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*- Notes added for the Agricultural Club,
October 21, 3935.
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ATHENAEUM CLUB PAPER
Subject: THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES Some of Its Political Significance
SThe paper will be opened by a series or stereopticon views
characteristic of the region. Contrary to the usual manner of
presenting such papers, a general discVssion will follow the
_, slides presented. This discussion will be:
(3 ) A very general resume of the status as seen at
the time of the beginning of the agitation for
(2) Sqne opinions as to causes leading up to the
(3) Some of the questions involved.
(4) The probable significance of some of the scandal
connected with the drainage work.
P. H. ROLFS.
ATHENAEUM CLUB PAPER
Bubjeot: THE FLORIDA EVERGLAlES Some of its Political Significanip.
The paper will be opened by a series of stereopticon views
characteristic of the region. Contrary.to the usual manner of
presenting.sucl papers, a general discussion will follow'the
* slides presented. This discussion will be:
(1 ) A very general resume of the status as seen at
the time of the beginning of the agitation for
(2) Some opinions as to causes leading up to the
(3) Some of the questions involved.
(4) The probable significance of some of the scandal
connected with the drainage work.
P. H. ROELS..
Gentlemen i the Athenaeum Club, and Visitors:
I am to present to you tonight a paper on the Florida
S Evergalades. On Janruary 25, 1907, I read a paper before
you on Agricultural Education in Florida. In this paper I
Pointed out the fact that the teaching of agriculture, aau
was looked upon as a joke. On February 21, 1908 I pre-
S sented a paper on Agricultural Education. This gave us a
genera] resume of the status of agriculture iin Florida.
Special stress was laid upon the fact that we needed a cor,-.
prehensive program for progressive work. On April 29,
1 910 a paper read. dealt with the Educational Awakening in
Florida, especially along agricultural lines. For the
Sprsent paper I had in mind two rather different subjects.
Th-e one most strongly in my mind. finally proved too cor-
Sprehenslve for thVe short time we can justly devote to
tills study. In thLis paper I had in mind taking up the
present agricultural improvement, discussing it from a
rather broad view, but this would require a considerable
amount of data and statistics as well as a large number
Tonight I want to present to you a paper on the Florid.a
Everglades, not from the standpoint of the engineer, nor
from the standpoint of the agriculturist, but rather from
the standpoint of the Floridian. In other words we want to
discuss it from a certain civic point of view. The :ass
that I have p1igese&d t Be- and the general discussion
St atr in connection with the vi -s, are not absolutely
necessary to the paper, but will certainly give the mem-
bers of the Club a much better idea of the magnitude of the
question and also the practicability of carrying it out.
It really lays the foundation for the discussion which is
to follow since if these lands were worthless there never
would have been an Evergaade question in Florida. J
would have "been an E~vergl'Jade question in Elor~ida. J~fcL
arr-1an on the as-@ broad and more general question
that I had hoped to take up in the paper referred to, but
which you are so fortunate as to escape being punioho witFh.
In the fifteen minutes of ny remaining time I want, there-
fore, to take up this question in a very general way,
not from the standpoint of the engineer, nor from the
standpoint of the statistician, but from the standpoint
of the citizen of Florida.
(1) Early Efforts at Development
of the Everglades.
As early as about the thirties Dr. Perrine made appli-
cation to Congress for a grant of land on Biscayne Bay and
southward. This grant contained many thousands of acres.
Dr. Perrine had been Minister to Mexico and other tropical
countries, and in his cruising had found that the Southern
coast of Florida was especially adapted to the growing of
c(.ertain tropical plants. Dr. Perrine, after closing his
official career with the government, settled in this region
and began to develop the grant, but unfortunately was kill-
edby the Seminole Indians. Two of his children, @L-
escaped assassination, and the Afinally '(during th nine-
ta 'm..2ndrM"-4 succeeded in getting a patent to some of the
lands, which by this time had become extremely valuable.
