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LIVE STOCK WORK AT THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE
Gentlemen of the Live Stock Round-Up:
.It is not necessary for me to express my pleasure
at being on the platform before you. All of you know
me so well that you know I am always pleased when I can
do or say something that will advance the interests of
the live stock industry of Florida. The value of the
live stock interests to the State of Florida cannot be
over estimated, it is in fact the foundation of the
prosperity .of every agricultural community on the country.
This has been recognized for a long time but it has likewise
taken the people of the United States a long time to feel
the need of systematic an.< thorough investigations in
t.e live stock: line. In this direction we are making
more progress now in a single year than we did formerly
in ten years, The many excellent papers and reports
that you have heard during this meeting would have been
considered an epoch-making program if it could have oc-
curred 10 or 15 years ago. Of course that would have
been impossible, since many of the scientific truths ut-
tered in this meeting have been accumulated within less
than a decade. This is one thing that makes the Live
Stock Round-Up Oo attractive to the active stockmen of
the State. It has given us a clearing house where we
not only hear the best and latest truths in connection with
our live stock interests, but also get the practical ex-
perience of the people who are trying to carry out this
work in practice on their farms.
The Florida Agricultural College has long recognized
live stock growing as of fundamental importance and the
subject has been one of the principal courses of instruc-
tion in the curriculum. The curriculum has been strength-
ened just as rapidly as the financial condition of the
state would permit.
Work of the College
The live stock work at the Agricultural college
is a great deal more extensive than most people understand.
It really requires a comprehensive view of the whole situa-
tion to understand how much the Agricultural College is
doing for the live stock interests of the State.
The live stock work divides itself naturally into
three general groups: the first of these groups that I will
discuss is the teaching group; the second is the Experiment
Station group; and third, the Extension group.
At first sight it would seem as though there was an
unnecessary division of work, but the professor who teaches
his classes must meet them regularly every day in the week
at an appointed hour. The classes are so large in some of
the lines that they must be divided into sections in order
that the best instruction may be given. You can readily see
that a professor doing a full man's service to the students
would find it absolutely impossible to, at the same time,
successfully conduct intricate experiments in the laboratory
or on the farm, and at the same time answer an unceasing num -
ber of inquiries on the most recent discoveries in connection
with the live stock work.
The second group of live stock workers that we have
at the Agricultural College give their en4ee attention to
the carrying on of experiments and the discovery of new truths
in connection with the feeding and rearing of live stock.
This requires the closest and most careful attention to de-
tails. It is necessary not only to know what has been done
in the South, but also in the country at large, as well as
what is being done in foreign countries, no matter how remote.
The third group of workers gives their attention to
Extension Work in live stock. They are not confined to the
University Campus by either teaching work or by the exact
details of the Experiment Station work and can move freely
over the State to help the stockmen in whatever locality
help may be needed.
The Teaching Division
The leader of the teaching division in animal hus-
bandry at the University, is Prof. C. H. Willoughby, who has
been with us for a long number of years and has carried many
students through the various classes.
There are 13 different courses in animal husbandry@4AW
This gives you a fair idea of the lar-e range of selection
that students of animal husbandry can make. These courses,
of course, are not closed to other students, but in some of
the classes the attendance is so large that it has to be
broken into sections. It is rarely satisfactory to have
more than 25 students in a section.
Last year we added a new department in the animal
husbandry line in the matter of Veterinary Science. The
courses have been much appreciated by the students and we
find a large number classifying for this work. The depart-
ment is under the able leadership of Dr. A. L. Shealey.
Veterinary Science will undoubtedly become one of the most
popular courses at the institution when the State can afford
to sup. ly an equipment commensurate with the importance of
A third department, that of Joultry Husbandyy, in
charge of Dr. N. W. Sanborn, has been added this year. Un-
fortunately the State has not felt able to supply sufficient
funds to carry this course throughout the entire year; we
have therefore to give the poultry husb ndry course only dur-
ing half the year. During the other half year, Dr. Sanborn
gives his ed time to the Extension Work, and the teaching
of classes throughout various localities in the State.
Experiment Station Division
The animal husbandry work in the Experiment Station
has been carried on since the establishment of the institution
A large amount of most excellent work has been done for the
State of Florida. There are very few of my hearers but
what have profited by the results of these experiments. To
give even a cursory review of all that has been done in the
last 30 years would occupy more time than has been allotted
to me on this program. fIt is fortunate for you, however,
that the time has been limited otherwise I should probably
over step even reasonable bounds in discussing the work that
has been done)I I will however take up a few of the things
that may prove of most interest to you today.
