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ESTIMATEDD AMOUNT OF THE VALUATION OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL'

EXPERIMENT STATION and EQVIPIMEi NT-


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L' iti




Extension Work in Agriculture as a method of preventing poverty. 1914
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000206/00047
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Peter Henry Rolfs Collection
 Material Information
Title: Extension Work in Agriculture as a method of preventing poverty. 1914
Series Title: Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description: Unknown
Physical Location:
Box: 2
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Extension Work in Agriculture as a method of preventing poverty. 1914
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00000206:00047

Full Text
ETbf-, LI "-\ .Feb. 13, 1914.




EX7TNFSIOx WORK IN AGRICULTURE
AS A METHOD OF PHEVERTING
POVERTY
i by
P. Ii. ROLFS.

Mr. Chairman of the Conference of Charities

and Correction, Ladies and Gentlemen:--


Introduction

I wish to congratulate you on the splendid work

tO b done for the State of Florida. You have

your se3 f-ir.,posed
entered into ~W e duties with the zeal that character-


Ize; enthusiasts. May this enthusiasm, never grow less

but continue, and become more and more infectious until
I consider
it has permeated our entire social fabric'. There is no

greater work for the betterment of the human race than


tnat which has its foundation in the study of the unfortu-


nates and the causes leadingup to their misfortune.


Poverty is a diseased condition of our civic'units


as anaemia is a diseased condition of our physical bodies.




'*/
2



Not one person in a ma331 on wou3d voluntarily become


a public charge, or m 'become so poverty stricken as


to be unable to pay his own iay corrp3bte3y. I know,

a
however, that in spite-oghCb3 .o this r- too larPge per-,


Sdeha-i^n of our population find themselves in a condi-
what I regard -as the
tion where they cannot maintain Ae greatest of a31
A

privileges, iOLrLMR -


M~.bA g..g. BtH) the power of rpylng for a3l

they need in the w-y of food, clothing ,nl shelter.


The study of the prevention and anel oration of


poverty has been most largs3y. confined to our populous

because the
centers. Thile 1i .9 -- - con-

Tmakl:ng for poverty Manifest there
d tons are most apparent 1ad 1a-,11 n--nmj r si--.d-
Thli conditions
u1P-aemmf- -malKes it possible to stid'y those in a


communal or aggregate wy-aya toa.Bb- better advantage


than can be done in our rural districts. Lack of nu-


tritious food, ant of clothing :ad insufficient shel-
.






. 3



ter do occur in rural districts, even in F36rida.

The poverty stricken country people, sooner or later,

gravitate toward the more populous centers and there

become public charge,

That the cities grow by accretions from the

rural population is too we3) known to'need more than

mention -aStiL4a= at-. The annual accessions from

the country are very great. And whil-e there is more

or loss of variation from year to year the stream

of country people to the cities is a continuous one,

and -emeMatW has attracted the attention of every

writer on civic problems.,

A study of country life problems shows that mi-

gration to the cities is largely brought about by

poverty on the farm on the one hand, and on the other.

the promise of more comfortable conditions in the

cii A study of county ife probe
cities. A WuG close study of country life problems






p f. iP


Made by a commission several years ago showed pretty

conclusively that poverty, or lack.of comforts ade


-igWga on the farm was as great a factor in driving the

young and amddle-aged to the cities as was the allure-

ment of more remunerative employment. Any organized

effort that wi3 make country life more attractive

will have a direct and imrmdlate effect in reducing

the poverty in the cltu-o

The statements made in nYi introductory paragra'ih

have been so thoroughly ard fuly discussed, n the

magazines that a mere mention of them is

suf ficlent. toar)n&-. An iauoh a gp-Iot
/

'4 0aegnCy 25fmafnne46^-Ben tensionn work in

keeps 3abor on the farm and
agriculture is a '' potent factor in guarding

against poverty. Technically A-t extension work of

the Tklversity includes all of thie activities Rto

rt -tat outside of the confines






S. 5



of the C ampus. -e fttension .work, therefore, is
q-ssumed
not confined to agriculture as it is Usua3ly4 .ughT-off.

Extension Work

3iJtension work in agriculture dates brack to a

rather early period in the .iftory of our nation. I

have no Intention of'dwe31ing on tle historic -S

of it. I wisrP tq emphasize the fact that agrlc:utura]
extension is no new-fangled something. It is system

that has been developed by a painstaking and 3aborlous

process sm many years alii. It is d1f -

ferent from 1

that. it has been vitalized and made were applicable

.tF-theprdblems of today as tiey occur in agricu3tural

oonmanzities,

*The fxtensin work ;n our University has a rather

broad soope. It had its incipiency of course in the

Farmers' Institute work fifteen years ago. -he nmney









that was used Ser that par-oe rajlsy had to be ser-

reptitiously tak6n from funds under the control of

the institution. Possibly this was not exactly a

mora3 way of starting the work, but those in authority

knew that work of this lind hasd to be done .an as

there was no protest raised against it, the work was

carried on. It a8naa-toe-e as late as 3901 before

the Legislature of Florida was winning to appropriate

money 'for carrying-on the Parmers' Institutes in the
in a. systematic and consecutive way.
State. S~a that'period the work has been going

forward vigorously and has given most excellent results.

She farming ,element of any country is the conserv-

ative portion of the population. -T-eity-portinnB nt

nation seems to be more of a-radica3 turA^of mind.

This does not that some Statea do not have more

radical agriculturisat-thlan other but for the main

PAT w




*a


of the so1i, ye find revolutions few. Changes there


are bought about rather by evolution/., -..iv.L


Farmers* Institutes


y work of o organizing and carrying forward the


Farmers' Institute work in PJorlda was, therefore, ex-


tremely gratifying, and somewhat surprising to yrself.


