Fruits of Florida.

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Title:
Fruits of Florida.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description:
Unknown
Physical Location:
Box: 2
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Fruits of Florida.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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AA00000206:00062


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Full Text







SThe numbers in 1the follo-:ing pares are tk.:n to the nearest hundred

o t s ou.sand from the Tenth Bi! emial Re-' of i 1:; Co:i ssi..-i: e_.-. Ai.-lc,.1-
7-
o. -- ]M. I 'D-
th1r-._ Th- :- L.. : -- -'. -'-' s "":' "- -fL de proporti onal o the nu .ber

of treess or crates in each count., those below a certain mrinimun having

omitted. The E-llet ins 7l" ec. rfer:ed t e o li-

i' s I '1-:. I. ; int. The Florida iwllet.ins are senti. ifr- on applicant on

to the Dir-.ct:or of the Ex eriment Statlon. The bI.l.l i.=tns of th1e U.S.D'^

re sent fr-ee onn .appl tic ion:- Secgr ,t. of A-.c .' .. -.Was n.:-t_._ n,

D. C ... o' s -. Lh a -ce is 3.ffi: xed,applica-tion must. be a.i.de

to .e Super-int lender of Docn'ent s. The volumes of the Florida Hort i"
;z^^/>^^ cd 4eAe &g.^. Po-Lc^^'4C*
cult..r_.-al Society o.. J .t J-Ti :2.: .- 7-Te 3 c t.-is

So: =--et;. (:7 .- "l :...:.:s th pr ivileg e of at endi i- the annual aePn,'ig and

the rec: ipt of the annual volume of proceedings) "as lour heen fi.:ed at

the low rate of b. a :ear. Union i5 st ren-t; a 1..:1 e'.r .t- rop r in

Flbrida ".uld rain h:- a strong Horticulti.ral Societ--.





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The orange belt of Florida is included bet.vwe-;n some:j1at no-rth of

lat. 2' ds ris alsad a .er.at so.th C. la- .. 2 :. e 5 :s.. It reac-hes fa rth. er

north! on the East coast than on the West coast.

Th. ora n.e most suIed to d o-Dtrtt-.------ --e--

Is -L._ S U.. ". a I. .. t ,U:.-f ,l, .. t.:,c! -.

In C&ei.t-:'ai Fla. ,Cente nnial ,Dancy;,Homersassa ,Jaffa ,ij'orea ,Parson

Brorrn,an). Tardiff, are much rc-own.on grapefruit .o soui.r oine stock;'while

in.South Fla. ,the r. L on .--..... s. : to a li t. 5 e as s-oc'/.
v:- -L-.- l .li t s F o a in ..


SFarmers' Bulletin 238,P.H. Rolfs.1506.it.s Fruit Grwing

."r* in i i.ti s, Wm,4 it4 /-t26<-5
t_ tus Fruits and their Culture by H. H. Hume.. .- t,

H. C-W i. Drew Co.,Jac': or.ille, Fla,-04.t
S Scale insects anid liites on Citrus Trees,C. L. Marlatt.

Fan mer's Bul:Letin 172.1903.

Packing Citrus Fruits .Fla.Exp.Sta.Bul.C3.H.H. Hume.1900,

.. Fungus Diseases of Scale insects and VWhitefly.

Fla. E-p.Sta.Bull.94.P.H. Rolfs. and H. S. Fawcett,1908.
4 Scaly Bark of Citrus.Fla,.E>x.Sta.Bul.98. H.S. Fawcett ,190.

New Citrus Producti ns of the Depa-rtmn.nt cf Agriculture- U.SD.,A.

-Yearbook. Reprint No. 427.

Fumigation for the- Citrus Whitefly.U.S.D.A.Bur. of Entor.i.Bul.76.

A. W. Morrili,1.90 .
Proceedings of Fla.Hort.Soc.1908 and previous years.E.O. Painter ~*

}t-ttrt-. $1L.ii ez' x ic.

Shipping and Packing Oranges,by W. S. Hart ,F.G.Sampson,O.W. Sadler,

W. E. Bryan,Dr., Inman,L.S. Tenny,--tc. Piroc.of Fla.Hort.Soc. for
__ _ ._____- '.-






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1908,pys. 38~-76;


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GFAPEFFUI IT,


The center of the grapefruit belt lies farther south than is the,

case with the orange, and more are being planted down the West Coast..

The, varieties mostly trrown are De Soto ,Di.inea ..Ecel sior,Ha_,

TTarsh,P.ernambuco ,Fy,and Standard ~-r 'i.- ,

M:ior- than Mal'f a million, tre-s have been -lanted in Fla.



.(See also Alranes)













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REACHES.

The- Peach' belt extends ovlr -orthers. .d. C_.-.al Ficrida.
Favorite -:.-rlet.i-s areAi -el,BEid-.7ell"s Ea.rl, ,Bi dc- all's Late,Climax,
S...- /;'a -L jai. JW .2t;/'. l --6',
Colon,F i.-.-.:. Ger. ,nper-ial ,Jewel ube-r ;riaaa.I JWa. lcl
The varieties are budded on peach seedalin .s. "p "
About a third of a million trees were growing in Fla. in 109,.