During about the fifties army officers made a survey from
the Atlantic Ocean across to Lake Okechobee and ascertained
the elevation of the land across the south end of the pe-
ninsula. They reported that the waters of Lake Okeechobee
were 24 feet above sea level. The question in mind when
this survey was ordered, was the possibility of digging a
ship canal across the southern peninsula of Florida to
avoid the extremely treacherous southern coast. The region
from about Palm Beach southwrard to Key West is oeftLinTiuisy
strewn with the remnants of wrecks, and is paii-r y the
greatest graveyard of ships anywhere on the American coast.
In more recent years conditions have so improved, that it
is the rare exception fo'r a good vessel to go ashore in
this region. Since this military survey, numerous other
levels have been taken across to Lake Okeechobee, both by
private individuals and by State and Government officers.
There is a uniform agreement in these surveys-, some running
as low as eighteen, some as high as twenty-four feet for
the elevation of the water in Lake Okeechobee. All of these
may be correct since two or three months after the rainy
season the water would necessarily stand higher than just
at the beginning of the rainy season. Likewise, if the
survey were made at the spring tide the waterof the ocean
would stand higher thah if taken at the neap tide. //
_ter d ast ater tg-Mexican War a military
road was established between St. Augustine and Fort Dade,
W.n t now Ai the he of Miaji. This road extended
southward to about where Kissimmee is now located, thence
.~" .. *""**
over the Kissimmee prairie to where Bassinger is located;
then in an easterly direction coming near the coast at
Jupiter and from there southward, keept g away from the im-
mediate coast, yet ctn=2=r enough to p- way fro
the savannahs, there popularly called prairies. (
general way it followed the coralline limestone ridge
outhl of Little Rive; and then through to the Miami River,
Fort Dade at that time being considered an important and
strategic military post. Although I believe this route
was never really used for military purposes it became an
important avenue of travel for private conveyances.
About this time the question of States' Rights was
considerably agitated, and necessarily the two great polit-
ical parties split on 1t. Onnsequently general and large
national activities were not undertaken, and great problems
were turned over to the various States. About this time
the Federal Government gave to the various States all of
the swamp and overflow lands occurring within their bor-
ders. Under this Swamp and Overflow Act the State of
Florida care into possession of the Everglades.
During the eighties the legislature of Florida
entered into a contract with Disston and his associates
to: ial-:e title to them of a certain amount of land, probably
some three million acres, in consideration of their devel-
opment of this land by constructing canals through it. The
principal canals constructed by this contract extended from
Lake Tohopelaliga through to Lake Okeechobee, and from Lake
Okeechobee to the Caloosahatchee, near the mouth of which
Ft. iAers is located. There was not much difficulty in
constructing this water-way since it consisted mainly in
the removal of debris and a considerable amount of sad9
Imud. It however meant a more or less perfect water control
of the great interior basis lying southward from Kissimmee
toward Lake Okeechobee and westward to the ridge occurring
in central Polk and De Soto Counties. The Disston pro-
ject came to a termination in the nineties and patent was
maJe to the various 3and s. These lands-were sold out in
smaller or larger bodies and at the present time are among
the best and most productive lands we have in the State.
(ii) Some opinions as to causes leading
up to the Drainage Question.
WaA is a fearful disaster, both financially and mor-
ally to every nation engaged in it. The conquered nation
finds itself financially in the worst condition, but
morally the conquered: nation is usually much better off
so far as the two combatants are concerned. This
statement is a thesis by itself and has to be passed over
excepting in so far as a mention of it is necessary to the
understanding of the significance of sojle of the political
questions that have led up to the particular subject we
have in hand tonight.
It took the United States at least a quarter of a cen-
tury to arouse herself from that fearful and bloody de-
bauch through which the nation had gone in the early P4
of the sixties, a t was nearly 2890 before we had any-
thing that we might call an awakened and civic consciousness.
The older of us need only to remember a2.(the younger will
have to refer to the secret and to large extent unpublished
history of the United States) to blush in shame for scandals
a were rampant during this previous quarter of a century.
