Forage Crops in Florida.

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Title:
Forage Crops in Florida.
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Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
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Folder: Forage Crops in Florida.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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FORAGE OROPS POR a LORIDA
By P. H RBolts.

In this week's meeting of the stook-growers at Gainesville
the foot was emphasized that stock growing is the basis of the agricultural

prosperity of any state or nation. It Is likewisee the basis of lasting
fertility of the soil. Bo agriculture oan be permanently prosperous, or
attain to its highest degree of development, when Stook-growing Is neglected.

Stook-growing is certain to be one of the great agrioaltural
industries In Florida, and its fomdation rnast be the production of
abundant and nutritious forage. Without forage stook-growing will ulti-

mately become unprofitable. The cheapest forage is usually that which
a
in produced an the spot. Sose of the high-prioed concentrates, each as
cottonseed meal, can frequently be profitably shipped a long distanoeo.

The Judiotous dairymen of Denmark and Holland have been importing our
oottonseed meal, feoding this to their dairy stock and competing with us

for the market of butter and choose. 1y importine these conoontrates

they have enriohed their soil until now the average prodnetion of wheat

per aore is double the production of some of our wheat-growing Statee.
As long as S nsae, Nebraska, Dakota and Texas depended upon
wild grasses for beef production, the cattle industry was uncertain.

the native grasses provided just seffielent feel to fatten the cattle

-for the production of beef, and to oarry them through the winter alive.

Under range conditions thousands of alnai perished every year, and

the "lonhorne" became a oenapiouows feature on the landscapes. As the

population increased in those States the largo ranges had to be broken

up into smaller holdings, and the plow took the place of the range cattle.
Bhee same States are now growing nutritious forage plants, and sending
the finest best to the market and produoing large quantities of the best

batter. All of this, however, is done, not with the native vegetation

*.. I
4. ;4> 1





n-


a base, but by the use of introduced and domesticated forage plants.
In every country of the world it becomes necessary to change the character
of the vegetation before the domestic animals can be sufficiently fed to
get the profits required in an intensive industry. Florida is no excep-
tion to the rule. The native grasses and other pasture plants of Florida
give just sufficient feed to enable the cattle to live through the summer
and make a fair growth* The winter, however, is a season of scarcity,
and in extreme years thousands of animals die far want of food.


Battle cannot live on Climate.


The argument is usually advanced that the Florida olimate is so-

mild that it is unnecessary to provide extra food in winter or shelter as
a protection against freezing to death. This is true, but unfortunately
it takes more than climate to make good beef. Good forage crops must be
produced or be found wild. As long as we had vast areas of native oane-
brake and only a few cattle to the square mile, it was possible for those
cattle to migrate into the cane-brakes and pass the winter in a compara-
tively good condition. In recent years the fires have done much to
destroy the cane-brakes, and what little of them was left the cattle

devoured, and finally the oane-brakes were no longer there to support
cattle for the winter. The vegetation that grows in the pine woods is
so scanty and so hard during the winter that the cattle cannot subsist
upon it* They are therefore forced to congregate in the hammocks, along

the river sides, and around the lakes. These locations afford some

shelter,, as well as a varying amount of fairly suitable forage. Notwith-

standing such favorable conditions, there are not enough suitable localittem

for the entire stock of most cattle owners to pass the winter without a








.large nmrcality. Frequently when the spring grasses begin to make their

appearance, the cattle are in such emaciated condition that they are un-
able to migrate to food, or to. properly digest the food that is at hand.

This winter starting period so stunts the young animals that they never
r- -
attain their normal size*

the experiments conducted by Professor Scoott at the Experiment
Station have proved conclusively that notwithstandingng the long number

of years during which the battle have been subjected to this kind of

treatment, their inherent quality for producing fair-sized animals has

not been lost. As a matter of fact, native cattle when placed in

suitable pasture for the winterjhave made as good gain in pounds as did

the half-bread animals from beef strains. The native animals of course

were deficient in the quality of beef and in the size of the desirable

outs.


Sandy Soil made the Soapegoat


We are often inclined to be lazy, and are prone to blame the
other fellow or our environment for our misfortunes. It so happens

that Florida has an abundance of sand in nearly all of its soil. As'this

is different from what people are used to in the hilly and mountainous

regions, the sand in these soils is made the scapegoat for our indiffer-
ence either to work or to active thought. Before the cattle industry

assumed large proportions in Denmark the Deninsualawas thought to be too

sandy and poor to be of value to anybody. As soon as the Danes secured

their independence they had nothing but the poor sandy soil upon which
o ..veanu naturally they used their brains and their muscles to make a

living. They soon discovered that by intrduoing stock-raising and

butter-making they enriched the soil and increased its capacity to

produce forage, in turn producing more butter and beef. The forage







aln anricled the soil enabling them to prodnoe more butter and beet.
By oontkStiag this for decades their country bhas developed from a sandy
waste to ma of the most prosperous spots in the world. Some of the florida
farmers are 4oang the eame things Th are starting In with a sandy sonl
that As nearly worthlese as it ie, but b7 good fa m m a nt the soil
fertility is not nly oonserved but uareaseda Even without stook-raieing
there would be no difftoulty in increasing the soil fertility by proper
rotation oat erops However, by means of stook-raleing the work is made
Aoubly &easy

Stock feeds .insly nZ Air

EDm bodies of plants which are eaten by animal are made up
almost entirely of carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen and nitrogen. and it so happens
tbat the atmosphere wiaoh we breathe is made up approximately by weight Ot
76 parts nitrogen, 3 ptats of aygon, a few hundredths of one percent of
carbon &iazide, and the remainder water vapor and a mall portion of various
other m 6eas among them a trace of a, which is chemically made up of
- -ttrogen and hydrogen. In analysing the animal body the chemist find that
it ie made up of exactly those ea elementss Zn other words, plants are
merely oaed air andl shines the aulml eats this and conerts it into
valuable foo materials for the human rpoe. A number of our most oneoen-
trated feet stuffs, such as elvet beans in the Imll, contain only a very
asall peroeaeage oa mineral matters Potassium is cin of the chief oonstit-
uents amounting to ooly 1.69 per oaent. A ton of velvet beanu in the ball
wtaul oontain In found numbers thirty pouta of potaeh or as much as would
be carried in sixty pounded of auriate of potash. Phosphorue is present
in a seller amout or aly sixty nine hnAdredthe of one per -cent. Expresses
in whole numbers it would be fourteen pounds of phosphorus in a ton of velvet