A
A Fun.gu.s Disease of San" Jose Scale:Fla.Exp.Sta.Bul.41,P.H.Rolfs.1 891,
Two Peach Scales.Fl..Er-p.StasBu 1. 6.H.A. ossard.190-..
Proceedings :,f .he Fla..Staie Hort.Socr.for 19071 and earlier years.



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PIITEAPFLES.


The Pincap,-le thelt is confined, to S.Fla.,and mainly to the East Coast.

The Red Spanish is the commercial variety.

S T a Caeyenne 'produc s an excellent fruit, and some of the .hy-ri,

1:inC'i.les of the U.S. Dept.+of Agriculture are probably for taste and;.
aronma.,unexcelled in the world.

Nearly U half a million crates were produced in the year 1907-8~

Pine l. e GC -i .US.SD.A.Fa .Bu, ,l. '.l4. 1.

Pinreaprpe.u Cultu.ure.Fs tilizers.Fla.Exp.Sta.Bhl."7 83.H.K.Miller and

A. W. Blair.1iO06,

Pineaprple Cult.-L-e.HandliUi' the Crop.Fla.E:-p.Sta;.Bul, 4.1T.H.Hume, ..
:e P- ..ction o e De..L ...:~.t of Agricu ture.,U.S.D.A.
iTew P- r, t o i
V'O 'YeYearbook.

: f Kft -Re--print No. 427.
Pineapple Gro:'.inf and Shipping,By B.K.McCarty. ,

CProc.of Fla.State Hort, Soor. for 1908.E.O. Painter Ptg.Co.,

DeLand.Fl.. $1 .
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BECAlIS..

Pecans are grown mainly: in. I. Fla. The cliif T-L.rirt.L.os L .. e~,

Frotscler, Schle-y;,Stuart, and Van De-.an..

The pecan is usually budded on seedling stocks.

Over sixty thousand trees had been set out -.: 1908.

Buddin- the Pzcan.G.W.01iv:7 ,U.S.D.A.Bu.. o_ P. tm Ind.

Fruit and ITut J umr&nel'. cBul.0O Price,10 cents.






BANITAAS.
These are grown chiefly in S. Fla.

Harts' Choice and Caven.dish are pe.-haps the two b: st va-sUltl. s.

ITearly thirteen thousand bunches are eniime. ated in the se.as.nI 100,-8.




Banana. W.S. Fawcett W7.I. Bul. 1,. c,

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PEARSP,



Pears' are most cultivated in IT.Fla.,

The two main varieties are the Keiffer and Le Conte.

About forty thousand trees. are estimate edl in Fla.

They are usualI- --r

Proc. Fla.StL.1.- Hct. Soc.

.







sTTAVA .


Mainly grown in S. lha., and to some extent in S, Central Fla..

The oval yellow (Oild guava) and tc-e pi-ae-shaped wlhite(cultivat -

or Pr- -,--:. ..-t t-he two' main forms. Since it is p yropa--ted by seed',

and see-ds from different parts of the world have been grown and apparently

crossed fr-eely in Fla. .the:.-, is a legion of variations. Selectsel. kinds;

can be fixed by .propa-a.tion *h: stem or root cuttings..

Sixteen thcr.sand crates of guavas are estimated for the season,

1907.-8.

Th Cattle, and Chinese guavas are quite different- species of

Psidium, and of slighter value..

The five-angled large pear-Er1-:ed fruit often called Guinea:

gniava,is a variety of cultivated P.&..ajava from the gardens of india..

Guava jelly~ John Belling. Fla.Exp. Sta..Rept. for 1908,

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FIGHc .


Figs are grown especially in N, and Central Fla,. and in some parts of

S, Fla.

Bruns-wlk,Celestial, wand White Adriaticare anong t.he 1-ost varieties.

All are Crown from stem B uttings. The most profitable .ayr to market

figs in Fla. is to preserve them whole in syrup.

Over five thousand crates are estimated for the season 1907-8.

The FiSI Its Hist.or,Culture, and Ciurlng.ustav Eisen. U.S.D,A. Division

of Pomology,,ul.9,10 IO, Price, -- cents


The Fir ir. re--Lgla.Bul, 77,Ga.Zxp.Stta




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IMEh S.


The Lime- is r.-.i;n In S. Fla. Seed.lngs only are c--ro".'n. Se'dless and

spineless varies ait are known and propagated by budldinrg in the WeI, amd

it raiylht pay Fla. nur'ser;.aen tl o ch& ._n arid pr:p:. t.t- t1ese:. b '-.

,Tear-ly 5000 'er-ees ver- r-rown in 1908..

Citrus Fruits. H. H. HumE.


























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GRAPES.


The Grape belt includes ro-"st of North and Central Florida.

