 not occurred the msuccedilng oc-,3d winters

would not ,ave upset the citrus industry so badly.

In the ear3y nineties the Indian River and Lake Worth Pine-

aiple Growers Association was formed for the handling of pineapples






5



in that region. This continued in existence until after shipping

the crop of 3911.

..a.ny people have said that the great freezes were a blessing

in disguise, but the disguise is so completely veiled tl'at even the

keil- scrutiny of statitiscs rill not reveal J.t .how thiMes op-

tiljists are succesoiul In seeing tje 3 essiriL is rore t]han. I can

tel), The Visible blessing is certainly not to be tal.-en into co:.-

silueration. Every industry in the St.j.'t felt tr .ffe.cts of t.iese

dil~astrous freeeso3 ajiLd een C e t.ose lli-'s orf 2ori. that *:I w3 ii) h1ave

expected to be benefitted by tle freezing out of the citrus crops

3l -.ng'ishlied a-, a result.

It took F1orica xma f fourtcen, years to catcli up with the

l.rcceas:ion, in otnhr wiorJd i.t '.-: not until 190,, &Sdisastor was

arain staring us in the face 4oth n, the vegetable an1d oitriiu line,

0j7is disaster being due to the individualized efforts that (d been

put forward in the last decade or decade and a half since the freezes.

The demoralization of the work due to 3ack of organization

reached Its maximum in the winter of 1907-08. At this time the






6



citru. crcp in Ca3iforniia v:3 VerTry heavy but the FMorlda crop had

not reached the porlortions it attained in 3 94.

In l903 th]e Florida Orn. (e Growers cojT.any was organized,

mainly throu,-! ttr activities of Jr. Joslan Varn .

Fruit ajld Produce IT-37, o':.'e7ber 3, 190p, p. 9.


t.is was a step in the rlgit direction u-t -.t of the citrn:; ,row-

ers in the ,t:.te tJ ouw t t it :r s not .i ficient to reiredy t]ie trouble.

As a result of toe agitation ra.d c- i to Ca] if( rnia, a con-'c.tion

was ca3fed for a jiore perfect or 3--iza'.on of t.oe citrus "rTo 'r.3.

T;i-s was hee3d at T- -iTa on July 22, 39o0; :1.i tie F3ori'3a Citrus

ExcLhangrLe, With i;. E. Gillctt as ,..a.;er, :~:. org'.,ized.

In 1933 u'rang~e...cntAs ".ere :.n-ue for the or.'izatio, of ile

I3cri'a Gro-.-ers aid Shalipp:.rs Pr'ot>,,;tive I.a^ne. Tils ogl.tation

culminated in the employment of Prof. Lloyd S. Telmey as secretary

and Manager for the Association. h 47/3. 4d4.

IV;& ^ <5 cZ~e^ 7 ^Z^ ^iSctpC^l ^K ^C) /^^*^>-r^er

& y A T ^/ ~ ^- a ^^- < -Y- P^y<









Losses Accruing from lack of Cooperation


Almost every business with which we Coi;e in contact either

on the selling or purchasing end of our business, we meet f.ce to

face individuals who belong to strong organizations and who are not

fighting as individuals but are fighting under the r.maageiment of able

leadership. The losses that accrue to us from JLLc): of coleration

are many a.d below I give a few tnat have occurred to re.

1. Losses at the ilarketing Ern of our Business.

(a) Thousands of dollars every year are lost in the just

claims that we have against transportation companies. eitherr our

claims are so badly jaade that the transportation conipMules aiust look

upon them rith suspicion or if they are mifauo oorrectly v.e are :orn

otiI-~m 1 B ~ea red tape connected with the questioLs. Iy

personal experience in this zmtter is no very Lifferent from that

cited to ie by numerous other inIividuals. At one tire I paid $16.35

on a siipjnent of live trees the transportation expenses of which had

been paid but the bill had become separated fror the shipment. I









paid the freight claim and was assured that it would be re-paid to

me as soon as the prepaid bill arrived. 'When the docyrimntary matter

was all straightened out it was found tV-'.t the cash had bee, sent

to the treasury of the railroad. To r,make a loni. story sort I was

about eight months in getting the refund, and by ]:ein. act .a ac-

count of yr time found I had spent over 2.30 vorth of tire to r7-t

back that i36.