-fis


beOaas A the halls. 1 ho rest of tho velvet beans is made up of the chem-
Leal element of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The nitrogen
oompoes eabot 2j per cent of the velvet beans* The elements potaeuinm
and phosphorus aro about the only ones thaint need be supplied by come roisl
fertilisors. The nitrogen may be obtained by leguminoau plants from the
atmosphere and thorefare oan be obtained free. We have then only to
supply the potash and phosphoric aeid. (It is :!oaible that sulphur may
be somaetimo s needed, as also oaloeint.)
Oarbon, hydrogen nd onyn when combined in the proper fozrm

mask butter, staroh, sugar, and nearly all of the foods which we eat. A
anall amount of nitrogen owcurB in the tisesue of plants combined with
-yrogean, carbon and oxygen, and than is known as protein Protein builds
up the animal tissue c but to a caller degree tha,.n the compound- of carbon,
hydroBen and oxygen. We have aeon that nitrogen may be obtained free from
the atmosphere. The water which in so largely needed by all animaas is
composed nf oxygen and hydrogen. Aside from the elements we bhae mentioned
above, eni als need a certain amount of calcium, rrul,:hur and magnesium, and
a trace of iron. These minor elements enter into the economy of the plant
or animal in so mall qaantitlee that a suffiolent amount is present in
nearly all eases.
If you have followed re closely you will have soon that the great

mass of the animal body is made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen. aoygen
and nitragan- all present in the staophere either as gas or as watar. The
total aoimnt of mineral elements present in the animal body amounts to five

per cent. or leas in a lean steer, and about one and a half per oent. in a

fat pig. Animals amat depend on plants for their food to build up the
body tissues.





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Ottle oa rage for twve y onths 1 the nh a t Yr.

fhe fast that the olimuto will permit cattle to forage for

twelve month has been known sneo Florida was discovered. Nutritious

wild gras-es grow in abundance from about the middle of L aroih ttil late
in the tall. During this season of plenty cattle increase rapidly in

s81e and put on a onmiederable amount of flesh. After th:t the pastures

gradually become poorer, until during the winter season there is scarcely
enough to keep the cattle alive. It is during the fall, winter and early

sprina that they should be provided with good nutrition forage from

cultivated filde.
Mhen our knowledge of aG culture wae rudimentary, it was somewhat

of a haphazard undert tkinc to frw ,untried plants or to introduce new ones

for oultitation. This was notably so for Florida, bat with our prl sent

knowledge no one need hesitate longer in takinC up this line of work for
want of information. An a matter of fact we have so -nny aultable crops

that we are really surfeitod with them and hardly kinon dhich to choose.

It rominds me of the donkey in Aesop's ftible who stood half way between a
eheaf of oats and a sheaf of what; whenever he made up his minci to eat
from the sheoa of oats his remembering how eeoot the wheat tested( caused

him to hesitate and malm up his mind to eat the wheat. But before eating

the whe at the nclination to eat the oats boo-ne so great as to casleo him
to desist. In hie dilo=n. the poor donkey died in heesitttinc between the

two desires





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Ha redr of dif orent g.asoos, have been tried on the experiment

Station. Of co-uru in this large number only a fea can be expected to

Seaeod". The introduations, however, are made from regions that are in
many respoot3 simail.ar to Florida. This makes-. it anything but a hap-

h&sard undertaking. The question is only of introducing a sufficient

number and posecoBini a suffielent amournt of perseverumne to secure

the beet things. that can be Grown. Among the oropc belonGing to the

grace family that w7o have introduced within the last few yeors ray be

mentioned Natal grass, which grows so luxuriantly and abund&atly i'rom

central Florida south .ardL.

The Ehodes grase was introduced son 5 or 6 yerE ago and lhas

proved itoelf well adapted to 1mmost all parts of Plorid2. Ia sO-Le parts

of the State it is grown in large areas. The planotin thie yVor is

limited by the possibility of getting seed. This is one of tbo most

promising meadow and pasture grasses that has been introduced.

Molarces grass has also been introduced. It make a very large

erop, and under Florida conditions is quite valuable. It is an annual

and makes a good late fall orop.

Para grass has beon tested and distributed to mans differeoat

places. It Ehows itself well adapted to moist iarm lands and gives
abnd.&_nt and autritiout grpLsing uand also an abundance of good hay.

Guinea grass would be considered a most valuable acquisition, wero it

not ur the faot that so many other that do better hav arrived. This

does well from the central portion oa the peninsula southward.






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This plant belongs to the grass family and is very closely
related to the comoron sugar-cane. For a number of years it was
largely advertised as a syrup and sugar producing oane and under these
oonditionu was "boomed Into diafvor." At tQe present time we may

oall it the klnc of Zcorage plants in Florida. It will1 produoo large
quantities of groon forage just at the time it is most needed. Stock

ean be placed on it early in the fall or early winter. It is most
profitable t reserve the oanei urtil at least the middle of Doooeber,

since the amount of suga- inoreasat rapidly the laot few weeks. As

high a 27 tonx of greeoon matter per aore have been prodnood at the
Jspai inent Station on land that would ordinarily grow only 15 or 20 bush-

@els Oc o0n. To atntt what could boe crou- under theo ost favarablo
conditions woal. give mLch a larco figure as to ,ake it seem untruthbful

The original took of this oarn was introd&oed into t he country by

General'. Dua from Brasil over 40 -ears ago. It is not likely that the
first introduction gave us the beat of tho varieties that can be Cronm;
we have therefore nade new introductions and have received 4 varieties

from Japan thi h are now being tested. Seed oanes of eight v-arelties

from deylon have aloo been rooeivod. These will be tested out and if
any of the varieties azre sr.perior to the old well-establiahod variety,

seed oanes will be distributed with a view of replacing the old variety.




