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C-co60 tiVE d

7 AGRICULTU RE AND
STATE OF

wumN or maLmaW, DIVIwo
Mor wso nDrAt wiWon, .
OF A a@ii.WtiR @O@,R NU,,,


11:00
12:00
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3:00
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7:30


iFo .. i

E ECONQMICS
.A.

us. usartv or sFiomu


Program Boys' Short Course and Farmers' Rally.

Ichtucknee Spgs. June 29 & 30.

Farmers' Rally July 1st.-

First :Day .. .

;o 12:00 Opening exercises,. (Rev. S. M. Engle)
* 2:00 Dinner.
2 :30 Lecture, Pigs and pig feeding by H. G. Clayton, Dist.-
Agt.
3:00 Lecture, Care of brood sows. R. W. Blacklock, Club Agt.
6:CQ Visit to nearby farms, and hog judging.
-7:30 Supper.
8:30 Pictures. (lantern slides)


. Second Day.


6:30
7:00
7:45
8:30

9:00

9 Z0
10:30
11:.30
1:30
2130

3:00
6:00
7:30
8:00



10:30
S1:30
5:30
2:09

3:30


Reville.
Breakfast.
" 8:30 Setting up exercise..(sack races, foot races, etc.)
" 9:00 Lecture, Boy Scout instructions. and community centers,
by Rev. S. Engle.
* 9:30 Lecture,-The Corn Weevil, R. W. Blacklock. Boys' Club
Agt.
* O.t 0-Bu ld.ng.r .... .. "- ..... ... . .. .
" 11:30 Swimming and rope splicing.
* 1:30 Dinner.
* 2:30 Lecture, Corn growing. Prof. C. K. McQuarrie. State Agt.
" 3:00 Lecture, Care of the pigs and diseases of hogs, by
H. A. McDonald, County Agent.
" 6:00 Base ball game...
U 7:30 Supper.
" 8:00 Examinations.
" 8:30 Pictures. (lantern slides)

Third Day. (Farmers Ra:ly)

" 11:30'Address. Dr. P. H..Rolfs, Director,4eension Service.
" 12:30 Prof. C. K. McQuarrie, SSata Agent.
" 2:00 Dinner.
" 3:30 Address, markets for farm productro L. M. Rhodes, State
Marketing Commissioner.
" 4:30 Lecture, Poultry.. Dr. N. W. Sanborn, Poultry SpeciaList.

Canning demonstrations will be held during the day for
the benefit of the ladies, by a member of the Home
Demonstration Department.

ALL ARE INVITED TO COME AND BRING DINNER, ON THE THIRD


DAY.


ads


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Miscellaneous. 1914-1920
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000206/00076
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Peter Henry Rolfs Collection
 Material Information
Title: Miscellaneous. 1914-1920
Series Title: Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description: Unknown
Physical Location:
Box: 2
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Miscellaneous. 1914-1920
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00000206:00076

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FERTILIZER REMOVED BY



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Orabgrass Hay

Corn

Beef -

Sw.Potatoe$ f

uotton Seed & Lint

Pork

.rggs

Milk

Cream 20 P.O.

Butter


$100 W9IRTH



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*
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W Average attendance

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SThe importance of the women county agent everywhere is

indicated. Successful demonstration w)rk depends upon the exis-

tence of a leader who through personal contact with the demon-

strator will give the practical information necessary to do some

work so skillfully as to make it an object lesson for others who

will then give inspiration to carry out the demonstration suc-

cessfully, being ready always to lend sympathy and help when

discouragement or failure threatens. She must have first of all

the qualities of a leader and organizer. She must oe well poised,

sound of judgment and possessed of such enthusiasm and devotion

as to inspire others to work for the cause she represents. Her

knowledge of conditions and people in her county must be full and

Sympathetic. she must be given constant opportunity to develop

skill in horticulture, poultry raising and home dairying, as well

as to have gained some mastery of subjects commonly included in

home economics courses.*










6. Development of the farm necessary to the success of the


cooperative demonstration work.

Development of the farm can be attained only by means of


Safe Farming. Dr. Knapp in his address to the Gotton States


Bankers, at Iew Orleans, La. on December 7, 1915, defines this so


well that I will quote it as a whole.


afe farming has come to mean to us a very definite thing.

It consists of the simple doctrine of the production of the

home supplies; first, living from the products of the farm and

from the sale or exchange of the sundry products other than the

main money crop; and then the production of money crops for the

market.

Let me specify the items

1. A home garden for every family on the farm. From one-

tenth of an acre to one-fourth or one-half an acre, well located

well tilled and tended as carefully as any other crop on the

farm, is what we mean by a home garden. I must be planted in

rotation so as to have continuous crops, thus providing some-

thing for the family table as many days in the year as possible.

To this should be added one-fourth of an acre of potatoes, either

Irit.h or sweet potatoes, or both, to be used as food for the

family. An acre of sorghum or cane should be produced to

supply the family with sirup. On the subject of gardening,
bulletins may be obtained from your agricultural colleges and

from the Deartment of Agriculture.












2. Produce enough corn to last the family and the live

stock, with certainty, for one year, with a little excess

for safety.

3. Produce sufficient oats and other small grain to sup-

plement the corn as food for a year with certainty. Remember

these small grains conserve the soil in winter and provide

some grazing for live stock.

4. Produce the hay and forage crops necessary to supply the

live stock on the farm for one year, not forgetting the winter

and summer legumes, which not only produce hay but also enrich

the soil.

5/ Produce the necessary meat for the family by increased
attention to poultry and hogs. I say poultry and hogs because

they can be increased most rapidly for meat production. Then

farmers should plan gradually to increase, and improve through

breeding, the cattle and other live stock, so as to consume the

otherwise waste products and make our unprofitable or untillable

lands productive. Every family should have at least two cows,

so that one can be in milk all the time. VWe should set some

standard to which to wbrk. or a tenant farmer not less than

Sone, and preferably two cows; not less than one and possibly

two sows; not less than 25 hens, preferably 50. A standard

for the small-owner farmer would be not less than two milch

cows, not less than two sows, and not less than 50 and pref-
erably 100 hend. All of this Stock should be well tended,
well fed, and properly bred.














G. When the living has been provided grow cotton for the

main money crop.-I have endeavored to lay don general prin-

ciples rather than to specify particular crops. For example,

in semiarid sections of Texas and Oklahoma the grain sorghums

would naturally ne substituted in place of the corn, and these

together with Sudan grass, would furnish forage. These same

general principles apply to tobacco territory and rice territory.







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WEEKLY NEWS LETTER

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Vol. IV WASHINGTON, D. C., JANUARY 3, 1917. No. 22


POTATO DISEASES.


Show Tendency to Spread in Various
Parts of the Country-Seed-Plot
Method of Control.