(b) Our lic.ok of organization has a) so m- le us the prey rif dis-

honest and ahady commission men

(c) Our 3:lck of cooperation has also made it impossible to );wke

co3lections from sales of our fruit when if we had been nil~,er:; of

an organization the bi3ls would have bpon paid r-rorptly.

2. Losses at the Growing eRnd of our business.

(a) We suffer immense 3o sos in our citrus crop il maiU:ing im-

proper grading of our fruit. It does not makC very much difference

what the stencil is on the outside of the box. vWhen the box is open-

ed and examined and found to contain a lot of seconds no matter if


75j; of the box is firsts, the whole sells as seconds.









(b) Rough handling, either in the grove, p.:cking house, or by

the looca railway hands sl very largely eliminated by bei-'ig thior-

oughly organized, making it a serioi.s inatter f',r anyone wpT1o is

iaull in: the fruit or transporting it, to hIanr.i)o it more roui/iJy

than slou3d be.

(c) iThrougi lack of or,-auization every' mran has to orcaliz his

own picin: crew. He has therefore no experiences to fall bac: on ex-

cept hii am s to whether tie indl.vidua. he h;ireo for Ticli:tn paur-

poses is renta3ly or physicaJ2y unsuited for th. position as picker

or handler of the fruit. This experimenting famt ~mnd ttr''ing to

find efficient men becomes a costly experience over year. :r' ef-

fective cooperation the individual wbo,prove. to be unsultod for the

work would have gf'rat dirri 1 y+i- In i t..L .i11ntUJi -*lin




3. Losses from Insufficient Informiation Relative
to !?.-:rket Conditions.

'.Tl is pruobably the iost difficult point to handle, yet with

efficient cooperation every aan wio has a carload of fruit to 4Kentyr











should 'Gbta a.-.J J y L-LUtA 6V.ioinp +

the market and should be able to okow .!jut wv'lere it co-C' 1.'e T'acead.

oi-3. oss accruinLf, fro;.. Co;nditiorn t'hat ''e Have

Directly Under oir Control Locally.

(n.) .r' proper State laws we cai. keep out scores of insects that


are now r.If-" to pounce upon our crop. Tils has been demonstrated

s p tty 4."s *-at ne dictum of the scientists of twenty-five years

a.-'o h iT'rovenr; to be correctwi i-c '

(b) 7',-r'i are in addition' to t the insects scores of diseases some

of woiich are as bad as any of those vwitli v';ich \we now b.A.ve to (eal,

ancd vwri3 hethe iinor diseases vou3d )probabyj3 not in themselves attract

:;3ch attention they are simply adding that uch ;joru w'ei'ght to our

burden, and som i of them aighit i.rove to be tie- p-roverbiaJ "last straw".

(a) One of the directions in which we have been most di:l..or.'r and

recreant is that of discouraging or stopping loca3 di.3eriination of

insects k diseases. We have been so prone to stand on our person-

al rr1fets that we have simply permitted all sorts of diseases in the

State to be di emanateded at wil] with impunity. I could cite case
/r









after oase until it would fi2 a volume of illustrations to bear

out this particular point. The amount of good that hans been ac-

compzlshed by our State Nursery Inspector, Dr. E. W.. Berger, can

never be fu33y realized Iy/ the citrus growers of Florida. From the

evidence at handx it is safe to say tliat the one of controlling

and stamping out of cttrue canker is worth one hiindrod times nore

to t:ie citrus industry of Florirl; than the boost of running tie vThole

inspection service.






i y


Tomatoes
Cabbage
Watermelons
Beans
Cucumbers
Irish Potatoes

Eggp3 ant
Squash
Engl ish Peas
Beets


RISE OF THE VGETABI~ CROP

Vegetab e Crop 1890.
Acres -

4350 503,00ooo cr.
2240 147,500 bb3s.
2700 1491 cars
80~4, 84,000 cr.

767 65,000 cr.
3619 1W0,700 ba.
13 4.400 b3 3s.
206 7,400 bl2s.