Delaware,Magarra, and. Ives h-av-3 bee-n Crown 'ori sli Sinll i.;, ITO.t'".-rn.L. .Lkets,
A
a&nd alcn. ..-;t,- Cynthi-Lna1 ,iToton and Eltra-a. are used for wine-ekcln.,

The Muscadine grapes,such as,Ja es,Scu;.py-rnonpg and Thomas,bear heavily,

but are not shipped.

The crop of Florida for 1907-8 is estimated as over 500,tons.


G-1a.pe,F Ra.in, and Wine prod ucti Lon in the U.S. U.S.D,A. YearbookReprint,

UTo. 21.

I'csect and Fung-ous Enemies of the Grape. U.S..A. Farmer's Bulletin 284.

Manufafturei of Unfermnented Grape TMust.U..S.D.A, Bur-. of Plant IT;f:.,st 7-.

E..il. 2- 10 .

Proc. of Fla.. Ho-t. Soc. for 106 and earlier years.
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AVOCADOES.


The Avv.ado is suited to South Fla. and especially to the fouir s-ithernoost

co":.nt -!,s.

Tr-.app rand PC _-,Ik ."- prcr.'l.-'' the two 1.st ve- t -t -s. T :- .--- a d bi ed

or inar-chd on sez-dlings.

Th- p.-..:, action of' this ,promising' fruit for the season 110"'- is given as

over four tl-ousand crates.



Th.; AvOcr.do in. Florida. P.H. Rolfs.U.S.D.A. Bur. or Planit Ind,.~-r ,-,Bu1l.1.1.

1904. P-_c -. c. :._..s.

The. Avacal'--.'O.1.CollLns.U.S.D.A. Bur; of Plant Indu.c. t.ri,:r,.:.1. ??.1905.

Price 3 c-'ts.














MANG-OES.


Man:--oes are mostly grown south of 27 degrees latitude, and especially

in Dade count:'.

Be~ae ,t ,Cam-.odialna ,F1 nlnan ez ,Heulroba,Rajapri- ,Sundersha _, n- Tota f'ari,

S*.-- the East Indr.l.n varieties hat have alr.ad~- fruited in Fla.
-and are excellent in different '-ways.
ThIf,~re inarched or budded on se -dl-ing shocks. The d: ge':a--c e seedlings Cn

1:nown as 1T:,. 111 EB.o~baye tc. 9.as grown in Fla. have no chance in

competition with these surpassingly good iriported varieties,which, in

Sthe opinion of many peo!le,are among the fest fruits knomn. Over

Sthree tho. s -and crates aas e reported for tie season 1907-8.

T .e T::-..:olts Cult-r0 e -:.-' Varieties ,y G. M. Woodr-ow. London,H.G. Cove,1904.

Proc..of Fla. State Hort.Boo'. 1908,and preceedinf vols.

Propagation of Tropical Fruit Trees.G.W. Oliver. U.S.D,A.. Bur. of Plant

Inc;du'.. y. Bul. 46. Price,10 co'-.ts.










PERSIMMONS.



Japanese Persimmons are grown in N. and Central Fla.. This excellent fruit

has iot :-t: bee'. sL.f1i-:ieritly advertised. in ITorthern markets. Of t-he non-

astr-irgent varieties Yemon)HyaJlume 1and Zengiare most piopula_.. Of the

usually seedless vcaieties whicci are astringent until they soften,Costata,

Hachi:a, Tamenas-,i,Triumn_;h and Tsuru are recoermn.i-_aed. The varieties are

7raf t -d cn, the wild native persi-.uLr~on.


Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.














PAPAYAS.


Papayas rQrow well in S. Fl.Sinc-e tthe:? bI n to f'a::it :'t -r a :;ear's

grow-th, the: can be rais-d in Central Fla., if protected iicr1.i-:r the ".i nter..

TheC- are -:o'.L from Fed nl:. T.1-re are three chile' vari- -ls, -ie

com?.on sor:s.':a.t ipriif'orr.A !indi;the very long thick-mrna. -I, :'-:t (Bar'-ados

pa-paw of the WiI.) ;andi t-e large o-...n"ded juicy v1 ,'.*e-f 'e:d -; --t,,-own

in. '.- i Antilles anl Porto Rico. The two latt -r are Tuch sue-.i olr. The

frupit!ing flower s of imported good kinds should be ha.nd-i- llinated and

insects exclu-ded ,hen se4d is to be saved. Other.' e 's _s 1-e

,'s .- i ts d papaya Ioiy l cat::'e them o detsriorate.

The best kinds of papaya are quite excellent frul-its, and iv. e :u;d. .d tedly

a st-onger digestiiS action on proteids than p .. app-Ls.













OTHER FFJJI .S. '"



Of "-.: *.--? f r.i's gr',ni'L manlyj in S. Fla. 'a, ttsapodilla Sc~l s-ar

applQmaY- perhaps be of commercial importance in the ne fut'ri'e.



























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In the foregoing pages no mention w as made of the strawberPry


which is usually placed under the head o4frults" This is grown


very extensively in the .O tBe throughout the central to north


central portion and all along the northern portion of the State,


Among the minor frjults 'that may be grown in thu State


there are a great anny that may be mentioned. Persimmons and


plums grown as deciduous fruits, Cashew, Otahelte gooseberry, sape-


dilla, Barbadoseherry, rose apple, Shaddock, cocoanrut,


-Matue apple, and many others not so well known may be grown in


the tropical portion of the State,.