Potato diseases, which are showing a tend-
ency to become established or to spread in
various parts of the country, can best be
controlled in most cases through the adop-
tion by farmers of the seed-bed method of
control, according to Dr. H. A. Edson,
truck-crop disease specialist of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. In discussing
the potato-disease situation and possible
control measures in a recent address, Dr.
Edson said:
"A disease of the potato which is making
its appearance in several sections of the
country is the one designated by Orton as
streak. The cause of this disease is un-
known. It is characterized by the appear-
ance of angular spots on the leaves, '.bh ,i
have a tendency to run down the veins-
through the stems of the leaflets to the main
petiole, or leafstalk, producing a streaked
appearance. The affected portions of the
plant wither and die, the Ieafstalks break
over at the axil of the I.* -.. --thbat is, their
jun F. i-rn poLints with the branches-with the
result that leaves hang directly down, swing-
inc in th.. wind and attached only by a por-
tion of the epidermis. In severe cases the
plants are eventually entirely killed. The
trouble is apparently transmitted from gen-
.eration to generation by means of the seed
tubers, and there is some indication that it
is transmitted from plant to plant in the
field. In the absence of more definite
knowledge of the disease, it is recommended
that roguing be practiced as a precaution-
ary measure wherever it appears.
Heavy Loss from Mosaic.
"Mosaic is assuming great importance as
a potato disease in certain sections of the
country. It is characterized by a mottling
in the green of the leaves, sometimes accom-
panied also by a crinkling but not a rolling
of the foliage. The disease should not be
confused with the uneven yellowing which
results from the application of excessive
water in irrigated regions nor with the some-
what different yellowing and rolling asso-
ciated with excessive alkali content in soils,
nor should it be confused with the condition
of partial absence of coloring matter, possibly
73709*-17


chimaera, seen occasionally in fields, more
p irr.i u larliy in certain sections of the West.
The cause of mosaic has never been deter-
mined, but it is knr:,-.mu that dils-,' is
reproduced when tlll.-.s I'i- afrf.: t -tl ria'ts
are used for seed. The experimental data
which have been secured both in the United
States and abroad show that the yield
from mosaic plants is less than that from
healthy plants of the same variety grown
under .the same conditions or in the same
field. The average reduction in yield in
trials made by the department with various.
varieties and in several different sections
of the country is approximately 30 per cent.
Roguing out affected plants in the seed plot
affords a practical though perhaps not com-
plete control of the trouble.
"The late blight of the potato caused by
Phytophthora infestans and the rot of tubers
which follows in the winter are too well
known to call for description. It has re-
cently been shown, however, tht th:. plant-
ing of tubers affected wi ih Ph, t.:.plith:.ra de-
cay affords a means for infai ii:.n of th .. grov--
ing crop. The development of the disease,
however,, is entirely dependent upon
v. .- ir..r ,..:,n.Jht..ri. Indry seasons one may
plant affected tubers without insuring the
development of the late blight, but it has
been shown that the original infections fol-
low up the stems from. the seed tubers if the
weather conditions are favorable to the de-
e.-l.'.r.i:uLt of the fungus. It is, therefore,
advisable to avoid infected seed when pos-
sible in addition to employing the usual con-
trol by Bordeaux mixture, which is a well-
established pr.t i nic-.
"Recent studies upon the powdery scab
have demonstrated the fact that this disease
is less serious in its character in the United
States than was at first feared. It is appar-
ently unable to survive except in the more
northern sections of the country, and the
damage done there is, in many years, not
serious. The disease is correlated with
heavy, rather wet soils, or more particularly
with subsoils of this character. The dam-
age done is to a large extent dependent upon
weather conditions even in these unfavorable
types of soil.
Decay in Storage..
Several species of Fusarium are now
known to produce potato diseases. These
may be classified in two groups. The first.
is the wilt-producing group which attacks
the vascular tissues and the root system of
the plant, cutting off the water supply and
continuedd on page S.)


THE NATIONAL FORESTS.


Returned Over $2,800,000 to the
Treasury--Development of Roads-
Relation to National Parks.


The following material dealing with the
national forests is taken from the annual
report of the Secretary of Agriculture:
The value of the national forests to the
public and the use made of them increased
steadily. Their returns to the Treasury last
year, exceeding $2,800,000--an advance of
more than $340,000 over the previous year-
are only a partial indication of their service.
An augmented volume of business, due to
a larger number of timber purchasers, and a
net addition of nearly three-fourths of a
million to the number of stock grazed, to-
gorb r with a decided stimulus in prospect-
ing anid mining activities and. in the use of
the forests for recreation and health, are
further indications of broadening develop-
ment.
Through successful administration the
permanence of the national forests is becom-
ing more and more assured. They are now
a vtal part of the economic ife of thi regions
whi>.h use the.irresources. It isincreacngly
clear that national supervision and control
of them is necessary, and that they could
not be abandoned without disastrous conse-
quences to western industries and to local
welfare.
Road Development in Forests.
The need for more ample provision for
road development in the national forests was
emphasized in my reports of the last two
years. At the last session of Congress this,
urgent need received recognition through
the enactment of the Federal-aid road act.
This legislation constitutes one- of the most
important and far-reaching steps in national
forest development which has been taken
for a long time.
Eastern Forests.
By making provision for the continued
purchase of forest lands in the East, C':,:' ,.'s
once more has recognized the permanence
of the national forest policy. Three million
dollars, expendable during the fiscal years
1917 and 1918, has been made available for
this work. The purchased of lands in the
Appalachian and White Mountains, with a
view primarily to the control of stream flow










WEEKLY NEWS LETTER.


affl'., vii, tlh' -, i ,. i.lIility of rivers, began in
1911. Under the provisions of the Weeks
Foresiry Act there have been approved for
purchase 1,396,367 acres, at an average cost
of 85.22 per acre. The lands are in excellent
condition and have been secured at very
reasonable prices. These newly established
forests already are rendering important
public service and are being used exten-
sively. There is a marked demand for the
timber upon them. The timber is cut in
accordance with sound forestry practice.
The White Mountain forest in a short time
should return to the Government as much
as it costs to protect and administer it.

Unwise Legislation.
Millions of dollars, appropriated by Con-
gress for the .improvement, development,
aad consolidation of the forest holdings have
gone into the properties. Only on the as-
sumption that the forests are to be perma-
nent would expenditures of this character be
justifiable. Abandonment of the work after
it has been carried to its present point would
be a stultifying course. Nevertheless, re-
peated efforts in this direction still are made.
SMeasures of various kinds, which, if adopted,
seriously would injure or even render ineffec-
tive hil- wol,. imli Ii.nl.fo1ni t e tc-rprivc. are
urged. The proposal that the pirio'rtii:-. be
turned over in their entirety to the several
States has a waning support and no longer
needs to be taken seriously. On the other
hand, efforts frequently are made to secure
the abolition of individual forests. Pro-
posals to do away with the forests in Alaska
still find strong advocates. As pointed out
in my last report, such action would be un-
wise and unfortunate. Action of this sort,
however, can be met squarely on its merits,
for the question of abolishing a national
forest raises a clear-cut issue which the
public can not misunderstand.
A more serious danger to the national-
forest system lies in the repeated efforts to
open them to the action of some generalHland
grant or to the laws applicable to the un-
reserved public domain. Each year there
are introduced in Congress numerous pro-
posals designed to open the forests, or por-
tions of them, to private acquisition or to
disposition of one kind or another. One
measure of this character passed both
Houses of Congress during the last session
and failed to become law only through the
presidential veto. It proposed to open the
forests to the acquisition of lands by any
incorporated city or town for park and cem-
etery purposes and to counties for park
purposes. Every public purpose of the pro-
posed measure can be realized under exist-
ing law. So serious would be the effect of
such a measure that, if enacted, undoubt-
edly it would be necessary within a few
years actually to abandon a number of im-
portant forests. In his veto message, after
explaining that the measure was entirely


unnecessary and would have unfortunate
public consequences, the President said:
"But the most serious objection to the bill
is that it subjects the national forests to dis-
position under a general grant. At the very
time while provision is being made for pur-
chase by the Government of forested lands
in the East for the protection of watersheds
it is proposed to permit similar lands in the
Wi.-i .. r..I rp i, i l% alienated. I would
i,.-jI'. .,rii .' I1i.,I it is unwise to permit
Ilh. -.,i ..... t.' ui..-nal forests under gen-
eral legislation of this sort. If the process
of piecemeal distribution is begun, inde-
pendently of any oversight or control of the
National Government. there is manifest
danger that the forests will be so disinte-
grated as to make their efficient adminis-
tration impossible and the ]'lrpo .* for
which they were established unattainable.
Against such a process the national forests
should be carefully protected."
Recreation Use of the Forests.
The use of the national forests for recrea-
tion purposes continues to extend. Thou-
sands of local recreation centers, public
picnic and camping grounds, excursion
points, and amusement resorts are being
dci.-l:i.'lI. Some of the areas, located near
enough rt. citiei and towns to be reached by
coilJir alJile 1iumbers of persons, serve al-
ready the purposes of municipal recreation
grounds and public parks. To meet local
needs along this line, the department is
cooperating with municipalities. These
forms of public service can be rendered
without difficulty in connection with the
fulfillment of the general purposes of the
forests.
National Forests and National Parks.
The handling of the national forest recre-
ation resources inevitably raises the question
of the relation of the national forests and the
national parks. At present there is no clear
distinction in the public mind between the
two. Both are administered for the benefit
of the public along lines which overlap. The
parks and forests occur side by side and have
the same general physical characteristics-
extensive areas of wild and rugged lands, for
the most part timbered, with development
conditioned upon road construction and
similar provisions for public use. They dif-
fer chiefly in the fact that the attractions of
the national parks from the recreational
standpoint are more notable. Yet this is
not always true. Several of the parks are
inferior in their natural features to portions
of the forests. The need of drawing a clear
distinction between national parks and
national forests and of a definite policy gov-
erning their relation is increasingly evident.
Parks are being advocated where the land
should stay in the forests, while elsewhere
areas which should be made parks continue
to be administered as forests-for example,
the Grand Canyon of the Colorado.