In 1908 we held 42 sessions, attendance 4,+491

S1909 54 5,576

1910 122 a 9,021
2911 351 13,922

S1912 " 117 & Farmers' Insti-
tute train, att. 32,600-
a -I



The Farmers' Institute squad visitSvarious


counties In the State and holds meetings at the dif-


ferent places where local cooperation can be obtained.


These meetings ~gat from a half day to three days in


.length. Instruction' Is given at the various meetings





8 '



as to how the beat crop are raised. special stress

'being laid upon t .ose points inwhich the farmers are

weakest.

Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Weot


In 39, ; another line of extension work was In-

troduced into the nftate of Forida. This was under a

fund placr'd at the disposm- of .r. BeSanm A. Knap, b


Sthe Southern Muucation Board. It wil) be renem.bered

That t.'s 1Board hiad a very considerable fund Rt its dis-

ro sa for t'e -betterment of social conditions in the

SSouth. Dr -Seaman A. riapp Was comniasiond-l by t.ls

Boara. to ;tudy thideeuc tiona3 problems of the South

and advise tie Board as to the best methioys to be aoropt-

ed for Advancinc' education In t .he South. After agdag

im investigat-4, Dr. Ktnapp made hi- recorunendations.

,. *J~.r~psaa;e Zt OM-'4 f-




w r'-. s ** ..






.


a*.'ag i tie askbad -S aWPP what wouIld be


tni 1best way -v winetihr It should be experned 18 the


betterment of collogfe and universities. Ie saald Mo,


the South had a number o lnistittl Ons of this chr--


acteriand so far as coulC be aeorn rom careful -inves-


tigatlon it would rapearr tni.t t;.ey7 ~d a 3ulficlont


amount of mr:ney for carrying on t-e nrl;. 'Ie mtin lif-


fiocu3ty with these institutions was that t.yey had so


ama83 an attendance. Saome of the boardd :a tested tlat


po~elib2y It would be be t to expend tVlsl fnd i1 the


b ettemnent of tbe grrvd and nd h1lg sct ools. IHere a-rain


-ltaaasn~iei aes that t.Dere were rnanny good graded


and high schools in the South,but thi.nt the attenianrce


on theOm o-rs vo.y saal]. S'one one else suggested tliat


posalb3y the best rty to send the money woul3 be to


u pbunld the rural schools. 'Here again the investigi-


lion showed that whl3o the aSouth needad-any rural

: {.! .
,1^' ., ,. ''-




'110


IO '
aohoola it already- had many of them butathese were

pootry attended. This seemed to lead right to the

point that there was absoluteJly nothing that could be

.done, arfln-wjfl. But Dr. Knapp was equal to the

occasion and responded that there was somet)i-ng that

cou3d be done which would be extrer-ely valuable. and,


that was to educate tre farmers Iow to mak:e more money

from their farms. They would then ril3 u the coun-


try ohcoola, the country schools would f131 the graded


schools, and this in turn would lead to a great in-

oroase in the attendance on colleges and universities.


S The Southern lEucation B.'ard immediately Instructed Dr.

" Knap to-formulate and: organize a p3an of work that


would be successful .in teaching the farmers how to raise

larger crops and make more money. Concident with


wa e cotton boll'
'. I





3"



"weeVi in the western portion of Texas. It beorQe in-

oreasing~v necessary for this region to be taught how

to diver siy tneir rearing operations, ninr.e tleir

maintenance crop, cotton,- had beOn destroyed by tlis

pest. nI-a 3908 th e Hon A. S. Meflar, of Min sisSrji1i,

waa sent to Florida to organize the Farmers' Cefopera-

tive Demonstration Work. T'-e Farmers'. Institutes and.
workers
CO'operatlve Djemont iti,on r aLcted :.,In unison

for t, e bettcrmnnt of farrin:m conditions in i'']oriria.

The Dobopertlivo Demonatr-A.tion work in being carriM.

on in 24 counties In the state. The County Deronstra-

torn are practioa3 farmers in toh counties ryho visit

30 to 75 atfrer.nt fr-ers in te county givinR tjiem

Triva'e invitructlon in the methods or bettor f:. 1ing

and eatablsiishtr with them arneonstration plots to I3-

lustrate t: e advantage'. racruing from ne new agiri-










culture. To xmate the *est of greatest fo~co, from

one to ten acres of the gener 3 fe3O l er taken and

treated as-per-instructions of the County Agent.

The ft3rmer tVm*s4 tre genera] flo3d ra a check -and

can at once see tWe advantage of tVe new agriciuture.

The average e orn production on the demonstration

pots laut year was a hundred per cent. greater than

the aver corn production for the Strate.


women's Institutes

In March. 1911, was hb33 )t)e first Tyor:en s In-

stAtute in F3oridaa/ This world, like sone of the pro-

Vious work, had to Tbe entered into .wit: a Rgreat leal

of caution and not without jnisglixinrgs. Ye credit

for launching and carylingr out t~4ei*ark successfully

is due to Mre. Judge .ShackJoford, of Tal3lassee, whlo,

with the proper spirit of zeal endured the discomforts .





I 3



and embarrassment Incident to suoh work, and he3pea
4. 4

to start 1- oft properly. Since that time the work has


grown apace, and- now has become an important feature of


the -Extension work among the rural peoplee.


Boys' :.ad Girls' Clubs


In aidltion to the rural work mentioned above


we must not forget to nake u.ention of trie Boys' Corn


O3ubs which are organized in several Countles of the


State, nid inspire the ..toys rith love for the farm


and awaken in tnei interest in the production of. bet-


ter crops. Along witli tills work of tne Boys' Corn Clubs


was inaugurate. the work o0' Girls' Tomato Clubs,


which is revo3utlonizing the home economics in many


farm homes.