One very interesting experiment was completed in 1903
when 26 head of pure bred shorthiorn cattle, introduced from
Kentucky, were tA:Lken to the Experiment Station and treated
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with the blood from native cattle, under the direction of
Dr. Dawson. This was done in the attempt to immunize pure
bred animals from so-called Texas fever; as the protozoa
which causes the fever is constantly present in the blood of
our tick infested animals, it was only necessary to get the
blood from such animals. Of the 26 animals treated, 25 head
were fortified against the disease.
We have now made so much advance in the handling of
Texas fever that it is not considered a profitable undertaking
to bring cattle in and attempt to immunize them in this way,
but you must remember, gentlemen, that there was a time when
this knoitledge had to be obtained. The right way to handle
Texas fever is to eradicate it by killing the tick.
A certain very interesting experiment that I wish to
call to your attention today, .as that carried on by Prof.
Scott in breeding native cattle to a native bull in'compari-
son with breeding an equal number of similar cattle to a
Shorthorn bull and to a Hereford bull.
Naturally when experiments of any kind are begun, no
one can foretell what the results will be, otherwise it would
not be an experiment. Nevertheless everyone has his opinion
as to what the results of an experiment..will be. It was
freely predicted that the calves at birth from the Shorthorn
and Hereford bulls would be distinctly larger than the calves
by the native bull, and at the end of a year it was expected
that these would show very decided advantages in growth over
the natives and at the end of three years we rather expected
that there would be a'very large difference. Ih carrying on
this work the animals were properly selected, and the cows
and calves properly cared for, and weighing made at regular
intervals. You can imagine, therefore, what our surprise was
when at the end of the experiment we found that the full
blooded native animals compared very favorably in size and
slaughtering test with the half-breeds, and that all of the
animals, both native and half-breeds, at the end of the
three year period showed an extremely fine growth. The
basic truth brought out by this experiment was that the big-
ness in the native cattle had not been entirely bred out. In
other words, the grade animals were distinctly finer animals
when taken from the butchering standpoint, but the native
cows were capable of producing fair sized progeny, if the
progeny was given a reasonably good chance. The complete
report of this experiment will be found in the Experiment
Station's annual report for 1912, also in bulletin 110,
which, unfortunately, is out of print.
One of the most important pieces of work done by the
Experiment Station has been the utilizing of cassava, sweet
potatoes, velvet beans, cocoanut meal and peanut meal as
feed for live stock. To the average stockman it seems like
quite a small matter to determine the relative feeding values
of different materials on the market or present on the farm.
However, when you take into consideration that in the case
of velvet beans there was no other place in the world where
investigations were being made, you will realize that this
had to be carried on single handed, by the Florida Experiment
Station. Hot even could Ine find the chemical analysis of
the velvet bean as to its ash content, much less would one
be able to find the analysis of the valvet bean that would
give any idea as to its feeding value. Even after these
chemical analyses had been made it was still necessary to
find out the amount of the velvet bean material that was ac-
tually digested by the animals. This digestivvexperiment
was carried on in a very thorough manner and has been very gen
erally accepted as accurate by the stockmen of the country.
The work was done in 1901. Later tests had to be made to
work out the relative values between the use of velvet beans
and other standard feeds such as bran,ap4ttonseed meal.
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It is not unusual for long continued experiments of this
kind to be summarized in a single press bulletin. Such a
press bulletin, however, is very different from the ordinary
prepared article, where you can get your data from previous-
ly printed information.
Another very interesting piece of work that has been
done is that of making silage of cassava and sweet potatoes,
as well as testing out the feeding value of cocoanut meal
and peanut meal.
All of this work in the Experiment Station that I have
been outlining to you has had to be carried on in the face of
very limited means. One of the Northwestern States in pre-
paring a prize-winniw,, -ateer4, spent more money in the prep-
aration of this one animal than we spent in an entire year
on our whole herd.
The live stock extension project which we are carry-
ing on this year, is headed by Prof. Scott, ably assisted by
W. H. Lack and J. B. Thompson. This live stock project
has for its object the carrying of information obtained by
the Experiment Station, and the information contained in
bulletins and other publications from the United Stated De-
partment of Agriculture, all over the State.