.A national park should be created only
where there are scenic features of such out-
standing importance for beauty or as natural
marvels that they merit national recognition
and protection and, on this account, have a
public value transcending that of any ma-
terial resources on the same land-such
areas, for example, as those now comprised
in the Yellowstone and Yosemite Parks
and in the Grand Canyon National Monu-
ment. The areas should be large enough
to justify administration separate from the
forests and the boundaries drawn so as
not to include timber, grazing, or other re-
sources the economic use of which is essen-
tial to the .upbuilding and industrial wel-
fare of the country. In addition, when
parks are created from parts of the forests,
the portions remaining as forests should not
be left in a form difficult or impossible to
administer.
Clear-Cut Policy Necessary.
The importance of a clear-cut policy is
evidenced by the efforts frequently made to
secure the creation of national parks out of
areas containing great bodies of timber, ex-
tensive grazing lands, and other resources,
the withdrawal of which from use would be
uneconomic and prejudicial to the local and
generaL-public interest. In most cases the
desire for a specific park, where economic
use of the resources also is essential, has led
to the proposal for an administration of the
area, after the creation of the park, identical
with the present forest administration.
Several such measures now are before Con-
gress. Their enactment would result in a
mere division of the public pri:.perties into
parks and forests, having no distinction ex-
cept in name; handled alike but by dupli-
cate organizations in different departments.
Still more serious is the fact that the cutting
up of the forests would greatly cripple ad-
ministration of the remaining lands. It
would doubtless mean the abandonment of
large areas which should remain under pub-
lic ownership and control for timber pro-
duction and watershed protection. It would
greatly reduce efficiency in forest fire pro-
tection and in the handling of current busi-
ness, increase the expense of protection and
administration, and cause endless confusion
to users, who in many cases would have to
deal with two departments in developing
resources when, for instance, logging and
grazing units overlap.
The protection of the scenic features and
the development of the recreational use of
the lands is being -taken care of in the na-
tional forests. Some of the most unusual
scenic areas in the forests are best suited to
a full park administration. The bulk of the
forest areas, however, should continue in
their present status, where they will be fully
protected and developed for recreation pur-
poses as a part of the forest administration.
The extensive road building, made possible


__ __


,op










WEEKLY NEWS LETTER.


by the $10,000,000 recently appropriated,
will open them up rapidly.
An added cause of confusion is the fact
that national parks, and national forests are
administered by two executive departments.
While there is an effort to cooperate, never-
theless difficulties arise which could be
wholly avoided if they were under one de-
partment. Unquestionably the administra-
tion of the forests should remain in the De-
partment of Agriculture, because of the
close relationship of the work of the Forest
- Service to the activities of other bureaus of
the same department, such as the Bureau of
Plant Industry, Bureau of Animal Industry,
Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineer-
ing, Bureau of Soils, Bureau of Biological
Survey, and the Bureau of Entomology.
Obviously, there are in the forests many
problems relating to live stock, plant growth,
predatory animal and insect control, soil
conditions, and road and trail work. These
great bureaus are directly and intimately
concerned with these problems. If the for-
e ests were transferred to another department,
that department either would have to dupli-
cate these bureaus in part, or would have all
the difficulties of cooperation with another
department which seem to be inherent.
a Whether the National Park Service -should
be transferred to the Department of Agri-
culture is a matter for consideration. If the
Transfer should be made, it would be unnec-
essary, and, in my judgment, unwise to con-
solidate the work of the two services. The
park service should take its place in the
organization of the department as an inde-
pendent bureau, with its activities closely
related to those of the Forest Service. Cer-
tainly, if the two services are to be admin-
istered by different departments, there
should be the closest cooperation throughout.
Such cooperation should include not only
the question of the creation of new parks out
of national forests, but also fire protection on
contiguous -properties, game preservation,
road building, and other activities.


POTATO DISEASES.
(Continued from page 1.)
causing injury in proportion to the extent of
the invasion. In extreme cases a yellowing;


dling while digging or storing. Theinfections
may occur in the field or in the storage
houses. These forms of decay may be con-
trolled to a large extent by regulating the
storage conditions. The stock should be
stored at low temperatures (340 to 400 F.) in
well-ventilated houses. Our knowledge of
Fusarium wilt diseases has not reached a
stage where directions for the satisfactory
control of the culat .;1ii F ,' jj'l"' given.
It is possible, lh:iw,:.'. ].nIpr..ve I he con-
ditions by crcp r,.ie.,tn .,i.i by .leful se-
lection of the seed stock. Tubers produced
on infected plants are likely to carry the
disease, hence such progeny should never
be used for seed. Disease-free seed, how-
ever, can not be depended upon to produce
a healthy crop on infected soil.
Black Leg Caused by Seed.
"Black leg is a disease which, so far as is
known, is entirely seed-borne in its charac-
ter. In typical cases affected plants die in
the early part of the season as the result of a
black, relatively dry. decay of the stem
which originates at the base where the plant
comes in contact with the parent tuber.
During the early stages of the disease the
leaves roll and the plant assumes a more or
less stunted and bubhy app-aranc: In
other cases]pe disease progressed lIe; lapi.ly
so that the plants may arrive at full growth
without showing evidence of infection. In
some cases the disease is confined to the pith
of the stem, not showing at all at the surface.
Plants affected by this delayed type of
blackleg produce tubers which, however, are
more or less seriously infected. It is stock
of this sort which perpetuates the disease.
All of the evidence accumulated to date
indicates that the bacteria are unable to live
in the soil even during a single winter.
These organisms are especially susceptible
to drying and are also readily killed on the
surface of seed potatoes by common disin-
fectants, such as bichlorid of mercury. The
roguing out of diseased plants from stock in-
tended for seed is one of the most effective
means of controlling black leg. This prac-
tice, coupled with treatment of the seed
with bichlorid of mercury according to the
method recommended by Morse, affords an
almost complete control.


