Forage Crops.

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Title:
Forage Crops.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
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Unknown
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Box: 2
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Forage Crops.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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AA00000206:00058


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F"OP '-Th rnicprl
Fop ORr Wnp7


P -e Lnimj ni: -op 1

tie ;t'ory- of boy f .-L :-i one ie lived in Fi-.l .. -. Li


L c.c 1- l -A -" e o asi j!o t o.\in r.- Wolt of ,holp; he.


dlid .ot arouni-t to verj ouIch. 7iS ,NMI:, Aid not cons:i Ci


hlin as the rl.i'ht boy of the fuily.i, "cd :o-e.,ntl n: ,.tai


not ut Wt tho: L1Lnc tM t MoYL' o :0 .11; pput *:; te M i1J


of .-..': 2ct .u L o vc Loa-, 11i ,nUr ." ton, :a, .0 h t1 ;,


oN: r iL:.ais, oz o.n o. hin.- of..J. t 11M. Piz w _on-


.ictod of od.Iu ond enls. Picking P02Vo buss v:n oc. of h.e
jo.c v- h M fr it hi t Th e ..,,V c for




coanv;ir L.ion. S1 o-in, *]e hoj .Ur : nc .:r xvOf:O adli-vr-
"., -,-.










ion.. Fe ;c. K n1 2 oin LW: y en^ it Sac C. 0: o ,.-:-


"Lri o-r- F :.. n h'.o ,- 't ofi' Co '.ol ;e.


He .ioin't ..-in .l -t,- ct1 :.n:-. -e-e. At coll -h he .l.- .'t


amount to uL..h c A ,h r. T. lo t iJ t -.1 11cic, .-.QL A-


boy-. c v.'a n ithcr :ood nor lad. Fc, to.-:v cr, Look a


powlt ,v7 nto co e. About the onl- ing by- -li,- bc h r
it
-li..:'in. uilshed. i c li t o Lht orioq of j.i l2 1:e, -rL.th}iF


*.' r the c oll. ; '.: .: ..-C I. 1 ht M b oy











L..a .. ther vi',.anV u- 'l .. i' it 0.:'.:o t' n ''h. TC hI '


j i. "cLo.ut ,'- ; u-, his in:i t .:O'.j tC,_ Plc' riida-- ;:- ,3.--e ca 1


arr ni .L-',,, .;Ls, enll noti ,e ca lio !Tc'.. orL :t .:e, L Zt:ci c:,


h, i to :01o. o'-"r t_- re -.nd do :oie orl: in ho 1:t ic~l u;.- --a


minor ipositlon. T Le,-'e he Loeiied to, o e-- lop .1 at o-,;.


In the :ourzc of :.. I aL nra c \:C. Lrcti atUci
_.C r l' L-K O'.l.
.... Co l C ,


al : o"r the Saete of :c,\. YorI,-- r-,'t i Lte, nJd a rY.b


.i.an. ."ople i .n .it. Tc r.. .L .:, to .it ct ; : '. c.i- on.


,? lle .:r ow o or: until he :70 a.ttr,.t-ng- ..-,*ion, and a


:ooLd e.eel a -, ert o-rin, l cl over 'TE E ; ,-. E anc by the


wholee co'unt- '.e.I loo hin L.:. t cQ'-., o_, tc::t book -f.t -


. I.othe issued fro i: f.i 1 e tc'.i. Still that was not


Vsuf i t: .Lrt W1hiEe c'.:c at _1- a1 v n ::cejeed s',..:ooLie


to a'vise thou, .:F aL thl c- Wi.r 'Dr. 7: ilc-r. ?h.r .: 3."-o


the story of a boy vho \;t n u 0i1i *-* in th- *t.rt, otAac


of it 4 ll Lu.t o :1 incthin. in im, ha soirnethi: to


....e a l 'an of him, 4.- toa ay ther. tio n a 3 1n in all the


world. that re. ... horti -ult.ral lii ;-'e but t mno\s ,c]o


no.mie of Bailey. T .:,-.1d. rather .e -,iloy tol.L thln Pr i-










dent of the Unit ed S 'Lr s. I c. cLn be e.iL 1.t I can o-


Yie;-.s i; ref :'-n e. I thin: he It is d oilng more for the per-


o,.nent upbuilG ing, Lte i-er.!cii enlt : .-' -b.in of ho l, i ,-..lture


t an : i',--o e clae t-. t e i..vo .


Th-is is .ritr .: t :-roa -e talk I wish to -ive ;:-ou


. ...-.. -ioon. T tal: this ..L_ '-trno'n o Irish to be along,


the line of forage .n, d" "orSe production. ITow, I wi' L you to


tall: no-Vs ec I go F.o:!s a:d if I go Lo f':At, tell me anid T


will .o lit-tle slower, bbecrL.o I e:-iTcct to .;.-.o'. questions


tomoizrov. upon this aund shall e:ecot evc. -ole to bo ready to


::i '.r ,_- ose ;.":t ons, to,the best of his ability, of course.


