<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Land hunger and settlement...
 Evolution of the cooperative...
 Soldiers' farms
 Government versus private...
 Psychology of the situation
 Conclusion


UFLAC










V V

























L- a


S .. ,, , ,'? .
S. . .. . - .. .
y/ tu :d. ..'" ,.. ,.













^ ' J .





ATHENAEUM CLUB


Gainesville, November 15, 1918.


THE NEXT TRANSITION IN OUR AGRICULTURE;
Providing the Returning Soldier with a Farm.


INTRODUCTION

Statement of thesis 2
Review of former papers 3
Land ownership prevents wars and riots 7


LAND HUNGER AND SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA 8


EVOLUTION OF THE COOPERATIVE STAGE 11

The land-poor stage 11
The development stage 12
The Agricultural College grant 13
Homestead Act and modifications 14
Railroad grants 15
The Conservation stage 16
Reclamation project 17
The Cooperative stage 19


SOLDIERS' FARMS 20

Principle applied in foreign countries 21
Principle applied in California 22
Problem a difficult one 24
Points to be considered in applying the principle 26


GOVERNMENT VERSUS PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT 29

Land development in Florida 29
Ready-made farms in Florida 31
Government projects long time and low rate of interest 32


PSYCHOLOGY OF THE SITUATION 34

Confidence necessary 34
Great things expected 35

CONCLUSION 37
14




The Next Transition in our Agricultural Farms: Providing the Returning Soldier with a Farm, Athenaeum Club. 1918
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000206/00082
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Peter Henry Rolfs Collection
 Material Information
Title: The Next Transition in our Agricultural Farms: Providing the Returning Soldier with a Farm, Athenaeum Club. 1918
Series Title: Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description: Unknown
Physical Location:
Box: 2
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: The Next Transition in our Agricultural Farms: Providing the Returning Soldier with a Farm, Athenaeum Club. 1918
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00000206:00082

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Land hunger and settlement in America
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Evolution of the cooperative stage
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Soldiers' farms
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Government versus private development
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Psychology of the situation
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Conclusion
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
Full Text

ATHENAEUM CLUB


Gainesville, November 15, 1918.


THE NEXT TRANSITION IN OUR AGRICULTURE;
Providing the Returning Soldier with a Farm.


INTRODUCTION

Statement of thesis 2
Review of former papers 3
Land ownership prevents wars and riots 7


LAND HUNGER AND SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA 8


EVOLUTION OF THE COOPERATIVE STAGE 11


The land-poor stage 11
The development stage 12
The Agricultural College grant
Homestead Act and modifications
Railroad grants 15
The Conservation stage 16
Reclamation project 17
The Cooperative stage 19


13
14


SOLDIERS' FARMS


Principle applied in foreign countries
Principle applied in California 22
Problem a difficult one 24
Points to be considered in applying the


GOVERNMENT VERSUS PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT 29


principle


Land development in Florida 29
Ready-made farms in Florida 31
Government projects long time and low rate of interest 32


PSYCHOLOGY OF THE SITUATION

Confidence necessary
Great things expected


34

34
35


CONCLUSION





ATHENAEUM CLUB


Gainesville, November 15, 1918.


THE NEXT TRANSITION IN CUR AGRICULTURE;
Providing the Returning Soldier with a Farm.


INTRODUCTION

Statement of thesis 2
Review of former papers 5
Land ownership prevents wars .'and riots 7


LAND HUNGER AND SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA 8


EVOLUTION OF THE COOPERATIVE STAGE 11

The land-poor stage 11
The development stage 12
The Agricultural College grant 13
/ Homestead Act and modifications 14
Railroad grants 15
The Conservation stage 16
Reclamation project 17
The Cooperative stage 19


SOLDIERS' FARMS 20

Principle applied in foreign countries 21
Principle applied in California 22
Problem a difficult one 24
Points to be considered in applying the principle 26


GOVERNMENT VERSUS PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT 29

Land development in Florida 29
Ready-made farms in Florida 31
Government projects long time and low rate of interest 32

9
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE SITUATION 34

Confidence necessary 34
Great things expected 36

, CONCLUSION 37









Athenaeum Club,
Siovember 15, 1918.