Effects of Extension Work


The organltbg of the Farmers' Institutes was em-


barrassed.by many difficultibs., The amount allotted
I




J. I

-. 2 4


for thiib. J=ftam was $2500 for the first year. or an "

average of $50 for eao,. county. 4tg xrendrlo in a

county would b- 1.kicaly to maie' no pTrceptibl.e impres-

ilon upon the agriculture., HIcre'er, by arranging .


m atters 'In Osmch a way ra to IpHsJtnO tQ. CLdnds as eare-

Sfu3.y as poDisblb3e, an directing attention to one vita3


point. a very decided Improsalon wa-; raeh. The ener-


S gles of-the Farners' Institute squad, a]so the ener-
&*'-I
gles of the Parn Demonstration wok.r were directed

largely If.not entirely to the production or 'toe and

[ :. ... --*
better corn. Let us see to *Tha.t extent Vthe 4r m -

igre of Flort, a acted upon the recommendations and
-y. r / / _

CtI-- "e ihe orop. of abn in 3907 was

3- 5 I00J 0 busnae m, th-e average production per anre


S being 9.6 'bel"ea s. After going t.hrougt, tne itg ati f/

t toldent to the Farmers* Institutes of the winter of






35



3907-08, thbo average production or corn was increased

to 30.5 bubtels per acre, and tnus by graona3 steps it

Izs gone up untl3 It has now roacned 35- bushels' per

acre, or a total cont production ofr 0,225,000 busliels

and a total valuation of at 3feIst c.o0,000,00ooo.we

other words corn has -rogressed fron a very low position

as an arriou3tura3 or'p In V3orida unti] it is second

only to the cit.rs crop.

SJust rhvft ,vold hwe bo:n tie condition at tile

present tire bh.ru t'03en
present time hJ l these two vcennles ir! the ntate -

Me Farmers' Institutes ani the Panr lDenonstrati..n world: -


, divided tneir attention armng-a great imny difrrerent ag-

riocu3tur-3 problWeI, is difficult to sky. fult it is

pretty certain that tw-e-SSio*t4 wo)u have bien wasted.

The ParTm Demonstratlon wort at present covers Jp 24

S, Counties. The Pa'mers' Insttute' .or,enrtered 40

C counties this year. At a33 of these meetings, either
!../ -









ed
directly or indrirhtly the gospe3 of better corn
a
production is preached. Tne farmer woi can produce a


good Smoe- crop can ~.aso produce a mict better crop of

anything e3se. -*we keop hls eye on better cnr1 and I!e


never gets It-away from a (ig?. rinr:.


Centralizi g Extension Work


This year opens a new era in the Extension work


of t e university of Florida. Arrangements have been


perfected w ere y a.1] the energies in the direction or


agri:ultura3 .extension work, til be centered at -Gatef-


3c. lThe Department of Agriculture, ccope-ating wi


with us. has appointed as State Aent Professor C. K.


MpO(~,rrie, who will give a33 of his ti e to the direc-


tion of tVis work. le rhas with Din two able assistants


Who eaoh have a district of then State to'superiiitdnd.


T -e BoyS' Corn Club work w13) be carried on through






4 ;. 17


the work of the Gounty Agents, wtlle the Girls' Canning

CS3bes wi3, be under the direct. supervision of tiss Harris

of the Woman's Co3lege, Who In turn becomes directly

responsible to Profeasor 1cGQiarrie for the carrying

out of the work.

Result, and Conelusion

SBoe one'r.-y askl, wnat h 33 tW, s t!s o do with the.

Smatter of preventir4g poverty. I Vl33 sho. yoo ;a3early

in a minute that t!1is is an extremn3y important factor

-in the natter. -.aZ..*_a..gaa jnhsni the abort tine

between 3908 and 393 4 or a-p eriod of six years, tne

vaone of the corn or6p has rien -from $3,409,000 to

Si 0,3 0,000, that is, t s has increased 4aront -E00O Inn

v* ue. .it mrans -ti.at t6,73,000o ils being distributed,

among about 40,000 0'arn b.oinco. This jineanaonmre for

t'he retention p' .ctitve yotg Jnen :nd younx wo.meen on the

farms thini couifd have bso. aaoccmi3shli y Wtn other










means. It means butter roo s.. Letter school, better


oiurches, betterjoia ese, -- the last, the most important


Qa azll factors in keeping people fro crowding Into

the cities. This n7,63 000o of money, prod uced on tre
A

-farm Is rea33y worth! morre t1av tlhe aiiount slnified by

the selling price, saA it hlcans irore and better food,


Fas corn enters very larf tly .into eo~ diet. It means


more hogs, more poultry, imre eggs and more nilk. This


4$6,723,000 wortn of corn la consumed on the 'sarm. It


S gbes to the betteriiient of tie 'arma and of farmxn living.

S So srO.i21 percentage of this enters the oomierclal


ca annpe3s that it ia negl.lgib3e. The increased pro-

'. auction per acre was 50o.- Tlls sti-ulated increase in

II
S acreage sufflotently to increase tie total production
/,. 1

by 130%. The value of r e crop Increased 0 oo, ut

the Increase In prie- of corn had on3y a minor effect


S since so little enters commercial charuie's.









