Insecticides and Fungicides.

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Insecticides and Fungicides.
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Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
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Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
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Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
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December, 1893.


FLORIDA



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT


STATION.

.




INSE'TICIDESl AND FUNGICIDES




P. H. ROLFS.


The Bulletin of -hiL. Station will be sent free to any address in Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment
Station, Lake City, Fla.
THE DACOST FRiRfIN l hu[o lu Aj^C4, i biLL; C ,, fia.,


Bulletin No. 23.


~c~3L c--



















BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


HON. WALTER GWYNN, President . Sanford
BON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President . Pensacola
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Ch'n Executive Committee Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGAN, Secretary . ... Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER . . Brooksville.
HON. S. J. TURNBULL . .. Monticello
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY . ..... DeLand
STATION STAFF.

0. CLUTE, M. S. LL. D .. Director
J. N. WHITNER A. M . ... Horticulturist
P. H. ROLFS, M; S . . .. Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M .. . Chemist
WM. G. DEPASS . .. Assistant Agriculturist
C. A. FINLEY . . .. Director's Secretary
L. C. WASHBURN Superintedent Ft. Myers Sub-Station
J. T. STUBBS Superinteudeint DeFuniak Sub-Station










INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDE$.


F.ABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
INTHUDII.TION . . . 5
IiJsecticide- for Biting Insects . 5
Insecticides for Sucking Insects . 5-6
What Fungi are . . '... 6-7
Parasitic Fungi . . . 7-8
What is a Fungicide? . . 8
When to Spray . . 8-9
How to Spray . . . 9
Fi NGI-IDEK-(Preparation of) . . 9
Bordeaux Mixture .. .. . 9
F,,rmula . ... . 9-10
How to prepare Copper Sulphate .. 10
How to prepare Lime. . . 10-11
How to mix Bordeaux . . 11-12
Eau Celeste, formula and preparation of 12
Modified Eau Celeste, formula and prepara-
tion of .. . . . 12-13
Ammonical Solution of Copper Carbonate 13
Formula .. . . . 13
How Prepared .. . ... 13
Mixture of Carbonate of Copper and Carbon-
ate of Ammonia, formula and preparation 14
Other Formulas . . 14
Cost of Applying Fungicides . 14-15
A Few Hints.. . ..... 15
Are Sprayed Fruits and Vegetables Danger-
ous to Health? . . 15-16
Hot Water for Oats Smut . . 16
How Treated . . 16-17
The Operation. . . 17-18
Potassium Sulphide for Oats Smut 18
Remarks on Fungicides . . 18-19
I N-.ECTII 'ID ES.-(Preparation of) . 19
Paris Green, formula and preparation of 1'-20
London Purple, formula and preparation of 20
A "Powder Gun" . . ... 21
Caution in Using Paris Green and London
Purple ....... ....... 21











Page.
INSECTICIDEs-(Preparation of )-continued.
Kerosine Emulsion . . 21
Formula . . . 21
Preparation . . ... 21
Resin Wash, Formula and Preparation of 22-23
Resin Wash for Winter, Formula and Prepa-
ration of . .. . 23-24
Sulphur Spray, Formula and Preparation of 24
Lime, Salt and Sulphur Mixture, Formula,
Remarks and Preparation of . 24-25
Sulphur ........... 25
Pyrethrum, Buhach, Remarks . 25-26
Application as a Powder . 26
Application as Fumes . . 26
Application as Solution . .. 26
Tobacco, Remarks . . .. 27
Preparation of a Decoction of . 27
Naphthaline, how used . . 27
Bisulphide of Carbon, how used . 27-29
Combined Insecticides and Fungicides 29-30
Formula for and Preparation of 30
Remedies that have failed .... .... 30-31
Cost of material for making spraying solu-
tions and where it may be obtained 32
TABLE FOR THE USE OF FUNGICIDES AND INSECTI-


CIDES . .
How to use the table .
Remedies for the diseases of,
Beans . .
Cabbage .....
Cucumbers . .
Eggplant . .
Grapes . ..
Oats .
Oranges . .
Peach. ......
Pear .. .. ...
Plum .. ....
Potatoes ...
Seed (various kinds).
Tomatoes .... .


32-33
33


. . 34
....... 34
....... 35
. . 35
. . 35-36
. . 35-36
. 36

. . 36
. . 36














INTRODUCTION.
Spraying of fruit trees and other plants to prevent
injury from insects and fungi is of comparatively recent
origin.
The first systematic work performed in that line in
this country was that against the Colorado potato beetle.
In the Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1871
we find Paris green recommended for the first time. After
that several agricultural colleges took up the work syste-
matically, but it was several years before any work was
done with a view to prevent diseases caused by fungi.
This new department in agriculture demands terms
that shall be used exclusively for it; this bulletin con-
tains as few of these newly introduced terms as seemed
consistent. The term insect is generally understood to in-
clude all the smaller animals that, have their bodies divided
into three regions; their young are called grubs, maggots,
caterpillars, and some have special names, as cut-worms,
wire-worms, etc. The ending cide means to. kill, hence
an insecticide is any substance 'that is used to kill insects.
INSECTICIDES FOR BITING -INSECTS.
Insects, like higher animals, require food and air for
their existence, and to poison the food or cut off their sup-
ply of air will kill them as surely as it will kill any higher
animal. The earliest way of combating insects was, as
stated before, by poisoning their food; this was accom-
plished by the use of Paris green. All the insects that ate
enough of the Paris green died, but those that ate from
the portions of plants not covered with poison were not
harmed; hence the more thoroughly a plant is sprayed
the greater the number of insects that will be killed, but
here another difficulty is encountered; if more than a cer-
tain amount of poison is used the plant will be killed also.
INSECTICIDES FOR SUCKING INSECTS.
While some insects obtain their food by eating the
leaves and outer portion of plants generally, others get












their nourishment by sucking the juices from the plant-s:
now it is clear that these cannot be poisoned except by
poisoning the juice of the plant, and that so far has been
impracticable. To this class of insects belong the plant-
lice, the scale-insects, plaut-bugs and others. These stick
their proboscis into the bark or the leaf, and take out. tli,
nourishment they want. It has been found that tliest-
may be killed by cutting oft their supply of air, oi by
rendering the air they breath poisonous. By studying
the anatomy of insects it was tound that they do not
breathe through their mouths as the back-bvned animal-
do, but they take in the air through a system of optininls
on each side of the body. These openings are called
trache&e and are normally eleven on a side. Any Nui,-
stance that. might be brought in contact with an in--et
and that would close up the trachee, would suffocate it.
Water will not do this because the insects are miore.- .r
less oily and the minute hairs help to hold air to their
bodies and prevent water from entering the trathli-.-.
Some oily or soapy substance may be used to effect an
entrance. We have remedies of this kind in our iesini
soaps, kerosene emulsions, and a number of others.
Another mode of killing insects that do not eat the
epidermis of plants has already been referred to. It is
by poisoning the air they breathe. This is accomplished
by the gas treatment, sulphur sprain and carbon disul-
phide.
Experience alone can teach us as to which insecticide
is best for any particular case. Often a substance that
will kill a particular pest will also kill the tree or plint
it. affects. Nearly all insecticides need to be used with
care, and substances that have been advertised a- -'' pI-
fectly harmless," are found to be indeed !o to insects.
WHAT FUNGI ARE.