Sorghums grow most Jzurilantly in the tropics* Saam new
varieties have been introduood from Afrioa and other tropical countries;

magy do aetramely well in Florida. The long-lived varieties are the best,

though soe of the early forms. eaoh as Barly Amber and Kaffir Co0n, can






-9-


be used to good advantage in special cases. The Experiment Station has

tested something like 60 different varieties of these Sumac and Goose

look have generally given the best satisfaction. During certain years

other varieties havu given better crops, but on the average these two

varieties seem to give larger yields.


Legumes


The leguminous crops ..re the very beot f-rage that can be

grown in any agricultural section. Not only' do they produce abundant

and nutritious forage, but the have the power of extracting nitrogen

from the atmosphere .mnd enriching the coil viith it. Thi, make.: it pos-

sible to grow a crop oi logmpies, aand remove ti.la from the soil -and still

leave the land more productive than before the logwune.- were planted.

And since nitrogen is the most expen ivoe le."ient in our fertilizer it is

doubly desirable to grow legumes not only for forage but for enriching

the soil. LeguL-As properly handled on Florida soils will enable the

farmer to out his fertilizer bill in half.

Alfalfa


The Experiment Station has tested between 30 and 40 different

varieties; receiving seed from 2eru, Turkestan, Mongolia iaddI nearly

every other alfalfa-producing country of the world. All the seed

germinated well and produced vigorously growing plants. However, the

crop failed to be sufficiently productive to be profitable commercially.

This experience coincides exactly with the experience of thousands of

others who have tried alfalfa in Florida. Alfalfa seed germinates

promptly, produces vigorous plants, and a fair crop the first spring;

but during the rainy season most of the plants die and the amount of






9 -10-

jLfalfa hay that can be made in the fall after the dry season begins

is very small. Even the Peruvian variety, which grows pretty well all

winter, has made only an indifferent growth in the spring and cannot be

relied upon to produce a good pasture.

Soy Beans.

Some 80 to 100 varieties of soy beans have been tested from

time to time. A few that originated in South China produced vigorous

growth and gave a fair amount of seed and fxrce. These are being

tested, and. if anything valuable is among them it '1ll be discovered.

For Forth Florida and 'West Florida soy oean.- do quite well, but for

central and South Florida they caamot be recomiendet at present.




Between 200 .rd 250 varieties of cowpeas have been tested-.

This orop has been grown for a groat rman years in Southern United

States, caid hac proved very acceptable to the farmers. There are aany.

points, however, that must be considered before any particular crop

can be called the best of its clabs. Two varieties of coupeas,

Brabham and Iron, have done unusually well and undex ordinary aircarm-

stances are resistant to rootknot, but under adverse conlitionia seem to

be pretty badly affected by this pest. As a whole, cowipea.- are declin-

ing in favor in Florida, largely because the velvet boan family produces

a larger amount of ammonia per acre at less expense. As a general

cover crop they are not sufficieoitlj long-lived to meet all conditions.






-II-


Velvet Bean Family


For nearly a quarter'of a century only one, uLber of this family

was knov.n in Florida, or what is usually spoken of as velvet bean, or

more properly Florida velvet bean. Originally it was used as an arbor

plant, but was found to grow luxuiriantly, and. finally a fewv people had

the courage to try it on their stock. It was found to make a good stock

feed and oare into general use. It now stands seventh in vLlue of our

farm crops. About 20 ye-re ago the Experiment Station began testing

this crop. A vast amount of work has had to be done on it, since not

even the chemical analysiE war knowTn at the time it was being considered

as a Crop. Er,)erlmentz on itLs effect on The soil, its effect on various

animals, cattle, horses, mules and hogs have been tried. Itc digesti-

bility has been worked out, sad we now have a fairly oomnproheLn.ive

knowledge of the velvet betn. Since there is only one Florida, it has

been this Florida that hac had to work out this particular problem, and

the scientific oen of it hc.c h- 1-o be rorkei out by the Ex-periuent

Station. A good crop of velvet beans should be worth from ,50 to r.40

per acre to the fan-ru. The beans themselves would readily cell a, seed

for $50. The average production of a good crop would not run below 20

bushels per ao-e. In addition to this the amount of nitrogen that is

left in the soil is about equal to the amount taiten off by the beans.

This will vary according to the vigor of the beans. A good crop of

velvet beans when fora.ged from the field has as eood effect on the plant

growth that follows as would occur from the application of 1000 pounds

of cottonseed meal.






W -12-



Yokohama Velvet Bean.

This variety of tne velvet bean wat distributed by the Experiment

Station two years ago and tested by a great many different farmers in
the State. It succeeded unusually well und gives promise of filling an

important niche in our agriculture. The plants ripen seed in about 4
months from the time of planting provided Lhe .weather is sufficiently
warm to cause rapid growth. It is a good crop t. plant after the spring

grain crop or after the track cros have been harvested. It is a much

mafller and weaker growing plant than the Florid.- velvet bean. The rows
should be made about 30 inches: apart a and the bean,_ placed from 6 inches to

a foot apart in the rows.

Chinese Velvet Beant

This is one of our latest introduction from the Orient. One

seed was received by the iExperiment 3tution in the sprint of 1910. As

only one seed wa i received it was given the greatest care, being planted

in the green-house, und after rowinc,. to a height of 8 or 10 inches inl

a flower pot was transferred to the open ground. All of the seed. from

this plant was saved and planted in the spring of 1911. That fall, in

spite of severe ravages of oaterpillats, a bushel of secd W.as harvested.

In the spring of 1912, something over two acres 6f thit. bean were planted.