Loet us study t,:lis' question a 31it'te fxrt,.er. In 3900


i "' Iy tIA 1 t-.t 0n Cengun silo"?o t. t E'',r1' ftar fr iDy


in ..or.i ,:r C -.l3G o1 r c., in. : ']:9. r.t.nt-..t per

(j.. L.L,"
yo-,frt t .Fat 1.; t ;i,,o :;;.,ro TT*.I.- .'li:t f ,r r.'o~ lr int y *'.Q


a di'y:. 7n .r i -tc.onui .' oT 1-., y


.'rt- cL-rt i 'i!3.' j'o:,tij"'io( !- 3,;--rV:.; -: t ,i"L' : .'r "*-t, .' ,- ]--


5.1!7 3m1 i-,7,nqmcft at-. n -;.3.1' cr .a.' tli c?.. e,/ ,-m :-.e ;,e could


..r....n 0 to ;.7 .00 p ';.r 'J.T-. Tyi ]. 3"' ,i; ,,e orti crop


al::- ', R 'dre 0 ;o t:c..' 1. ':;i .,.:'. 17r i. r t] 't, "r.:- ;s "cro.i ,cin, s, ec-


tloi re ,,.i..-cd w,.* t,: cf .';290. 57:.it. o:. ror .-a.lone


iaed 250, tni the 'walt: ;vr..jucin 'ro,',.r no 0e3oi rfardlly.


'Njrj trief om;t.line f a -1. rt of. te xteion rork


lo.'T!? v Cpr.' c 3',e r y t at. Ji .:27-t' -V U.-..i ..3 of fl iir )]3 ra -s ent


:urutal)y for PEXton.ioi '7or i_:; -t'.trn 1,: r ) i3lions


annuaJ33y to the n.T'.i,..y l-ut- J..ro-regC,.3ivO. ;,?'..re of the


State. I *-i. glaj .to nt,,.d leoroe yoI '.itoirght i.tia shnow


you wM.ht tY.e ,.7'r:r1: has d l:n.. r Or "xtr.-.'.wi .-.fu penetrate





iLt u11 study t;'l, quei tion :t litt.]e -.rtJ:er. In 3 (O0

tne linited -StRten C lnln 3- o'r- t. 2n. eR. f-Tr ., 13ly




















d
in .."

















' -* - t / ' 'e









*' *- * *', "* ** /











the mount, i?,acoeosible planes in t.e State, often riding


mlils over the worst kind of rotd. -.T!'ey are rarovy .sen


Ji the wealth' nid populous centers. If you rere t


fo33ow us you would often sleep in unconlfortab]3 be s;
i

eat roorly preprtred fcy;si;, pepam; lrnder olk treo.or li-i any


other place where the farVrier, are Twil) iniR to I ston


to the gofr.e) of a bett,.r agricu3ture.










*




Se b Feb.3, I



EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE
AS A METHOD OF PREVENTING
POVERTY
by
P IT. ROLFS, f4 ( m-.*- d

Mr. Chairman of th e- 8eenerene t -- Ta't'eT
r "l aaazai Ladies and Gentlemen:--




I wish to congratulate you on the splendid work

4 6 Axn done for the State of Florida. You have

entered into tBeX tes with the zeal that character-

izes enthusiasts. May this enthusiasm never grow less.

but continue, and become more and more infectious ..until

it has permeated our entire social fabric. There is no

greater work for the betterment of the human race than

that which has its foundation in the study of the unfortu-

nates and the causes leading up to their misfortune.

Poverty is a diseased condition of our civic units

as anaemia is a diseased condition of our physical bodies.









Not one person in a mil ion would voluntarily become

a public charge, or 4 become so poverty stricken as

to be unable to pay his own way completely. I know,

however, that in spite of ia' y large pe-

of ur population find themselves in a condi-

tion where they cannot maintain trs greatest of all

privileges.- *A- bu J iit, k.-l-. ia

fo"o firom --ot Q" liAi the power of paying for all

ze need in the way of food, clothing and shelter.
I'\ )
The study of the preverttion and amelioration of

poverty has been most largely confined to our populous

centers. This is de to the fa.t tht hr'c con-
;,' ..' .,
dztions are most apparent and mit .ooly aggrogatd.

14 t~ihrees- makes it possible to study t~ese in a

communal or aggregate way ea- to ar better advantage

than can be done in our rural districts. Lack of nu-

tritious food, want of clothing and insufficient shel-









ter occur in rural districts, even in Florida.

The poverty-stricken country people, sooner or later,

gravitate toward the more populous centers and there

become Z public charge~

That the cities grow by accretions from the rural

population is too well known to need more than mention.

%t t-41, u-tit. The annual accessions from the coun-

try are very great. And while there is more or less

of A variation from year to year, the stream of country

people to the cities is a continuous one, and aQgsaat

has attracted the attention of every writer on civic

problems.

A study of country life problems shows that mi-

gration to.the cities is largely brought about by

poverty on the farm on the one hand, and on the other/' 4

; the promise of more comfortable conditions in the cit-

ies. A 40BW close study of country life problems





4.



made by a commission several years ago showed ia

conclusively that poverty, or lack of comforts g

AgCt, on the farm was as great a factor in driving the

young and middle-aged to the cities as was the allure-

ment of more remunerative employment. Any organized

effort that will make country life more attractive

will have a direct and immediate effect in reducing

the poverty in the citjL .

The statements made in iy introductory paragraph

have been so thoroughly and fully discussed in the

magazines and pwpas that a mere mention of them is

sufficientAe-brg-tef egeter sae-a

ecay- s h T~nm ti an tt O extension work in

agr cu re is a y potent factor in guarding

against poverty. Technically toe;extension work of

the University includes all of te aities

hare Ao.lin.. wlth ~ "gt't- outside of the confines






i~ c ~ '(S) ^ /e C-z .r'y >__ y J^

\~;- ^ / ,
,, ,, / w*/. ^ ~ ,

tr ^3c--- .^<-< tf-**^y-iLe*





* k. ** .*
I


I I

1 ~ < .. "* ;










of the Carmpus. 'ae Extension work, therefore, is


not confined to agriculture as it is usually tetught of.