or at least an unhealthy green color and a
characteristic rolling of the foliage develop Rhizoctona and Black Scurf.
to be followed by sudden wilting and death. Rhizoctonia, the cause of the well-known
The tubers produced upon infected plants black scurf of potatoes, is also frequently
frequently carry the fungus in their vascular responsible for injurious diseases of the grow-
tissue, as may often he demonstrated by the ing plants. It is very generally distributed
appearance of a darkened ring near their stem in all agricultural soils and has recently been
end. Infected tubers, stored under unfa, .shown to be a normal inhabitant of virgin
vorable conditions, may develop a serious lands. Its parasitism upon the potato ap-
decay, which is either of th4 wet or the dry pears to be correlated with conditions of en-
type according to the temperature and vironment. Generally speaking, those types
moisture. The second group includes other of environment which are unfavorable to the
species of Fusarium, which are to be classi- potato and which consequently weaken its
fled as wound parasites. They infect the vitality or lessen its vigor may be expected
tubers through wounds resulting from han- to result in increasing the injury produced


by Rhizoctonia, since the fungus itself seems
capable of thriving in all types of soil and
under all conditions of climate. The most
common type of disease with which Rhiz-
octonia is associated are the killing back of
the sprouts of young plants in the spring,
which may be spoken of as a damping off,
the production of lesions or damaged spots
upon the underground stems and upon the
stolons, which carry the tubers, and in se-
vere cases the production of a dying of the
external tissues of the tuber. The lesions
upon the stems are frequently present with-
out apparent injury to the vigor of the plant
or the amount of yield. The injury pro-
duced is dependent upon the depth to which
these lesions kill the tissue.
The conducting elements in the potato
stem aie located in a vascular ring, the cen-
ter of which contains the xylem, or that
portion of the conducting tissue lr.-,,,hi
which the materials taken up by the roots
are conducted to the above-ground portion
of the plant. On either side of the xylem
are the phloem strands, through which the
elaborated food materials are conveyed from
the leaves to the tubers. W\!..-i.-.. r lesions
penetrate into the tissues far enough to pro-
duce the death of these conducting cells,
the communication between the leaves and
the roots is interrupted and the injury to the
plant is proportional to the amount of inter-
ruption. The lesions upon the stolons pro-
tduc? an injury in a similar way, cutting off
the communication between the leaves and
the growing tubers, making it impossible
for starch to be conveyed to them as it is
elaborated day by day. Superficial lesions
cause little injury, but deep lesions make
the deposit of starch in the tubers in a nor-
mal way impossible, and frequently result
in the production of swollen internodes or
aerial tubers or the formation of small tubers
on new stolons developed on portions of the
stem above the lesions.
Curl' dwarf is a disease characterized by
the fore;ih-,rt:jin; of all of the portions of
the potato plant above the ground, fre-
quently accompanied by a crinkling of the
leaflets. The whole effect is to produce a
stunted, more or less rosetted plant, of which
the yield is greatly reduced or frequently
nil The cause of curly dwarf is unknown,
but it appears to be physiological. ,The
progeny of curly dwarf plants invariably
produce curly dwarf, and it is usually true
that affected stock runs out entirely and is
lost in a few years.
Cause of Leaf Roll Unknown.
"Leaf roll is another disease of the potato
which has been belief 'd to be physiolog-
ical. This is characterized by an upright
habit of the tips of the stems, by a tubular
rolling of the leaves of a portion or of the
entire plant, fri--i.p-iily accompanied by a
discoloration most pronounced at the mar-
gin of the leaflets. The character of this


__
_ ~L 1












WEEKLY NEWS LETTER.


discoloration varies with the varieties from
a light yellow to a deep purple. The peti-
oles of the leaflets of leaf-roll plants are fre-
qr-int'l twisted so that the underside of the
leaf is turned outward or upward. There
is often a Inelitlic luster of the leaflets most
noticeable from beneath, the tissues are
more brittle than normal, and are excep-
tionally rigid. 'l hr. dull rustle given out
by shaking the leaves of such plants against
one another has led to the application of
the term 'rattles' in some sections. The
cause of leaf roll has never been determined.
It has been generally believed, both in this
country and abroad, that the progeny of
leaf-roll plants could not produce li-ulthy
stock. It is certainly the case that leaf-roll
pr.'..-ny frequently does reprc-.Ida,e its like,
so that it is inadvisable to employ'such
stock for seed purposes.

Control in Seed Plot Most Practical.

"Aside from the specific means of control
which have been mentioned, the most prac-
tical method of cull, iiiiL. the diseases dis-
cussed is I.iolodLlv that of the seed plot.
For this purpose the farmer employs in the
first year the best stock available, plan ling
it upon his best soil type, rl caring for it
in the most approved mniunet. Folm0 time
I.- LincL( during the gro% inig 4e.Lson the weak,
diseased, or otherwise undesirable plants
aI.3 ,4u.IIld ,mt. At ,ii.ng i tlimi it is ilhly
.I-,ir.hl' e to har'vesta at Ir-.lt a porti.-.n i -if thiB
field by h.inl, n L:, thita tll ..i s hl hi ih, e
yields appi,...xiaj.nt iiost il-'.ly A l the
grower's ideal. Tubers obtained in -.lais \ai
form the nucleus for tile nextyear's seed
plot. If this method is followed consis:-
ently, many of the I,,:-.-.:- ..h h arenow so
vexatious will be largely held under con-
trol, .anT in addition the general vigor and
consequent productiveness of the stock will
be held at a high level."


SHIPPERS VIOLATE LAW.

The officials in charge of the enforcement
of the Food and Drugs Act report that inspec-
tors have found severalinterstate shipments
of packages of fruits and vegetables such as
grapes, tomatoes, and berries which contain
no statement on the packages as 1.-. tie qau In-
tity of contents. The net-weight amend-
ment to the Federal Food and Drugs Act
requires that all packages of foods which
are shipped into interstate or foreign com-
merce must be marked plainly and con-
spicuously with a statement of the quantity
of the net contents either by weight or
measure. Shippers who violate the law by
failing to mark the quantity of the contents
of each package of fruits and vegetables they
ship into interstate commerce are liable to
criminal prosecution. Several shippers have
already been cited to hearings under the
Food and Drugs Act for violating its provi-
sions in this respect.


HOME ECONOMICS FUNDS



Three-fourths of a Million Dolars
Available for Extension Work
Among Farm Women.



That the carry u into effect of the provi-
sions of the cooI I extension act has
had widespread intl lec in bringing the
knowledge and information of the State col-
leges of agriculture to women on the farms
is evident from the following statistical
statement:
During 1914-15 the total amount spent in
home economics d, montral i.tius ~as lightly
over $320,000, while i in l0ti- i ou'. r. .75?,,)0
was allotted to thl_ work, in inreaLse of over
130 per cent in two years. This money was
derived from the United States Deparutrint
of Agriculture, the State colleges of agricul-


Slate.


1914-15


Number
or
counl


Jiul- 1,
I,41 I


Alabama ........................ I
Ar !. ................ ..
Wl!. I' . ......... .....
C il'orr L ................... ... .....
c i .,.. ..... .............. .........
t. l. I i. u.................... .....
.. I. ] a .. . ....... ... . .. 2


,7vJia ...... ...........
il ia .. .... ... .... ..... .
o a ............... ........
I iana .................. .....


Louisiana.................
Iowa. ...........................
Kansas ....................
Kentuky.......................
Louisiana .......................
LM re ........ ...... ....
". ,ir lI .I ...... .. ...... ...

f.I, ; :[. . ... ... ..
I . ... . .
i ,.r; . ..... .. ........ .
Ne.. i .... .
Nor. th I ................. .
ONeo ..li,.. t........... .......
OlNew i ,. .................. ..
. . . . . . . . .
N ew "T[ 'n ,4* r . ...... ...... .
N ew Y r1- 1. . . ..........

r N ortli ( j, .roD, ..................
North Dakot....................
O o ..........................
Oklahoma .....................
Oregon ................... -..




li,, l i
I L I ", ,1r, .. . .. .. .....
i.o.. I; 1. in i. . ..... . .
i. L ." r...|.] ..... ..... ... ... .
i, .n,' . ... ..... ..............
%- .: . . . . . . . . . . .
.-ii ,. ... .. ...............

V ,' .. ,,0 LI.[ ...................

TC-1 l ....................


Funds for
home
ecounauijs
OUOuie







3WOE1
3,2


. .. . . .
S.......... I 1
.......... 6, '7
S I1, 732
13 911 ,"
.... .. . . .
5 4. D '
.. .. 4. 3ri
4 1

33 i, 15
.1 . .

........ 97.
1,474
5,050
2'7 25,719
.......... ...........
.......... o2,760
23,
19 11,123
.......... 4,016
1,767
i.. 1,667
21 :2. *ii.
2, 11?
is' 12, 23
2.- 17.,0 I

1'7 15,438
......... 2,429
5 7,630
.. .... ...... .. .
... .. .. ... ] . =..