Forage is the r.is of our soil fertility. The


iminer'al el:i.cnts' in the .oil ,'re used by pl oits to build up


their tic Ues. 'Plant ticues cro nseed by animals to build


u-- their b.!Lics. The v;:.rt of the yl'ii t not needed is a


7 Lte p'-od ct ;tht goes ubc_ uo the soil lircj't. Without a


p-.Ct ts plant material '.eca.-ing in the soil and l.,ing

wha-t ve call hIunus, vwe -;:l. 1.l : jroiw very poor crops. Some


start can be iade, but the crops vil1 be ver; poor. We







therefore have, fir't, the ini::-ral art ':f the soil, vhich is


tahen up '-iy -o pi-^, d -.nd. built inLo plant -~:Iues, the plant


ticsues built u i-- 'Ito c';.-iell -ti ,S, -nl Lthe aiii.,l ti ,suc.s


going bac: aSain Jinto the ..oil, ;!hhli irn ti' n form r. -'rt of


Lthe hius. TT ve Lo." evera no ticcc a fcr.:L-Lui -C l.a 3re a per.c., .:.s


,:racticed clc--ri ;ii.. e? I1f om. r-.-rc'ctice clean culture on a

flc1, f or a 1n jte, .. ca-rs, v.c .ill .c. e-b -olutely cl, .n, -ee,-


i a. eerl .o7n, in hc 'cie of .Lce years ou will have


,-retty nic:.arly a dead soil. Tha7'i. is !.-.: i.e the vegetable


-o: ction o. uho soil, or li-ua., as, we c-ll it. has been .eCimov:l.


SWe a-pr2o::i! Eatc cuci, a coil.'iiton when wc e grow cotton.,cotton,otton


cotton, until it is cotton after cotton, d our soil rn: 'u:cll


joes .'.oI'n, even the :,f:,st fertile soil, i .:L as occurs in .Lo


Delta of the TIicsi--,i, -nd :',ill in J.-'.c beco.,e exhausted.- :.i


deiprived of *L '1 humus and '- ve ,oor crops. The great Iorth-


vest, tr-,t as laias la a -ra-_ii-rie for untold years and yeeoa,


v;a.E L;,iade -up of d. er-.it dec.l of r humu. 'lin co proi'.-l ed lar e


croos of all c-'/.c of *..:ts vi. f"i 't cultivELtcCd. A ter a


sci.ics of .yocr of culti-.ati on the crops began to fail, for






-5-


the lac: of btunus larIgely. WVe h, ve tlh same condit -.n in


ran" of ,--r citrus -roves i-n Plo ide. So.me of our citruC--.'o: .ers

believe in v.'h-:Lt vc cal.1 cle;:,n *i.io'.;"- c, llo- i, absolutely


no v.'ecd.is or ,rasa or :ny-ting to -ow in th-: ; ves. In tine


tl'.AU 2oil becoLes v'--1 sterile aSid. LIho tree begin to decline.


They.O need .OL thing ri.io: th, n th1 a is in the soil'. The cit-rus


:-ouc.r thocn 'ii 1t a '.-ly some o-: T..ht u.lnus in the o-- of 2ome


organic _aLter, frc.uentLly in h.e -.,:; of fertilizers; bu-ttihe


organic f,'rtiliSers .'rc noit ve;- goodi for citrus t--ces, conse-


-.iinently he is h'oering between those two extremes-- first, of


hurting his trees bec-:L.e of clean culture, ind, second;


hurting then by giv-ing them hurljus in the form of organic fer-


tilizl rs.


The pro..uction of foir e- n .t:-h-se :r.ovc,E proves .:,0-


beneficial. Quitc a nuitAc' of our citrus .-r,'uvcrs now .ccow


crops of crab-srass, IbeL_ orweed, covocas, ..rl crops of that


hind for Tihe :sake of Cotting the foror. from those -ioves5/


In addition; to Siving hem the forr.ge, they get the advr.nt. :e


of the tops, v.hich dcc:.y in the soil, thus pro-Ading a be-tcr








soil for the citrus grove.


louw, let us tar.e the e:am:ple. c i in, of Con e of the


farm,-.es at TF tingr s, for c:Eamp.le I .:..;.ld cite ;.-on, oit!.:r


places, but Eatings ha-rens to be nonr at hoime -ere The


farriel s there Srow thrIo or .cfor fc:am cro;-s on 1h:t land in


a single rear, iandl aftcr- the l1 nd hs c-iboo cro;e for 1-i


ber of years, the l i.nd is actual. 1 bC:ttcr th on it was .:.hc.n


they began, and yet in some cases they tal-e four crops off of


the soil in c. '-inle ;: 'r. Co. cre lhat, the-lc, l-:th l the land


on vh-ich '.e have grown cotton all the time.