It takes the bean about 6 months to mature, differing in this resc-ect
from the Plorida velvet bean, and Lyon velvet bean; the two last bloom

only in late fall, regardless of the time of planting. The Chinese

velvet bean on the other hand blooms early in the year and matures its
pods during October, patting it at least a month and possibly six wocks

ahead of the Florida velvet beans. In proaaotiveness it seems equal or

















superior to the other kinds. In vigor of growth it is the best of

any that we have tested.


Lyon Velvet Bean.

This wcMs introduced from the Philippines in the spring of 1907,

and is thought by maiy to be juite superior to the Florif-a velvet bean.

Its behavior, however, is so sinilr to the Floridac, velvet bean, that for

ordinary purposes I c no10 very r1oot ro'non for planting it in prefer-

ence to the Florida velvet be.%n.



The Kudzu Vine

This plant has been rown on the Experiment Station ;inco 1907.

Seed may be obtained from the large seed houses of the north. The

plants produced the first year are not vigorous, but the second ..ear

log vines are produced. These will root at variou:- joints and plants

arising from these rooted joints may be set out to the field.

Under good cultural and soil conditions kudtu -vill oiake a

large yield of nutritious liay. It is recommended by .orne for spring

grazing crop.







FORAGE CROPS FOR FLOERIDA
By P. H. Rolfs.

In this week's meeting of the stock-growers at Gainesville

the fact was emphasized that stock growing is the basis of the agricultural

prosperity of any Mtate or nation. It is likewise the basis of lasting S

fertility of the soil. No agrioulturLe oan te permanently prosperous, or

attain to its highest degree of development, when stock-growing is neglected.
Stock-growing is certain to be one of the great agricultural

industries in Florida, and its foundation must be the production of

abundant and nutritious forage. Without forage stock-growing will ulti-

mately become unprofitable. The cheapest forage is usually that which

is produced on the spot. Some of the high-priced concentrates, such as

cottonseed meal, can frequently be profitably shipped a long distance.

The judicious dairymen of Denmark and Holland have been importing our

cottonseed meal, feeding this to their dairy stock and competing with us

for the markets of butter and ohess3. By importing these concentrates

they have enriched their soil until now the average production of wheat

per acre is double the production of some of our whe-t-geroting States*
As long as Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota and To::as depended upon

wild grasses for beef production, the cattle industry was uncertain.

The native grasses provided Jast sufficient food to fatten the cattle

jfor the production of beef, and to carry them through the winter alive.

Under range conditions thousands of animals perished every year, and

the longhornss" became a conspicuous feature on the landscapes. As the

population increased in these States the large 'ranges had to be broken

up into smaller holding, and the plow took the place of the range cattle.

These same States are now growing nutritious forage plants, and sending

the finest beef to the market and prodnoing large quantities of the beat

batter. All Of this, however, is done, not with the native vegetation
6






p*

as* base, but by the use of Latroduced and damstieoated forage plants.
In very country ofat the world it bcoom. neomoosary to change the character
of the vegetation before the donoatio animals an be sufficiently fed to
get the profits required in an intmnoive industry. Florida io no excep-
tion to the rule. Tho =ativo graalesa ua other pasture planet of Florida
give ust sufficient feed to enable the battle to live through the summer
and. mke a fair growth. The wi.nit't, hImover, is a season of ssoarolty,
and in extrem-e years thoun t n.a of o z. S.i.- ,ie far want of food.


Cattle. ct'e-mota vl e on O"11:matg.


Tho oargrL.ont is ufjally adv A.,noed th-'t the Florid oali". t.o I8 so
mild that it I, unnocena-May to provide ort.ra: fo.:nt. in rriirtor or cholter as
a protection again. fre.sing to doeAh. This is true, but unfortunately
it tass fmore than olinate to ,rnko good boeo? Good forage erops must be
produced ct be found wild. Ao lonh- a' -7 ht.d ,'aht r.ro-' of native cane-
briar and only a few cattle to tho oqLcW'-" m.l, it wr.o. pxoseiblo for those
battle to migrate inxio the onzo-brcr:r;o and a.:s the v.-intor in a compara-
tively good condition. In recent yeara the firac havo done1 much to
destroy the saane-brakos, and wb&ct little of thcm wan loft the battle
devourid, and finally tho caano-bra&hc wre no lonCer there to mepport

cattle foar the winter. The vegetation that grows in tho pineo oodz is
so eeanty at aso hard during the winter that the cattle cannot subsist
upon it. hoy are therefore forced to ongregate in the linu:-ooks, along

the river sides, and around the lakeE. Those locations afford some

shelter, as well as a varying amount of fairly suitable forage. otwith-
standing suoh favorablo conditions, there are not enough suitable loeJlitioe

for the entire stock of most cattle owners to pass the winter without a








nomortility. Freouontly than the Epring grassee begin to maea their
appesa noe, the battle are in such emaniated condition that they are un-
able to raiGrate to food, or to Qroperly digest the food that is at hand,

This winter starting period so stumnto thi your{. anJnlial that they never

attain their acrnmal siso.

2Eho caperianteo conduotod b7 y rofecasor Soot-t at the Experiment
Station v pt.vo nrovud conol,,.ivolvoy that nowit.ht-.ndian the lo0, niuvbor
of yea:re .du-ring: rhich the ontlto have been sbjeoto,:i to this kind of
troatmont, thioeir. inhrOnt quwtlity lor 10-1 dUn lk i.t-riizo. animals has

not bcn loat. As aIttez o2 .e, native Ao.zt^ r when placod in

suitable pastu-ro for ths wintorvh-Ave iade A. a on .. Ln in poun&d- as did

the hzlif-bread tanimIalc from beoi str .ins. Tho native aniaLls of course

were deficient in the qual ity of beef .-ni in the size ot the doc!.irablo

out. -,-- L-








FOPAGE CROPS


Ji this week's meeting of the stoc:-gr6wers at Gainesville mm
-1.. u : ... the factAthat stbclrgrotlring is the basis of the

agricultural prosperity of an-y State or nation. It is lil:ewise tne basis

of fertility of the soil. No agriculture ca:n be permanently prosperous

# IIIIIIT *or attain to its highest degree of development Wihen stock-

growing is it -M.- in_-f...... m .

he tock-growing is certain to be one of the great agricultural in-

dustries in Florida l foundation the produc-

tion of abundant and nutritious forage, Wim Without forage rs. sto-'l grow-
l- o 4 11. The cheapest forage is that which afl produced
A A
WMa"ea aBgM* _. -Some of the highLW-priced concentrates, such as

cottonrseed meal. can frequently i.e sh1p d a long distance. The judicious

dairrymen of Ieninrarl 1Holl,-jtd n have been importing our cotton-

seed meal, feeding this t'. their dairy stock and competing with us for the

markets of butter .and .O.ctims for th3 markets for our ot .. ,

By inporting these concentrates thay have enriched their soil until now

the average production of wheat per acre is double the production of

some of our wheat-growing States.