Many diseases of plants as rusts, rot, mildews aind
some blights are caused by a class of minute plants called
fungi. Commonly these are not. recognized as plants, be-
cause we usually associate chlorophyl, the green coloring
matter, with plants, but a close study reveals that we may
have plants without this chlorophyl. Plants without











chlorophyl cannot take up material directly from the
earth, inorganic matter, and convert it into plant material,
organic matter, but they must rely upon the plants with
chlorophyl to elaborate this (organic) material for them.
Fungi are not supplied with chlorophyl, hence they must
rely for sustenance upon plants with it, either by living
directly on living ones or on dead ones; to this latter be-
long mushrooms, toad-stools and shelf fungi. The former,
that live upon living plants and cause diseases, concern
us directly.
PARASITIC FUNGI.
These parasitic fungi, that is, those that live on liv-
ing plants, are usually very minute and of a simple
structure, often being composed of a simple thread-like
body, only a fraction of an inch long, but when there are
myriads of them present on a single leaf or fruit, the dam-
age is soon visible. The damage to the host, the plant
the parasite lives on, is often very great before the true
cause is recognized; the food being diverted from its
proper course makes the host less fruitful, and often fruit-
less, without any apparent cause.
Fungi do not develop flowers or seed, but they pro-
duce wvhat are called spores. These spores perform some
of the functions of seed. In many cases a spore is so
light that it may be carried long distances by the wind; it
will also withstand long droughts and severe cold; again,
if the proper temperature and moisture are present it will
often germinate very quickly. When a spore finds
lodgment on the leaf, stem or fruit of its host it germinates
and the parasite enters the tissues where it draws nour-
ishment from the host. Moisture is quite an aid in the
development of fungoid diseases; warm, moist days and
nights are especially favorable. Dashing rains wash off
the spores and in that way are beneficial, but the heavy
dews that usually follow rains bring about conditions
favorable to propagation of fungi. Dry and cold weather
is unfavorable to germination and propagation of fungoid
diseases. When fungi have entered their host they can-
not be killed without damaging the tissue of their host.
The object, then, is to destroy these disease-producing fungi
before they enter their hosts.











Plants are more or less susceptible to poisoning from
copper compounds. Some plants are much more sensi-
tive than others in this respect; for example, a compound
that. did not hurt tomato vines, scalded eggplant badly.
When in condition for entering their hosts fungi are very
sensitive to poisoning from copper compounds. So the
experiinen t.-er have found such compounds as- will kill
the attacking fungus and not injure the host.
WHAT IS A FUNGICIDE?
A serviceable fungicide is something that will de-
stroy a fu ngus it comes in contact with, and not the host of
that fungus. The word is made up fungi, dicusied aibov.,
and cide, to kill. The several copper preparations given
are such substances. The fungus must first come in con-
tact with the host before it can cause disorder of the h,,t,
now if it comes in contact with the host and not with the
fungicide, it forces an entrance and causes disease of the
plant; but if the host has been covered with the fungi-
cide, the fungus coming in contact with the fungicide, will
be killed' and the disease prevented. To make a plant
immune to disease it is necessa ry to cover the entire plant
with a fungicide. This is not possible. As a rule the
more thoroughly the' host can be covered with the fungi-
cide the more-thorough will the protection be.
WHEN TO SPRAY.
As spraying is only a preventive for disease of plants,
the time to spray becomes of pri n me importance. It is nec-
essary to anticipate these disorders and prevent their at-
tacking the plant.
In fields where the crop has suffered in a previous
year it is quite certaifi that the same crop will suffer from
the same disease the following year, and the treatment, to
be most effective, should be begun before the appearance
of diseased plants. The treatment for black rot of grapes
should be begun before thd buds- open im the spring, for
blight of tomatoes and egg plant before the flower buds
open.
The interval between sprayings should be a week or
ten days. When heavy rains occur they wash the fungi-












cide off, and the operations must be repealed at shorter in-
tervals than during dry weather.
Grapes should be sprayed four times; potatoes six
times, and tomatoes and egg plants as long as the yield of
fruit is profitable.
No certain rule as to date can be laid down; each
person must be guided, to a large extent, by the condi-
tions that surround his crop, also by the crop that is to
be treated.
HOW TO SPRAY.
In general it may be laid down, as a rule, that the
leaves and branches should be thoroughly covered with
the fungicide. The more thoroughly this is done and the
shorter the interval between sprayings, the more effective
will be the work. There is oine exception to this, however,
that is the tomato blight. This disease is not checked by
spraying thefolbiiige of plants, but by spraying the part.sof
the plants that touch the ground and the ground about
the plant. (See Bulletin 21, Florida Agricultural Experi-
mental Station, page 32. For plants affected see pages
25-31).

FUNGICIDES.

A great many different, formulas for fungicides have
been tried but only a few of these have become popular.
Those mentioned here have been deemed of most import-
ance to the farmers and fruit growers of our State. The
formulas and methods of preparation are given on the
following pages:

BORDEAUX MIXTURE.
The formulas used in its preparation are almIost as
numerous as the'experimnenters that have tested it. One
that has been g:'ni-'r;illv u-:-d with excellent results is as
follows:

Co'll:r Sulphate, (.blue stone, blue vitrol) 6 pounds
Lime, fresh ... ... .... : 4 "
W ater . . .. 22 gallons











Another formula is one of just half the strength of
the above; that is, to use forty-four gallons of water in
place of twenty-two, or use:
Formula No. 2.
Copper Sulphate . . . 3 pounds
Lime ......... .. . .. 2 "
Water. ... . . ... 22 gallons
HOW TO PREPARE iil'PEH SULPHATE.
It is best to use the pulveri/.ed copper sulphate, when
this can be obtained Dih-olv ..-ix 1.0ouLdls in three gal-
lons of hot water, if the tir-t4 formula i- to be followed.
If the second, dissolve three piuinds of copper sulphiit: in
two gallons of water ; add enough water to make sixteen
gallons. If pIlIverized copper sulphate cannot be had,
put six or three (according to the formula to be followed)
pounds of it in a feed bag; then put sixteen gallons of
water in a barrel and suspend the bag containing the
copper .uilplmhate just under the water. In this way the
crystals will dissolve in a few hours; if they are thrown
into the water they will not dissolve for a long time.
When a considerable amount of Bordeaux mixture
is to be made forty-eight gallons of water may be placed
in a barrel and forty-eight pounds of copper sulphate sus-
pended as described above. In this case it would be well
to put the -4ulphati in several bags, as it would then dis-
solve more quickly. Six gallons of this -hould be taken
out and diluted to sixteen for the tir-t formula, and three
taken out and diluted to sixteen for the second formula.
In either case all the copper sulphate in the bags should
be dissolved and the solution stirred before taking out the
stock solution.
Never use any iron or tin vessel to handle or to hold
the copper sulphate solution; u?-e wodwlei or -irti'thn ones.
Strain the solution and be sure, that the vessel and the
water are also free from solid Iarti cl ; they c(lo- the
machines and cause a great deal of annoyance.
HOW TO PREPARE LIME.
Fresh, or quick lime, should be used. When the
lime slakes in the air, or blieon'ies air-slaked, it undergoes











a chemical change and hence does not make Bordeaux
mixture when used in place of quick lime. Place the
quick lime in an earthen or a wooden vessel, pour on
enough water to cover it. well; soon it will begin to sim-
mer and become hot. During this time it must be care-
fully watched and well .tirred If it uses up ill the wa-
ter add more. When it is slaked it should be a thick
paste. Now add enoughh water to make six gallons. (It
i- understood, of courst-, that it the Bordeaux is to be
made by the first formula that four pounds of lime have
been used, and if by the second, two). Stir the solution
thoroughly, then let it stand a short time for any solid
particle, that may bh in it to settle, and it i- ready to be
poureil into ; copper sulphate solution.
HOW TO MIX BORDEAUX.
The copplr ulphale solution and the lime solution,
-each being iprepa red as Jde,.ribed above, pour the lime so-
lution slowly into the copper sulphate solution, taking
special care not to get any solid particle- into the mixture;
-stir it briskly anI thorniughly and apply at once. The
mixture is at it,- 'e-t ju-t Att.ri it is made, and becomes
less valuable by standing t After standing a day or
two it is probably int worth the while to alpply it.
It is verly difficult to strain this mixture, hence the
precautions taken to free the solution of all matter that
would clog the spraying machine. After the mixture has
storodI an hour or more the priclpitate b.,-_gins to settle, leav-
ing a clear liquid above If one is obliged to allow the
precipitate to -cttle, care should lie taken to stir it. again
.and make the mixture :,- ,v ni- i o-.ible.
Machines are now made n itl attachment, to stir the
fungicide (or insecticide) whiie it is Ieing applied, these
"agitators'' keep theI mixture even, but. if the Bordeaux is
applied at once there will bi little difficulty arising from
Hunevelnes. of the nixt'.itur..
The mixture may Ie mani- to spread more evenly

"Il. T. (Galloway, .it Mye. Vol. vii, No. 1, p. 16.
i \\. (' turgi. 5.\..nth Ann. 'op., Conn. Agr.Exp.,
p 1 4.











over the foliage by adding to every eight gallons of it one
pounds of good hard soap dissolved in a small quantity of
water.t
Other substances have been added and tested, but the
results seem to have been less favorable. The above was
suggested by D. G. Fairchild while connected with Div.
Veg. Path., U. S. Dep't. of Agr.