I have just 'sliovnm :oo the c.;va-ntc ---no, not the ad-


vanta.ge, but t.ie absolute ,:.c.szity for 1-rowing forage to


]keep our coil in good condition, in the b.:.t jlo&uctive con-


,iJtion. To garo,, the L'--t linac of livestock, it is abs.olrtely


necessary for us to use ;oriothing beside our native vegetation.


Have you ever though of it, that of all the provs we -oroduc.e,


not a ,-ingle one of the impolitr--it cro;-s is of native origin?

Let us enummorate then, beginning Uith the most ir-mortant crops


that we produce in F'1'- i"a.






-7-


The citrus crop., that binAg~us iore imoneythn_ any other crop;


corn stand second.; cotton th-rd; I think: -h-n comos M'eet


potatoes; peanuts; and o on "Lovma the lict. Yon wiill1 h ve


to go clear on uovm to beg;earweed before you come to a native


crop. Bearw.c-cc. and cro.bL-ra.-_S ar'e n.:.ti.ve to the State but


the,, arc about all that v.ie have of the iriport'nt crops or that
a- e L

can be -Lane:od os cro- ?.t all that are 2~.tive plants of C.ie


State. It is so, :.it] every ccunty. People have not "en


satisfied ";ith n: ive Il inits. Io one ltht is 1proressive .uld


b- satisfiedd ',ith our wire-gra ss in the pinec.:rT ooCds. As a


imac:er of fact, ..hen he eyc bcgi to. open up our piney w;oo.ls ..altd


begin .ratin on thIiu, the ;ire "aT.S- disappears and the hr',:io


leaved, grasses come in and r':1pl::,ce it.


Let ui take :.-cin the illustr:tion of the feed o-f


cattle. i7e all knovw vi.1\ t t:G 2c -:ho ive cattl e look like. '7c


hIve seen too Lany- of theim, of the old Sanich stook. In


their original state, thei -ro fairly ood cattle, but they


have hai to depend. on Ith e native grades and native fied until

they have deoencaited into being 1.c-r'ly bones and a digestive











system. I thin if you v.er to lool: for l ir point, .yo.



2 --
would. find that theiy a ovld 3E..cor a :jood to-caEt pretty close.


They would run a pretty close parallel "to thf' t 1 'or Ihinl qucr-


ters. Or they .:old coinare pretty .-lose to -n alligtor


or a billy-coat. They c..ll have a p ic)ty load dig.:stive


sy stem. TI:-t is ithie wiay n.-t. i. o has broi L h t tl; r:.h ,;ot.


Thr-re have been tim is- of bhe c<- oe n-hen these cattle were facing,


starvcai:' n. Th'e hld the meanest kind of feed possible, and


only -chose survived tl..t ..:re able to vith.tae.-: those conditions.


Some cc.plc co::.ploin of our r;3rub cows not giving a-ny milk.


Well, all the good iilcrS .died, btooc.nze -.hen 1:cy sucklod their.


calves, they sinrly drained. the cows, to death h :.nJ there vwas no.


survival, calf and cow both lying p-robably.


ITov, I lhin: ve .lve one over the first part of that


subject pretty tilly. We see the :,bolulite necessity for doing-


soliething in the way of -,roducing fo-.rce, :.nd we must U.lr-n for


this. We must plan, not for pLroducing forage -..hlcm there is an


abundance of feed, but rplan for producing it v;".cn it is -ne.ded.








Th,:re is a certain time of th-e :ear :hen we do 1not have to ha.ve


any e:'traa feed. time he we iu.t have 2w.oe


or else lo.-e em. a good part of our stoc]. Even t 1hat r;- t tlat


survives is so serious.-y injured .u ri ng th.t time t'hrt the are


of very little value, it tLe;-]:s so lo-n to recd:'.-.te rncl


get back to the normal.

I .,ich to t.]:e u1'p the *h-:.rts for the ne:At point, shon-


ing- us the fora-go ero.'s T-h-. c.n be produced. I luially prefer


to begin v.itJ the cL-rl- .-it.r. 7c -i ht h, ii ',ith the ..i .r


today, SC '.'e -;Ire located in JL'-;i. c-y.


Under ori0injr, circcuiLtances the Georgia Sal.:d is a


i:lant tt tit ill ,ive us a 'ood. crop at this time of the year,
the
This -cear .e missed it. ITow, Tch de.ad sure thing is not in/farm-


ing line, as :,-ou v,:.ve all n::-npcrienced ".c fore this. If you hare


had an,- ec:.:i'pricnce in farming, you 1-now thit it is a d iear- .sure


thing thaU.t you a re not going to have a large crop of ove..-ThirnS


you put dn, otherwise there would be no necessity for faring.