'- -...'-,' .... ,
SI. . EIT J!/".ili;'ICIT I2 1 'K !AG IC'LLTLRE:

PROVIDING OUR E.ET'. I, il ::LDLIZ3S .7ITH A FP:I..



Gentlemen of the Athenaeumn Club and guests:


I am profoundly pleased to be able to present to you a


paper tonight. The expression of this pleasure is not


the usual perfunctory compliment to wiich every listener


is entitled. In this address I propose to say nothing


about the war. '.Vhat I am about to say would have


been received as pure academic theorizing if the v.'ar


had not occurred and would have been little better if


peace were not an'accomplished fact. It has been a


mott glorious triumph for right and righteousness the


world has ever seen -hern-ef-a.l-it-gla-er-a'd.


-teehnieaitssa It was a triumph of democracy over auto-
rights over
cracy. triumph of the individual &- vested rights.







-2-



We have met here tonight to discuss a live and


vitalizing question. If the question is answered in the


affirmative, it will be a tangible expression of the new


era we are now entering. It will be answered in one way or


another before the mass of our population knows that the


question has been asked. In the 30 minutes allotted by


the Constitution of our Club I cannot do more than present

a fair outline.

Let me state the question squarely at the outset

of my address:


SHALL THE AMERICAN SOLDIER WHO WISHES TO MAKE AGRI-


CULTURE HIS VOCATION BE GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO RECEIVE


FROM THE GOVERNMENT A WELL ESTABLISHED FARM, NOT AS A


GRATUITY BUT AT A LOW RATE OF INTEREST AND ON A LONG TERM


AMORTIZATION?

In my previous papers to the Athenaeum Club I have


attempted to give a general resume of the agricultural


situation in Florida, or in the United States gener-i











ally, as it occurred at that time,, My first, paper,


presented January 25th, 1907 gave a very general review


of the .status of agricultural higher education in Florida


up to that date. :..,y second paper was on the subject


of Educational advancement .in Florida. One of the


conclusions reached, in that paper reads as follows:


"The old Agricultural College had her op-


portunity,. She passed i't up and thereby was discredited.


She failed to grasp her :opportunity, though she was:


given twenty years to make good. The time'for success.


was ripe; the place was also there, but the man was the


one element wanting."
the -University has
Today ,iAiEe even a more brilliant oppor-
crucial
tunity of doing constructive work. The -'aMe question


is whether we see our duty clearly and will then perform


-3-







-4-


it, My third paper to the Club was presented on Miarch

In it
29th, 1912. -A-that--h-ie I discussed :the work of agri-


cultural extension in the University of Florida. If

predicted
at that time I had-stat-e that the State of Florida
by 1918
*would-ty-9-8 be spending $100j000 annuallyAfrom the


State and County treasuries for the Agricultural Ex-


tension work it would have been considered as a wild.


and visionary dream.

My fourth paper presented to the Club on


January 9th, 1914, was on the Everglades of Florida,


stereopticon slides showing the Everglades region were


presented, but the main thought of the paper was the


political significance and present aspect of the develop-
thi. Everglades.
ment of Fortida.









-5-


,In my fifth paper, presented October 1st,


1915, I spoke on the subject of the need of vitalizing


the, agricultural and educational work of the State.,


The trend of our Government at that time was directly

toward.
in the line ef ,a bureaucratic form. I am happy
of development
to say that after three years tn-which-to-study-and-watch


Tiqe-sit.at'i- the trend toward a bureaucratic government


has been less active than it was in the year preceding


my paper. A bureaucratic form-crf government may be


more efficient than the individualistic form of-gevern-


=-Hff, but it certainly fails to develop the individual,

and often becomes very oppressive.