93 4,500 cr.
91 2,900 bu.


value

$33 7,500
270,000
96,000

73.800
62 800
54:, 30U
32,800
9,400
6,4O0
2,700


$904 ,70


1 P3.


Jr


_ ~ __i_~_YI~












Vegetab e Crop 3893


Tomatoes

Tomatoes
Cabbage
Beana
Irtih Potatoes
watormelon a

Squashes

Egpa 2ant
cuMretrs

Digl ish Peas
Beets
Canteloupe


Acres

4 800

2,2514
2,23 4

2,3156

3.367
482
209


360

17)
:__ 68

4,391


361, 000 bb] a.

276,000 tb3

207.700 cr.

59.000 bu.
3,633 cars
25,000 bbls.

7,700 bb3 s.
25,500 cr.

35,321 cr.
19,000 cr.

S2,700 bbls.


va)ue

$471, 000
3 9700ooo
252,900
74-. Q
~ 1-, 400
41,000
26,700
24-,500
23 00
17,000


$1,071,4Q0


tT












Vegetable Crop 1896


Tomatoes

Beans

watermelons

Irish Potatoes

Cabbage

Eggp3 ant
English Peas

cuo'boras
squashes

Beets

Cante]oupe


Acres

5,529

2,770

3,375
3,278

1.304
471L

479
495

309

199
220


70,000 2
246,000 cr.

3,243 cars
103,000 bu.

77,600 bw s.
38,000 bb a.
46,900 or.

3SO0O or.
23,000 bb s.

20,800 or.

10,560 bbe a.


value

4392,000
297,500
164,ooo

124,000
1204,000
6o%,ooo


43 000

27,000
22,300

32,600


16,429















/


$1,292,800


_LI~1~~~ _~~_I __1~_ Ir_ __I _1__1~__~










Vegetable Crop 1901


Tomatoes

Watermelons

Irish Potatoes

Beans

Cabbage
Cantaloupe
Eggplant
Cucumbers
Lettuce
English Peas
Squashes

Celery
Beets
Peppers


Acres

6,675

3,256
2,517
2,118

1,820

2,507
471

497
68

544
235
25
104

19


70, o60bu.
2,380 cars
180,644 b.

152,000 or.

141,770 cr.
81,670 or.

38,750 or.
47,000 or.
48,163 or.
47,600 or.
16,800 or.

20,739 or.
15,000 cr.
3,442 er.


Value

$928,000
222,000

213,800
202,000

175,800
95,400

79,500
49,600

49,100
46,300
23,500
20,900
24,900

5,300


$2,186,100


30,856
/*' i


\J/











Vegetable Crop 3912


Tomatoes

Irish Potatoes

Lettuce

Beans

Watermne ona

Cel ery

Cucumbers

Cabbage

Peppers

Canteloupes

squash

Onions

Eggp ant
Beets

] glisl Peas


Acres

13,213
o3,647

2,598

6,297

15.724

932
2,081

2,307
i,062

4,444

547
624

438

28)

263


t752,0 r.

1,082,235 bu.

625,000 Or .

768,300 cr.

6,895 cars
420,000 or.

363,000 or.

394,000 jr,.

253 ,000 or,

280,600 or,

98, 00 or.

65,200 or.

39,500 or.

23,123 c-.'

32,100 cr.


Value

$2,323,000

1,641,000

838,000

798,000


43!3,000
3' i4,000

295,000

2,', 700

235,000

133,000
302,000

10, 000

35,000

3,000


$7,907,700


_.__ (_ ____~X_^_~ IY~1~Y~


61,456



















Peaches

Pineapplesm
Strawberries

Pears

Grapes

BananaS

Pigs
3ums


Rise of Fruit Crop other than Citrus


Fruits other than Citrus 0


240,800 trees ,000 .

*,726,000 fruits
602 acres 3,088,000 boxes
329,000 trees 22,000 bl s.

2,040 aores

32,000 btc8.
4,600 bu.

3 8,400 bu.


$350,000

337,200
96,000
57.000




6,000
52,ooo
5,00


0 99,000


__ I _I___ __ ___ __ ---------~---)UI--- ---















Pineapples 1

Grapes

Strawberries

Peaches

Pears

Bananas

Guavas

Pecans

Plgs
Plums (no record )


Fruits other than Citrus


5,972,000 p.


797 ao.

239,000 trees
194,000 trees




1,852 trees


3893


,,678,000 Ibs.

81 ,000 qts.

120,000 bu.

36,600 bbls.
67,000 bhos.

31,000 or.

1,823 bu.
2,900 bu.