If you Vant a dead Lur'e job, cut the job of cutting coupons from


government bonds. But fortun-tely we arc not able to .ct --.clh,





-10-


a job.


So if wie happened to have failure- this year .'itih the


Georgia Salad, ve will try it -.j; in ne;:t year. This is the


fir.t failure in five yecr.rs. .Ucua011y we .r-ve a lot of the ocorria


Salad for feeding. L-:st year v.e h.aid five acres in a single field


and twenty head of stocci could not 1.:.:ep it razed down..


Then wve h:ave a second c-ro- tio t comes in.about that


time--Lhe Japanes, Cane.C .Our Jaan:se Cane has been grc.zed


for so!:'.tiae. I have not seen it since th.e freeze. I thinf


,e had. five acres th--.t had not 'Lc en cut. It is -robable t .i-.t


it is in -.-rety good .Iape for grazing still. That portion of


the Japanese J:ne thi t has b.:cn out caniJd l:a',icd in windrouvs is


absolutely safe. I dare so;3- that ;,-ou ,ve been told my Tr-.


T.c 'uarrie how he tales care of his Jaranese Cane. How he cuts


it in ;-7indro-s, puttinS the butts on t;he gr-ound, so they wiill be


in touch '.:ith the earth r.nd draw up moisi.'ue froi. the gr i.nd,


the tops forning a cover for t]2oe rest of it and protecting it

from Lthec 'cJother J





-11-


We had some out last year that laid ther until J.-nu.ry, -nd

at that time we i7ree be,-iin-ni- to cultivate Lcdt so it \as


hauled into the hay born end in Iovember-Prof. 3cottw \:as


still feeding from that Japanese cine. The cattle relish


it and ---refer it to some of the c.. hr ht.l? 10 e -d.


Velvet Pcans are now at their 0b tc. Yo;: vill no-


tice that in those two cro-:.s wve hlve fwhaat we iiiihr t cull a bal-


anced ration, and if tLe cattle ae tu.-ned n1 JTpanese Cane


and velvet be'ni .o tl.tht cthe;,.- e-t r.. nch oi f each as they


want, they will cat v.'h:t they want ;:nd will iitvC a Ibalanced


ration. The Japancse Caiie and lithe Velvet 3can are t]he bone


and muscle-,producing fc.eds, the protein.


Rye ;rnd oats can be used a-t this time of the .::ar


ifor fee-ing. cattle. L.Late in Feb-ruary othe -oats field will come


along so that they w.,ill get good pasture.,


So we se:e that 1 l,.uring ,,niary a, d FT'bru ry ::.e --c

large supply
a earth of feeding mitor;ial provided we have looi:e ahd a and


planted an abundl-nce of crops.






-12-


We will novi take the early' spring. In the e-rl


spring C lhave the Gc-orgia Salad, velvet beoss, rye, o,.ts, rid


in I.arch the 'CLi-neO gr-ass u!irj.c favorable .on:aitoion. That


makes nice, succulent feed for 11.ose w.orl onis.1 th :t e-re


falling off soTmewvlhat rnd. for _C Oie of tlc co.s E.nd calves, but

too
it is rather/early in ITarch to pasture the Guinea csras ve-r


much. In April or Th.y:, our Espring here, we come to the period


of hard times. You \ ill notice ti-t it is too late for our


crop of Dwarf Ecse:: rspe or the GeorJgia Sald,.; too late for


velvet beens, nrd our Japanese cane is practically all gone,


and. at thC.t time .7 have to rely on ots, r;y, Guinea grass


end Para c.rass, unl.esr ,.:e have stored ':cLie o,'ra'-e. That is


our hard time. Some years by the '!ii.dle of A-.il the native


pastures a-re alrepay coming up o that the cattlo cans be


turned out into the ivoods i-nd onto the .ran-e to hunt the ;-ra. c


for thnCmselves.


!Tov,, wh]en \C:e :come to uuniUri, we [hs,,n have a la.r e as-


sortmnent of -lants that -,o can use. In the .:.iter part of Juno
.,-t o jq,ji,, e IIIt~j 1









the earliest of the sorsglunis will 1'.o rie. We :.ill not c-l .ve


forage, but 7.:- will :also hr.e irin. Our corn -ill then o v.-l


enough along, taking in July, so that 7ee c7in fcied. Corn and sLovel-


to ooDi advant.gi e. O.ts .:.n rye 7.ill clao be i..le ';.- t ioie, rL-e


coming on about T.iy or Jiue ul-,_l y. In June :nJ. July one of t'he


earliest ilcin-tina of cov.ca, v:-ill :,e on at that t-ii:te.