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The limes as known in a part of the eastern United States is


not grown in orchard form but is produced in some abandoned or


entirely abondqned orchnrde in a wild state. Trnder these con-


ditions the fruits ripen at a very small size. When, these same


tre s -are brought into cultivation the frunt usually attains


the size of small lemons and is not wanted on the general marl;et.


Though for some use the fruit from the cultlvdb troc will be found


as good or superior to that produced In the snme wild condition.


The nmrket at the present time is too fickle and erratic to


Justify extensive planting of 1imes, but for home use r few trees


should occur on every farm in the region where they may be grown


without protection,






_ ..._



"hese trees occur practically everywhere in the "tate of Florida


as- garden and backyard plants. The climatic conditions ore such


that one Is not justified in planting extensive areas with n view


of producing the crop on an extensive scale, but Jlaa every home


in the State should have from one to n dozen good trees, and for


local marKots it is a paying crop,


The propagation of this tree is very simple. The main


method being that of rooting cuttings. This is very successfully


carried out on almost every farm. As atter of fact the cuttings


may usually be set out where one expects the tree to grow By


taking hardened wood cuttings, such as harq passed the rinterg


there is not much difficulty In securing a fair number of those to


root.




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The quava is th6 king -li.ly fruit or America, It is not


grown to nearly the extent in FlorikQ that it will be in future


years, By special treatment the treespcan be protected and good

crops of fruit obtained as i2nr north as the central portion of

Alachua county.. The rost practicable way of doing this worK

is to secure a good variety of the guava Plant these out in orchard


form, mixing the rows 15 cr 20 feet sport and place the plaJts


about 10 fe@t apart in the row. Then by: fall before froe.zing wIenthr


may be expected the trees should be ah bent over and covered with

soil By pruning the tre... bacK rather severely,the amount of


soil to be used for the trees will be rather small, A'n ll o the

fruit is borne on noe? shoots antabundant crop will result the


next year.


The dattley or Chinese guava which is froqneatly Walled


Guava in north Florida belongs to a different species of plant

and will be found somewhat more hardy then the gunva,


Ordinarily good orchard soil will be wcll adapted to the guava

plantat.pn.


In south Florida the guava grows practically as a weed.








Little attention has been given to the selection of varieties, and

from this a W method of handling the crop a greiatmany tons of

jelly are produced annually, .By a systematicc selection for good

vnrlotios and giving them good orchard conditions a large nrioiunt

o fruit can be pr ordced annually, 'here T.nl' ~. made into j:elly

directly on the farm a nice bome ind lutry is established,





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The pear centers for Plorida are located in Jefferson, Ns-


cambia, and Alaohba counties. At one time the planting i the


State of Florida was very extensive. More recently many of the

trees have been abandoned, due to the fact that satisfactory prices

cannot be obtained during some years, and the price obtained during

the good years are not sufficient to make pear growing a lucrative


form of orcharding. The pear blight has interfered more or less


with the production but this V3 a secondary cause for the decline


of pear production in the State.


The best soil for a pear orchard is at the same time one of

the '.est soils for a cotton plantation. Pears, pecans, and peach


trees are al partial to about the same character of soil.









This fruit is so well known on the markets that one may fairly

say that it is the universal fruit for the United States. Prac'-

tically all of it that is on the market at the present time is

grown in the tropics and imported. The amount of bananas that are

on the market even locally in Florida and are grown at home is

very small indeed, In fact through a large portion of the yoar

It is scarcely possible to get any ofthe home grown fruit, It

should, however, be planted as a crop for the home and kitchen

in all counties south of Orange and Pasco. The varieties that

can be grown in this region, including Hart's Ohoice, Cavendish,

and Lady Finger,, are so much superior to the tropio that is im-

ported from the tropics that it will repua. u to spend some time

and give some attention to the growing of bananas.

This plant thrives best on moderately "olst soil cont .inng

a large amount of decaying organic matter, The best banana

plantations in the s8ata have been located on drrtWed lands.

Ordinarily thb sroquire no fertilizer, excepting potash and phos-

phoric acid. The ammonia may be omitted from the formula. While


the banana is partial to an abundance of water in the soil, it





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2,


should not be inferred that it Will thrive best in soil that is


water-logged for a considerable period.


The best plants to set out are suckers that are about 18 to


24 inches long, and those that have reached a stage of development


sufficient to show about a half formed leaf. At this size the


sucker will have formed an abundance of roots and the transfer to


the field will not prove a serious shock. As soon as the stocK


has matured a bunch of bananas it should be cut down and allowed


to rot on the field. Then all the suckers but one or two should


be destroyed so as to allow these ptarttoculwr ones to produce


large plump bunches oa bananas. More bunches of bananas have been


ruined in Florida by allowing too many suckers than from any other


one cause. The culture oDdinarily adapted is merely that of


Keeping down the weeds, grass, or underbrush that is likely to


spring up between the rows.