-6-


America is playing the leading role in


this world's great drama. All the world is looking to


the United States. She must play the part well.
f

It is up to you and to me to see that WE shall not


be found wanting. I know that we shall come out more


than victorious. You and I, the home guards, must


not slacken our pace nor idle away our time. Our du-


ties have completely changed in less than a fortnight.


Our thoughts and energy must now be directed toward


the construction.








-7-


The world's greatest conflicts have always


centered around the ownership of land. If the principle


could be at once established that no nation could acquire


land through the process of war, one of the greatest, if


not the greatest, incentives for war would be removed.


If we can make it possible for every ambitious young


man to acquire a farm on which to live and raise his


family -;'e will at once do away vith a tremendous amount


of unrest and discontent. A riot by land owners who


are tillers of the soil, is unheard of in history.







LAND HUNGER SETTLED AMERICA.


I. The settlement of America was the result


of land hunger. The prevailing feudal system had oc-


cupied practically all of the desirable area of Europe.


These landlords held the lands'in fee


simple. The lands might be bartered or lost in clash


of arms but always the peasants weait with the lands.

traffic
The rents or taxes exacted were about all "the -peaeanm--


could bear. "


If my study of American history teaches me


correctly there were introduced, into America two very


distinct ideals. The Pilgrim fathers landing at Ply-


mouth Rock and Penn in Pennsylvania based their ideals


on individual ownership of land. Virginia and Caro-


lina colonies made settlements based on the ideal then


so prevalent in Europe. The individualistic ideal


attracted the wander es and land-hungry from Europe.








-9-


These immigrants settled in almost all the colonies


along the Atlantic Coast, most largely from Mary-


land north as far as Maine. The later immigrants


either passed beyond the coastal border or crowded the


children of the earlier colonists to the unoccupied ter-


ritory toward the West, reaching into the Mississippi


basin. In the South the ideals resembled more closely


those prevailing in Europe, and immigrants without money


had to become employees of someone. This was less at-


tractive and caused a considerable number to seek other


regions even after landing in the South. The large plant-


er finding free labor uncertain and unsatisfactory, natural


ly turned his attention to securing the more dependable

labor of the negro. The Civil War in its essence was a

clash of ideals. Whether you agree with me or not, as to

whether this clash of ideals was the basic cause of the








-10-


Civil War, the results could not have been more effective


if Lincoln had announced as the cause.


It took that great southern man, President


Wilson,, to see clearly and to have the courage -to an-


nounce to the world that everybody, even though living


in an alien country had the right to own land. This


ideal, whether expressed or not,, was the conflict be-


tween the junkers and the .tillers of the soil. WVithout


a subservient military system the junkers would long


since have lost their legal right.to the lands.


So much for the development of the American


ideal. I have treated it very briefly but this out-


line should present one of the thoughts necessary to my


thesis.







-11-


Don't forget what my thesis is that the Ameri-


can soldier who wishes to make farming a vocation, be


given an opportunity to receive a well established farm,


not as a gratuity but at a low rate of interest and on


a long term amortization.


EVOLUTION OF THE COOPERATIVE STAGE

II. The next step I want to consider is the


gradual development toward this ideal by the government


of the United States.

The United States has had three distinct periods


in the history of her domain. The first period when


she was "land poor". At the close of the Revolution the


public lands were all owned by the separate States. For


example, Virginia owned a vast area stretching indefinitely


into the northwest, probably as far as Indiana. There


was some overlapping of claims by different States, and


also some possibilities that states might quarrel with






-12-


a foreign country. The land brought no returns, so was


practically wurthless to the individual State. By ceding


the titles to the Federal Government these difficulties


were removed.


Large areas of the land had been given to the


soldiers of the Revolution for their services.


When the United States secured title to the land'


it was used in part to pay off debts to soldiers and a


larger amount was sold. In the War of 1812 land bounty


was offered to soldiers to enlist. The landlord cer-


tificates ani certificates of land bounty brought about


a period of speculation in vast land areas.


THE SECOND PERIOD: THE DEVELOPMENT STAGE.