Yet onotiher iiupoCrtnt ri.l muc.h nlectea cr-op is the- Para

re*%' io t *,.,a A,- *,. t... of
grass. Tlat, t .iso, i' coin ona ct t1 is tije. At ar matter of.


fact, in April the .ara -r-ss b c-innii .o be Yvcr good :'raing


as far north as v-we r, loc.ted. lbcj.c .-,nd throv -',ou-t the no rth.-i- art


of FloriLda. The .'.iinea -r: .'ill t'ii have .m. turs so it can bsta.


stiron, g -ras.ini. Bc- arve-:ee x(:il i he ci,,ir-. in in July, a.nd T'c-.:ii'an


0Clover Clc0.


Whein 7e cor.i:. to a'rl:,- frll, then our 1.-,tc sorV.huiE v bill be


matured., thoe large cro. th,:.t 0:ive i s :-.i:: oon to twenty-five times


of -'i-een ir .tter and. -0o :rn buc- lel. s of -.-'i:in. T.: iin.- 'Ic Sumac


nd ponaech, ti.cy viOll -ive us a l.r.. 'e a.cm .nt of foc-,e, and -in.


Odwoeas--the fir-Lst crop -.ill hob rie. Be_ c-.Geed, P-,ra -r...,





-1- -


Guinea grass, I'c::.icn clover. T thin]: trhat mnt of aon people cal


the Mexican c1,ver Te:-:a. clover in Eac-iLi.. o.1ct'.. T-her are a


goocl many iliff--ent n.aees for it. It is one of : ..o. felloic ,.:t.


Lc.s n C. aoert "t of ie .


In l,:otc, fall v\.-- >x- e ai, .holo list. Sorlin:tn, -e.-ra 'ra':c,


Guinea g Srass, ITatal 2-ra s, -l: -a ce;,-.. rvelv --: b.-.:jia J-..ans, c c: ,ne


again in ITo :.,ubcr, thao -'h it is not e'-St tc it : this


time, but if you crc ; h ort, it c:,in el- 0-.- out. J.:p.l.e cno is


laying up a lot of n.V ',r .ti. t ic lii.ie .'.i-id q .t to be :c--t until


frT ost is er-:r cted.. Tt Lc-es a.. ,in lot of' .;..r u'in' tL.; t.time


and. it is 'est not to feed it until ..b.t tie. Pcanuts cone in -I:-n,


and. M-exican *:lo-ve.


That Lbrin.z us oack to D.ol:.bcr :-cid 2 nI-'Ty, our .inter.


We have Du .--rf Essex r 'pe, C.-.orsia Salas., ,Ja.anese cane, Pi.a _-r .,


Guinea ss. Para rra'-2 ld C-uinea -:rnS. :ill l:r-:- n unt


li-ht frosts. Ilatal 'rass stnci.s v:uit-e soevce .f,..-,, Last win- *


ter ac .lidc net have a froze that Lili. it out enti-. ly, thoi' U- I.or.'

'bf the la:ntc v.ere 1:ill e .d .:t, but 1. ir.f e nuL:;r lived -.i1 t-'c1 -h.


Velvet Ij)c.ns, of :ous' e,


P-,an1ut C, Chuf:I-s.


C uc.s ;.;r not -7"-,ntctd






715-


to ani- con:id.leloable cj:itcn.t. The r not Y .:ctin


as a feed; they ;-il. not nimp:rov the ,&-oil.


Whon ;ve come ta J.nu:r .-nd Febru-_.-; vc. '_._ u .: .Ie cur r.ou d,


we V ho.vo ;7,'_.e E& caoirleate round of the ;"car, .1o.i' fo' i t ..t


we can grow. Aside from b:.:ing ."',. to .fou.. du f" it is r;;


impo1 rt- ,nt "for us to lno h.eth'r o.'Ti -"o it "- 1'it Ll r no:t.


Tot uLu t." _:e tL: --,]..-i"_t- one alftcr anotirE' -. .' L c ,.he :]-C.riced.


he re. -


Fi.".t, the Eaor jlis Tc da.t c.t vt.ih t i....: a,


June to Oc -ober. T].cy -v.ill ire us from 5 to 16 tons of 1rcen


matter, or from 2 to 4 tois of d:ir.: !..uco, :.ind it w.ill not .:o ot Uc


over '15 -u a:.cre to produce. Thi is a. liberal ;:a.lowrnce. -r'


i- n1 t one of .ou l .rc. in t:. cl,:. o. .J bu.t -t. c;l. i:"'- it on


$10 to ,12, allovin.g for cvc.r; ocible o:c"..:.e. live ut the


figure, hovweecr, ,at the outsii.e.


L t us Ut-o cona. July to Augu it, ho criod. rin; ch


iha-t should l:be har'vosted. or g-round. for :foed.. 0 to 8 t :no 1 of i: .ron


matter, l-- tons. of d,;- tottcr. I put tlt c.t 15 .n c.re.