EAU CELESTE.
Formula No. 3.
Copper Sulphate . . . 2 pounds
Ammonia Water (strength 260 B.). .. ... 3 pints
W ater . . . .. .. 50 gallons
Put the copper sulphate into solution in a small
quantity of water, using the same precautions as in pre-
paring this for Bordeaux mixture.
When ready to spray add the three pints of ammonia,.
stir thoroughly, dilute to fifty gallons and apply. This
is a very cheap and easily made fungicide but it is liable
to scald the foliage of some plants, especially egg-plant.


MODIFIED EAU CELESTE.
Formula No. 4.
Copper Sulphate . . . .. 4 pouifds
Carbonate of Soda (sal soda) . .. 5 pounds
Ammonia Water (strength 260 B) .. 3 quarts
Water .. ....... .. 50 gallons
Dissolve the copper sulphate as directed in prepara-
tion of Bordeaux mixture. Dissolve the carbonate of
soda in hot water in a separate vessel. When both solu-
tions have cooled, pour them together and stir the mix-
ture briskly and add the ammonia.
This may be kept as a stock solution, that is, it may

t S. A. Beach, N. Y. (Geneva) Exp. Sta., B. 49, p. 14.
L. R. Jones, Vt. Exp. Sta., B. 40, p. 25.











be kept some time without losing its value. Some prefer
to use it double strength; in that case the mixture is di-
luted to twenty-five gallons. but if the above formula is
to be followed, the mixture is diluted to fifty gallons.


AMM[ONIACAL SOLUTION OF COPPER CARBON-
ATE.
Formula No. 5.
Carbonate of copper .. . ...8 ounces
Ammonia water (strength. 21i0 B) . 3 pints
HOW PREPARED.-
Put three gallons of water in a wooden or an earthen
vessel, pour the three pints of ammonia in this and stir
it, to mix the two evenly. Take eight ounces of copper
carbonate and shake it into the ammonia water, stirring
the liquid all the while. If a considerable part of the
copper carbonate remains uunis-olved, the liquid may be
set aside to settle if, however, all or nearly all of the
copper carbonate is dissolved, more of it should be added,
in the way described above, until a considerable part re-
mains undiso:lv%.d; then it is set aside as stated before.
After the solution has settled, pour off the clear blue
liquid into another wooden vessel. The undissolved cop-
per carbonate may then be treated with more ammonia
and water, fresh copper carbonate being added whenever
the remaining portion becomes less than an ounce. If
the solution is to be kept for more than a day it must be
kept tightly corked.
When the fungicide is to be used, one gallon is di-
luted to fifteen or twenty of water.* (Peach trees and
eggplant are very susceptible to scalding by chemicals,
hence, fungicides neel to be more diluted for these). .:ll..:
The stronger ammonia water is recormniended be-
cause it is usually more economical to buy this and di-
lute it, than to buy lower per cent ammonia water and
pay the additional expenses of transportation.

*Cf. C. L Penny, B. 22, Del. Exp. Sta., pp. 15-16.











MIXTURE OF CARBONATE OF AMMONIA AND
CARBONATE OF COPPER
Formula No. 6.
Carbonate of copper . ... .... 3 ounces
Carbonate of ammonia .. . 1 pound
Water ... ........ . ... ..50gallons

HOW PREPARED.

Pulverize the carbonate of ammonia and put into a
wooden vessel, add the carbonate of copper, pour on to
this two quarts of boiling water. When the chemicals
are dissolved, pour into fifty gallons of water, stir to
mix evenly and apply.


OTHER FORMULAS.
A great many more formulas might be given, some
are much more expensive than the above, others are less
efficient.
As general fungicides, the sulphur preparations have
not stood the tests with the preparations that have copper
as a basis; for some special diseases they are efficient,.


COST OF APPLYING FUNGICIDES.
Most persons not acquainted with the work of spray-
ing regard it as a formidable task, and one of great ex-
pense, but when it is compared with that of fertilizer it
will be found comparatively light. Prof. B. T, Galloway,*
Chief of the Division of Vegetable Pathology U. S. Dept.
Agr., finds that it cost about $6 per acre to spray pota-
toes six times with Bordeaux mixture, when full
strength, (see formula No. 1) is .used. The result was-
that it increased the yield 75 to 100 per cent when

*Cf. Rep. Sec. Agr. 1892, p. 234.









15

used to prevent black rot, a disease causing great loss to
tomato growers in this State. (See page 36, Bulletin
21, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.). The principal cost is the labor
of applying. This may be greatly reduced, however, by
fitting the machine for the special purpose and using
horse power as much as possible.


A FEW HINTS.
FuLgiVidh-- can in no way take the place of proper
and sufficient fertilizer nor of proper cultivation. Im-
proper cultivation and fertilization produce weak plants
and these in turn invite disease. Good, strong, well-fed
plants can ward off diseases that weaker ones would suc-
cumb to. The climatic conditions have much to do with
the propagation and spread of plant diseases. Dry
weather as a rule, being unfavorable to their multiplica-
tion. This of course is not under our control.
Many of our native wild plants harbor the parasites
of our crops, hence clean cultivation, and keeping the
"fence row" clean has further advantages than that of
looks.
It has often been observed that fields badly diseased
one year are liable to be worse the next. This is so
because the malady remains "in the soil." -Many diseas-
es can be greatly decreased by destroying the plants after
the crop has been gathered.


ARE SPRAYED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
DANGEROUS TO HEALTH?
Some trouble has been made in this country and in
England in regard to selling fruit that had been sprayed
with copper compounds. At one time the board of
liealth condemned a quantity of grapes in New York city
because they had been sprayed with Bordeaux mixture.
This led to an investigation by chemists.
Dr. L. L. VanSlyke, chemist to the New York Agri-
cultural Experimental Station, choosing such bunches of
grapes as seemed to contain most fungicide, found by











chemii.al analysis that "tn get an amount of copper that
would he regarded serious, if taken at one dose, one would
need to eat not less than 3,000 pounds of grapes, skins
included, or not les- than 5)00 pounds including stems
and lerr iei ."
Third estimate waI made on the basis that the copper
was in the form ot a sulphate, but, as a matter of fact, it
exists in the form of a carbonate, or a hydrate, which is
not readily soluble, and hence would require more fruit
than is given above.
A number of oth.r cases might be referred to, but the
al..ivc shows that it is fiar enough from the danger line to
need iio furthlir consi.ideration. Fruit that was unpalata-
ble from ftingiceile vwaus far from being poisonous.