Extension Work


Extension work in agriculture dates back to a


rather early period in the history of our nation. I


have no intention of dwe3ling on the historic side e


*. I wish to emphasize the fact that agricultural


extension is no new-fangled qppthing. It is system


that has been developed by a painstaking and laborious


process k _ng-r many years, aAe. It is dif-


ferent from tfhat- wih ha ire


/vj that it has been vitalized and made aswe 1l ke


the problems of today as they occur in agricultural


conununit ies.


The Extension work in our University has a rather
IQ
broad scope. It had its ri~*enetyof course. in the


Farmers' Institute work fifteen years ago. The money '
*~ .. '
.l





6


that was AWd for th. rp. YV W .LYAad to be ser-

reptitiously taken from funds under the control of

the institution. Possibly this was not exactly a

moral way of starting the work, but those in authority

knew that work of this kind had to be done and as

there was no protest raised against it, the work was

qra-c
carried on. It `oomI +to b as late as 1907 before

the Legislature of Florida was willing to appropriate

money for carrying on the Farmers' Institutes in the
44A< a- ,LsC-' 4 4i- *2
State. rtPm- that period l the ork has been going

forward vigorously and has given most excellent results."

The farming element of any country is the conserv

active portion of the population. .e-ei it4y --poirtl -of ,

-d. iclu --sccm to be more of a radical turn ef mind. m'

-Thiz 'OCo ncat ji"lur LiL'CLL ~u~u [ d.3 fl'n t jc1V A mj

rad3oa agrimtculturetM th th ut limrain









of the aoi1, wi flid--r-volut-on- Changes there
.' '. -..* ^ *r-!/ . .. '^.. ... *.
:are brought about rather by evolution.,^ !* ,

Farmers' Institutes

My work of organizing and carrying forward the

Farmers' Institute work in Florida was, therefore, ex-

tremely gratifying, and somewhat surprising to myself.

In 1908 we held 42 sessions, attendance 4,491
1909 ". 514 a I 5,576
1910 u 122 9,021

1911 U n' 151 13,922
1912 117 & Farmers' Insti-
tute train, att. 32,600




The Farmers' Institute squad visit various

counties in the State and hold meetings at the dif-

ferent places where local cooperation can be obtained..
A

These meetings 2mst from a half day to three days in-

length. Instruction is given at the various meetings










as to how the best crops are raised, special stress

being laid upon those points in which the farmers are

weakest.

Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Work

In 19o0 another line of extension work was in-

troduced into the State of Florida. This was under a

fund placed at the disposal of Dr. Seaman A. Knapp by

the Southern Education Board. It will be remembered

that tiis Board had a very considerable fund at its dis-


posal for the betterment of social conditions in the

South.. Dr Seaman A. Knapp was commissioned by this


Board to study the educational problems of the South

and-advise the Board as to the best methods to be adopt-

ed for advancing education in the South. After amnrR

. investigatwm-s, Dr. Knapp made IR recommendations.

X A - t i e .
IAP 1Q^ w








uas. za eLsS. 4by asked _i- pp what would be

the best way whether it should be expended in the

betterment of colleges and universities. He said, No,

.',/the South had a number of institutions of this char-

acterjand so far as could be seen from careful inves-

tigation it would appear that they had a sufficient

amount of money for carrying on the work. The main dif-
A

faculty with these institutions was that they had so

small an attendance. Some Vt the Board suggested that

possibly it would be best to expend this fund in the

betterment of the graded and high schools. Here again

Sr~ag plartr he -Rt that there were many good graded

and high schools in the South but that the attendance

on them was v4a small. Some one else suggested that

possibly the best way to spend the money would be to

upbuild the rural schools. Here again the investiga-

tion showed that while the South needed gaW rural









schools it already had many of them %aaRftL e were

poorly attended. This seemed: to lead right to the

point that there was absolutely nothing that could be

done, f-t.ts wek. But Dr. Knapp was equal to the

occasion and responded that there was something that

could be done which would be extremely valuable, and

that was to educate the farmers how to maker are money

from their farms. They would then fill up the coun-

try schools, the country schools would fill the graded

schools, and this in turn would lead to a great In-

crease in the attendance on colleges and universities.

The Southern Education Board immediately instructed Dr.

Knapp to formulate and organize a plan of work that

would be successful in teaching the farmers how to raise

larger crops and make more money. Coincident with

this ~, iiip wt was the agsMt of the cotton boll









weevil in the western portion of Texas. It became in-

creasinglynecessary for this region t~ be taught how

to divers their farming operations, since their

maintenance crop, cotton, had been destroyed by "h68s


pest. In 1908 the Hon A. S. Me arg, of Mississippi,

was sent to Florida to organize the Farmers' Coopera-
A

tive Demonstration Work. The Farmers' Institutes and

Cooperative Demonstration Work acted oapi a tJr gy

for the betterment of farming conditions in Florida.

The Cooperative Demonstration work is being carried

on in 24 counties in the State. The County Demonstra-


tors are practical farmers in the counties who visit


30 to 75 different farmers in the County, giving them

private instruction in the methods of better farming

and establishing with them demonstration plots to il-

lustrate the advantages accruing from the new agri-





.-6 ..
... l, ... .*'-1--**










culture. To make the 4eet of greatest foaee, from

one to ten acres of the general field eA taken and

-IA- ea- a -v.-a--4- u. A
treated ae-per instructions of the County Agent.

The farmer thLua eb tie general field as a check and

can at once see the advantage of the new agriculture.

The average corn production oa the demonstration

plots last year was a ndred per cent. greater than

the average corn production for the State.


Women's Institutes

In March, 1911,(was held the first Women's In-

stitute in Floridag This work, like some of the pre-

vious work, had to be entered into with a great deal

of caution and not without misgivings. The credit

for launching and carrying out AAk successfully

is due to Mrs. Judge Shackleford, of Tallahassee, who,

with the proper spirit of zeal endured the discomforts









and embarrassment incident to such work, and helped

to start it off properly. Since that time the work has

grown apace and now has become an important feature of

the Extension Work among the rural people.