I am referring to such instances as the Seward scandal with
Alaska, the Union Pacific bond issue, the Credit Mobilier,
to say nothing of the unspeakable iniquities perpetrated
upon the South. No less a personage than the lamented Gar-
field. was directly connected with such a scandal as.the
Credit Mobilier. You will remember that this was money col-
Elected from the government treasury through the postal de-
partment for imaginary mail routes. I should not wish to
delve in such mire but for the fact that it has a direct
bearing upon the situation in our own State. 2he'Ikmotto in
those days seemed to be "get money honestly if you can -
but get money." I can well remember in my boyhood days
how the associates of my parents looked with abhorrence
and unfeigned disgust on some of the methods employed fn-
more or less local circles for obtaining money.~ j had
S '"peculiar ideas, no doubt, but they had grown nt
with those peculiar views, aa#. one of t~ma ever figured
among the needy or those that were dependent upon charity
for support. I can well remember 1ow at their informal
meetings local and national political questions were dis-
cusseci over their steins and by the aid of the friendly
pipe, and how, after becoming thoroughly disgusted with the
unpardonable political iniquities in one party they flew
to another, only to awaken to the fact that the other polit-
ical party was probably worse than the one originally aligned
with. In other words it was simply turning out one set of
rascals to put in another. I think political conditions
as they occurred in the northwest during my boyhood days
were really ho rrign tr part .
h e-e....a'y-. At least I do not have any recollection of
the political intrigue* going to the extent of actually
framing up evidence and fixing courts so as to railroad an
obstructionist into prison, though this may have occurred
and I would not hear of it.
(iii) Some of the Questions Involved.
In 1890, the period at which I place the beginning of
civic consciousness in the United States, 'e find Francis
P. Fleming (father of our former member of the Board of Con-
trol) Governor of Florida. The political situation in
Florida wasEiot more wrongo^al b than the average of the
United States t PAi o t t a .II
Just preceding this time was a general, scramble of the
railroads in the United States for areas of land. This
was probably the easiest way a' .iahiwL -PI-e
.acqu Lt1.. I do not say that the bargain Mr. Disston
made with the State was unprofitable to the State, but it
was certainly immensely remunerative to Mr. Disston and
his heirs, AWlJn the state of mind of that period I think
it could not be considered morally bad for the Governor of
Florida and the Legislature to give so much of the public
property for so little in return. As a matter of fact
it was probably the best way out. It reminds me a little
bit of a political situation that I happened to 30low iTore
or less definitely about. There was a change in national
'U administration and a certain man Who had been a good Demo-
crat his life long was very desirous of being postmaster,
under the presidential appointment. The presidential
appointment, however, was not forthcoming.and upon close
scrutiny it was discovered that a high official in the
Democratic party -- I believe le was Chairman of the
State Central Committee -- was withholding his consent.
al by devious routes Jt was found that this gentleman
needed five hundred dollars of good hard cash with which
to buy ink to sign the document. The question was re-
ferred to a learned judge (as a purely personal one). He.
gave his opinion that there was no help for the matter.
That while he thought it a shame it would probably be the
only way that the desiring applicant could get tihe',ap-
S.. rancis P. Fleming was governor from 1889 to 1893 inclu-
sive. During this time the railroad track building was pro-
gressing very rapidly in the State. This had been augmented
by the discovery of phosphate in the region around Dunnellon
near Ocala. The railroad building of the State of course
had been preceded by contracts grantii large areas of land
in return for building railroads. The phosphate lands of
course wequickly gobbled up and soon became material with
which to gamble quite in accordance with the spirit of the times,
If local gossip is to be trusted, one learns that frequently
the question as to who should own vast wealth was settled by a
game of cards. Likewise, if the stories are to be credited by
people who claim to have handled the money it was purely a ques-
tion of finding a man's price and then paying it to secure al-
most any grant by the railroads. It will be remembered that
during this time the civic conscience was being awakened in
the United States, and as the tewatras a part of the
Sole, mutterings and dissatisfaction with conditions as
they existed' from tiizo ,^mo, ufc finely on all si-oe
The opponents of Mr. Fleming very skillfully injected
another initial before his name and made it F. 0. & P.