HOT WATER OR JENSEN TREATMENT FOR
SMUT OF OATS.
Thi l:-,ge percevitoge of smutted heads in oat fields,
and v\'ilue of oats t., this State, make it altogether proper
that Lhis simple treatment for its prevention should be
given. In fields where careful estimates were made, it
was found that as high as eighteen per cent. of the crop
was smutted, and in no case was a field found free from it.
The hot water treatment, when carried out accurately,
prevents any smut from growing, but it goes farther than
this, it actually increases the yield more than that repre-
sented by the loss from smut. Professors Kellerman and
Swingle* found that the yield in weight of straw and of
grain was increased more than double the loss represented
by the smut in thb untreated plats; that is to say, there
were other advantages than simply to prevent the smut.
Professor Arthurt has shown that the per cent of germ-
ination is not increased, but that the treated seed ger-
minated much faster.
HOW TREATED.
Mr. J. L. Jensen, of Denmark, discovered that to

*2 Ann. Rep. Kan. Exp. Sta., p. 247.
tBulletin 34, p. 88., Purdue Agr. Exp. Sta.












pluuge oats iuto water heated to 132'' would destroy all
rsmut pores clinging to ih, and not hurt the gelrmina tion
of the oats, if it be not kept iin the scalding water longer
than fifteen minutes; but the temiiperaturP- musi t not go,
above 1350 nor fall below 13r1.
THE i.iPERAT'1.iN

is described by Prof. Swingle as follows-
"Provide two large vesse!--as two kettle- over a
fire, or boilers on a cook -tve-the Pfirt co.ntainaing warm
water (say 1100 to 1300), the -econil c,-ntaiingii scalding
water (132).
"The first is for the purpol'set warming the -eed pre-
paratory to dipping it inj) the second. -uless this pre-
caution is taken it will be .lifiCelt to keep the water iii
the second vessel at a proper temperature.
"The seed which is to be treated must be placed, a
half bushel or more at a time, in a closed.l ve-sel that will
allow free entrance and exit ot water on all si:le. Fo
this purpose a bushel basket mn.ile oft heavy wire could
be used, around which spread wire netting, say twelve
meshes to the inch, or an iron frame couil be- made at a
trifling cost, over which the w in- Lettill: e-,i'uld be stretch-
ed. This would allow the water to lpas freely and y,-t
prevent the passage of the -,:'.l:. A -?ac:-k miad,: ot loosely
woven material (as gunny sack), could perhaps be use'l
instead of the wire basket. A perfoiated tin vessel is 111
some respects preferable to, jny it'f thi l b'ive.
"Nowdip the basket ofseed in the first ves-el, after a
moment lift it, and, when the water haIs for the most
part escaped, plunge it into, th, water again, repeating the
operation several times. The object of the lifting aind
plunging, to which should be a'hde.l also a rotary motion,
is to bring every grain iin contactt withl the hot water.
Less than a minute is required ftir this preparatory treat-
ment, after which plunge the ba-ket of seed into the see-
ond vessel. If the thermometer ilndicate- that the tem-
perature of the water is fal I pou r in h.t water un til it
is elevated to 132j.
If it should rise higher than 132': add -mall '1uan-
tities of cold water. This will, doubtle-s, I"h the most sinm-











ple method of keeping the proper t6miip.i'atiure and re-
quires only the addition of two small vessels, one for cold
and one for boiling water. Keep the seed immersed for
ten minutes then remove and spread out to dry 'at once.
The treated grain may be sown any time after treatment."
(The cost of this treatment will not exceed 20 cents per
bushel).

POTAMSSIlM SULPHIDE FOR OATS SMUT.

In this treatment the seed is left twenty-four hours
in a one'half per cent. solution of potassium sulphide.
The published experiments seem to show that a weak
solution of potassium sulphide is nearly as good as the
hot water. The potassium sulphide is cheapest in the
"fused" condition, in which form it costs about 25 cents a
pound. One pound of the sulphide should be dissolved
in 24 gallons of water. Place the seed in a wooden vessel
and pour on the solution till the seed is covered several
inches deep. Stir the solution before pouring it on the
grain and thoroughly mix the seed several times before
taking it out of the solution. The oats should stand in
the solution twenty-four hours, after which they may be
spread out to dry. The solution gradually loses its
strength and hence cannot be used more than three or
four times without being renewed.
It will probably be the best to sow the seed as soon as
possible and before it becomes thoroughly dry.
Soaking the seed twelve hours in a solution of twice
the strength will no doubt prove effectual.*


REMARKS ON FUNGICIDES.

1. Bordeaux mixture has held the most popular
place for some time. It is best to make it with a slight
excess of lime.
2. Eau celeste is cheap and effective, but is not pop-

*Cf. Far eiu's Bulletin, No. 5, Div. Veg. Path. U. S.
Dept. Agriculture.










I9
ular because it is very liable to scald the foliage of certain
plants.
3. Modified Eau Celeste is no better than some
cheaper form.
4. Ammonical solution of copper carbonate as pre-
pared by Prof. Penny (see formula No. 5), is probably the,
most economical and bids fair to become more popular
than the old formula has been. It is the best that has
been tried on tomato blight. (The old formula was fol-
lowed),
5. Bordeaux mixture may be combined with Paris
green to make a combined fungicide and insecticide.
(See combined insecticide and fungicide).


INSECTICIDES.

There are two classes of insecticides now in common
use; one that kills by poisoning, the other kills the insect
by coming in contact with it. The former came into
general use earlier, and it is the better where the insect
feeds on the foliage of plants. The leading insecticides
for leaf feeding insects are the arsenites. The most com-
mon of which is


-:PARIS GREEN.
Formula No. 7.
Paris green . . . 1 pound
Water . . . 200 gallons
Or, what would be about the same, I pound to a
barrel of water, While this is being applied it should be
coustantly agitated to keep the Paris green mixed through
the water. When the powder contains some soluble form
of arsenic it is liable to scald the foliage treated, this can
be avoided to some extent by making it dilute as the for-
mula directs; it needs to be applied more thoroughly,
however, than when it is more concentrated. It has been
recommended to add one or two pailsfull of milk of limre
to two hundred gallons of the Paris green insecticide.












LONDON PURPLE.
Formula No. 8.
* London purple .. . 1 pound
Water . .. 200 gallons
This is also an arsenite and should be u.i-ed with a
great deal of caution. It contains about 10 per cent. less
arsenic than Paris green, but it is more caustic because
more of the arsenic is soluble in water. This may be
avoided, it is said, by adding a quantity of milk of lime
as directed in the use of Paris green. London purple
is much lighter than Paris green, so remains longer in
suspension, hence requiring less stirring while it is being
applied.
These arsenites may be applied in the dry or pow-
dered form. It was formerly thought necessary to mix
them with flour or some other pasty material; but the
favorite way to apply it now is the concentrated form.
H(.' APPLIED DRY.
A very cheap and successful machine for applying
arsenites to cotton, and it will work as well for other low
growing plants, is described by Prof. J. S. Newman*, as
follows: "A piece of common shirting was tacked loosely
to the sides of a six inch plank four feet long, forming a
sack. A hole bored into the plank with a three-quarter
bit, served to admit the poison; the sack covered one-
third of the plank, the balance was trimmed so as to be
easily handled. A man on foot holding the plank in one
hand over a row of cotton, tapped it gently with the
other. The fine powder seemed to be very well distrib-
uted to every part of the plant, as every worm was de-
stroyed before perceptible injury was done."
Quite a number of arsenite dusters have been made,
but in the main they agree with that described by Prof.
Newman. Some have been made nine feet long with a
bag large enough to hold several pounds. Eight to ten
acres have been treated in a day by this process, using
from one to two pounds of Paris green per acre.

*Bulletin 17, p. 11, Ala. Ag. Exp. Sta.











A "POWDER GUN."t
for applying dry fungicides and insecticides, has been
used at this. Experiment Station. It distributes the ar-
senites quite uniformly, and with care they may be ap-
plied to the lower side of the leaves.

CAUTION.
These arsenites are poisonous to higher animals, as
well as to insects, and they should not be used on vegeta-
bles nor on fruit that is full grown or nearly so. Fatali-
ties have occurred among horses that were allowed to
graze in 'fields where Paris green had been used.
When used in the dry form care should be taken not
to walk in the "dust;" also, that all sores are protected.
If one has worked with it all day, it is well to take a bath
and change clothes.