The pecan industry in florida is located mainly along the

northern border or the Ptate, oxte .ding southward as f:ir as AlachUa


county. numerouss young orchards are planted out south of this

region and are doing well, Trne number of bearing orchards, however,


are"few, Prmmising looking trees occur as far south as Dade County,


and in time this delicious nut may be grown Over the entire ntate

of Florida,

The kinds of land to use for planting pecans in what


would be Blassed as first class co ..on land. .Mile the pecan tree

will gro. 'nd ptotuce a crop on almost any character of soil, it


maKed a better growth and comes into fruiting n"ore quickly on the


high pine land with a cl,.Y subsoil, and on lands that are well

d-alned,

SOld land may be used upon which to plant a pecan orchard,


though if the .and be depleted in fertility one should not expect


as good n growth or as prompt a return as on land that is in the


first class state of cultivation and fertility,

Some trees have returned a paying crop in as short a time


as 7 years, This, however, is under cxco tionally favorable con-








2, A

ditlons, One should not oxpeot paying returns from a.pocan

Qrchard in less than 10 years, unless he hus already demonstrated

his ability to do so,

The marKoting of' pecans is now taking such a form that the

producers of first class nuts are unable to supply the demand,

Inferior nuts are not likely to be very largely In demand at aay

time. Medilum-slzed nuts, such as Frotscher,, ntuart, and Van De-

man are more In favor than the large thin-shelled kinds. There

is, however, a very high priced market for the extremely large

and very thin-shelled nuts,







IMPgAOHM.

High rolling pine land with a clay subsoil or hammocK 14d,

are the only Kinds of land that should be used for the peach orchard,

Old land or land that had been previously cropped as a rule is

unsafe to plant in this kind of an orchard. In contemplating the

planting of the poach orchardp4t is therefore advisable to secure

some ow land. Have this thoroughly cleared and then plant to

a peach orchard, The most serious drawbacK to the use of old land

is the fact that this will be more or less fected with the'root-

Knot, whict is most certainly fatal to the peach tree.

The trees are usually set during the winter and carefully

cultivated during the try portion of the year. MDring he first

year an intermediate crop may be planted, provided careful attention

is given to the catch crop to protect the pench trees against

being hindered by it. Duringtthe summer time it is well to grow

a crop of hat or forage in the new orchard, making use of this material

as soon as the dry season commences in the fall. The orchard may

then be brought into a thorough stage of tilth and moisture con-

served by frequentlvery shallow tilth.






PINEAPPLES

This crop does best in those localities where the tem-

perature rarely falls below 60 and rarely goes above 90, with an

average temperature for the year of about 75 degrees Fahrenheolt

In some parts of the nttete thi' temperature for the pineapple

fields is equalized and approximated by the construction of pine-

- apppa sheds, These structures give a half shade and are made of

various material. The best fruit and largest crops are on tli ,

under these conditions The fertilizer used on pineapple fields

is one of the most important considerations. The ammonia should

always comn from an organic sou'co, such as dried blood, cottonseed

meal, costor pomace, etc, The potasli should come from either high-

or low grrade sulphate Of potash. The phosphoric acid should be ob-

tnined either from ground bone or Thomas slag. The lJtter has been

used to some extent with excellent results. Then this material

c'n be obtained at a reasonable price, it i to preferred to the

ground bone,since the latter 19 freo:uently adultertited.

The ideal land for pineapple growing is the spruce pine land.

In this the crop differs very radically from other horticultural

crops in tho State. Over 95 per cent. oftthe area planted to







2,t


pineapples is planted on this character of soil, In the early


part of the last decade a careful ~ss wad taken of the pineapple

fields as to the character of soil upon which they were planted.

During that time only ten per cent of the fields were planted on

SMt long leaf pine lnnd,, Yet 90 per cont. of the abandoned and

poor fields were located on this character of soil, indicating very
4t4
strongly that the piuce pine nrd was much more favorable to success

than was the long leaf pine land,.: _..-. Some of the best pine-


apple fields, however, grow on the long leaf pine land,






OA : .NG




moosling the Location.- After having .decided na to whut region

in the State of Florida one is about to establish a citrus grove,

the next important point to decide is the question as to the character

of land to employ, Before clearing iu tne land it is of only

slight difference to tne prospective planter 'Jhethr he locates

on one character of soil or gn another. This, however,,will maKe

a vast difference in the character of his product and also in the

difficulties encountered in-making a -.uCccessful grove,

Hlanrock land Is tally considered to be the best. There are

thousands of acres of unoccupied land of this character in every

county of the rtate, and frequently it c'm be bought for the s,:me

price ns other land less suitable. The cost Af clearing must

be taken into consideration, It nearly always costs about twice as

much to clear the best of hammocKs that It would to clear any other

soil. In case of cabbage palmetto hammocks, it is necossary!tto

see to it that the drainage Is perfect, even in rainy weather. As

a matter of fact this is the critical period of the year.