Boys' and Girls' Clubs

In addition to the rural work mentioned above

we must not forget to make mention of the Boys' Corn

Clubs which are organized in several Counties of the

State, and inspire the boys with love for the farmJ

and awaken in them interest in the production of bet-

ter crops. Along with this work of the Boys' Corn ClubE

was inaugurated the work of Girls' Tomato Clubs,

which is revolutionizing the home economics in many

farm homes.

Effects of Extension Work

The organizing of the Farmers' Institutes as em-

barrassed by many difficulties. The amount allotted










for this eabM1 was *2500 for the first year, or an


average of $50 for each County. / 4 @ expended in LTh1L
AA
county would be likely to make no perceptible impres-


sion upon the agriculture. However, by arranging


matters in such a way as to husband the funds as tare-


fully as possible, and directing attention to one vital


point, a very decided impression was made. The ener-


gies of the Farmers' Institute squad, also the ener-


gies of the Farm Denonstration work, were directed


largely if not entirely to the production of more and


better corn. Let us see to what extent the 0 pstua-


M=e of Florida acted upon the recommendations and


,thi ,ait.n. ,The crop of corn in 1907 was


4,351,000 bushels, the average production per acre
i

being 9,6 bushels. After going through the


incident to the Farmers' Institutes of the winter of




'*- *"
uS''










1907-08, the average production of corn was increased

to 10.5 bushels per acre, and thus by gradual steps it


has gone up until it has now reached 15+ bushels per

acre, or a total corn production of 10,125,000 bushels

and a total valuation of at least $10,000,000, ew n

other words corn has progressed from a very low position

as an agricultural crop in Florida until it is second

only to the citrus crop.

Just what would have been the condition at the

present time had these two agencies in the State -

The Farmers' Institutes and the Farm Demonstration work -


divided their attention among a great many different ag-

ricultural problems, is difficult to say. But it is

pretty certain that thec ffoatoould have been wasted.


The Farm Demonstration work at present covers a:y- 24

Counties. The Farmers' Institute work entered 40 1


Counties this year. At all of these meetings, either


'~~~: / ..-*









directly or indirectly the gospel of better corn

production is preached. The farmer who can produce a

good or~ P can also produce a much better crop of

anything else. We keep his eye on better corn and he

never gets it away from a high mark..


Centralizing Extension Work

This year opens a new era in the Extension work

of the University of Florida. Arrangements have been

perfected whereby all the energies in the direction of

agricultural extension work will be centered at Besa s-

i-vae/ The Department of Agriculture, cooperating wit

with us, has appointed as State Agent Professor C. K.

McQuarrie, who will give all of his time to the direc-

tion of this work. He has with him two able assistants

who each have a district of the State to superint&nd.

The Boys' Corn Club work will be carried on through


, .i









the work of the County Agents, while the Girls' Canning

Clubs will be under the direct supervision of Miss Harris

of the Woman's College, who in turn becomes directly

responsible to Professor McQuarrie for the carrying

out of the work.

Results and Conclusion

Some one may ask, what has all this to do with the

matter of preventing poverty. I will show you 'clearly

in a minute that this is an extremely important factor
0
in the matter. 8tujLIl3 iei rt .L .n the short time

between 1908 and 1914, or a period of six years, the

value of the corn crop has risen from $3,409,000 to

$10,126,000, that is, it has increasea]lmost o00o in

value. It means that $6,711,000 is being distributed

among about 40,000 farm homes. This means more for

the retention of active young men and young women on the

farms than could have been accomplished by any other
-.^









means. It means better roads, better schools, better

churches, better homes, the last, the most important

of all factors in keeping people from crowding into
C-

the cities. This $7,611,000 of money produced on the

farm is really worth more than the amount signified by

the selling price, iApB it means more and better food,

a scorn enters very largely into -a diet. It means

more hogs, more poultry, more eggs)and more milk. This

$6,711,000 worth Of corn is consumed on the farm. It

goes to the betterment of the farm and of farm living.

So small a percentage of this enters the commercial

channels that it is negligible. The increased pro-

duction per acre was 50%. This stimulated increase in

acre geAsufficiently toincrease the total production

by. 130%. The value of the crop increased 200O,3an,

he increase in prie oof corn had only a minor effect

since so little'enters commercial channels.






19


Let us study this question a little farther. In 1900

the United States Census showed that each farm family

in Florida was capable of producing #129 in wealth per

year, that is they were working for approximately v

a day. Under such conditions the head of the family

was certainly justified in leaving the farm and seek-

ing employment at a mill or in the city where he could

earn from 80 to $1.00 per day. In 1913 the corn crop

alone gave to each farm-family in the corn producing sec-

tion an added wealth of $190. This one crop alone

added 150 to the wealth producing power of each family.

This brief outline of a part of the Extension Work

shows very clearly that the few thousands of dollars spent

annually for Extension Work is returned in millions

annually to the needy tut progressive people of the

State. I am glad to staQd before you tonight and show

you what the work has done. Our Extension men penetrate










the most inaccessible places in the State, often riding

miles over the worst kind of road. They are rarely seen

in the wealthy and populous. centers. If you were to

follow us you would often sleep in uncomfortable beds;

eat poorly prepared foods; speak under oak trees or in any
A

other place where the farriers are willing to listen

to the gospel of a better agriculture.




Yay I 43 -9/'


EXT1IS.1I01T WORI: II' AGRICULTURE A:-. A
.E TH 0L' OF PREEITIITrI POVERTY


Mr. Chairman of the Conference of Chijrities nrnd Iorrection,,

la~ies an ( Gent 3emen:-

I wish to congratulate youth j-orr, nr..Atttr on trie splendid

wrkr: L dne for the State of Florida. You have entered into these

duties with t;e zeal that abaracterizes enthusiasts. ;iay this entliusiasm

never grow less. but continue and become more anid more infections until

it 1:i.as permeated our entire social fabric. There is no greater work

for tie ietterinent of the human race than that whliicn h.s its foundation

in the study of thie unfocrtunates adi the causes I ead ing up to their

misfortune.