Fleming, the initials of one of the large railroads in4he
State a-b ti ~ ae mi
Convention form of party rule, and while able governors
were secured by this method, averaging probably with those
that are secured under the primary system~nw-e.It was no
secret that the moneyed interests of the State always were
careful to find out how a man stood,before there was any
possibility of his nomination, and it was an open secret
that certain persons in the State enjoyed the priviledge of
saying whether a man should or should not be elli ible for
*' 189Z-'-2 Judge Henry Mitchell of Tampa was e4et-e
i.Governor. Of course nomination in those days was equal to
election, so there was no opposition worthy of mention.
evious to that time, however, ose, ascending
brilliantly, and then like th proverbial rocket came
down like a stick. The immediate cause for this brilliant
rise was of course the dissatisfaction of t people with
how things were being run in a political way, and coming
down like a stick was not aniunpremeditated affair. From
1897 to 1900 W. D. Bloxhai, forr..erly Governor of Florida,
was again elected. By this time political conditions in
the State were becoming somewhat troublesome. A very strong
faction had arisen in the Democratic party, which was able
to send to Tallahassee its representative from so large a
county as Columbia, against one of the old time straight-
line Denmonrats. Of course this was not fought out on a-
clear and clean cut issue. The stump speeches when Capt.
Bayer and Judge Palmer were in the contest were "for" and
"against" free silver, tnu Iree silver and gold standard
had precious little to do with the decision in regarding
to casting of votes, tho free silver was the great slogan
- usedd on the plat-form. As things were becoming acute
in this way it became necessary for the straight line and
those who had favored the awarding of lands and other
valuable assets to the favorite petitioner, found it neces-
sary to bring out the most popular man possible who would
be able to carry the election by his personality rather
tahn the principles in private and public ownership. It
will be remembered that it was during loxham' ,em-
ing's administration that most of the contracts for Build-
ing these railroads were awarded. Under the Swamp and
Over-flow Act it was possible to award lands located in
any part of the State for running a railroad in another and
entirely different section. This was under the control
of the Board of Internal Improvements. Toward the close
of Bioxham's second administration was held the last real
Democratic Convention in the State. This was convened at
The lines vere pretty sharply drawn, but everyone
qas pretty much at sea as to who would likely be nominated.
Mr. Jennings of Brooksville, who had served in the legis-
lature, had certain very distinct and definite ideas in
regard to these matters of granting large bodies of land to
railroads and other corporations. He was born and raised
in Illinois and a cousin to William Jennings Bryan. His
nativity stood distinctly against him, while his relation-
ship to the reat Commoner, as he was formerly called by
a large contingent in Florida, proved to be a decided asset
to him. By skillfully working, his friends succeeded in
stampeding enough of the delegates in the convention to
turn the tide in his favor and he was nominated and elected.
This of course was trouble beginning or the old-time regime.
Jennings undoubtedly felt a smart of the political unfair-
ness and with his followers was able to pass the Primary
This brings us up tothe campaign during which the late
Broward was elected Governor. The Primary System was
entirely untried, and the two leading candidates had to go
into the Second Primary. Broward of Jacksonville, and
Robert Davis, then of Palatka but now of 'mpe, were in
the campaign. Broward had made the Everglades his cam-
paign issue. This was the beginning of attack from ap-
parently every quarter. Like nearly all other political
campaigns, the issue was not clean-cut but every sort of
side issue was introduced by the opponents to confuse the
prospective voter. For instance, a self-styled engineer
in whom a very considerable amount of confidence had been
shown by the people of the southern part of the State,vehe-
mently and positively stated that he, himself, had seen
tides dn Lake Okeechobee, and that LaTe Okeechobee, in
place of being elevated was .- sea level and that sub-
terranean cavities connected it with the oceans. I merely
give this as one of hundreds of illustrations to show what
absolutely unfounded arguments were connected with the
campaign against the Everglade Drainage Proposition. It
was during Jennings' administration that legal machinery
was set in motion to annul some of the supposed contracts
entered into by the State for lands in the Everglades.