279


320, 979


ture, Federal and State cooperative exten-
sion act funds, and county and other local
sources. In 1916 the allotment of funds for
extension work for farm women was derived
from the following sources: $107,000 from
funds appropriated directly to the United
States Department of Agriculture, $260,00a
from Federal extension act funds, $120,000
from State extension act funds, $32,000 from
direct State appropriations in addition to
the amount appropriated by the State to
ot>etl the Federal cooperative extension
funds, $1iS,000 from county appropriations,
and $80,000 from crllego and other miscel-
laneous sources.
Apart of this money was used to employ
women county agents. The number of
counties with women, agents has increased
during the last three years from 279 to 478.
'In addition there were employed a large
number of home economics specialists and
supervising agents having a field larger than
the county In 1915-16 the total number of


Number
of
c van cesg
a.lr
with
women
agents
July 1,
1915.

19
2u


I f iU


19
13




33






34





24
24
127

22
10


19!5--16


Total
ouniter

extension
worker;i.


39
1
17


-I

9
8
35
22
.1
13
4
5
38
3
5

4

3



12

38

37
6
1
25
3
12
4

602


Fund form
home
weononi.



$10,510


3, >20.

M I ir


128, i0
423

1, 125m
11,230
4,667
4,474
7,735
25.964

'4, ;50
1,050
2; 150
i. ,,9t5
,, 2i,)
ll:.4"0



3 150
6,060
1,925
4 J. R:ij

24,
5,287
24,337
1 ''J
2,soo

538,E061


141i6-17


Number
ol
count ies
women.
July 1,





2




j-l



35
Isi
1
7
1"






..........
1










..........
382

1I






30



34
39
2
28


Funds 'or
home
economics




I, 1o0
'] c
44, .6
,0u

,600
2:., tOiO
40. 373


65, ".,UU
1,. 01
31,938 )
12,351
26,25



7,000
8,390
34,288
8,500
5,600
7,600
914
5,600
4,800.
2;408i (
15,075 i \
:; ,,-. -V
:.uo _
19; 495
30,076'
3,835
7,300
1,6600
54,887-'
1,685
46- 92-
.'.,20
5,825. ,
2,700
33,357
4,300;
4. 413
SIO
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WEEKLY -NEWS LETTER.


home economics extension workers was 600,
of whom 350 were women county agents,
the others being the supervising agents and
home economics ex-tension specialists of the
S t ai,:. ..,,lie e. ..



DANGER IN RAW PORK.

,. serious and Often Fatal Disease, Trichi-
nosis, Due to Eating Uncooked Meat.


Eat no pork or pork products unless they
are cooked if you would be certain of avoid-
ing trichinosis. This is a warning issued
by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the
United States Department of Agriculture,
especially to those who are in the habit
of eating raw ham or special forms of
sausage containing raw pork and made to
be eaten uncooked. The records show that
the number of cases of trichinosis-a serious,
painful, and often fatal disease resulting
from trichibn..;-in:reases during the holi-
days, partly because of hog-killing time and
partly because farmers frequently make up
special forms of sausage which are eaten
without cooking.
To avoid trichinosis no form of pork- in the
raw state, including dried or smoked sau-
sage daud hams, should be eaten. All pork
used "as fuod abould be cooked thoroughly,
as trichins, the minute organisms which
cause this deadly disease, die and therefore
S become harmless when subjected to a tem-
perature of 1400 F. or higher. The fact that
these organ isus may remain alive and ac-
tive in uncooked pork makes the latter, say
department meat specialists, a menace to
life and health wherever it is eaten.
Everyone should remember this simple
rule of food hygiene: Cook pork well. A
practical rule is to cook pork until it has
lost its red color throughout all portions, or,
if a tfa':-' .-ft this color is still present, at least
until the fluids of the meat have become
more or less jellied.
The Federal meat inspectors do not in-
spect pork or pork products to determine
I* -* presence or absence of the organisms
causing trichinosis, as even careful micro-
scopic examination is unreliable. In in-
spected establishments the inspectors do,
however, require that pork which is to be
Smiade into products to be eaten raw shall be
he-?terd utE'i n>irintly or subjected for consid-
erable periods to extreme'cold to destroy
Sthe harmful : -reanitius. This requirement
does not reach all pork products made to be
S eaten raw, since the Federal Government
inspects only establishments preparing pro-
ducts to be shipped in interstate commerce.
It should be noted that the special treat-
ment required by the Bureau of Animal
Industry to be given to pork products meant
to be eaten raw must not be interpreted as


an endorsement of such dietetic practices.
The measures are taken primarily to reduce
the risks taken by persons who ignorantly,
carelessly, or willfully eat such products.
It remains that the safest plan is to eat no
pork products of any kind raw.


IDENTIFICATION OF GRASSES.

To assist those who have occasion to iden-
tify grasses or small-grain seedlings by their
vegetative characters, the United States De-
partment of Agriculture has recently issued
Department Bulli in 461. In this bulletin
the author, Lyman Carrier, agronomist of the
Bureau of Plant Industry, discusses the dif-
ferentiating characters of grass seedlings,
supplies an analytical key, and gives de--
tailed descriptions and pen drawings of 48
seedling grasses and 8 small-grain seedlings.
These include most of the common hay,
pasture, lawn, and weedy grasses of the
eastern part of the United States.
While the bulletin is somewhat technical,
all terms are so explained and illustrated
that anyone with a little practice may make
use of it, even if not familiar with botanical
language. It should prove especially inter-
esting to students of botany and farm crops,
as well as those who care for lawns-and
pasiutee. Many of our common grasses may
be identified just as p.:. itively, and far more
easily, by their leaves and other vegetative
characters as they can by their flowering
parts.

POTASH FROM KELP.

In 1911 the Bureau of Soils was author-
ized by the Congress to make a survey of
the Nation's resources in fertilizer mate-
rials, particularly in potash, for which this
country was entirely dependent upon the
German mines. As a result of this recon-
noissance it became evident that the larg-


est and most immediately available source
of potash in this country was the giant
kelps of the Pacific coast.
As a result of the department's investi-
gations and the prohibition by Germany of
the exportation of potash salts American
manufacturers have erected eight large
plants in southern California for the extrac-
tion of p:ta-h from kelp. On September
1, 1916, about 125,000 tons of raw kelp had
bee-n har.e.te-d and treated, yielding ap-
proximately 10 per cent of dry kelp.
The plants now in operation, owing to
the present abnormal prices for potash, are
devoting relatively little attention to the
elaboration of processes for the recovery of
by-products. If this situation continues,
they probably will not be able to produce
potash at a profit when conditions become
normal. In the circumstances it seems de-
sirable for the department to demonstrate
the commercial feasibility of producing
potash and by-products from kelp with a
view to put the industry on a sound eco-
nomic basis. Plans have been formulated
for erecting and operating, at some ad-
vantageous point on the coast of southern
California, a plant with a daily capacity of
not less than 200 tons of raw kelp, in order
that the necessary experiments may be
conducted.
It is hoped that these experiments will
result in the establishment of a potash in-
dustry which will prove profitable and per-
manent and render this country independ-
ent of foreign sources in normal times.-
Annual Report of Secretary of Agriculture.


The public roads of the United States out-
side the limits of incorporated towns and
cities had, January 1, 1915, a total length of
n brant 2,45.',000 miles, of which about 277,000
miles, or 11.3 per cent, are improved with
some form of surfacing. The mileage of
surfaced roads is increasing at the rate of
about 16,000 miles per annum.


GRAZING CROPS FOR POULTRY.
[Adapted to the latitude of the southern boundary of Pennsylvania.]

Grazing period.
Crop. When sown. Seed per acre. p ri
Stage. Duration.