Poverty is. diseased condition of our civic units "s aeneila

is a diseased condition of ou.r plrsical bodies. Hlot one p-erson in a mil-

Sion would voluntarily become a puLb ic charge or even beco!:e so poverty

stricken as to be uni 11e to pay nis own way completely 8; ...t ain .oP
ir -,,:-,.-. ."'.--. I laow, now.--ver, that in spite of all o0 tiis a

very large proportion of our population find themselves in a condition

*fere they cannot maiaintin tils greatest of all privileges, to be an

honest upright Li2nan being free -roni del 3 mndJ wit,, the power of paying

for a]. that they need in the way of fo.J clothing and shelter.
Trie study of the prevention and amelioration of poverty

Ihis been most largely confined to our populous centers. Tiris is due

to the fact that iere sucr conditions are most apparent and most closely

aggregated. Jt therefore makes it possible to study these in a communal

.M Wi. ld way and to mu'ch better advantage than can be done in our

rural districts. not L&i, ,nt .,r f f..


4440-i4S... h.. itl.' UL4 Ur i n ruraiJ isl-t. L Ltiaj are Tew adi .1air Daerieteei








Amts. forward 11649 5E,793

(Agr. Dept. cont.)
Contents barn
Hay barns ................. 900
Dairy barns ............... 400
IM le barn ................. 400
Seed house ........... ..... 50 ..... 2050
Office equipment
1 desk ............ ... ..... 25
1 Table ................... 12
I letter file ............. 35
Books, Bulletins,
Records, etc. .........100. 0 ...... 1072. 4,771

Bulletin Maillng RooQ
TUltigraph machine .......................... 200
Wall cases ......................... .... 120
Bu31etin files ........... .................. 5000
Annual report files ......................... 1000
Mail ing ..... .... ...... ... ........ ....... ..... 5 6,820

Pbotograwlo. RQoo
Leitz Micro-photo apparatus ................. 300
4 Photograpiiic stands ....................... 250
6 Cameras ................................ .. 300
ITinor apparatus ............................. 200
4000 negatives ............................. 3_.0 4,050


Total $84,434



cost of permanent equipment .........7,500
(see Board of Control Record)

Cost of building ....................
(see Board of Control Record)



'
&.




V, .. -o .T --... .


-t"TIt i C ..L ,It e r.. ; .f. ;b.e poverty stricl'en

co unt .y penp]e s,-oner or 3 after, -4t= gravitate toward thie riore populous

cen t'rs a.nrd T ti-ere become a civl-o r ';:, e ,

That tie cities grow by accretionis 'roj, tihie rural PoIuaIation

is too well known to need more that mention at t.is rpoin1t. Tie aninua]

accessioins froi;' the country are verl. great. And While- there is iore

or 3ess of a variation froj,! year to year the, streak, of country peop] e

to the cities is a continuous one _md one that ha.s attracted ti.e attention

of every writer on civic -probl es,.

A study of country life problems shows that ridgration to the

cities is Jarirgely broi j.'.t a, out by,, poverty .on the farm on the one hand,

and on ttLe ot,er the proiilse of more cof.ifortale conrditioi:i in the cities.

A pretty close study of country 1' life prolei el;s ma.' e by a com|jijd.-.L :,n several

years ago showed pretty conclusively that poverty, or lac] of co1:forts
as great
at least, a0 the far .as a -reat factor in drivingr the young and riidd le

agdO to the cities, as werE the allureiients of remunerative riempoyrment.









Nursear Innsa=ctor
Furniture, desks, etc ......................... .600
Books .......... ... . ...... 9. 200
Director's Offiq
3 laboratory tables G 12.... ............... 36
20 Globe Wernicke Cases, tops & bottoms ......... 50
1 walnut desk ...... ............................ 300
Scientific books ..................... ........ 500
Diagrams, notes, Mss. etc. ........................ ._
Secretary's Office
1 l laboratory table ............................. 12
2 cabinet for files ........................... 75
2 wall cases, bulletin files .................... UO
Globe Wernicke files ........................... 150
2 Stenographers' desks .......................... SO
30 storage files ................... ............. 20
Manuscript, plates, drawings, etc. ..............2000
4 wall cases ..................... ..... ........ 6
Extension Deartment
Office furniuritre, Boos Pub3 ications ......... 5i.
C0qwhistry
Machinery, tools,, etc. ....................... 600
Vacuum: macli nery ............................... 2.50
Gas machine ...................... ............... 200
Polariscopes .... ...... .... ..... ......-... *. 40
Plat inum ware ................................. 2500
Library ....................................... .3200
Balances, sa es, weighIts ...................... 600
Atwater calorimeter ........................ 1- ** '50
Glass ware .............. ...... .............1000
Copper & iron ware,.OVeus,Ot. ...............400
Still for pure water ............................ 150
Chneiicals ..................... .............. o00
Silsce3l aneous Apparatus............. ... ....... 300
Uicroscope ..... ...* ...... **
Laboratory Furniture & equipment ..............3.Q2.
.,Agrcultral e. eartmegn
Live stock (cows, bulls, hogs) ................
Tools, implements & machinery ..................1331
uil 6. ings
Forem-an's house ........ ...... 1800
Hay barn .................. .... 1200
Dairy barn & Silo .............. 900
iule barn ....... ............... 00
Seed house ....... .. ... '.* 1000
Fertilizer house ............... 00
Wagon scales & shed ............ 0
Implement House ................ 3_00Q ..... .6450
11649


r- 'r.----


Amt. forward


$41,380
800





1,186








2, 477


500


32, 450


58,793





k* -- ^^ a^ ^ ^^ /:-- ^^-






*P ~
, I w- _

"*, a r. "" -









ha.v e
Te stateimnentsilmae in jmy introductory paragraph has been so

thoroughly anrt 'ully discussed in the riiagazines and papers that a
such a
mere mention of* thiei, is suff i.clent to bring tei, together in. shape

as to clearly show the connection that .the extension work in agrictu ture

is a very. potent factor in gu-irdiig against poverty. Technically the

extension work'of the University includes all of those activities which

have seali]ngs ';it; the state outside of the coc;ftnes of the Campus.