KEROSENE EMULSION.
Formula No. 9.
Soap (hard or whale oil) .... .. pound.
W ater . . . 1 gallon.
Kerosene . . ... 2 gallons.
PREPARATION.
Dissolve a half-pound of hard soap in a gallon of
boiling water. .The soap will dissolve more quickly if it
is cut into small pieces and the water, with the soap in it,
stirred while heating. The heating may be done in an
ordinary iron kettle. When the water has heated to boil-
ing and the so .p all dissolved, the kettle may be removed
from the fire and the kerosene added, care being taken
not to ignite the kerosene. After the kerosene has been
added the mixture should be thoroughly churned for ten
minutes. A good way is to force it through a spray pump
back into the kettle several times. Emulsion prepared

tSee Fla. Agriculturist, page 402, June 27, 1894, De-
Land, Fla.











over a fire with the water near boiling kept two years
without separating entirely.
In making kerosene emulsion there are two points
to be kept in mind constantly. 1st. To keep the water
and kerosene just as hot as possible without igniting the
kerosene. 2d. That during this time the material must
be thoroughly and vigorously agitated. Merely stirring
with a paddle will not do. Nor will it make emulsion
.by using warm water. The nearer the igniting point of'
the kerosene and the harder the material is churned, the
better will be the emulsion.
The emulsion may be tested by placing a corked
bottle full of it in a cool place for twentv-four hours; if
no clear liq ,idI rises to the top nor dark liquid settles to
the bottom, the emulsion n:i \ be considered good.
Some trouble has been reported from the use of hard
water; it is therefore recommended that rain water b&
used in those districts that have hard water.
When r, '1-s to use take one part of the preparation
and nine of water; stir until it is mixed evenly and apply.
This insecticide is recommended for insects that ob-
tain their food by piercing plants and sucking the sap, as
plant lice. It is also an excellent remedy for the young
scale before the wax has been secreted. This has also
proven an excel-lent wash to kill lice and other parasites
on animals. Care must be taken, however, that no free
kerosene remains, as this will rise on the mixture and
coming in contact with some tender-skinned animals,
might cause the hair to fall. When diluted with twelve
parts of water it has given excellent results in killing lice
on cattle. It is applied to the animal with a spray or force
pump.

RESIN WASH.
Formula No. 10.
Rosin (resin) ........... 20 pounds
Caustic soda (98 per cent.) .......... 4 lbs 4 oz.
Fish oil . . . 3 pints
Water... .... ....... ....20 gallon-











PREPARATION.
Put all the ingredient- in a large kettle and boil un-
til they are all dissolved, when it is a dark coffee colored
liquid of an even consistency. The preparation will be
hastened by pulverizing the soda and the resin.* When
'cold dilute the mixture to 100 or 125 gallons.
Prof. Webber states that this is an effective remedy
for the white fly (Aleyrodes citrifolii).


ANOTHER RESIN WASH.
is one recommended by the Division of Entomology, U.
S. Department of Agriculture as a summer wash for the
San Jos6 scale.,
Formula No. 11.
Resin . . . 20 pounds
Caustic soda (70 per strength) . 5 pounds
Fish oil .. . . . 3 pints
Water to make . .. .... 100 gallons
PREPARATION.
Place the resin, soda and fish oil in a large kettle,
put in enough water to cover four or five inches deep;
then boil for an hour or an hour and a half, when the
liquid will be a dark coffee brown color. Water is added
gradually and the liquid stirred to keep it mixed evenly,


RESIN WASH FOR WINTER.
Formula No. 12.
Resin . . . . 30 pounds
Caustic soda (70 per cent. strength) . 9 pounds
Fish oil . . . 4j pints

*H. J. Webb.r, report to the Fla. State Hort. Soc.,
April 12, 1894.











'The preparation of this is similar to that of formula
11. This is not recommended for a summer wash as it
may do considerable damage to growing trees.

SULPHUR SPRAY.
Formula No. 13.
Flowers of sulpher . . . 30 pounds
Caustic soda (98 per cent. strength) pulverized. 20 pounds
Water .. .. . .. 3 gallons
PREPARATION.
Take the flowers of silphur, place in a wooden tub
large enough to hold twenty-five gallons. Wet. the sul-
phur with three gallons of water; stir it td make a paste.
Then add the caustic soda and mix it with the sulphur
paste. In a few minute, it becomes very hot, turns brown
and becomes a liquid : stir thoroughly and add enough
water to make twenty gallon-. Pour off from the sedi-
ment and keep the liquid in a tight barrel or keg until
needed for use.
Of this stock solution take one or two quarts to fifty
gallons for rust mite, and two to four quarts to fifty gal-
lons for six-spotted mite (red spider) or young scale.
At the same meeting of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society that Prof. Webber reported the resin wa-h
Prof. Swingle reported this sulphur spray.

LIME, SALT AND SULPHUR MIXTURE.
Formula No. 14.

Lime, fresh . . .. .. 8 pounds.
Salt . . ... 3 pounds.
Sulphur 4 pounds.
Sulphur . . . 4 pounds.
Water .. .... ... .. 12 gallons.
PREPARATION. a

Put two pounds of lime and all the sulphur in a ket-
tle large enough to hold fifteen gallon-, pour on three









25

gallons of water; keep the materials well mixed, and
boil for an hour and a half. At first the mixture is yel-
low, then it turns brown, and then to a reddish brown,
and finally becomes a liquid.
Six pounds of lime and three of salt are then mixed
and the mixture slaked with hot water. When thor-
oughly done, mix with the sulphur-lime solution and boil
a half hour longer, then pour in the .remainder of the
twelve gallons of water.
Strain the solution and apply it.
REMARKS.
This is a favorite wash for winter use in California. It
is used for scale insects and for fungi, but is liable to
damage trees if applied in summer or during the growing
season.
It has not met with as much favor elsewhere; the
main objection that comes from Florida correspondents
is that a smaller amount of insecticide is made from the
material and time expended than from other formulas.


SULPHUR.

This is often used for fungi and also for rust mites.
The method of application is to simply throw it into the
tree, or for smaller plants it is dusted over the foliage. It
can be very economically and evenly applied with the
"powder gun" (see page 21). It is not active enough,
however, for most insects and fungi.


PYRETHRUM "BUHACH."

This powder is of a vegetable origin, being made
from either of the plants, Pyrethrum roseum or Pyrethrum
ciner'folium. The flowers and stems of these plants when
dried and powdered are ready for use. This powder has
a great many common names and every now and then it
comes out under a new name; some of the names it is











known by are Dalhniation powder, Persian insect powder,
Buhach insect powder, etc.
Its principal value lies in that is can be used where
neither ti,. arsenites nor kerosene emulsion can be, as on
cabbage and some other vegetable- It effeefs more or
less all insects, but is imo.,t successful when used against.
soft bodied ones., as cabbage worms and plant lice.

APPLICATION
As a Powder.
-When it is to be used as a powder it is simply dusted
over the parts ai e-ted. This form is often used to pro-
tect furs and woolen goods in wardrobes
It is also used to kill flies, -no.quitoes and other in-
sects. A small insect-powder bellows may be used to
blow it over the place inhabited. If mosquitoes or flies
are to be killed the doors and windows should be closed
and the powder blown through the room generally.
When this is done in the evening it is said that the flies
may be swept up and burned in the morning.

AS FUMES.

In this form it is used mainly to kill flies and mos-
quitoes in rooms. The doors and windows should be
closed. A teaspoonful placed on an iron plate or dust-
pan, is lit and burned; if it burns up rapidly the powder
should be mioistenued until it burns slowly. The fumes
are not disagreeable, and, as a rule, have no bad effect on
persons.
AS A SOLUTION.

This form is usually preferred for the garden, one
ounce of Pyrethrum to three gallons of water being used.
Ordinarily there is no danger attending its use, as per-
sons have taken a whole teaspoonful of the powder with-.
out proving fatal.
The powder loses much of its value by standing in
an open vessel. It. should be kept in a tightly closed
bottle or fruit jar.