Rolling pine land is more extensively used at the present time








than any other one character of land. ,Groves of this charoctor

of soil can be g brought pnto bearing with less difficulty and at

smaller expense than on hammock soil Consequently it is more

frequently employed than the former, The best type of rolling pine

land for citrus groves is that which has a clay ( not hardpan) sub-

soil,. The nearer the subsQil is to the sirfjce the more quickly

the land is brought into a good state of tilth, and the more prompt-

ly the trees will respond to good treatment,, As a rule the drain-

age is good on this land and ditching is necessary only in a few

'laces. Drained lands, pine lands with undergrowth, and flat

wood Lands will.cause more or less trouble to the grove owner in
bul ldin
the process or mtflttanLg a good grove. The flat woods land Is

lioly to jave poor drnanage and also to hnv./hardpan, wilich is

liKely to give trouble to the grove owner from time to time.

Good groves may be found on both of these characters of a land.

Spruce pine land should not as a rule be chosen for a grove

site. While good groves occur on this character of soil, a larger

percentage of poor groves will be found on this Kind of land than

almost any other Kind that cnn bementloned. While it is po' sible

to produce a good grove on this character of soil. -ne is nrnot.*






3,

) ing trouble and possible failure by locating.on it.

W:. turle.- Formerly there w.as a grout diversity of opinion as to

the methods of culture to be pursued. At the present time grove

owners are not liKely to fold so BA y to opinion in favor of

any one than the other.

Clean culture has been practiced and is till being practiced

to some extent in the Mtate, but the number of clean culturists

are proportionally less now than they were : decade and a half ago.

By far the larger percentage of,groves at the present time are

being treated to clean culture during the dry portion of the year-

and then allowed to grow to grass and weeds during the ruiny portion

of the year. When the grass and weeds becoimu too abundant for the
a mowing machine is put in to cut the stuff
health of the grove anfowing machine is put in to cut the stuff

down, leaving this to rot on the sbil or making the grass into hay.

By leaving the organic matter to rot on the soil, the humus content

is reserved and the balance kept in the soil,

We have a few very ardent non-culturists. These people use

no implement in the grove excepting the mowing machines In parts

of the grove where the humuB content is very low, this organic







matter is supplied by hauling in mulching or removing it from


That part of the grove where the grass and weeds grow too abindant-

lyto that portion that needs more of them,






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ORlANGfES


Choosing the Location.- After having decided as to what region


in the State of Florida one is about to establish a citrus grove,


the next important point to decide is the question as to the character


of land to employ. Before clearing up the land it is of only


slig-t difference to the prospective planter whether he locates


on one character of soil or on another. This, however, will make


a vast difference in the character of his product and alsd in the


difficulties encountered in making a successful grove.


HaL,;rocK land is IuAmally considered to be the best. There are


thousands of acres of unoccupied land of this character in every


county of the State, and frequently It can be bought for the same


price as other land less suitable. 'The cost Of clearing must


be taken into consideration. It nearly always costs about twice as


much to clear the best of hammocks that It would to- clear any other


soil. In case of cabbage palmetto hammocKs, it is necessary: to


see to it that the. drainage Is perfed.t, even in rainy weather. As -A


a matter of fact this is the critical period of the year,


Rolling pine land is more extensively used at the present time

/ :






'W 2.


than, any other one character of land. Groves of this character


of soil can be g brought into bearing with less difficulty and at


smaller expense than on hammock soil Consequently it is more


frequently employed than the former. The best type of rolling pine


land for citrus groves is that which has a clay ( not hardpan) sub-


soil. The nearer the subsoil is to the surface the more quicKly


the land is brought into a good state of tilth, and the more prompt-


ly the trees will respond to good treatment. As a rule the drain-


age is good on this land and ditching is necessary only in a few


ilaces.. Drained lands, pine lands with undergrowth, and flat


wood lands will cause more or less trouble to the grove owner in
building 1
the process or kMxidatNXng a good grove. The flat woods land is

a
likely to Dave poor drainage and also to have/hardpan, wnlcl is


likely to give trouble to the grove owner from time to time.


Good groves may. be found on both of these characters of a land.


Spruce pine land should not as a rule be chosen for a grove


site. While good groves occur on this character of soil, a larger


percentage of poor groves will be found on this kind of land than


almost any other kind that can belentioned. While it is po-sible


to produce a good grove on this character of soil, me is court-










ing trouble and possible failure by locating on it.

Oulture.- Formerly there was a great diversity of opinion as to

the methods of culture to be pursued. At the present time grove

owners are not likely to hold so strongly to opinion in favor of

any oan than the other.

Clean culture has been practiced and is still being practiced

to some extent in the State, but the number of clean culturists

are proportionally less now than they were a decade and a half ago.

Py far the larger percentage of groves at the present time are

being treated to clean culture during the dry portion of the year

and then allowed to grow to grass and weeds during the rainy portion

of the year. When the grass and weeds become too abundant for the

health of the grove a mowing machine is put in to cut the stuff

down, leaving this to rot on the soil or making the grass into hay.