One of the very important and acrimonious issues


between the dominant political parties during the period


up to 1662, was the question of passing a homestead







-13-


act. The party that happened to be in power naturally


wanted to keep the lands to be sold for the sake of the


revenue it brought. The Homestead Act, passed in 1662,


was the first step in advance in democracy. Under it


a vast empire was built up in the Mississippi valley.


Soon the mineral land, the coal land law, and a number


of similar acts were passed.


The most important and beneficial actrpassed


was the first Morrill Act, establishing an Agricultural


College in every State. Every State was given ninety


thousand acres of public lands for every Senator and


Representative in Congress. The graduates from these


institutions have provided the engineers who have played


such a conspicuous part in the last four and a half years,


at home and at the front. 'i'he graduates in agriculture


have enabled the country to produce increased crops in


spite of millions of men









-14-


having been withdrawn from agricultural pursuits. The


results have surprised even ourselves and certainly


astonished the warring world. The fund has not been

for instance
administered wisely at all times,- North Dakota, fee-


-nstanee-gets an annual return of $9.00 per acre, while


.hode Island gets 49 cents. These are the two extremes.


The Homestead Act worried well in the Mississ-


ippi, valley and in the humid regions generally but in


the arid west the tract was too small. These defects,-


have been remedied by passage in 1909 of the Dry Land
in the dry farming region
Act permitting entry of 320 acres and in 1916 by passage


of the Grazing Act permitting entry of 640 acres. Under


the Homestead Act over 200 million acres were disposed


of. During this 'same period 150 million acres were


granted for common school purposes. At first every








-15-


also
16th section was given, later the 1st section and finally

four sections
the-e-4th-se-'i-aon per township were given for common school


purposes.


The railroads were given 260 million acres


from the Federal Government., Various States also con-

additional
tribute 125 millionAacres. Florida gave large areas


of her swamp and overflow lands. It is said that she
she
gave two million more than she possessed andAstill owns


1,250,000 acres.






-16-



The Third Stage might be called that of conser-


vation. Some of us will remember that much was said


about it daring Roosevelt's administration. Mr. Pinchot


was oneof the ardent advocates.of the Government conser-


vation, not only of its valuable timber and mineral lands,


but also of its water power. When the government


surveyors discovered a large bad of coal in Alaska pri-


vate parties attempted to get title to the lands by illegal


means. This caused a notorious scandal. Finally the


conservationists won out. The Government instead of


giving the lands to private parties as form,-rly, built


docks at tidewater and built a railroad to the coal fields.


The coal mines are leased and worked by private parties.


It was merely extending the principle of building the


Panama Canal. The potash lake of California, and the


kelp beds are government owned and wokkaid by private


c -ipital.









-17-

The vast areas of timber are carefully graded


by cruisers and that portion needed for grazing is


used for that purpose. The United States is now one


of the biggest timber dealers in the world.


The most difficult and intricate conservation


work undertaken by th. Federal Goverrnmant is the Reclama-


tion one. In the arid region about $125,000,000 have


been sppnt on the variolos projects. Not only did irri-


gation have to be established but drainage also. No


irrigation project is complete without its drainage com-


plement. The first irrigation project, established


in the arid west was by Brigham Young. After the region


was opened to general settlement, numerous private irri-


gation projects were established, but nearly all of


these have faildd. Some irrigation projects have


been established by various States, and succeeded






-18-


moderately well. Ready made farms on the Government


projects can be delivered to the private owner at


from 650 to 100 an acre.


The reason the Federal Government can succeed


in this work while private enterprises fail, is that


the Government has practically unlimited credit, and


unlimited time.


I have reviewed the conservation work so


briefly because it is of so recent a time that we are


all quite familiar with it.


The Fourth Stage in the development of our


land ownership ideal, may be called the cooperative


one. We have just entered it.


---








-19-


We have the Cooperative Agricultural Extension Work.


The Smith-Hughes Agricultural Schools. The Tick


Eradication work. There is also much other work


of a cooperative nature that is being done.