TOBACCO.
The) active poisoning principle in this is nicotine,
and the efficiency of this as an insecticide varies with the
amount in the preparation. It may take the place of
Pyrethrum in the garden, or with house plants, but
wherever other insecticides can be used, tobacco prepara-
tions will be found more expensive and less effective.
PREPARATION.
The chemical analyses show so much variation in
the amount of nicotine in tobacco stems and dust that no
very accurate formula can be given, but usually a good
decoction may be made by boiling one pound of stems
in two gallons of water, for a half hour, then remove
from the fire and allow it to cool in a closed vessel.
When cool strain and apply, or put in tightly corked bot-
tles until wanted for use. Apply with sprinkler, a whisp
broom or a spray pump.
If the dust is to be used it is applied directly to the
place infested.

NAPTHALINE.
Properly speaking this is not an insecticide, but a
repellent. It is usually sold under the name of- moth-
balls, and as such commands a fancy price. In ten
pound lots it is sold by wholesale chemical houses at 8
cents a pound. It is a by-product in the distillation of
naphtha. At the college it has been successful in keep-
ing'out insects wherever used. The odor is. not very dis-
agreeable, though it is by no means attractive.
The application is simply to place it so the odor per-
meates all the goods that are to be protected.

BISULPHIDE OF CARBON.
This is an oily liquid that has a very disagreeable
odor. It is very easily ignited, and so care must be taken.
not to bring any fire near where it is being used. This
insecticide is useful, only where the material to be treated











is in a tight apartment. Seed in barrels or boxes or
closed bins can be relieved of their insect pests. Corn in
the ordinary open cribs will not be helped very much.
Hen roosts, barns, storehouses, in fact, any apartment
that can be closed fairly well may be freed of vermin of
all descriptions by the use of this chemical.
CAUTION.
Great care and thoughtfulness must be exercised in
the use of this material.
The liquid ignites much more easily than kerosene
or gun powder and the vapor of this liquid explodes even
more readily. The vapor can usually be smelled but all
lights, smoking or other fire should be kept away.
Carelessness in this regard may cause the loss of property
and lives.
HOW USED.

With Su'h seed as peas or beans, put a half bushel
in a tight barrel, sprinkle on two or three teaspoon-
fuls of sulphide then put in another half bushel of seed
and then some more sulphide; continue this way until
all the seed has been put in or until the barrel is full,
then cover tightly. This may be done by tieing over the
top of -the barrel a thick cloth or by 'placing a cloth on
and then covering with boards. Use one or more ounces
of sulphide to a barrel of seed.
If it is a bin that is to be cleared before storing the
grain, two or three shallow dishes may be used to hold the
sulphide. Use about three ounces to every hundred cirbic
feet of space in the bin. Put the sulphide in the dishes,
and close the bin up tight and leave it so for two or three
days.
If stored grain is to be freed of weevils it may be done.
by putting the sulphide in various portions of the grain.
This can be accomplished by the use of a gas pipe. Run
a stick through the gas pipe and sharpen the stick. Run
the gas pipe into the grain where the sulphide is to go,
draw the stick out of the gas pipe, pour an ounce or two
down the gas pipe, and as soon as the sulphide has reached
the end of the, pipe the latter may be drawn out. If this











has been properly done the carbon ,biiulphide will be
where the end of the pipe was. Several doses of the sul-
phide may be placed at different parts of the bin.
If no gas pipe can be had, another way may be em-
ployed that is not quite so good, but will answer the pur-
pose. A heavy wad of cotton is tied to the end of a stick
saturated with the sulphide, and then placed into the
grain as desired. It will require several wads. When there
is any considerable depth of grain the carbon bisulphide*
will not. penetrate it, hence the necessity for putting it in
different parts of the heap. The sulphide mrCy be brought.
in direct contact with grain or other seed without doing
any damage at all.t


COMBINED INSECTICIDES.
Numerous attellmpt have been made to combine the
insecticides thal kill by contact with those that kill by
poisoning. The different arsenites have been combined
with the resin washes, but as there are usually very few
leaf feeding insects present where the resin washes are to
be used, the combination loses its value.
Prof. L. T. Brunk of the Maryland Experiment, Sta-
tion, succeeded in making a combination of Paris green
and kerosene emulsion. It was accomplished by dis-
solving twenty-seven ounces of hard soap in a gallon of
hot water; this was poured into a half barrel; to this was
added one pound of copper carbonate, and then two and
one-half ounces of Paris green. The whole was then thor-
ouglhly mixed by running it through a spraying machine
several times.
After the emulsion was fully formed the mixture was
diluted to twenty-eight gallons. The mixture was found
to be very sticky, and so is recommended for the earlier
applications only.

*Carbon bisulphide is advertised for ten cents a pound
in fifty-pound lots by Edward R. Taylor, Cleveland, Ohio,
tCf. B. 17 Miss. Agr. Exp. Sta., H. E. Weed.
Md. 4th Ann. Rep., page 386.










30

COMBINED FUNGICIDES AND INSECTICIDES.
As the cost of applying fungicide. and insecticides
is greater than the cost of the materials used, experimen-
ters are working to reduce this to a minimum. It has
often occurred that a crop needed a fungicide and an in-
secticide at the same time. Now, if .the two could be
combined, the cost of applying the combination would be
just one-half that of applying them separately. The
proposition seems plain enough, but when one gets into
the actual work, a great many questions arise that were
not apparent at first. However, such combinations have
been discovered, and what is still better, the combination
is not only as efficient as each preparation applied sepa-
rately, but the efficiency* of the insecticide is actually in-
creased.
Formula No. 15.

Bordeaux mixture .. 50 gallons
London purple .. . . pound

Prepare the Bordeaux as directed in formula No. 2
as desired, and just before applying stir in the London
purple and apply. Paris green may be substituted for
the London purple, but the latter has some advantages
over the former. White arsenic should not be substituted,
however.

REMEDIES THAT HAVE FAILED.
SALT.

This has often been recommended for various evil.,
among them wire worms and cut worms. Prof. Com-
stock of Cornell University tested it for the former pests
and found that it, could not be considered a remedy.
DECOCTION OF JAMESTOWN WEED (THORN APPLE').
has been recommended as a specific for cut worms, but it

*C. P. Gillette, Bulletin 10, Ia. Ag. Exp. Sta., pages
401-420,










3I
did not kill the larvae of Colorado potato beetle when ap-
plied to best advantage.

DECOCTION OF CHINA-TREE LEAVES

has been recommended without limitation as a slayer of
insects. Although wh-eu the regulation formula was fol-
lowed as closely as possible we found that even the most
delicate insects were not killed by a thorough applii(Aation
of the decoction.
Herbarium specimens of the above tree suffer as
badly as any other in our herbarium.

CHINA BERRIES

have been recommended as preventatives for moths,
weevil and pests in general. Boxes at the college contain-
ing these and other specimens became infested with
moths, weevils and other beetles. Prof. H. E. Weed of
Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, has had sim-
ilar experience in connection with stored grain. (Bulle-
tin 17, p. 11).



REMARKS ON INSECTICIDES.
1. There are a great many insecticides on the mar-
ket; some are of excellent merit. Most of them follow, or
make slight variations from the formulas given in experi-
ment station or government reports.
2. Paris green is the favorite form of arsenites. It
should be used with a great deal of caution.
3. Resin wash, Formulal No. 10, is probably the
best for scale insects. It has not been tried by the station.
4. The sulphur preparations have also a fungicidal
property, but it is not very active.
5. Carbon bisulphide can be used to advantage in a
great many places.
6. The combined insecticide.and fungicide is a de-
cided acquisition.