In the end, Broward was elected by something like 500 ma-
jority of the votes cast, a very narrow margin indeed.
The question of politics of course rose from a more
fundamental one, that of civic conscienceness awakening and
the struggle to obtain these lands rose from the fact that
they were becoming extremely valuable. Mr. Distcn's
work in the Kissimmee valley, peculiarly .enough, had slumped.
so that he did not get the bagatelle of what it was really
worth and he himself was probably less to blame for this than
his immediate family and his advisers. were all
opposed to i rand then the spirit of gambling which was so
rampant in the 80's and 90's was also a serious deterring
factor. It was found that by certain unscrupulous con-
binations the A 4 could be disposed of ok a wiY
short time, eaA variously Stated t at from one and a half
million to three and a half millions dollars. The tempta-
tion was too great fm those who had the opportunity.
Mr. Flagler,seeing the opportunities and knowing that a
4vs 4uV would soon be created,fprojected his railroad
southward and by acquiring direct or indirect control over
the lands on the East Coast Canal Co., succeeded in con-
trolling vast tCeaf. It is quite correctly stated by
newspapers that the East Coast Railroad was built -1;iar
a single grant of land. However, the acquiring of the lands
which were donated to the company which had agreed to build
the East Coast Canal made the railroad building quite a
valuable asset, and while it was not technically the same
as being granted land for building the railroad, in the
direction of profits it was pB gyj just as good. Mr.
Flagler, in having these lands developed thru what was
known by various company names, had demonstrated pretty
ite B-'* .'** ***; ** *
clearly that the lands when drained would become extremely
valuable as trucking lands. This part of it was an import-
ant factor in bring on the struggle, since this land was
selling for from $10 an acre remote from the railroads
up to $40 for that near the railroads, and sometimes for
$50 and even larger amounts had raised the cupidity of those
who had a claim or supposed they had a claim on the Ever-
glad lands. We can therefore see that the political strug-
gle going on in Florida meant millions of dollars to thowe
having apparent titles to lands or else millions of dollars
t,:. the people of Florida. It seems to me then that to sum
it up we have three principle questions involved in this
struggle for the possession of the Everglades Land:
First; The Awakening of the civic conscienceness or
civic conscience; Second;AThe possession of these lands
by private individuals for their personal advantage;
Third; The rise in the pr&ce of these lands.
(iv.) The Probably Significance of Some of the Scandals
Connected with the Drainage Work.
In the foregoing three sections I have, I think, led
up in a sufficinetly logical way to give /somewhataclear
insight to the subject. There have been all sorts of
rumors of scandal, some unfounded, and some possibly being
only too well founded in fact. The methods of Wall Street
are too well known the country over for anyone wbth the
gambling spirit in their blood to have over-looked. The
lottery ticket has been done away with; other lines of chance
have been outlawed. Card playing for money e while Aot
a strictly legal form of amusement still seems to be winked.
at by the law. It would therefore be very unreasonable to
suppose that in a country where it is perfectly legitimate
and even considered honorable to gamble in such vital things
as bread and clothing, that we should look upon the matter
of gambling with lands with a large degree of comnplacency.
The rise and fall in the price of Everglade lands has been
so entirely independent tf the money supply or capital
of the country that we must look to some artificial cause
for it. One hardly needs to have the vision of a -)rophet
to see some very significant indications along this line.
As long as the Evergladelands were practically worthless
no one was paying much attention to perfecting titles
and getting an absolute deed to this region. Perfecting
the title and getting a deed to the region would mean that
the possessor would have to pay taxes for the support of
these. If, however, the titles remained in the State and
the individual had a contract from the State to deliver
these to him they had a contract that they thought as good
as a dead without having to pay any taxes on the land.