-1- C.-


ITow V.e :..ve -Par.a .r E.. The -eriod. Juri -t ,hiCh thit ..n


be grazed is from A,-ril to Iovei;`..:r IL .;.ill i:ae e hi,- '. 4 tons


of hey. The o..o!nt' o"f green i.i_.[:,er .ilC t it -.rlouces we have iL';,:'










for about 2


IT::ttal g-s, Augunst to Dcce,. bor. Gives us c .:: to t. co


tons. Guinea 1. L 'zr;ch to Irvc-c or. The first, i2.. it cost


us t21. That inslu.ed 7 for ,c--ress i.'jh we : 0'. to 'i 7 on. t.Lc


rlnts. You vill thorofo:. e eethat the a.m -.n was -.. high for the


Guinea grace. The J-c::t ;-o.:r it .:hould not cost us over *t. I ]: ven't


the number of tone hcre, e c:.. U C at th0,at time we ,-d,' n.,::._,'red it


up. Sin .c that L Lie T ho' c fo:u- L.ho t it ,,,e -1 tons of Ioy from
up. Sin ': tha' tLi,,e L 'fr''o


an acreo.


I ital g-rai---r'o ra:icod. E.,lclthing o-cr 2-, toC on that


scaie class of land, costing uC about 2 :n acre. Cr'ab ,rasE--I have


put it at the ie figures--! to 1- tons ,r- acre, co;-tin, aL :,





-J?


$2 per ,acre. Japanese ce.ne runs from Iloveimbi-. to .Dec.i.eir. I


should have -,ut that -lcor on to eroLr:.T..7 I.ovoi;Jbo)r, 'c cc- ,lor, J'.n-


uary and. Fcbru:y. 'ivc s us 6 to 12 tons. 12 tons "1 less Than


any that vo h?.ve v,.. i:hed up I dare say th:.t our f j t ycrr's


planting would hlo.ve averjed 12I toi:s, but our ls.t E -c :er'.s -.l::;1.ing


averaged ner:rl:- 20 ton 3oime of our -'lot: IisL :-car r:'n '7.


Oats, J-inu-'ry .o Jitie; 1 to 2 ton'; :ort :3 on an -..* L-.:'e.


er,O ru nning from J .ry to "Tur.e; -1 to 1- tons dr :.ttr; C













not
can,'eount on Ll-2t.


'eggurwoo eel run rom Ju to Ootob-o C .'. ,: :es 'us f OLi on.i,


to 2 tons of be-- L-:ar-c.d. hy -, or acre, .: t S4, pr:actieally t1: L'jme


price as t'h cow: eas. Velvet u aois, ITo :ve or to Fab iri.-ry, YnI.L :.;re


it ie possible to leave tho field lie out, t hat is, ;.:re it is not


nGcec'sary to )lo'., tli: field, the velvet be ans.,c- be loft until t'e
,ri o 'y. ]e c ,e.. Veue "-.Lns -L-,m~_% ~ -;5, --_ ...






L0- -1 -


end. of Januai~iry and cattle msi;. for:-:cc on tho;em Ju:-in T:-rch. The


figures here are 0alto.th'.r too low. 'i7c 1.ve not had a crc' of


velvet bo.ns. that did not -ive uu 'c1r than a h:-.f ton oaf b> :,- in


pod. One plot hiEs .cracca ov-er a ton of ,%ns;e in pod. Tl hoe


figures, 'l.cvcir, Ie: tac:on :roi-! Dta TI 'ai! at :i'.nl .v.hen the chart


was maL e. The h rice thlerice is rlo1 ru1ii-iin h.1her t1::,'n is auL-alute ly


nec-Css.2r,, t. rt is, $5. T.-'t ..oes'not iujl .: th. e ga.t-' ring of


the pods. You :-an .ount on .:mut 15 or 20 cents a hundred for :. ;'-r-


in" the po:J.


Peanuts ,mn from 1'2 to 2 tons per acre. I put thcm at


:6. That is rather low. You. c;:n, however, p::.d-ie tlmi at :o by


plchntini: thlcm in ltorui- te Uro.s of corn., but ~hire Lec peanuts are


plan ed in the field {ihot price' is a little low. D.Carf Ee e:: rape


or Georgia 3altd., Dccehlber "to arch. 3oi.c years it :a'" .1:h fe. all


through Apriil id up il Tey, but ;.ou v.'ill be pretty certain to -have


it throughout the I-.rgr portion of TI.-rch at least almost every year.


I have im:,e that S to 10 tons, but we hove giovw !-n--.llh li;c:-cr crops

then that. This :ar c :.:c t '._Oinf -uc get L tons. -It is going to


be pretty n:-arly at the vanishing point.