Briefly the proposition is that the State or


the local community shall furnish the land and the


G )ver:nment develop it, and sell it to the soldier


who intends to become a farmer. The farm will be all


ready for cropping purposes. No farm will be sold


to a soldier who cannot pay in cash at least 0l of, the


cost of the farm. The rate of interest will be low,


and the amortization period long.





-20-


holding
III. 1'he problem that is absorbing the atten-


tion of America today is that of providing homes for the


returning soldiers. This problem in itself would
be worth our attention
hardly ab b=~Oas as a nation, if it did not involve the

more fundamental farms
larger and-fre-at e-r problem of providing opport-tuni-e-e-


for millions of people who are .still in their youth,


and other millions not yet born with a similar opportu-


nity. I, would not give it more than a passing

it will
thought if it were not for the fact that-the-r!L : -Tiw -


-ld-iae-i-s--t4e e- -o-j-ee4---3<-~w-e -ay- establish a

by our government.
broad and fundamental principle-in-this--cointry.


Land without people is a wilderness; people without


Land is a mob. For examples see Russia and Mexico.


This problem of providing land for all of those who


wish to occupy it is one that has received attention





-21-




by statesmen from early times, even ante-dating the


Christian era. It was a problem even in Biblical


times, and I dare say if we were able to go even

back of
-beyond written history we would find that someone ;


among the rulers hid recognized this as a fundamental


and difficult problem to solve. .


The most, enlightened and advanced countries .


in the world have taken this question up and solved


it in various ways. Denmark has used her method;


France has used her method. England Micnsg tovthe
principle of landlordism has been trying

to find a solution without great success.


Australia took up this question about twelve years


ago and discussed it widely. She even went so far as


to send to America for an expert on this subject te-


-eeme-a;n-a;vi&e-wih-her. He remained for about ten


years and as a result Australia has established a law





-22-


that fits her social conditions much more satisfac-


torily than do the laws in most other civilized coun-


tries. Dr. Elwood Mead, now of the University of Cal-


ifornia, was the man chosen to assist the Australian


government. Since the outbreak of the war Australia


has further developed this law so that the returning


soldier may receive 1000 acres and up to as high as ,o,


?5u00 in cash with which to start operations. One of


the provinces of Canada has amended her law so that a


returning soldier may receive three 160-acre farms


, and up to as high as $2500 in Cash.


California has been studying this question for a


number of years. Three years ago last August Dean


Hunt, of the Agricultural College, told me they were


working on and formulating a law whereby they expected





-23-


to eliminate the land shark from California. In


other words they proposed to amend their laws in such


a way that a bona fide farmer would be able to secure
for little more than
a farm N the cost of improvements and have a long term


of years in which to pay for ii improvements. An

week's
article in the last number of the Country Gentleman
of the proposed plan.
gives a general outline, wtthoat-gring-anyone-any-par-


-If lartn-forimation-on-thtas-seb-eet. California has


gone further in the development of the ideal. She


not only provides a farm for the actual farmer, but

* also provides living quarters for the laborer who wish-


es to adopt farm labor as his vocation. The usual


unit adopted for the farm laborer is a small house


with two acres of land. This property, fully improved,


can be bought at cost on a long term amortization.





-24-





I know when this subject is first approached one


instinctively feels that it cannot be done, but you


know the old anecdote of the man who was in jail; he


insisted on his rights and called in his attorney.


When the attorney arrived he frankly told his client,

"they can't put you'in jail for tLhat". Or we might


feel like the countryman who attended a show for the


first time, and when he saw the remarked,


"'taint so, there aint no such animal".



The problem is not an impossible one, it is simply


a difficult one and the greatest difficulty of all that


have to be encountered is in the inaredulity of the


average man. In the early part of my address Z took


a considerable amount of time to present to you some-


what clearly, though in outline, the development of the



land laws and their attitude toward land in the United


States.