$679,000

293,000
97,000

69,000

59,000

30,000

22,800

5,600

3,100


-a-


$1,278,500













Pineapples
Strawberries
Peaches
Pears
Grapes
iGuaras
Pecans
Bananas
pigas


29
19
ii


3


Fnits other than Citrus 3896



,04-3 area 3,295,000 qts.
1,344 trees 96,950 bu.
4,591 tree 62,000 bsla.
1,528,000 31e.
12,500 or.
0,451 trees 2,030 bu.
32,500 bch.
764 bu.


b182,000
363 ,000
13 ,000
97,700
76,000

9,000
6,zoo
3,250


$656,550
t; '-.


_ _~_~_ W____ _~__ ____


I


t












Pruits other than Citrus


tUwo _c


Pineapples
strawberries
Peaches

Pears

Grapes

Pecans
Guavas
A#acadoes
Bananas

isS


950
193,000

47,300


ao.
tree a

tree as


5, 83 trees


6,531,000 fruits
2,665,000 qts.
1~.,o000 bu.

32,800 bbl28

503,000 2bs.

2,5621 bi.

10,353 or.
3,900 this.
3 O 000 tcla.

384 ba.


V3 ue

$717,600
322,000
252,000

3C ,900
25,000

30,000
7]400
6,000

4,600

700


$1,274, 200


- ~- -- I-- ICII~-IUIIO --~-


1901











Pruits other than Citrus


trees o t.


Pineapples

Peaches

Strawberries

Pecans

Pears

Grapes

Avocadoes

Guavas

oangoes

Pigs

Plums

Bananas

coc anuts


Sapodillos

Sugar Apples


233,373
3,785

20,409

53,355
9,063

67.108


82,095


21,352


77,839

44, 383


nI ftn-


a
1


3 ac
l,:


bearing


355,658 or.
92,819 178,566 bu.

3,513,108 qts.
506,459 36,89-3 bu.

36,790 33,000 bbts.

17,673 1,054, 9415 lbs.

19,373 or.

56,372 or.
26,559 Or.

36,534 or.
32,216 37,726 bu.


27,063 bclas.

227,550 nuts

4,376 cr.
r4,051 or.

2,700 or.


value


%383,200
4225,600

47,.500
94, 9q0)

78,300

74,,6oo

53,700

499,300
26,600

25,600

23,300


38,600

3, 400
6,700

5,200

4 200


$3,225,500


---, ~ -- -~ -- ~1--1--1 ~-~1- --II-


1912










Rise of Citrus Fruit Crop


Citrus 1890


Grapefruit

Limes
Lemons


' Bearing

3,895,300
13,600

13,800
20,200


Trees

Non-bearing

4,996,341




78,800


Boxes

2,665,000
S18. 00o

7,800
18,400


'Ifvalue

$2,700,000
20,400

5,500
29,500


2,709,300


_ ____ __I_ __ ___


$2, 755, 400


5,075,141


S,942.900












citrus :893


Oranges

Grapefruit
Linmae
Letons


Trees
bearing a

2,687,000 3,724,o00

64-,0oo
7,100
4,90o 1305,200


Boxes


4,264, ooo
52,000

3,370
57,000


value


$,2648,000
s6,ooo
5,400

75,500


-- --


2,803,000


3,829,200


dl


4.,276,370


*4,335,700










Citrus 1896


Oranges
Grapefruit
Limes
Lemons


88,355
60,100,
9,600
3,690


2,808,000




50,000


2,858,000
f


Bo e


Value


46,580
562
559
733


$65,000

5,153
716
1,000


359,745


52,o434


73 ,869


(Biaring


---- ---- --- -I /I


-n-bearing *




I%


Citrus 1901


oranges

Grapefruit

Limes

Lemons


Trees

'Bearing Non-bearing

596,000 2,945,o000

136,900

38,800

t,900 11,000


Soxes



973,000

22,800

4,300

1,500


Value



$1, 471, 400

142,000

9,300

2,987


75.6,200 2,956,oo00
**


_ ___ __ ____


3,001, 400


1, 625,687





4 9
i
Ir


Oitnru 3912


,:ranges

CGrperunlt

allies

Lemon a


Trees
-.----d_-c-A>- ---
C(Bearing ;on-bearinih

2,776,526 3,856,0 6

794, 08 739,923

.37,572

.,196 34,079


Boxes



I,769,322

1, 05,3810


32 ,l10


Va3ue


t5,665,500

;, -.:4,9500

83,800

32,300


3,637,702 2,.610,,38 6~~a1, Gl 7 a;-;, --:,600
















Vegetable


3s Ijon-citrus Citrus To


talks


490o-,700

22


1,073,400

16


$4-99,000

12


1,276,500

19


$ ,755,4 00

66


4,3 5,700

65


$4,159,3 00

100


86,665;,600

100


3,292,800

64.