As long as Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota and Texas, depended upon

r_--r for AM produutior q b.eel-, the industry was
1 _..... ftativ II.just I m to^fatten the
A
ca, title f oi5 the production of beef and to carry them through the win-

ter alive Under ifl/c editions thousands of animals perished every

ye:-.a.rand thne lonChorns"becorne a conspicuous features. the landscapeS.

As population increased in these States the large ranges had to ibe broken

up into'swaller holdinEsand a It ...... ::-2 took
A
t-he place of the range cattle. These sa.i.e States are now growing


-j






-2-




nutritious forage plants and sending the finest beef to the market and

producing large quantities of the W best OP butter. All of this,

however, is done not a the native vegetation but m introduced and do-
A A
mesticated forage plants. In every country of the world it becomes

necessary to change the character of the vegetat on before the domestic

animals can be sufficiently fed i story Florida

is no exce tion to the rule. The native Ni of Florida A just

suff.icie tAto enable the cattle to live through the sunmer and make em.

Growth. The winter S 'is = season of scarcity, and dUA-fg

s3-e years thousands of animals die for want of fodd.


Cattle cant live on Clipate. /
71
The argument is usually advanced that the FloridaX climate is so mild

tn.at it is a unnecessary to provide w protection against ,SK

/ This is true, but unfortunately it takes more

than climate to make good. beef. Good forage crops must be produced or be

1 As long as we had vast areas of native cane-

brake and only a few cattle to the fmw it bee= possible for those
A
cattle to migrate into the cane-brakes and pass the winter in a compara-

tively good condition. In mae recent years the fires have done much to

destr y the cane-brales and what little of them was left the cattle de-
aLAetE- &tl^-
voured and finally the cane-brakes no longer sK.ei to support cattle for
1 A A
the winter. The vegetation that grows in the pine-woods is so scanty

and so hard during the winter that cattle caanot subsist upon it.

They are therefore forced to congregate in the hariocks, along the river

sides] aLnd around the lakes. W et these l

Shelter 1.i as well as a amount ofy suit-

.ble forage. Hercvci, iti all f thac favorable conditions there are


.-4^.





P. H. ROLFS, DImeCTO u
JOHN M SOOTT, ANIMAL INDUSTRIALISr
B. F. FLOYD, PLANT PHNBIOLOGIlT
J. R. WATSON, ENTOMOLOGIST
H E. STEVENS, PL.AT PATHOLOGIST
S. E. COLLISION, ASIOCIrTE CHEMIST


D-151


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE


October 11, 1912.

Vf


Chief of Bureau of Animal Industry,


Washington, D.. C.


M


, Dear Sir:-

Your letter of October 9th is at hand.


. .," ..


a"


Va.


*^mpr-


I12 E




W IF

-3-


not enough _..... n | C -Mntt the entire Siwdito pass the winter

without a V53M large mortalityiaa*1A frequentlyy when the spring grasses

begin to ma. e their appearance/the cattle are in such emaciated, condition

that they are unable to migrate to food/or to digest the food that is at-,cZ

7r= t. ,,e young animal2 Q Q... otuntod md tle cHesltllun at'M.Ml
conioequrbly never attain their normal size.

The experiments conducted by Professor Scott dt the Experiiient

Station have proved conclusively that with the long number of years

during which the cattle have beei, subjected to this kind of treatment

their Inherent quality for producing fair-sized animals has not been Sn.

bred-"t. As a matter of fact native aedsta when placed in suitable

pasture for,the winter have made os good gain in pounds as did the

half-bre animals The native animals of course were deficient in the

quality of beef and in the oize of the desirable cuts.


Sazidy Soil made the ScaTegoat

We are al. inclined to be 1y lazy and -a-- paly blame the other

fellow or aorA4dtono for our am misfortunes. It so happens that Flori-

da has an abundance of sand in nearly all of its soil any 4s O is differ-

ent from what people are used to in the hilly and mountainous regions/;
IL-
the sand in th9esoil9 is made the scapegoat for our own indifference

either to work or to active thought. Before the cattle industry assumed

large proportions in Denmark the peninsula was thought to be too sandy

and poor to be of value to anybody. As soon- as the Danes secured

their independence they had nothing but the poor sandy soil upon which

to live anid naturally they used their brains and their muscles to make a

living. They soon discoverered that by introducing stock-raising

and 1butter-making they enriched the soil and increased its capacity to







P. H. ROLFS, Dn.CTO.
JOHN M SCOTT, A.EMAL INDUSTRIALIST
B F. FLOYD, PLANT PrvaYsLoa.sr
J. R. WATSON, ENTOMOLOIaiT
H. E. STEVENS, PLANT PATCOLOGIT *
S. E. COLLISION. CHEMIST


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE '


Gaine svi lle


fs% -A -







-4-


produce forage, in turn producing more butter and beef. 4 .n.T; -ir

again enriched the soil awo~enabling them to produce more butter and

beef. By continuing this for -rau uf decades their countryman 4

from a sandy waste to the most -si--m spots in Some of
A-
the Florida farmers are doing the same thing, SMMMMMW.. They are

starting in with a sandy soil that is my worthless but by
0 A
good farm management the soil fertility is not only conserved but in-

creased. Ire-K l,_*.. -.. -e_'_ J ..:-

Wt rtithout stochloraising there would be no difficulty in increasing

1he soil fertility by proper rotation of crops. However, by means of

Stock-ralsing the work is made doubly easy.