Later I discussed somewhat fully the reclamation pro-


ject and also mentioned a number of other conservation


projects that were being carried out by the United


States government. During the century and a half of


our existence we have learned a great many things


but we did not accumulate knowledge or experience as


rapidly during the early part of our existence as we


have in the latter portion. During the last 25 years


the development in the United States has been nothing


short of a revolution. The strides made from the time


of financing the building of the Union Pacific Railway


to that of financing the Panama Canal have certainly


been marvellous. I remember with what. loud acclaim


people said that the Panama Canal would never be built.


Adding almost in the same breath that if ever it was


built it would cost the government ten times the amount







-26-


engineer it
-thaazmax= t of money that .evA-.: estimated4to cost. The


reclamation projects had a thorny time in Congress;


they were put over, and are now an accomplished fact.


A railroad was built by the government in far-off Alaska


but I doubt whether there is one voter in a thousand


who knows that the government is owning and operating


a railroad in that far distant country.


The following are some of the points that need


to be considered in carrying out the details of this


soldiers' home building proposition.


(1) The soldier should never be allowed to look upon


this as an endowment, but merely as an opportunity.


(2) The colony must have a community sentiment.( This


:was strikingly exemplified in our army ,.O.iE.;
.. flraft
every boy in the '1' fn went in almost reluct-


antly. Ninety days in camp made him a most ardent






-27-


booster for the army and for winning the war. )


(3) The group must be large enough so that it can be


properly organized and properly supervised.


(4) The settler must have some investment in the en-


terprise. It should not take on the aspect of


charity. It should refuse to receive those who


have not a sufficient =a3FF cF force of character


Sto have already saved and accumulated some money.


A young man at twenty-five having accumulated


one thousand dollars is pretty certain to be able


to manage an enterprise with a ten thousand .dol-


lar capital.


(5) Every incentive to abandon the proposition or abuse


the privilege must be removed.


(6) In all the successful schemes the prospective


purchaser must have enough money to make the first





S... .... -28-





p. payment. In Denmark 10% is required, the state


providing for 90, and this debt is paid off by


long time amortization, allowing sevenity-five


years in which to pay off the principal.





-29-


IV. Government versus P2mfate Development.


I have been discussing phases of this prob-


lem during the last three years with professors of


political economy, with settlers in Florida, and also


with land owners who hold up to as high as one and a


half million acres of land. I have seen and studied


land development schemes in Florida for a decade and a


half, becoming intimately acquainted with some fifty or


one hundred of them. It has pleased me very greatly


to notice how the development of the ideal has taken


place among the land owners. I am inclined to believe


that the ideal has developed more rapidly among them


than among the people who wish to settle upon the land.


Twelve years ago there was not a single project in the


State of Florida that permitted the settler to have a







-30-


long time in which to pay for his land. Five years


was considered about the extreme limit. Most of them


required full payment for the land in three years.


This process did not attract settlers, but only specu-


lators. No man who expected to make farming a business


and who knww anything about that business believed for

build a home on it,
a minute that he could take raw landhand in five years


make it pay for itself. It was easy enough to convince


a speculator that ten acres of land in Florida was an


El Dorado that h- could unload on the other fellow"


at several thousand percent profit before the end of


three years.


Necessarily that form of private development


placed most of the companies in the hands of a receiver
its
and rfrequently officers in the hands of the sherifff. "


We have at the present time, in the State of Flori-







-31-


,ia a number of private development projects that are


furnishing ready-made farms at a moderate price. They


require an initial payment usually of about 25%, the


basis of payments being the cost of the improvements and


lands, plus a handsome profit on the cost of the money


invested. The deferred payments rarely extend be-


yond five years. While these projects are immeasurably


better than were thd projects ten years ago, they are


still impossible from the standpoint of the farmer.


In talking with the heads of these development organiza-


tions, I am told quite frankly by them that unless they


can cash in, in the course of five years, their project


is a failure. In other words, they must either be


able to unload the stuff in the course of five years or .

have progressed far enough so that another bond may be


be floated on the project. This, you see, makes it im-


pof-sibl.e for a successful agricultural development.