32
COST OF MATERIALS FOR MAKING SPRAYING
SOLUTIONS, AND WHERE THEY MAY BE
OBTAINED. I
Below is given a table showing the cost of chemicals
recommended in this bulletin when bought in the quan-
tity given in this table. If a large quantity is to be used
it can be had cheaper. These chemicals may be obtained
from J. C. L'Engle, No. 1 East Bay street, Jacksonville,
Fla.:
Ammonia water (260 B), in 7-pound bottles, 10 cents
per pound, and 20 cents for the bottle.
Arsenic, white, 10 cents per pound.
Carbonate of ammonia, 12 cents per pound.
Carbonate of soda (sal soda), in 5-pound packages, 4
cents per pound.
Carbon bi-sulphide (bi-sulphide of carbon), 25 cents
per pound, in 1-pound cans.
Caustic soda (70 per cent), in 50-pound cans, 6j cents
per pound.
Copper carbonate, 46 cents per pound.
Copper sulphate (blue stone), 6 cents per pound, in
10-pound packages.
Lime, quick, 75 cents per barrel.
London purple, 27 cents per pound.
Napthaline, 8 cents per pound, in 10-pound cans.
Paris green, 26 cents per pound.
Potassium sulphide, 39 cents per pound, in 5 pound
packages.
Pyrethrum, insect powder, 21 cents per pound.
Resin, Rosin, $2 per barrel of 180 pounds.
Sulphur (flowers), 3 cents per pound, in 50-pound
packages.
Tobacco dust, barrels, 3 cents; smaller quantities 4
cents.
Tobacco stems, 1 cents per pound, in 50-pound pack-
ages.

FUNGICIDE AND INSECTICIDE TABLE.
At the suggestion of Dr. Clute the following table has
been prepared. Such an outline must necessarily be brief;










33
in fact, its whole value lies in its being brief and bringing
together facts deduced from elaborate treatises. One may
know, also, under what heading to look for fuller discus-
sion of any particular remedy.
HOW TO USE THE TABLE.
The method of using the table hardly needs explana-
tion. The first column to the left contains the names of
plants in common cultivation in alphabetical order. The
second column contains the names of diseases of the plants
named in the first column.
The first disease that a remedy is given for is placed di-
rectly opposite the name of the plant. The name of the sec-
ond disease of that plant, if given, is placed directly under
the first, and so on. Directly opposite the disease is given
the remedy. If there are two or more remedies given for the
same disease the second is placed under the first, and so on.
The mode of treatment is placed in the fourth column op-
posite the remedy. To illustrate, let us suppose the trou-
ble is with a peach, looking down the first column we find
peach, opposite this in the second column is San Jose scale;
below this peach louse, plant louse, black louse, curculio, but
none is the disease we are looking for; finally we come to,
spotting on the fruit; as this is what we are looking for we
will look opposite the third column for the remedy, which
we find to be ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate, and
opposite this in the fourth column we are advised to spray
when the fruit has set, and then repeat every ten days or
two weeks.
The above table should not be considered complete. A
single instance, that of the grape, may be cited, which
has more known diseases than the total number given in
the second column.















TABLE FO)R Li'E OF FL'NIt'IFIfE A .ND IN


Plant. Disease. (-niemedy.


Beanie I| Bru o ipot of podl Animonical s'olu-
vounop plants, a.ndt on of Copp, er Car-
leaves. iC i ,t(!ri,- oonate. Borde.au
chum Luidem iet l r. i Mij.tu re.
Iiliii i I I
Blignt iSrl ,ci i-; Eau Celeste. Am-
Ma : p. i ololical solution OfI
,Copper Ca rouonat


Cabbage


Weevils iBrticnriasiC'arbonu bi-iulrpiide.
otjtiil'tv I
Naptrialine.






Worms." iLi- Pyrothrurri.
vrr u>f Lo piou'ip,. '
Pan. I' ree hn. f
SLondon Prpile I


Harlequin bLia.
Calico bu r Mii -
iantia ht&ir.triiiat.



Cucumbers. Cucumber liuse.. Kerosene Emul-
m elon I uqr.. b. .- lion.
inon fly Aph;, cu-

Cueu nm be r buhi Tobh.so. stemIS.
beetle. IDiabit oi.
1-puaiilata.i




Eggp.lant. Leart spot t-uirins. Bordeaux Mi.x tLir-..
i prtll.stl.tla hopI i r,- Amnmonial 4)l u-"
ritmri I lilon Ot copper car-
bonate.

Blight iSclet'rl- Same as fbi rneau
uin _p I blight,




O rdpeo Black rot ILucIq- Bordeaux mi x-
tnirui bidwi.tiii I ture Eau C:elesti.
Ammoric al soiu-
tifu of Copper ('ar-
I boat



**rrnrs i I'nrin.rr
Lai ir.i


El .'TIC I ES.


H.-,w U6ed.


Suak the Seedl 24
ours: plant: pray
plants every ten
dayu or two wo-k

A.t nist signs siray
stELus. root- nud
,oil abnut the plant
very renll day3 or
two weeks.
ITS, in cle-'sed bin
or barrel.
Odor ke-ep- tltem
ii-IJ t




Same at tor bi lran

Du-.t or spray oit
piants

Not adliis-ed

Pick off.
DiAtrnjy egrr.




Apply tnoroutlail.3
tu the undersideuf
leialie! of In'fe-ted
plants.
Placed onu the ill
as the plants Deirin
to com'i up.



Destiny all leCu mr
and frLUt attacked.
spray leave' and
iruinf erv 10 duy.
or two weeks.

Same as for bean
iight.


Sira. stems %liOu
buds began Lto ,ell
and then Cveiy 12
days until fruit is
fullgrown Dt not
Use Bordeaux tlia
tlat two times: it
coliorA the trl`lit.
Hand pickmin u'
[lt e i e rlie< t V t',odf.













TABLE FOR USE OF FUNGICIDES AND INSECTICIDES.


Diseases.

S m u t ( Ustilagc
avewna).


Rust mites (Phy-
tops).


Remedy.

Hot water.
Potassium sut l-
phide.

Sulphur spray.


Plant.

Oats.



Orange.




























Peach.


















Pear.


Red spider (Tet- Kerosene emul-
ryancus 6-macula- sion, sulphur spray
tus).
Water.


Red scale (Aspidi-
otus fleus).


Long Scale (Myti-
laspis gloveri).





White fly (Aley-
rodes citrifol,)



San Jose scale(As-
pidtotus peniefosus)





Plant louse,peaoh
louse (Myzus cerasi)
Black louse (Aphis
persitcaeniger).
Curculio (Cono-
trachelus nenuphar)

Spotting on fruit
(Oladosportum car-
pophilum).


Blight, fire blight
(Micrococus
amalovorous).


Resin wash,
Lime, salt and
sulphur spray.
Same as Red
Scale.





Rosin wash.




Rosin wash.
Summer wash.
Winter wash.
Kerosene emul-
sion.
Lime, salt and
sulphur.
Kerosene emul-
sion.
Kerosene emul'n
Paris green.
London purple,

Ammoniacal so
lution of copper
carbonate.


(No treatment has
stood the test).


How Used.


See page (28)


Spray in May or
June (before they
migrate to the
fruit).
Dusted over
leaves and among
branches in May or
June.
Use as an ordina-
ry spray.
Used with irri-
gating plant.
Spray when the
insects are bad; be-
fore rainy season
preferred.
Spray in March or
April (when larvme
are moving) also in
June or July and in
September or Octo-
ber. Repeat spray-
ing at short inter-
vals.
Spray under side
leaves thoroughly
before Ily be-
comes winged.

Burn on the spot
all badly infested
trees.
Spray thoroughly
and repeat every
ten days or two
weeks.

Spray forcibly on
underside of leaves
Same as above.
Spray when fruit
has well set: repeat
every ten days.
Spray when fruit
has set; repeat ev-
ery ten days or two
weeks.


Cut out the dis-
eased parts to afoot
belpw where blight
shows. Burn part
out out.


Sulphur.