Stock feeds mainly on Air -

The bodies of plants' Which ate eaten by animals are made up almost

entirely of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, and it so 1ha.ppns4

that the atmosphere which ,ve breathe is made up .71ft7 part I- i

jame 9M parts of oxygen, A of carbon dioxide, and the re-

maind.er a small portion of various other gases ar.ong them a trace of

arflmonia wvich is chemically made up of nitrogen and IHydrogen In

analyzing p the chemist finds that made up

iad=ny of exactly these saje elements. In other words, plants are mere-

ly canned sunshine; the animal eats this 8RIMlM and converts it into
,A
valuable food materials for the human race. A number of our most concen-

trated )jf. stuffs, such as velvet beans in the hull contain only a very
s: all percentage f rn al .matter -
Iz wt. -- % -s narr -%mo


,J; *- a-






~ay



~ ~d~L

p




~ ~
-IW-1-%,
LL4









i I- p..,11 It --e. The rest of the pl"ent-bry is -ad.e up

of the chemical elements of carbon, hydrogen,oxygen and nitrogen. The ni-

trogen composes about 2-- per cent, of the velvet bean. The elements po-

tassium and phosphorus are raracQ4Qa-1y. the only ones supplied by conmer-

cial fertilizers. The nitrogen may be obtained by leguminous plants from

the atmosphere and. therefore can be obtained free. We have then only to

supply the potash and phosphoric acid./ "4 a-... a-' "
supplyat thesh k :a-.-o_ 4 rn4. oee -
. .. .. ........ : -"a-*--A k.'-s*-J-__--. ......





Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen when combined in the proper forms mal:e

bu tter,-starch,sugar,sand nearly all of the foods which we eat. A small

amount of nitrogen occurs in the tissues of plants combined with hydrogen,

carbon and oxygen and then is 1morrn as Irotein. Protein2builds up the

animal) tissues but only -i a smaller qfty4v than the cJ.rbon, hydrogen

and oxygen. We have seen that nitrogen may be obtained free froi, the at-

mosphere. The water which is so largely needed by all animals is com-

posed of oxygen and hydroen. Aside from the elements we have mentioned

above) animals need a certain ariCount of calcium, sulphur and magnesium and

a trace of iron. These minor eler..ents enter into the economy of the plant

or animal in so small quantities that a sufficient aroount is e

pre sent 9t* l144 Cno&O

If you have followed me closely you will have seen that the great mass

of the animal body is made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen,oxygen and

nit rogen.-- all present in the atmosphere either as k gas or as water. The

total amountt of mineral elementss present in the animal body amounts to five

per cent. or less in a lean steerand at-out one and a half per cent. in a

fat pig. Animals must A e depend on plants for their food to build up

the body tissues.































OYSTERS, ANY STYLE








;













Cattle can For et or_ eLveL gnths ii.J the_ year

fact Ahas been known since As Florida was discovered.


f ....4-@M ... f J^t
e-g,. n-in~~.i the years t .



rixd utrntious wild grasses in abundance from about the middle of March

until late in the fall. During this season of plenty-t- gew rapidly

in size and put on a considerable amount of flesh. After that the pas-

turefgradually become poorer duriint the winter t1tn there is

sc-,rcely enough to- keep %t'a alive It is during the fall, winter and
A
early spring that they should be provided with good nutritious forage

from cultivated fields
Be~tfe.L -*ic-- s F of agriculture had rc.. d

f-0.1tdp it 1was somewhat of a haphazard undertaking to grow plants or in-

troduce new ones. for cultivation. This was notably so lbt

Florida, but mtar present eneds n- one need hesitate longer in

taking up this line of work for want of As a matter of

fact we have so many suitable crops that we are really surfeited with

them and hardly know which P to choose. It re.iAqnds me of the

dlonley in Kasgp's fable who stood half way between a sheaf of oats and

a sheaf of wheat; whenever he made up his mind to eat from the sheaf of
his remembering
oats. ho -res~ibe. how sweet the wheat tasted caused him to hesitate

and make up his mind to eat the wheat. But before eating the wheat the

inclination to eat the oats became so great as to cause him to desist,

In his dilemma the poor donkey died in hesitating between the two. desire$.







P. H. ROLFS, DIRmcroR
JOHN M SOOTT, ANIMl. Ih.DUBTRIALIsT
B. F. FLOYD, PLANT PHYvsOLOtiu
J. R. WATSON. EhTOMOLOGIST
H E. STEVENS, PLANT PATHOLOGoor
S. E. COLLISION, AsEocIAra CHEMIST


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE


October 15, 1912.


Mr. W. G. Long,

Tavares, Florida.

Dear Sir:-


Your letter of the 10th is at hand, and the samples of


soil by express caine also in due


course of t.ime.


I have examined
,-.


dl


U.


.-_ --o.o.... :._,










The _Exjrilnent Station introduces new Crops_._

Hundreds of different grasses IMI int.o. ==.*n._L J the Experiment
Station. Of course in this large number on.lyra few can be expected to
e-
succeed. The introductions, hover are made from regions that are in

many respects similar to Florida. This makes It anything but a hap-

hazard undertaking. The question is only of introducing a sucficlent

number ar a f icient amount of perseverance, to secure the

best things thilt can be grown. Among the crops belonging to the

grass famrrilyAwe have introduced within the last few years ,mn-y be men4

tioned Natal grass Which grows so luxtriantly and abundantly from

central Florida southward.

The Rhodes grass was introduced som:,e 5 or 6 years ago and has proved

itse:if well adapted to almost- all .parts of Florida. In some parts of the

State it is grown in large areas. The planting Ti4 limited A~py by the

possibility of getting seed. This is one of the most promising meadow

and pasture grasses that has been introduced.
uo-
Molasses grass has also been introduced,amt mahes a very large crop.
A
and under Florid, conditions is quite valuable. dt alA~4C A '--

M Para grass has been tested and distributed to many different places.