-32-


The government, on the other hand, is not partic-


ularly concerned about whether the money is paid back


in twenty or in fifty years. The individual dies,


but the government lives on.


The various government projects that have been


undertaken, some of which I have already mentioned,


the Panama Canal, the Alaskan railway, the reclamation


projects, if you will examine close into any of the


projects of recent times you will be struck forcibly


by the fact that the government can carry out a long


time and a big project far more economically than can


a private individual. It is doubtful whether all the


money on Wall Street could have built the Panama Canal


in twice the time. There is no private reclamation


project in existence that can deliver to an individual













a ready made farm at so low


States Reclamation Service.


government cannot do these 1


as an individual, remember


man and the giraffe.


S
.'' ~


a figure as can our United


When you say that the


big things as economically


the anecdote of the country-






-34-


V. PsychlogQy.ogf the Situation.


In any business or political undertaking, it


is necessary for the success of that undertaking, that


all interested shall have confidence in its success.


Ih these war times we have coined a new word, or given


a new meanin- to an old word. 'It is the word "morale".


When President Roosevelt wanted to put the Panama Canal


proposition over, he began publicity in all sorts.


of ways. De Lesseps had made a failure of the project.


The French people had been looked upon as the greatest


engineers in the world. They were looked upon as a


people who had all the money they needed, and if they


wanted more all they had to do was to make up their


minds to get it and the money was forthcoming. With


the Panama Canal failure staring the world in the face





-35-





it was not an easy matter to change the belief that


the project could be put over. If the Canal project


had been taken up without the confidence of those


Who ought to know, there would have been no Panama


Canal, or at least not in our day.


Let us apply the present day psychology to the


problem in hand. In the first place no people ever had


greater confidence in the ability of their government


than we have at the present time. In the second place,


the atmosphere is simply surcharged with the belief


that pre-war conditions will never return. The country


is simply filled with expectation that something great,


something revolutionary, and something unusual will


happen.


I need not dwell on this point longer. To my


mind the psychology of the situation has a greater








-56-



bearing on the problem than any one of the other


four points that I have named.







-V,
-37-




Conclusion


(1) I want to repeat: land without people is

a wilderness; people without land is a mob. Examples,


Russia and Mexico.


(2) Our American civilization has developed step


by step from that of private ownership and profiteer-


ing in large landed areas to that where we now believe


that it would be a sin to continuei.n such flagrant mis-


use of our God-given heritage.


(3) The psychological moment has arrived when

we can make a beginning of the next great era in the


development of the agriculture of the Unites States.


If a farm is provided for every returning soldier who


desires one,thhere is no logical reason why every future

the head of a family
young man when he becomes- '.- -1 should not be given..






-38-


.M

a similar opportunity.


(4) ihis is a question that you and I must


decide for ourselves, and we must at this critical


moment have a clear insight into the whole problem


and be able to answer it affirmatively.












O t A- A- t
a- a a U


Erz ,r V ^^A


7^^, -
--L e ^ e a-A-

a7 7


(2)2.


<4 -/i-C^
Z yt etS 4Atrt


~, o~$r- a.- x--t. -t~Q K


te! c4c


e-7 14^ '


* A


04.


cc


- -1 --


~L~Z~;L6 2*b~C ~c6-r~


~d~ ~-cc~L~cA~


F~Y- -


.a. /,u


~e~~P^^~


IJ







ei


......z' LrW


V/ ,7


1~4~l- ~ Pla-,S


% ,, s,-. s. ,--









zn^su4^C 4tr- --
^.,-" A.i--'- ,>" ...-. itt *


ea-"c 44
,,,


.,, -- -
-r-
L '/ "" " "








... z-A S ,/ ~i. e L < c < 0__ -tt -A ,_eC


Q't.NLa, dL CL4
$&Lfl&-6L


C., L<


- -


LzA~ ~L~P~CIZ~ #
7
----


Y


























( Ma- -. ...
., / * *





'*' '* .*': *' '




*< :" * *"


II,