TL.'-t -.:ice is alto:-.:thi.








too rTx high. Do not copy it .:1 but put it ra'thr I6 to .:8.


TIel:ican clover cost us w ei'r1ly for the plovi: n of .Lo C:il ..j.i t-he


makir-i of the nay. y It vas fairly -,'ofi-iable ad a .o i ior; cI .


I have nov.' lon-e ove-r t!.e fo c:-e oiore pre tt fully in con


section w-ith th. chrts. 7c vwai-it to t a.-e n- the .otogra-hs r-c::.


First ve h-vc the G-orgia S'l,.d. Tlh field ihlotosra-,hcd


ther-e v;as oi the E::me:.-i:e.'it St: ..ion .-.ci.uls at Lake OCit, end. i -ove


us 16 tons. You notice .;';-.t crovmwn 10 l ie. It vi;. planted


in row7S about A24 inches e;-.-i'rt. Th.t is a -.'ely succulent and juicy


crop and one especially well adapted to v.-i:,ter tii.e ouhen our stock


are vwe.ntin. :-.tiing juicy. And. if you l. vo more ther yo- can lpos-


sibly use on the .fa-t, tc:e sore into the kitchen Don't take it


into the 1:itchen until ':.u hc,'o f,'d I our :1.tocl: .1 the-- vant to


eat. It is be. ter than collards tD-L bettleor thlan .1miEtard. It does


better in rows .than to sow it bro-.Lca. t, bec- u.e that gives a c:-lnoe


for cltivation. By putting ; it in na-rriow i-or.s, y"ou can 'Ct a narrow


cultivator ;.nd -o tC, hrouh it so c': to stop the c:xcessive evr.-oration

that occurs during" our fall F V-id vinL.r. It taLes :bout -ten to twelve


weeks for it to get up to this sie, so for or0.iny purposes it is








well 'o rmale rep'oeted soingis. Sow a half :core, say, about tl-he


first of October; c.aout the middle of Dec2wnbr.to the fi.-t of Jcrnu-


ary you can7 begin grainmg.. Plrntiing four weeks earlier it will come


in Janu-'y. You will fiil corio difficultyy in. plaln:ilng earlier, becauLe


of the hot olrhc-r, snd thi:.. -..:nr. y 11 re o...t of sorts for .lentitg


seed the -irst of Sc-)teicrjer. It is theo most difficult tJiae of the


yee.r for EprouLTin- s.:ccli. If :-ou L, :ve.a good. seeed-bed., it is a good.


thing to put it in and ,gt some eac-icor, bccc.urse if it is inr-ing up


too much, tal.e ,our m:onvcr .iC ri-~ i across it, 1nO. it ill. come up again.


.You are not icoin:o to lose : i.-thi. 7 by r-utting it ciovn.


Rye-in Jcanuary. Rather lar,.-r yield '. n. usual. It was the


result of he.vi-ng La cror of co.- ucAL-.1 of them, I believe it

v.Eas co:."-._as, 0oli- lI 'tuminrous crop &..L.ad of tli:U. It sh,-, the won-


erful, e.fft of .r.celing '--i vith a 1e -ume.. The saife i.Ti is


true '.I-ih Georria Salad. Professor scott has just gotten the 6ccta


to.-ethcr 'h:"r.- ,eorgia Salad c..s '.crcded Lyd sorihu;i nl where


preceded by. co:s-.cas. I thiri7J: -I.:t -..iere it was pr.-ced.ed with cow-


-:,eas it made thre .ti.ieZ c much as ..hen it was precedIed& y sorghu.





.: -21-


The Poorland corn is bred. by MJfr. Oadsb:-. The Poorlland


is one of the prolific cor-ns. You no Live the :thort stas...


T,?e::ican June co~n. Thc.t is : v;r iot; tVhat is too i to


plant lete in the 'year; you ,-,a -,lnt Clt;l' rye h-as been tn:,:en off,


and get a p-ood crop of for-ge. It is .-rat.r ba..- ; affected


worras. It imjal-es a splcmaicI su-port for velvet he-ns. By plent-


int it be'Jicen the velvet be-i,'s ou -et a 0 Lr'onC, support for the


velv-et beans cnd it -grows c.pidly.


Sor3hum. The vor'i do not bother .-'t." ie do find a


.worm here cnd there but not eor.ou-h to 7- o.n; at- c: -t cion to. Th.-t


saime field produced onlu- a bushel to thc acre the .yc::r bef re.. Tlhcre


we vehav 8-/4 tons of org'hum,~ -l, *'. .ue to the crop 0of velvet beans


that was on the ficld.; it v':- not .l e to a bet c.-:or season, the pre-


tious seas-on v-/c.s just as .od .o thu t i-one.