It shno',s itself well adapted to moist farm lands and gives abundant and

nutritious grazing and also an abundance of good hay. Guinea grass

Would.be considered a most valuable acquisition. were it not for the

fact that so-many others that do better have arrived. This does well

from the central portion of the peninsula southward.














fused with it. Enclosed find our Press Bulletin on Melanose and

Stem End Rot.


C-_ ts -


-a











Japanes-- Cane


This plant belongs to the grass family and is very closely related

to sugar-cane. For a number of years it was largely advertised as
A
a syrup and sugar producing cane and unwider these conditions wa.s-boomed

into disfavor. At the present time we may call it the king of forage

plants in Florida. It will produce large quantities of green forage

just at the time it is most needed. Stock 'an be placed on it early in

tha fall or early winter. It is most profitable to reserve the cane

until at least the middle of DepemberI since the amount of sugar increas-

es rapidly the last few weeks. As high as 27 tons of green matter per

,cre have been produced at tie Experiment Station on land that would

ordinarily grow only 15 or 20 bushels of corn. To state what could

be grown under the most favorable conditions would give such a large fig-

ure as to make it seem a3tTst untruthful. m'he original ed of this

cane was introduced into the country Ey. General Buee a Brazil

ov r 0O years ago. It is ot likely that the first introduction gave us

the best of the varieties that can be grown;we have therefore made new

introductions and have -eceived 4 varieties from Japan which are now

being tested. ASeed of eignt varieties from Ceylon have also been re-

ceived. Thksawill be tested out and if any of the varieties are superior

to the old well-established variety seed will be distributed with a

view 4 replacing the old variety.


^ -AS Aorghwuii

Sorghum -==a tropicM g Some new varieties h:ive been in-

troduced from Africa and other tropical countries ; many do extremely

well in Florida. The long-tived varieties are the best sesome of







P. H. ROLFS, DirEcrOp
JOHN M. SOOTT, ANIMAL IODUSTRIALIST
B. F. FLOYD. PLANT PHvSIOLOQlST
J. R. WATSON. ENTOMOLOIaST
H E. STEVENS, PLANT PATIOLOMIST
S. E COLLISION, AsSOCraTE CISMIeI


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE


October 12, 1912.




Mr. E. L. Wartmann,

Citra, FLa.

Dear Mr. Wartmann:-


Your letter of the 12th is at hand


t -


W110- rw


S












the forms such as EarF y Amber and Kaffir Corn can be used to good advan-

tage in special cases. The Experiment Station has tested something

like 60 different varieties *--of these Sumach and Goose Neck have ian

given the best gmm3aj satisfaction. During certain years fler vari-

eties have given better crops but on the aver.-,.ge these two varieties

seem to give 2** larger yields.



Legumes

The legum ropf anarf the very be tat can be gro -n in any

agricultural section. Not only do they produce abundant and nutritious

forage, but they have the power of extracting nitrogen from the atmosphere

and erLriching the soil with it.. This makes it possible to grow a crop

of legumes, and rseiove them from the soil and still bse the land r

than before the legumes were planted. And since nitrogen is the most

expensive element in our fertilizers it Is doubly desirable to grow le-

gumes .not o.!ly for forage but for enriching the soil. Legumes properly

handled on Florida soils will enable the farmer to cut his fertilizer

bill in half.

Alfalfa

The Experiment Station has tested between 30 and 40 different vrie-

ties -f^ ti-d i-r--o; receiving seed from Peru, Turkestan, Mongolia and

*in ii il i every other alfalfa-producing country of tie world. All .

the seed germinated well and produced vigorous growingg plants. However,

f-A y the crop failed e product ive aef

This .eT nce coincides exactly with A thousands of other tha-' have

in te= z-ar-lfalfa seed germinates pro -, produces vigor-

ous plants and uiis l!i: uf acr op the first but during the
I A.




F


P. H. ROLFS, DIRECTOR
JOHN M SCOTT, ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST
B F. FLOYD. PLANT PRVMOLOLaST
J. R. WATSON, ENTOMOLOQlST
H E STEVENS, PLANT PaTHOLogir
S. E. COLLISON, Associaic C-fsEMi


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE


October 11, 1912Z.


Mr. /B. K. McCarty,

Eldred, Florida.

Dear Mr. McCarty:-


The questions you submit to me ar-e capable of a number of

correct replies























I~ ". .-W .










rainy season most of ths most impo e

it 4 hy. r' the end cf t#he rainy season a large pproentage of

th---lanto h.. av Jd iut c Lne lcrop- f lQfa ,hay lhat "can be

made in the fall after the dry season begins is very small. Even the

Peruvla variety which growv^pretty well all winter, aie made o__ly

an indifferent t f.. prodn n alfalfa fied that be





Soy Beans

Some 80 x 100 varieties of soy beans have been tested

from time td time. A few that originated in South China produced

vigorous growth and gave a faitt amount of seed and forage. These
i.
are being tested.AW and if anyj-ning valuable a@sme among them it will

be discovered, --. j.. For forth Floida and West Florida

so.- beans generally do well 1 d., but for Central and South Flo-

rida they cannot be recommended at present.


Covmeas

Between 200 and 250 varieties of cowpeas have been tested.4t.

This cro(; has been grown for a great many years in Southern United States

and. has proved very acceptable to the farmers. There are many points,

however, that must be considered before any particular crop can be called
A-
the best of its class. Two varieties of cowpeas, Brabhm and Ironr
A. r
have done unusually well and under ordinary circumstances are resistant

to root knot but under adverse conditions seem to be pretty badly affected

by this p st.









waite z


fifty to a hundred citrus growers 'here who expect to take advan-

tage of thLe publicity.

'-Very truly yours, .



Director. ..


