,:.' However, when 7. S. Jennings became governor some uncertain-
S t arose as to whether the State officials would sign up and
Make the deeds to these lands good. It has been freely
stated that it was a personal peak and due to some supposed
lIn@mana injury that had been done or some slight to the
occupant of the Governor's hair. The probability is that
Mir. Jennings was not altogether satisfied that the whole
arrangement had been perfectly fair to the people of Florida
and that certain individuals or combinations of individuals
had really gotten more than their legal share of the swag.
This naturally created a very significant depression in the
values of land. After the compromise with railroads and
the whole matter was relieved of court proceedings, there
came a rapid rise in the selling price of these lands
in fact Everglades Lands, far removed from drainage canals
or proposed drainage canals went to -l15 an acre in large
blocks. It will be remembered that these Everglads Lands
with the exception of that owned by the State r '..i..
'ffy- ^--P= .......a.......n- was held in large blocks.
This made it especially attractive to the gaillers in large
moneys, and single individuals or corporations owning as
much as h.lf a million acres of land would nominally be
as rich as some railroads, and consequently would attract
attention from the money markets. There was a simultaneous
attack on the drainage proposition, on the money that was
available as advance on the.land, on the personal integri-
ty of the promoters, and on the( personal integrity of those
comnneted with the State Drainage operations. This had
.imm di-e effect that could have been A e'Oe by anyone.
It will be remembered, that our Congressma.n Olark made a
certain speech in which he denounced the whole
and declared the land should be sold by liquid measure
rather than by area. This incident in itself would have
created very little attention if the whole matter were sim-
ply a State cqestion, but the money stake was too great to
,:- be confined to the state limits. Skillfully written
articles were printed in the papers from Biscayne Bay to
Puget Sound and from Maine to California, showing there was
a very nDl aBobe effort discreditfta the whole peil.
Together with this a very considerable amount of space has
been given in the papers showing up the adverse side of the
drainage proposition. Immediately af:.er this, waiting of
course a sufficient length of time to let the matter settle
itto the body politic as a whole, comes a Dutch Syndicate
desiring to buy State lands and offering what under the
b4e iwazeo~t would be an extremely good price for the
I have, in the privacy of Cur Clubs, said a greatt many
-things that would involve one in endless if they
:were given as public ut-cer2nces. --hee e rzE7XE xy lti
jthbi- ni 11 ha r3 rl a-r1 l q. ni mP i I n I 17-' CL'*n iiar e pami in 0 Ain n~l
ao--1 v),in T 'R __a 1ra-t I have Irought in nothing here
and no personal refeTrences have been made to anyone with
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any other view than that of developing and bringing forward
the underlying and significant basis for the different
condtions as they have arisen. I have pointed out in a ..
very general and direct way that the question is more than a
State question but that it is a national one and that the
awakening of a civic conscience was somewhat late in the
United States, that this same awaL:ening brought about a
struggle in Florida, and that it centered on the Everglades
since this was about the last remaining wealth that belonged
to the people as a whole, (small areas of course occui'
elsewhere) and that most of the great questions were settled
rather on personalities than on principles, that there has
been a general forward movement and a betterment, that the
slump: in price of Everglades Lands was purely an artificial
matter and well planned and centrally directed, that for
some reason or another the was not carried off, and
that we may expect a recurrence at almost any time.
The present financial stringency of course is not confined
to Florida nor to the United State but is a world wide
e:Tpression of over-activity and over-confidfence. The
scandals connected with the Everglad work are very milR
when compared with the real ones that have been connected
with private enterprises "tagig ~ lS h
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**a- 4./ r.as~
n TH EVETGLADES.
Tocatio-,.-The stretch from about 27N Latitude to nearly
250N. Or beginning at the upper end of Lake Okeechobee to Cape
Sable, a distance of about 150 miles. At its upper breadth they mea-
sure about 120 miles, roughly speaking they formaa triangle with the
apex at Cape Sable. This vast area includes out 7500 square
miles, an area equal to one of our smaller states. There are nearly
fiveimillion acres in this vast area, three million of which can be
easily brought into cultivaion.