Peas and oats........ About Apr. 15...... 1 bushel peas, 2 About May 20....... Until full grown.
bushels oats.
Chard ................ May toiuly .... 3pounds........... i.. lli. ib. lin .. Untilconsumed.
P.:..R r .... ........... Li _irii .rApr. 20).. 6 pounds............ i. I. 1 , i O.: in Do.
Ri ,i.'.or.......... u.............. 12pounds.......... 'L...i -i;. 11.. Until fed down
closely.
Ti .. .do.. ... ..... 3 d ........... S. 3epi 0 ... ........ Untilsnow falls.
iI.. ', l. t .......... M. i o Tuly 1 . I b l............. .. .1:_ . .n Untilmature.
'., i. r.; .. .. I l to iJuno ) .. .. . ..... dr .. .. . 2 r., I n h ; h ii
R',. ,,.l >rit .'.n S- I. ..... ...... I b su.L- rye. I.- t irlry ,l'.ilws
clover. pounds clover. I ni.- :pr;r;
Sweetclover......... Aug.15toSept. 1... 251i.un.1 ... 8 t lI.o It L'h. Until fed down or
too tough.
Aala.............. August............. pounds.................do.............. Alternate periods.

SSijiio,: .'n'. by the Di-is,on of Forli Crop Irietiiations of the Bureau of Plant Industry. This phase
of th lo' .L-.u.-'l.r :a nrJs re.eiJed Illine .illoutr.n from ithe viewumn of poultry grazing, especially as to the
r igki, o i .[ iU lun tl oI fone s to .r-a fl M r,i.p'.
\ inter wh,:at may besubstitutca for rye. Farthler nortb u: iL:ittehary vetch for crisoclover.










WEEKLY NEWS LETTER.


PEANUTS AS HOG FEED.


Profitable Method of Disposing of
Crop-Other Feeds Needed for
Hardening and Finishing.


The peanut, sometimes called "pindar"
or "goober" in the South, is of growing im-
portance for hog feeding in the Southern
Srtal,-. The uilrreruriii.l nuts are usually
harvested by turning hogs into the field
when the nuts are ripe, allowing them to do
the harvesting. It has often been demon-
strated that the most profitable method of
selling edible farm products is by feeding
them to live stock. It is very unlikely that
the Southern farmers will find a more profit-
able method of diip,,-uii. of peanuts than by
feeding them to hogs and fluili;n., the hogs
on other feeds to harden the flesh.
Meat packers have questioned the quality
of the meat from peanut-fed hogs. Exami-
nation of the flesh of hogs fed exclusively on
peanuts and succulent feed shows that it is
not quite so firm in texture as corn-fed pork,
and the shrinkage is somewhat greater. It
is therefore advisable for the farmer to use
sowme. fveda -hich have a tendency to harden
the t-sh of the animals before slaughtering
time. Corn is so high at present that it is
not considered economical for this purpose.
In some of the Southern States farmers have
turned their attention to the use of sweet
potatoes, velvet beans, and cowpeas for this
purpose. Some farmers have planned a
combination of these crops which has practi-
cally solved the problem of cheap feeds for
hardening and finishing during the last 30 or
40 days of the feeding period.
In order to determine accurately the feed-
ing value of peanuts for hogs, the Texas
Experiment Station conducted a test in
1908 in which 6 pigs averaging 43 pounds at
the start were fed exclusively on Spanish
peanuts for a period of 91 days, the nuts being
separated from the vines in order to ascer-
tain definitely the quantity fed. The re-
sults of this test show that the quantity of
peanuts required per 100 pounds of gain in
live weight was only 296J pounds. This
remarkably good showing is emphasized
further when we consider that the'average
results of tests at nine different stations in
the United States show that 537 pounds of
shelled corn wore required to produce 100
pounds of gain, and that in no instance was
less than 479 pounds required.
According to the foregoing figure. an acre
of Spanish peanuts of a yield of 40 bushels,
allowing 30 pounds to the bushel, would pro-
duce approximately 405 pounds of pork,
which, if valued at 7 cents a pound, would
amount to $28.35. These results seem to be
entirely in accord with those obtained by
other Southern experiment stations that
have made similar experiments.


Many of the oil mills throughout the South
have been equipped to crush peanuts, so it
is now possible to buy peanut meal and cake.
Most of the oil mills manufacturing peanut
oil use the same methods of grinding, cook-
ing, pressing, etc., that are used for cotton-
seed oil, but a first-grade oil can not be made
from cooked material. Cold pressing the
peanuts with the hulls gives a high-grade
oil, bfit relatively less of it, because it does
not permit as thorough extraction of the oil.
There are two grades of peanut meal, one
the peanut meal derived from hulled nuts,
and another (peanut cake) made from the
whole peanuts cold pressed to extract the
oil. Henry and Morrison, in their book
entitled "Feeds and Feeding," give the
following analyses:

Dry Crude Car- Nitro-
mat- pro- bohy- Fat. gen
ter. toun. rates ratio.

Perct. Perct. Perct. Perct.
Peanut cake
(hulled)... 89.3 42.8 20.4 7.2 1:0.9
Peanut cake
(unhulled)..... 94.4 20.2 16.0 10.0 1:1.9
Peanut hulls..... 90.9 .4 33.0 2.1 1:94.2

Peanut cake (unhulled) contains more
fiber, due to the hulls, but also contains a
larger percentage of fat. The hulls add
little or no feeding value to the .ake or meal,
being very low in protein and fat. Most of
the carb,:hy dratLs are in the form of fiber
(75 per cent) and hence are very low in
nutritive value for the pig.
There has been a widespread demand to
know if the meat of hogs fattened on peanut
cake or meal would be hard, firm, and free
from the objections that are made to meat
produced by feeding the whole peanut. To
answer this question intelligently the
authorities of the Texas Agricultural and
Mechanical College and the North Carolina
Agricultural College have been conducting
experiments and have obtained some very
interesting results. Mr. L. B. Brook, asso-
ciate professor of animal husbandry at the
Texas College, states that hogs fattened on
peanut meal made satisfactory gains and
that their meat was not soft. Prof. Dan T.
Gray, of the North Carolina College, makes
a similar report in which he states that pea-
nut meal does not produce soft-bodied hogs
which are objectionable to the packers and
consumers. Hogs fattened on peanut meal
will be accepted by the packers as hard
flesh, whereas from hogs fattened on peanuts
the packer will deduct about 1 cents per
pound on account of soft flesh. In some
places mills are offering peanut meal for
peanuts, pdund for pound. *The farmers
can well afford to make this exchange, for
the meal will add 11 cents a pound to the
value of the pork, less the cost of harvesting
the peanuts, as compared with the peanuts
fed whole.
The Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, is conducting studies


on the protein of the peanut and has found
that it contains an abundance of basic nitro-
gen. This form of nitrogen is indispensable
to the normal nutrition of animals and is
contained in inadequate amounts in the
common cereals from which most feeds are
derived. Peanut press cake should there-
fore prove to be an easily accessible mate-
rial to make such cereal foods more efficient.
It is planned to continue practical feeding
tests of this matter.



NEW FARMERS' BULLETINS.

The Fall Army Worm or "Grass Worm"
and Its Control. No. 752.
Commercial Handling, Grading, and Mar-
keting of Potatoes. No. 753.
Orchard Barkbeetles and Pinhole Borers,
and How to Control Them. No. 763.
The Common Cabbage Worm. No. 766.
Dwarf Broom Corns. No. 768.
Losses from Selling Cotton in the Seed.
No. 775.


BRIEF ITEMS.