Tcoointhe ima-:es a splendlid oun- ciop of fe'' o "e. It


rivals or e:.ceeds the Japanese cane in the pro'i.uction of C.L te" 1


to the acre, but if we were to -p.nt it out on th': ;. e lo.d with


the Japanese cane w:'e v.ol;l& not got -anyting li1:e -Ji yiold of p-


anese n. We ve ao a vo-Ery rich, .ell ,v.tc:red picce of








Snd, c.nd vbhore you ha.ve those conditions, the land. is worth


much more for other c-orns. 40 tons is not abnorma-l :or Toouinthe


on first classE land. It vroduces '-r.in. I .i-pEns ar..od in


Florid.a,-the onl;-, Stc..-.e in the .-ULion in :.hiih ,. can rircn cocd.


of Teoairithe. It for-ms a little lhui.: ,,niL roECeIlcs corn a little


bit. It runs right olonShg .'ith co0m in the .nol -sis. It iot:es. a


good silL..o crop.


lHctal racs. ThO:t ,cave us 2t- tonl for the second cutting;


380Z pounds fort tiho fi- t c-i -Lt i-g.


Guinea ra'..- running wild in an .'l.Tc.ndolonie orange orcl:ird.


You will no-iice It'r..T 1:ite st:.. ..in,; there, a ,cr.n a,.out 6 feet tall,


and the greas :'.''ing to his shoulder. It is not often that it


g'rovws .dild, but on the iTTral River it is .an exceed inly good l-sture


without inte;.ing it for --c.a.tuire at Cpll. Soi.e was "rc."'- on the





first year.









..t T.he1e i t!he Para grCs. Did you --et o.n c0 opportunity t


sec that last fall? You notice the long ratoons; than y-ou notice


the hay ratoons also. It iuns along' the -round for a &i;it':.-.e ond


throws up a hay ratoon. It is done rath:-r I.i.icly, The r-toons


that -run alone: he ro- d are r:'.ti'.: r.'sitat to .'L.in' out. They


can be 1:oe.t lying' on the frounl for si:-; to tLclve wcl:s andl if t'ihey


are then planted out they will :o. The hey cannot


planted out very succeu-:, _ully, not c-evn with a air de,--ree of suLc-


cess. In Teas -he-, plant out this ,rem' for hay. It lool:E lilhe


it voul.d lh difficult t o r.n,-o ay ..' it. But .ou i nov. if there is


&a ood decl of miioney in things of- i.-:t Lind, people will finid Out


hovL to Jo it. The Te:ans hi..v. C :. a.-Le C._ Cr t ..o_:. of ..y out of he


Para sraas an,: c planting it out lar-el- f.r .ain_. h,_ Clone


andr not for p E-l.urling. The-'re is one thing a- out rara raas. It


has to be handled diffi:.rcnt from n oth: rasc n:v of. *YouI


.hand.le it very much lilh-e 7- o Ecrtlluda. If you ..1e.1 u to .:.e a fine

Bermud.a law-n, just try to cut it ort. If yon t it, it dies :,i.t.


This P..ra grass, if you ]:ccp the cattle off of it *:ncd irmly let it


alonr soon iuns itself tut. On the ,tht c,,r u-ioni, if 0-ou turn the

11. .._ ...









battlee in on it, or itun lit iuner as if -o1:- .:o re oin.0. o .Till1 it


out, in a fevi ;oee:s 'you ill fi-., tho.e r-,toons running over Lhe


field lil:e wildfire d in -a. few v..ees :,-oE will :vc .-'. .:od crop


of hai. If -ou cut it doTo the l:i. tLor -;.rt of ":y or :?.Tly part of


June you will find& a loti of c.y; ofLcn it riun up to two or i.'e t.on


for tlhe i cu'i.-iiig. The s-co-nd cultti' is .!;:110-, dC the third


still ml-er. Then, .hen f--ll comes, before Iost is eop.ected,


put your brh::inj plow in Cr. in, so as to cover over th,. rLtcons.


If .-ou !o a nice jo'., and _f- all ite ratoonc covr--.'d, then in s-hinii


a g.ood crcOrop vill io proclucc for early grazing. It is a tropical Cro"s


and 0 t,-:cr. The :.ic is true of Guinea r':.L'.S. It is very tenc!er and


:;:e have to treat it a..ccor.inrly.


Vclvet ,c-is.


Be_. ar-vcdc---and it ,rces a sply-2:in.id crop. One thing about


chand.ling bo -n r-.ccd. .A a rule it -s. up rati. strE--j ling. Some


of it ,O.i-'-es up -iing c .rl. '., :.. .ou.:i g Th: i .o of ....; some more


,:-2,ih ,'; U p .. ..






a


H.ay-Malring ---Coo ueas anmi Orab-grass mire,.


.A silage cutter--that you. have seen to frc.uerntly.


.




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