General Contour.- The highestt portion which rises about 40
ft. is at its northern extension and east of Lake Okeechobbb. The
water in Lake Okeechobee stands h.bout 18 fet above sea level and
shedsin three directions, East, South, and West, find outlets
though very srall toward streams.
Along the eastern shores occur higher elevations th.n along
the western. These ridges of coral breccia and sand dunes run more
or less'parallel to the ajeoent coast. The coral breccia ridges are
for the mnst .art and probably 4qggiether of eolian formation.
(This is not the generally accepted view) They are merely extinct
coral sand dunes. In some caMes sjnd is at present beinR blown over
some dunes, about 30 miles north and east of Cape Sable the ever-
glades into the coastal salt marshes.
The extinct st- d dunes are higher on the East coast and
extend farther southward than at the west coast because t,.e prevail-
ing winds are from the south-east. The coral breccia ridges and old
sand dunes are cut in various places, permitting the w.ter tc flow
off in that direction. Toward the wes' coast is formed the Big
cypress and a fringe of mangroves which retard the passage of the
wat. r in that direction.
The interior of the everglade region is intersected by
sand ridges and by sloughs. The ridgns are the remains of former
dumes. The sloughs are tortuous, retarding the flow of water to
such an extent that it is difficult to tell which way the water
flows. Tintil the elevation of this regi on had been determined by
engineers it was supposed to be at tide level.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the engineering
feature of draining the evetglades is comparatively simple but of
considerable magnitude. Canals of sufficient onpacity and at close
enough intervals to ca -ry off the rainfalld during its maximum is all
? that is necessary. Many of the smaller glades, or inatries as t:ey
are called locally, have already been reclaimed until from 50 to 100
thousand acres of this land is in use. These reclaimed glRdes are
for the most part located near the ocen or Biscayne Bay. The Baynton
prarie is a good illustration. The water from the everglades is
held back by old sand dunes and the water in this prairie, six miles
long and two miles wide, was held back by the newer dunes. when a
canal mas cut to tEde water, the prarie was drained and is now fur-
nishing excellent farm lands.
On this prairie forest trees, especially the pines are
Botanizing,- The interior of the everglades are bot!ni-
cally unknown, but there is no physical difficulty in making thb
exploration. The task, though an easy one, is not inviting. The
flora is rather sparde and uninteresting. Over the level stretches
the sedges predominate. In the muck ponds the aquatics, like the
water lilies are common. The small hammocks which occur frequently,
are extremely interesting from i-he fact that the number of species in
an individual hammock is apt to be very small but the number of
plants of the species very abundant. This fact proves that the ham-
mocks are of compara-.ively recent origin. The impenetrable ever-
glades is as elusive as the grent American Desert. In our botan-
Sl.cng- excursion we found it no more difficult to penetrate this
impenetrable(?) region by means of horses and carriage than would
ordinarily be expecr,4ced in traversing other unn known regions.
We made a journey of ten to twelve miles in a single dp.ay
the portions of the land bordering the ocean and gulf is not differ-
ent from that part along the shores of North Carolina, South Caro-
lina and Georgia. The spaces of land for the moat part belong to
many different families. In general appearance the resemblance is
very striking in that the., are well adapted. I to the xerophytic con-
In the more Northern States we have the salt. marsh and
strand while along the Florida coast a new element, the sangrove
formation, has been intrepreted.
UIrviola paniculato and Iponioea pes-capre are points
that ref se toe-e to be cultivated away from the strand condition.
Marotina, Opuntia Austrina Pac:;ea littoralis,
Gerripa clusiifolia and Errodia littoralis seem to be 'nale to
adapt themselves to other conditions. Serenoa serrulota and Cocas
crumifera grow equally as well on the strnnd or in the interior.
Chysohalows Icoca, becomes a trailing shun, almost a vine, its
branches frequently buried in the sand while in the interior it
becomes a tree with a strong trunk. Some specimens grow twelve
to fifteen feet tall. Chysobalamus Icoca is affected very much
like Cocalobis nuhifera. Both produce an edible fruit.