I----- ------


-- --













IABLIE FI'' R -I: FlNF.iN>.l'I.ii -. AND INSEt I slide*


Pliant Di-id-'. i Hemedy. Ho" Urd

P-er CCon i .aIb on fruit, l.rrdi x mx\- S rai 1-t. bL'lIO
|iaF i ii,']i're p in' ,r [ I'n M,'dai1-, Eau la e 1,1 % appr -al
liniii >~Cl.?6te. .Arumon'r a-,- dr. Juit alter
t.al -''iuti,..n. C' p -t J % Whcu i raj t
per .ail',nate ha_ h.urnLjrt .
l1n. .\A lurernil
|) t 1 1in day. ut r1rl
I fruit i n I.arly,
I i .r .. I
San ..Jo_-e 'cule. Samn.d. S r wi l-n atf-, SaD n s- when ul-
l. 1-p r.. 7rlii P..l I l -.teeilrln pmrcll itilrin l p.fich


PLm:t I Sant Jo'_ S..al'-. -rm>: u, tp le a hi t ar _..i p:iu th
ulr .-i .S S c ,. hl r pa:earn! A.im e a for p.ra.'h

Brown rot. (Mo- Bordeaux mix- Spray when buds,
nilla fructegena.) ture. Ammonacal begin to swell,
solution of Copper again when fruit
carbonate. has set, then every
ten days or two
weeks.
Shot-hole fungus. Bordeaux mix- When leaf buds be-
.',,pt.. r' ,n, ,, a,,., rur, Ammonacalg into open, and re-
-solut on of Copper peat everyten days
carbonate, or two weeks until
leaves are full,
grown.


Potato. (Irish.) Black rot. (Mac- Bordeaux mix- Spray as soon as,
rosporlum solant.) ture. Modified Eau plants are well up.
Celeste. Ammona- Repeat every ten.
cal solution of Cop' days.
per carbonate.
Blight. (Saleroti- Same as for bean Same as for bean,
urn.) blight, blight; use about a
pint of fungicide to.
a plant.



Seed (Various Weevils and Napthaline. Place among and
kinds). Moths. on top of seed in
closed boxes.
Carbon bisulphide Kills. (See page
(28)


'Tomato. Blight. (Scleroti- Same as for pota- Same as for pota-
ur sp). to blight, to blight.
Black rot. (Ma- Same as potato Same as potato
crosporium solani. black rot black rot.
Leaf blight. (Cla- Bordeaux Mix- Spray on first ap-
dosporium rutrm, r. ture. Ammonical pearance, then ev-
solution of Copper ery ten days or two
carbonate. N weeks












70
|
e*L
-i




alN


ACY
~Ie'





w im

~u
S t 1A1


NNW1 Re*, 1:6
* |n
lIIu






V . .
N",
v

Alow to EmpNoy. Raw, AltIoii t
V,
j Of aO&fflIcst a


In, p reparing, quantity, auy: u TV
rt4, care hiust: be the rtw,
ri al for' te'' rijE purc [lased U
mixjn3 to s'co' that, t _qra
oo`nceatrated- (L e, is rih', enough i n tie, a en
a ,food i0iich, it coiltainO to 'pro,ide_thc,'defini,
Is to say""i J_ 'M1
Li uht. T at i
Atty Uf Inixed fertiLizei-5 Sol
to cqt,,pqurd`exqa1y one 0 c) Q 11) 0 f nip tj
f -, r, t i izer mix ur&'that-will ana,
Phosp'hQria.' cid 6,,
Potash 00, per GIt G
Nitrogei -8.oo per cent
it Ayill be 'necessary to, use', very conccnt fo'rll",of
fbr sfipplying each constituent- 6f !.,plan
at in, pj a w, 12'L
,,,th, -oviding the ton of jie, rc
te quantities of t]-w, several plaitjood con''st'll
acid '16tash and NTit'roYCn2)`, A6 quautAty-
_,Of ra,.w, inate6a f used mus't not ag-r6gtte ore:.'i lian'
Ab. othevNNI'ise, the fertilizer wou'IdIrl'ot& of th&',
-,;"trengthd6sirN, but bright 6e considerably ess--O pen di
6f 'course, Lipon'ti ie- sl re gth, or dejrc:e-of c-oncen" rat1*oTr-eof"'1'1,,-
er of plant food,
t'-we laav' gn liand'-:
-Let vs suppose tha e
llkcid phosj)jiate coataimnn '?oc/,-Phos.f1clCf;,
Muriate Potash' conaining 1 -2 1'() t t S 4''
Nitrate Soda containing 16% :Nl-itr(
wedesjrto emplo ial.in -En, a, r
and' y, this 'Taw mater
:i6n Ooob lbs.) of fertilizer Inixture whicl-INvill
ootpcr cc*t Pliosphoric acid
I i "IF, _V
I 2.,On, per ent o i
oa per-cent Nitrogen.
'T 6"-first el.. 11 11 01,1,Jlp-
It n r es,"w6liid, b,
quest 6, we', `m, u Id ask,'--6u, slelv
ow, Many pounds oI I)li6sphoric"'acid,;-jnii,,,t- the tQn of ei
yze -.00 T)er-ccn o Is su-
't"11,Aer contain it'itis-t-Q'ahal 8 t f"th-
The amCrlo' tili.1; lbs*'(2060 C 08
1'6'b 1s,) 'Asi-inilar-qaery irl t -,ga.&to'dic!'Tauh, C, u I i
Hl', d con-
'fPota.h and Nitxqki A-.tlj(-_.ton6f nik(urc -wou Aii:
g,
that qo, lbs, 6f, the for'ITIIII
i4'
_rescritiri everv tur(
16o, -ono TmN
Of 'I 'H-er nn st be-7p wi,
1bq, -the a :
'in ordevSth-al tlle-D I Fe i-e jraybe-af t he-dLi re d-
str(n-,Ah.
-Lvihg gaine -Iformafio -n'thej)6xt ques6o-J_,b"
d tf is ii,
a$kdd s' _Ho-Iv rnucli-4"idThp C'es


-A.








































ihnture
,: 2, 0);:





513 FT

Wtj
P, go, pq, Oy
ii ed' '_'-t 11 111'

lc rL1 sa
f
N
'f Wrc, 1
recl
'1 r
Fk- (j) -sue it, a I xF tli. er
6",Ajatjly eac yt, 'J"'
jo-esell't tile, IIe'ccs'sa6,'-'I1lIlI1 OU, S, )M ,

-1'UP -CF(Ts P,propolr

lost) per Oavai ki. 1) 1

6 tell
F1
we"'de k -ttonj- 6Q
qe: ;t I I f, s j r AQ n ]'It e tip
NY hichN,6i IF ;S-,
le-'al oe, M 11 "i"I, at:' Ii C_
ol_;llpp ylrrr
4-it f6hts of jlail t CR ourse 01,F`Fea
F
I I L ly"been 11 b6 f 6 u,*1 i4atFa
fA '1I U ,t 'tol I Ccl I I l o'. I i_,'s 1) 1 c I
0 :is v; a 11 c -q,
zr
rca s 0 af ll`g, a re a e d, v(Fil
qLIl It 11,16S -h: l C-F,, lo' wstdj` Qo,
-111101112 s o Ll
t




I id e-pa 1
1,;Le,41noflljts ot lLcCvrxt jD1'ar&fOOcIs.F,1,N6;vv
"o 1:1 e F1 T 1 1, L, Ft J I C IS 1100.CSSl 1b
1-;,_"'W ;`,.- '1 -_ '11, .- ,' 1; 11 I IT I 11, 1 "A
br fi,61
'a, 11 IT] 1,,, 11,
I

.,PQ

r, Op d "T s n 7 IF
-4- '4r
I'l C ejj
1) C e t
tr 4t
Wjth ata at, wiattcl-,
ii I d, b
I, Lr:n ,p rep. j I Q' hj, f6jt_l jZe r
&11 t 6 1 d t4dW1 dbl
s F, I b Lp 6 ll U, 1:

I F