-.*-1


S.alm






/ /




As a whole cowpeas are declining soew in favor in Florida,

largely 4"-&.- tC Ath iit the velvet bean family produces a larger

amount of ammonia per acre tth less ._ r v t.hande. As a general

cover crop they are not sufficiently long lived to meet all conditions.



Velvet Bean Family

For nearly a quarter of a century only one member of this family

was known in Florida, or what is usually spoken of as velvet bean, or

more properly Florida velvet bean. Originally it was used SK an arbor

plant, but was found to grow very luxuriantly and finally a few people

;ar courage to try it on their stock. It was found to make a good stock

feed .,nd came into general use. About 20 years ago the Experiment Sta-

tion began testing this crop. A vast amount of work has had to be done on

on it since not even the chemical analysis was inown at the time it was

being considered as a crop. Experiments on its effect on the soil,

its effect on various animals, cattle, horses, mulas, hogs, Aft.. have

been t-+4a.. Its digestibility has been worked out and we now have a

comprehensive knowledge of the velvet bean. Since there is only one

Florida it has been this Florida that has had to work out this particular

problem, and the scientific end of it has had to be worked out by the Ex-

periment Station. A pod crop of velvet beans should be worth from

$30 to $40 per acre to the farmer. The beans themselves would readily

sell as seed for $30 ehe average production of a good good crop

would not run below 20 bushels per acre. In addition to this an- amount

of nitrogen is left in the soil about equal to the amount taken off by

the beans. This will vary according to the vigor of the beans. A

good crop of velvet beans when foraged from the has aourt js good









P. H. ROL.PS, DIRECTOR
JOHN M. 800TT, ANIMAL IhODUSTRIALIT
B. F. FLOYD. PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST
J. R. WATSON. ENTOMOLOaIST
H E. STEVENS, PLANT PATHOLOGIST
S. E. COLLISION, AssioCrrc CHEMBT


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE


dIot. ..11At-P


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. I I .- .





r *





effect on the plant growth that follows as would the application of 1000

rS. of cotton3peed meal.



Yoyroama Velvet L.-an

This variety of the velvet bean was distributed by the Experiment

Station two years ago and tested by a great many different farmers in

the state, It succeeded unusually well and gives promise of filling :in

important niche in our agriculture. The plants ripen seed in about 4

monThs from the time of planting provided the weather is sufficiently

'arm to cause rapid growth. It is a good crop to plant after

grain after truck crops have been harvested. ,,---lb1 l.i.

It is a much smaller and weaker growing plant /han the Florida velvet bean

The rows should be made about 30 inches apart and the beans placed from
"^ 6 inches to a foot apart in the rows.


Chinese Velvet Bepaj

This is one of our latest introductions from the Orient. One seed

was received aA-prg4t in the spring of 1910. As only one seed was

received it was given the greatest of care, being planted in the green-

house, and after growing to a height of 8 or 10 inches in a flower pot

was transferred to the open ground. All of. the seed from this plant was

saved and planted in the spring of 1911. That falling spite of severe rav-

ages of caterpillars j uu., a bushel of seed was harvested. In

the spring of 1912 something over two acres of this bean wa planted.
1 AA
It takes the bean about 6 months to mature, differing in this respect

gl 441Rghly from the velvet bean, :and Lyon bean; the( Sw two bloom

only in late fall, regardless of the time of planting. The Cninese vel-






-13-



vet bean on the other hand blooms early in the year and matures its pods

during October, putting it at least a month and possibly six weeks ahead

of the Florida velvet beans. In productiveness it seems equal or super-

ior to the other ]inds.- In vigor of growth it is the best of any that

we have tested.


Lyon Velvet Bean

This was introduced from the Philippines in the spring of 1907,

and is thought by many to be quite superior to the Florida velvet beam.

Its behavior, however, is so similar to the Florida velvet beanjthat for

ordinary purposes I see no very great reason for planting It in prefer-

ence to the Florida velvet bean.



4S^. The YUdzu Vine

This plant has been grown on the Experiment Station since 1-907.

SeAd may be obtained from the large seed houses of the north. The

plants produced the first year are not vigorous, but the second year

long vines are produced. These will root at various joints anid plants

arising from these 'rooted joints may be set out to the field.

Under good cultural and soil conditions kuadzu will make a

large yield of nutritious hay. It is recommended by some for a spring

grazing crop.








'S




Full Text
























O



OYSTERS, ANY STYLE






-2-"


nutritious forage plants and sending the finest beef to the market and
producing large quantities of the IM best O4 butter. All of this,

however, is done not a the native vegetation but aP introduced and do-
A A
mesticated forage plants. In every country of the world it becomes

necessary to change the character of the Yet ion before the domestic

animals can be sufficiently fed tr in st Florida

is no exception to the rule. The native~ of Florida just

suff.icie t to enable the cattle to live through the summer and make.se

Growth. The winter ~ is t*e season of scarcity and d ri -c
sense years thousands of animals die for want of fodd.


Cattle can, live on Climate. / -Y

The argument is usually advanced that the Florida climate is so mild
St fat it is unnecessary to provide SA prot action against

This aim is true, but unfortunately it takes more
than climate to make good beef. Good forage crops must lt produced or be

T-s- jt-iiaSa-. .-SaA L- As long as we had vast areas of native cane-

brake and only a few cattle to the Otn it bees'm possible for those
A
cattle to migrate into the cane-brakes and pass the winter in a compara-

tively good condition. In oas recent years the fires have done much to

.destroy the cane-brakes and what little of them was left the cattle de-

voured, and finally the cane-brakes no longer es^ to support cattle for
/ A A
the winter. The vegetation that grows in the pine-woods is so scanty

and so hard during the winter that cattle caanot subsist upon it.

They are therefore forced to congregate in the hammocks, along the river

sides and around the lakes. V _r -hese oor,.. ,l

i s shelter, as well as a amount of 5 y suit-
#ble forage. HIecvc, with a of tLec favorable conditions there are
'^^^W^^Aet~t-^ 4Sc