2,326,300

42 1/3


7,907,700
I45


656.550


2,2714,200

25 1/3


3,225,500


71,869


3,625,687

32 1/3


8,)I-44,600


2,023,219

100


5,025,987

100


37,577,800

100


'-3


1890

w of
who le


1893

w of
whole


1896

f, of
whole


1901


whole


3912


wh or
whole


_ --C~ZII--LU---~ __ ~_ ~--C-~--~----- YILII


- ----U-------- -. ___-------U-l--DIII -U------l--


_ -.-I- Il-CI -- -- --- -- -I-


~~-- I --~----------II_ ----~----~IIIL _-U- I-~-L-----l ---









SConclu9 ions



After reviewing the whole horticultural situation I can see

clearly how one 3arge question after another has coIme up, G.treous

efforts have been made to solve It. Some questions have been rj.tuded

until a reisonab3e solution has been found. Often t!=is las or.e

about by forces entirely or largely outside of our om reglcn.

l The traiLsportation question has been .'ett3ed 3arg:cy 1 t'.he est.ab-

3luju.cnt of a non-partisan Inter3tatt Com iorcce Cc; in.3Ion witi. no-aor

to act. wB have done our sWlaro of tl-e :rt: to bring t .is acout.

(/ Our preFennt PFilro.i cO;;ission can, be traced directly

to the :-orticu3turists of lor:ida.


0(/ Tie introduition, propagation and disii;o.iriation of va;,u:.l e

fnru ts, vegetable es ad ornraenta3 h1s been! due entlro3y t:- our

effort. Ii1 the 3st tweiL-.y-four years the vegetabL'e cro hFUS in-

creasad over 900 p-rcsnt. The citru fruit have 'icreamal 4C)

percent, in apite of tze fact that t I a tV be entirely rehalbi i-

tated. Ti~e other fruits have iicrea.ued over 250 ,perce.t.




-I




She chapter on fertilization Is the rnot bri3r nt one that

we have written. mNofhere else in the world wl33 you find. sue' a

3arge umrd of inforniation on this subject an it posaseao! by thr hoN.-

tl0c3 tourists of I'lorlda. No' ero ei ne is theo fortl3izer ~biinies

on o so03 id a1 frounation.Ql _e. y^ < 44% 42-

/ T(d e cliapter on the kino;rltclge of diseases nd insects 1:3 a3 so

an extremely brl)liant one. T~e scientists hive imeo tihe:iselvea

nationally and internationall] fraous. It has, however, hi extreme-

3y cdlcouraging si.e to it. The i-ort cul turists as a bod are far

behind tiie most pogreao larr.e n r.rr o indlvidua] s ire tie

nost 3progresaive t.at c~i .be Vowidt

'1/ CTe c h-iptcr on cor.c' i.:.tio i3 lut be lin;n to be written.

A great many vigorous attempts have ben'r nade but a33 of th-e:;.e have

fal3en I'.ir short of receiving thie heart:; cooper-ztlon of tT'. :rsons

lntereAted .

Tje wvrole ]!orticultura3 altvation as broui;: t oi.t by iy

':~itory o. its rlev eopImnt in the la-t 25 years my ble sanli; up

in the one sentence, Our work as individuala has been the iaost












brilliant that can be found anywhere in the wond, bVt our team


worp has fal3 en so far sort, of what It ouSht to have been that an


individuals we have had to aufTer the severest humilnations, both


p aonal ad financial.


1it U these concluding words I lay before .ou,, ladles and gen-


tlemen a brief study of the development of horticulture Ib F3i orlda


as it has occurred during, th.e life of !, r. o. Palnlr. I I'LLae


briouint oat clearty that he has had more to do Awith its correct de-


veIopment thni aty of the y.ouner ~enters fa reoa3ze.


























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