The department has at Arlington Farm,
Va., apparatus for te-gting different methods
proposed Irr 6fxing at meaphe-rie nitrogeia.
Specialists of the department are at work
at La Fayette, Ind., to determine the cause
of the infection known in that locality as
oat blast.
The soils of 571,463,680 acres, or 892,912
square miles, had been surveyed and
mapped by the Bureau of Soils at the
close of the fiscal year 1916.
On land that has been in an early maturing
cultivated crop, such as potatoes, peas, sweet
corn, or soy beans, no other preparation for
alfalfa will be needed than necessary har-
rowings.
In its round trip nearly from pole to pole
the Arctic tern covers 22,000 miles. Its
daily journey is at least 150 miles, and I his is
probably multiplied several times by tft
zigzag twistings and turnings in pursuit of
food.
In moist climates, such as the eastern
United States, it is not easy to succeed with
alfalfa except where the soil conditions are
favorable. Marked success, however, has
been obtained on certain soils in the South .
where the annual rainfall exceeds 50 inches.
Flint and flour varieties of corn frequently
produce heavier yields than dent varieties
under drought conditions. They are un-
popular, however, on account of the many
small ears and the difficulty of husking.
When harvested by animals this difficulty
is overcome.


~ ~ ~










WEEKLY NEWS LETTER. 7


ECONOMY IN FOOD FATS.


Price Differences Depend Chiefly on
Flavor and Color-Food Value of
All Practically Equal.


Flavor and color have an important bear-
ing on the prices which must be paid for
S the various edible fats used in-the home,
Since all are regarded as wholesome when
of good quality and practically the same
amount of energy is derived by the body
from each. The housekeeper, therefore,
must decide usually what she is willing to
pay for relatively superficial properties in
the foods. These facts are pointed out in a
recent professional paper of the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, Bulletin 469, Fats
and Their Economical, Use in the Home,
prepared by the Office of Home Economics
of the department. In discussing the selec-
tion of fats for special uses the bulletin says:
In general it pays always to buy fats of
such good quality that none will have to be
thrown away through spoilage. In some
instances a higher-priced article may be
more economical in the end, as, for example,
clean, sanitary butter, as compared to a
cheaper but less sanitary product. In some
instances, where taste or flavor only is in-
volved, a less expensive table fat may an-
swer quite satisfactorily the purpose of a
more expensive one. For example, the
chief use of table oils is as an ingredient of
salad dressings, and when a characteristic
flavor is not especially desired good grades
of cottonseed and peanut oils, having a
bland flavor, may be used when these are
less expensive than the corresponding
grades of olive oil.
Fats used for shortening-that is, in mix-
ture with doughs, etc.-influence the
appearance, flavor, texture, composition,
keeping quality, and cost of the foods in
which they are incorporated. In selecting
shortening fats, flavor and odor are to be
considered, but attractive appearance and
color are of less importance, since in cook-
- ing these are usually masked. Other quali-
ties'being equal, those culinary fats are
more economical and desirable which pos-
sess the best keeping quality; that is, the
least tendency to become rancid. Also, for
general use shortening fats give the best re-
sults if they are neither too hard nor too
soft to be easily mixed with the other in-
gredients of the dough at ordinary tempera-
tures.
Fats used as a medium for cooking in such
operations as frying should be carefully se-
lected, since they influence the flavor,
appearance, and texture of the foods cooked
in them, as is evident when one recalls the
bad flavor imparted to fried foods by burned
or rancid fat. Preference should be given


to a fat which does not scorch too readily
at the temperature most commonly used for
frying. Experiments in the laboratory of
the Office of Home Economics indicate
that butter and lard scorch at a lower tem-
perature than beef or mutton fats and cot-
tonseed, peanut, or coconut oils. For this
reason, therefore, the latter fats are prefer-
able for deep frying, which requires high
temperature.
Economical Use of Fats.
It is a waste, the bulletin points out, to
use more fat than a good recipe calls for.
It is well known that too much butter
makes a cake soggy, while a salad dressing
with too much oil tastes "fat." The fol-
lowing are additional examples of ways in
which economy may be secured. It is
more economical to stir butter into cooked
vegetables just before they are served
rather than while cooking, and the flavor
thus imparted is more pronounced. Fur-
thermore, if added before cooking much of
the butter is lost unless the water in which
the vegetables are boiled is served with
them. Instead of adding butter to vege-
tables many people cook fat ham, bacon, or
salt pork with them and relish the charac-
teristic flaoi thus i mpaited.
Saving Fats That Would Be Thrown Away.
Much fat may be saved by home render-
ing of the trimmings from fat meat. The
following method of rendering fats, found to
be very satisfactory in the laboratory of the
Office of Home Economics, may be applied
in the home. The fat is cut finely with an
ordinary household meat chopper or sausage
grinder and is then heated in a double
boiler until completely melted. Themelted
fat is then strained through a rather thick
cloth (medium fine huckaback, for in-
stance) to remove the finely divided bits of
tissue. The advantage of this method is
that since the material to be rendered is
finely divided the fat separates readily
'from the inclosing tissue at a temperature
very little above its melting point, and
there is no danger of'scorching it as in the
older open-kettle method."
After the fat is rendered it must usually
be clarified. A fairly successful household
method for clarifying fats is as follows:
Melt the fat with at least an equal volume
of water and heat for a short time at a mod-
erate temperature, with occasional stirring.
Let the mixture cool, remove the layer of fat,
and scrape off any bits of meat and other
material which may adhere to the under
side. Rendering or clarifying fat with milk
gives quite satisfactory results in modifying,
odors and flavors. The procedure is as
follows: To 2 pounds of fat (finely chopped
if unrendered) add one-half pint of milk
(preferably sour). Heat the mixture in a
double boiler until rendered or thoroughly
melted, stir well, and strain through fairly


thick cloth. When cold the fat forms a hard
clean layer, and any dark material adhering
to the under side of the fat may be scraped
off. Sour milk, being coagulated, is prefer-
able to sweet milk, since the curd remains
on the cloth through which the rendered
mixture is strained and is thus more easily
separated from the rendered fat, which has
acquired some of the milk flavor and butter
fat.
Undesirable odors and flavors can be de-
creased in intensity or removed, if not too
pronounced, by heating the fats with a good
grade of charcoal, and the method is appli-
cable to fats which could not be satisfac-
torily treated by the method first spoken of.
To each pound of chopped, unrendered fat
add 12 pieces of clean, hardwood charcoal
about the size of a walnut and render the
fat in a double boiler as described above.
Allow the charcoal to remain in the melted
fat for about two hours and stir the mixture
occasionally. It is necessary to strain the
fat through flannel or other closely woven
cloth to remove all the fine particles of
charcoal. Rancid odors, if not too pro-
nounced, may be satisfalctorily removed by
this method. If the odor is very pro-
nouic,:d, more charcoal is needed, and the
mixture requires longer heating. It is in-
teresting to note that the characteristic yel-
low color of the beef fat may be removed
by this method, and a white, odorless fat
secured.
Fats as Food.
Fats are not less digestible than other
foods, as is generally believed, it is pointed
out by the bulletin, but are, as a matter of
fact, more thoroughly digested than the ani-
mal or vegetable proteins and the starch
occurring in the ordinary mixed diet. Fats
whose melting points are higher than the
body temperature are less easily digested,
however, than those having low melting
points. The digestive disturbances often
attributed to eating fat are probably due not
so much to the inability of the body to digest
the fat itself as to other factors,, among the
chief of which are bad cooking, overeating
.of foods containing fats, and rancidity.
Close mixture of nonemulsifying fat with
protein may cause digestive disturbances to
some persons, since the fats form a coating
about the protein and hinder the action of
the digestive juices.
The number of edible fats in use has been
greatly increased in recent years, the bulle-
tin points out. Formerly butter, cream, and
lard, and perhaps "meat drippings," were
the only edible animal fats known to the
average housewife. Now numerous cook-
ing fats are made from vegetable oils or
mixtures of vegetable and animal fats. The
development of methods of treating liquid
oils to harden them by the addition of hydro-
gen has added a number of cooking fats of
the approximate consistency of lard to the


.










8 WEEKLY NEWS LETTER.


fats available for home use. Among the
edible vegetable fats mentioned by the bul-
letin which are used for food purposes are
olive oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, coconut
oil, corn oil, soy-bean oil, and nut oils.



LIME-SULPHUR ANIMAL DIPS.