By leaving the organic matter to rot on the soil, the humus content

is reserved and the balance kept in the soil.

We have a few very ardent non-culturists. These people use

no implement in the grove excepting the mowing machine. In parts

of the grove where the humus content is very low, this organic





4.


matter is supplied by hauling in mulching or removing it from



that part of the grove where the grass and weeds grow too abundant-


lyto that portion that needs more of them.














*1


'.b2








PEACHES


High rolling pine land with a clay subsoil or hammock land,


are the only Kinds of land that should be used for the peach orchard.


Old land or land that had been previously cropped as a rule is


unsafe to plant in this Kind of an orchard. In contemplating the"


planting of the peach orchard,.It Is therefore advisable to secure


some ,ew land. Have this thoroughly.cleared and then plant to


a peacn orchard. The most serious drawbacK to the use of old land


is the fact that this will be more or less infected with the root-


Knot. which is most certainly fatal to the peach tree.


The trees are usually set during the winter and caref':lly


cultivated daring the dry portion of the year. DLuring ie first


year an intermediate crop may be planted, provided careful attention


Is given to the catch crop to protect the peach trees against


being hindered by it. During! the slurmer time it is well to grow


a crop of har or forage in the new orchard, ma ling use of this material


as soon as the dry season commences in the fall. The orchard may


then be brought into a thorough stage of tilth and moisture con-


served by frequent..very shallow tilth.







PINEAPPLES


This crop does best in those localities where the tem-


perature rarely falls below 60 and rarely goes above 90, with an


average temperature for the year of about 75 decrees Fahrenheit, *


In some parts of the State this temperature for the pineapple


fields is equalized and approximated by the construction of-pine-


apple sheds. These structures give a half shade and are made of


various material. The best fruit and largest crops are on this ground,


under these conditions. The fertilizer used on pineapple fields


is one of the most Important considerations. The ammonia should


always come from an organic source, such as dried blood, cottonseed


meal, castor pomace, etc. The potash should come from either high-


or low grade sulphate Of potash. The phosphoric acid should be ob-


talned either from ground bone or Thomas slag. The latter has been


used to some extent with excellent results. When this mntterial

be
c-.in be obtained at a reasonable price, it is to'preferred to the


ground bone,since the latter is frequently adulterated.


The ideal land for pineapple growing is the spruce pile land.


In this the crop differs very radically f;ora other horticultural


crops In the State. Over 95 per cent. of the area planted to




- ,'s~n.r -


2,


pineapples is planted on this character of soil. In the early


part of the last decade a careful census wad taken of the pineapple


fields as to the character of soil upon which they were planted.


During that time only ten per cent of the fields were planted on


xE long leaf pine land.. Yet 90 per cent. of the abandoned and


poor fields were located on this character of soil, indicating very


strongly that the spruce pine land was much more favorable to success


than was the long leaf pine land. .i. Some of the best pine-


apple fields, however, grow on the long leaf pine land.
































r,






PEOAITS


The pecan Industry in Florida is located mainly along the

northern border of the State, extending southward as f:.r as Alachua


co:urty. Numerous young orchards are planted out south of this


region and are doing well. .The number-of bearing orchards, however,


are few. Prmmising looking trees occur as far south as Dade County,.


and in time this delicious nut may be grown over the entire ttate


of Florida.


Tne Kinds of land to use for planting pecans is what


Trouild be passeded as first class co ton land. While the pecan tree


will grow and ptoduce a crop on almost any character of soil. it


maKesi a better growth and comes into fruiting more quickly on the


high pine land with a cl-iy subsoil, and on lands that are well


drained.


Old land may be used upon which to plant a pecan -orchard,


though if the land be depleted in fertility one should not expect


as good a growth or as prompt a return as on land that is in the


first class state of cultivation and fertility.


Some trees have returned a paying crop in as short a time


This, however, is under exce tonallyy favorable con-


as 7 years.






2.

editions. One should not expect paying returns from a pecan


orchard in less than 10 years, muless he has already demonstrated


his ability to do so..


The marketing of pecans is now taking such a form that the


producers of first class nuts are unable to supply the demand.


Inferior nuts are not likely to be very largely in demand at ayiy


time,. Medium-sized nuts, such as Frotscher,, Stuart, and Van De-


man are more in favor than the large thin-shelled Kinds. There


is, however, a very high priced market for the extremely large


and very thin-shelled nuts,







BANALIAS


This fruit is so well known on the markets that one may fairly


say that it is the universal fruit for the United States. Prac-


tically all of It that is on the market at the present time is


grown in the tropics and imported. The amount of bananas that are


on the market even locally in Florida and.are grown at home is


very small indeed. In fact through a large portion of the year


it is scarcely possible to get any ofthe home grown fruit. It


should, however, be planted as a crop for the home and Kitchen


in all counties south of Orange and Pasco.; The varieties that


cain be grown in tnis reion, including Hart's 0noice, Cavendish,


and Lady Fi~nger, are so much superior to the Tropic that is im-


ported from the tropics that it will repay us to spend some time


and give some attention to the growing of bananas.


This plant thrives best on moderately .-.olst soil cont--ining


a large amount of decaying organic matter. The best banana


plantations in the State have been located or pine lands.


Ordinarily thtserequire no fertilizer, excepting potash and phos-


phoric acid. The ammonia may be omitted from the formula. While


the banana is partial to an abundance of water in the soil, it








2.


should not be inferred that it will thrive best in soil that is


water-logged for a considerable period.


The best plants to set out are suckers that are about 18 to


24 inches long, and those that have reached a stage of development


sufficient to show about a half formed leaf. At this size the


sucker will have formed an abundance of roots and the transfer to


the field will not prove a serious shock. As soon as the stock


has matured a bunch of bananas it should be cut down and allowed


to rot on the field. Then all the suckers but one or t.'o should


be.destroyed so as to allow these particular ones to produce


large plump bunches of bananas. More bunches of bananas have been


ruined in Florida by allowing too many suckers than from any other


one cause. The culture ordinarily adapted is merel:; that of


Keeping down the weeds, irass, or underbrush that is likely to


spring up between the rows,




r ~~Wt~


GUAVAS


The quava is the king je-lly fruit tor America. It is not


grown to nearly the extent in Florika that it will be in future


years. By special treatment the trees can be protected and good


crops of fruit obtained as far north as the central portion of


Alachui coumty.. The most practicable way of doing this work


Is to secure a good variety of the guava Plant these out in orchard


form, making the rows 15 or 20 feet apart and place the plants


about 10 feet apart in the row. Then T.h fall before freezing weather


may be expected tne trees should be a. bent over and covered with


soil By pruning the trees back rather severely,the amount of


soil to be used for the trees will be rather small. A, all a the


"fruit Ic borne on new shoots an, abundant crop will result the


next year.


The Cattley or Chinese Eguava which, is freqne&tly called


Guava in north Florida belongs to a different species of plant


and will be found somewhat more hardy then the ,unava


Ordinarily good orchard soil will be well .-dapted to the guava


plantation,


In south Florida the guava grows practically as a weed.


..--.-.-.-..-^t__._t-


~- _____~_lb__ __ ____~ ~_ __~ _~





2.


Little attention has been given to the -selection of ~arietles, and


from this mat metnod of handling the crop a great:-many tons of


jelly are produced annually. P.y a systematic selection for good


varieties and giving them good orchard conditions a large amount


of fruit can be pr oeduced annually. Where this is made into jelly


directly on the farm a nice home industry is establistied.







PEARS


The pear centers for Florida are located in Jefferson, Es-


cambia, and Alachua counties. At one time the planting in the


State of Florida was very extensive. More recently many of the


trees have been abandoned, due to the fact that satisfactory prices


cannot be obtained during some years, and the price obtained during


the good years are not sufficient to make pear growing a lucrative


form of orcharding. The pear blight has interfered more or less


with the production but this is a secondary cause for the decline


*of pear production in the State,


The best soil for a pear orchard is at the same time one of


the "est soils for a cotton plantation. Pears, pecans, and poach


trees are al partial to about the same character of soil.




~C4r-


FIGS


thesee trees occur practically everywhere in the '"ate of Florida


as garden and backyard plants. The climatic conditions are such


that one is not justified in planting extensive areas with a view

of producing the crop on an extensive scale, but flaxn every home


in the State should have from one to a dozen good trees, and for


local markets it is a paying crop.


The propagation of this tree is very simple. The main


metnod being that of rooting cuttings. Thiis s ver: successfully


carried out on almost every farm. As a matter of fact the cuttings


may usually be set out where one expects the tree to grow. By


taking hardened wood cuttings, sucn as has passed the winter;


there is not much difficulty in securing a fair number of them; to


root..








LIMES


The limes as lrnrnwn in a p-irt of the eastern unitedd States is


not grown in orchard form but is produced in some abandoned or


entirely abondaned orchards in a wild state.' Under these con-


ditions the fruits ripen at a very small size. UTen these same


tre s are brought into cultivation the fruit usunlaly attains


the size of small lemons and Is not wanted on ti-e general market.


Though for home use the fruit from tne cultivatd tree will be found


aR. good or superior to that produced in the same wild c-onlit ion..


The market at the present time is too ficKle and erratic to


justify extensive planting of limes, but for home use few trees


should occur on every farm in the region where they may be grown


without protection.








S


I .*.-'.'k-ia4.i*iet-q"





,,. I "* I
I7



S] MI-NTOR FRUITS


In the foregoing pages no mention was made of the strawberry,


which is usually placed under the head od fruits. Tnis is grown


very extensively in the Sthte 'throughout the central to north

/
central portion and all along the northern portion of the State.


Among the minor fruits that may be grown in the state


there are a great many that may be mentioned. Persimmons and


plums grown as deciduous fruits, Cashew, Otaheite gooseberry, sapo-


dilla, Barbados.cherry, rose apple, Shaddock, cocoanut,


Mammee apple and many others not so well Known may be grown in


the tropical portion of the State,.




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