Convenient Formula for Preparing Solution
Suggested by Department Specialist.


A convenient n..miul., f.i pi e.-p: iii. lime-
sulphur animal dips, termed the 8-18-10
formula, is suggested, as a result of exten-
sive experiments, in professional paper
No. 451, The Chemical Composition of
Lime-Sulphur Animal Dips, recently pub-
lished by the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture. The experimental work was under-
taken with the object of improving exist-.
ing formulas so as to simplify the prepara-
tion and, if possible, lessenthe cost of these
dips. To accomplish these purposes the
author recommends-but solely for use as
an animal dip-the 8-18-10 formula; tL ir
is, pounds of hi.L- -Z'r. i e I:..:miel : ial quick-
lime, 1' i.juinds finre sulphur (either flowers
or flour), xTith oImew-ah.t more than 10
gallons of water, boiled to a volume of 10
gallons at the finish. The time of actual
boiling should be one hour. The theo-
retical ratio between lime and sulphur will
bb met by this formula if the lime is 98.3
pr: c: nt pu re therefore the formula as given
is appropriate for preparing a solution for
dippinL sh-..1- wh.cre an',' chance of an excess
of lime must be avoided. If commercial
hydrated (not air-slaked) lime is used the
amount should be increased niiarly one-
third, say to 10.5 pounds. For dipping
cattle the formula may be used on the basis
of available calcium oxid if the analysis
of the lime is. known, or if not known the
lime may safely be raised to 8.5 pounds,
corresponding to 92.5 per cent available
calcium oxid, possibly even to 9 pounds.
The finished solution, drawn off from the
sediment, should theoretically contain 18
per cent (grams per 100 c. c.) of sulphid
sulphur, but probably will contain some-
what less. It is, therefore, appropriate for
dipping sheep at a dilution of 1 volume of
concentrate to 9 or 10 volumes of water,
and for cattle at a dilution of 1 volume of
concentrate .to 7 or 8 volumes of water.
But in any event, since baths lose sti-en.th
during dipping, it is very desirable to keep
them at all times under control by means
of a "field test."
It is pointed out that this formula does
not necesjslrily apply to the making of
highly concentrated proprietary solutions.
The bulletin, which is highly technical,
contains in its 16 pages the results of a


T7'HE WEEKLY NB1W LB2TRB i
designed to convey to the voluntary
Crop Correspondents and to the person-
nel of the Department news of the impor-
tant current activities of the Department
and practical directionsfor the improve-
ment of farm practice. It is sent also
eiq ar,,:tiiiur'l papers and newspapers
v ih, I.. privilege of reprinting with or
ti,;t,,.u' credit. The edition is neces-
sarily limited, the object being to make
thoes who receive the publication dis-
seminating centers of information for
their communities.


number of experiments on the effect of
storing, and of varying the concentration
and ingredients, which should be of interest
to chemists and veterinarians.



SPRING SEED GRAIN.


Farmers Cautioned to Reserve a Supply of
Good Wheat for Sowing.

In order to insurn:- themselves a supply of
good seed grain for sowing next spring,
farmers are advised by the U. S. Department
of Agriculture to bear in mind the following
information in regard to the seed situation.
Wheat.
Great Plains area.-The wheat crop of 1916
in the spring-wheat States of the upper Mis-
sissippi Valley was very badly injured by
rust and other diseases. Not only was the
yield much reduced, but the cluality of the
grain was generally very poor. Much of the
grain is light in weight, shrunken, and
doubtless contains many diseased kernels.
Such grain is not good for seed purposes..
Althoutbh plants may be produced from such
seed, they are not likely to be vigorous, and
many of them may be diseased, and these
diseases will either cause their death before
maturity or be spread to other plants, or
both.
It is advisable, therefore, for farmers in
this region to make sure promptly of a suffi-
cient supply of good plump seed of adapted
varieties, which will grow when sown. If
plump, healthy seed can not be obtained,
the seed that is available should be carefully
screened and fanned to remove all those
grains that are not good for sowing. In no
case should the prevailing high prices tempt
the farmer to part with his good seed wheat
and cause him to rely upon shrunken and
diseased seed for sowing. Such a course is
likely to result in disaster to next year'p
crop.
WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1111


Pacific coast district.-In the States of
Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the spring-
wheat crop was large and the grain of excel-
lent quality. The tempting prices for wheat
should not induce the farmer to sell what
should be kept for seed, because no seed of
varieties adapted to this section can be
obtained elsewhere. The dry fall has cur-
tailed the sowing of winter wheat and the
acreage of spring wheat will be larger than
usual therefore, and the demand for seed
increased accordingly. It must be remem-
bered likewise that the varieties of the
Pacific Northwest are not suited to the
northern Great Plains States.

Barley.
The barley crop for the past season in the
United States was, for the most part, of very
good quality and no unusual methods or
precautions need be taken in seeding the
1917 crop, except in parts of the northern
Mississippi Valley. In this region Lhe early
arrival of extremely hot weather caused a
decided shrinking in most of the crop and
for this region the bushel weight is very
light. The germination of the lighter ker-
nels is likely to be low and the barley should
be well fanned before seeding, only the
plumpest grain being used.


MILLIONS OF PUBLICATIONS.

More than 291 million copies of new bul-
letins, pamphlets, circulars, reports, and
documents were issued by the United Ni rates
Department of Agriculture during the last
fiscal year, according to the annual report of
the Chief of the Division of Publications.
Including the reprints of documents of ear-
lier issues with the new ones, there was a
total of 39,098,239 copies printed.
The total number of copies of Farmers'
Bulletins printed during the year- was
12,795,000. Of these; there were 62 new
numbers, of which 3,640,000 copies were
printed, and 9,155,000 copies were reprints
of 284 old bulletins.
Notwithstanding the liberal free distribu-
tion of publications made by the depart-
ment, sales by the Superintendent of Docu-
ments amounted to $22,277.84, the cost price
of 327,381 copies.


"Canaries: Their Care and Management"'
is the title of Farmers' Bulletin 770, recently
issued by the department. The bulletin
gives instructions in detail as to the proper
care, food, and management of canaries.
Special attention is given to the control of
parasites and the treatment of diseases.
Copies ofthe bulletin may be had upon appli-
cation to the United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. 0.


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AGRIOULTO UR ADVA TAGI AT 711 UBITRW I OF FTORD1A a
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Agricultural Rat
Ooet of Oonstruetion o530.000
4ulnanent 10,000
akoerimmnt tttion Hall
S of Construotion 42,000
Equipment 15,000
Dairy Barm n
V Bullding and Iquipment 10,000
Eql~aunt of Horticultural Grounds
4 System of Irrigation
12 Acrea Tracking Lands
1 Propagating Hoau e f
Small Orohard *
3 Gasa Powor Sprayere
4 Hand Sprayers
Agronaom, lquliprant
3S Aerea of TLan
Farm Implemente 00
2 Acres Stud nt Plot : iprimfent Grounds
4 Gaeolino m:wineo
Animal Huasbandry Department
60 Acres Pasture TanA
5 Droods Pure Brea Hogo
2 Breese "nus Bred Cattle
1 Breed Pure Bred Sheep
2 lules
1 'ork Horse
1 Cattle Dipping Vat
Stables for Work Anlrala
Dairy Barn for Cow
axporimant Station
65 Aores Plot Grond
40 Aores Pari Tand
100 Acres Pasture TLan
15'Acres Plant Introduction Gardoen
2 Green Hoausea 3,000
1 Implement Shed
FPam Implements and "'ohi.fry 1,500
56 arm Barns 3,000
4 Silos 1,500
21 FPlli Blooded erseys
30 Grade Jorseys
30 ure Braod Beakahcro Hoge
Headquarters of the Florsla State Plant Board
SHeadqurtoer of the Paraert Cooperative Demonstration Vork


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9N THE DIXIE HIGHWAY
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J. R. RANDLE, SECY. AND TREAS.


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