The Ex ten--s ion world, therefore, .is not confined to agriculture as it

is usual ly thought Af.

*"se tensionn work in a riculture :f e dates back to ,a

Srather/early periodd in tie history of our nation.y-ta I have no intention
of d(wej] ing oin the historic side of it. T 'F-i .... rl to mei tion It

ir.Iat fLiis is rfoot a neW/ fa~rtrtnTrg


is differ enit froif that w'iclo has occurred before in the fact that it

has L'Veii. vital ized and made applicab]e to the problem they occur

in agricultural, comori-Lunities In our Tlversit' the extei ion ri- ias

a rather broad scope. It h.d its ind~ipiency of course in the Farn.ers'

Institute work,' an-4i ,r- ;-." -' nrgean.od .. rr ~ years ago o

-he money that was used for 'that purpose really hd,-, to be serrepttitously
tatein from ti -ag=I f nJds under the control of the institution. Pos-

sibly this was not exactly a moral way of starting the work, but those

in authority 2liew that v;orl: of this ]:inid had to b- done, and as there

w s no protest raised against it the work was carried on, It seems to

be as late as 1907 before the legiislature of Florida w.S -wil ing to

appropriate money for carrying on the Fari ers! Institutes in tie State.

Froj! that period -on the work has been going forward. vigorously anId has






ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF THE VALUATION OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL
EXPERIMENT STATION and EQUIPMENT

Eptomolofry
Furniture .......................................$500
Two microscopes .................................... 300
Two .... ............... .................. 50
Qher equipment,.insect collection, 1ss. etc. ...... 600
Books, etc. ........ ..................... .............. 500
Camera & accessories ............................. 50 $2,000

Plat Pathol3ogy
6 Microscopes & accessories ........................1000
Balances & apparatus ............................... 700
Other equipment, slides, Mss. etc. .................3000
Furniture, office .................................. 500
Books ..................................500
Herbarium ................................... ..... 500
Mi7crotome ................... .. ...... .... .. ... .... 5 ,250

lai^ ERa.L9i9E
Furniture, office ..................................500
Ticroscopes & accessories .......................... 300
Other equipment, slides, paraffin apparatus.
incubators, etc. .................. .....1200
Balances, .microtone, etc. ................... 200
Book, ancrits, notes ....................... ........500
Greenhouse, plants, etc. ............. ,.. ........ .i 00 e 5,200

Ho rt i cn3 tural-BBtao tiar
Libra y .......................................... 200
Cabinets & cases .............. ........*....... 150
ManIusotripts, seed & drawings ...................... 2500
7:icro3-coe sliJes ................................. 500
Instruments & apparatus ........ ........... .... 4,5


3 Desk .............. ................... .. ....... 0
Card Index flleu. .......................... ........... 330
60.000 index cards ........... ..................... 00
Con:i3ete files of cxp. Station pubu ications ........7000
Complete fles of official Agric. documents ........2000
Slies of c'tate pubLicatlons ......................1500
Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Atlas, etc. ........... J0. $1,380

L3rarES StaJc RoD2
LuT licate bulletins .............................. ..L 3 500


Cabinets, furniture and exhibit material ...... ...20.Q9. ,2,200

iiatA.0 9.ultire. .
Buldinig, Greenllouse & heating plant ............. 3000
!iule barn, seed, tools, etc. ..................... 1600
Gardner's house ................ ...... ......... 2000
iurnlture, office desk, Garden notes, etc. ....... 1300
Spraying machinery & irrigating plant ............ 1309L 19,000




S] e ?arrner:3. Institute squad visit various counties in the
State and hold meetings at the different places where local cooperation
S can be obtained, These meetings 3a:3t froi a hair day to three days in
length. Instruction is given at tLe various meetings as to how the
best crops are raised, special stress being placed upon those points
in ich] the farmers are weal:est.
CS*'\ .;'





_i_.__iQiL-ura3-tatia3
L.it.ra .y .. ,..... ., .., .. .............4... 4... .3,'00
Cain t "; .0 .. .. .. .. 4 4.. .. w 0 w.. : 0
,i "ript3, -eed c dr:rings r.. P ...4. .4.
I.? r cor .I( ....,l.. ........... . .. .......* ,4 4* 00
Instr'.)nenta apTparatua _.D.............. L


] :Des3. ...k.J. ., .4 4 4 .*4: 4 4* 4..40...4, ...444..4 4 20
C-.x:d Index:: i) no ,u ..... 30
*o.0"0 in e' c .. ds ..4 ..,4 ... 4. 4 *=*... .... *. . ..... *
Col-:iiete ri3.-' ofr Exp. Station r.ai3 icationj ... 70v0
'3:r.3ete fil 's of ofi l'f l Aric. docui..enta ,,.. *.. 000
oiles or 2t:te publ i i4o4 4.,.. 4...t......... .n
Di Ce o '*:: l';..:, -n ..-' 0!o .i-n' it. .,.U, etc. ....... ...... L. J





Ca.bint5 ,, I. in'nituro nl,:! e-J'l t i .t, er ':. ..........,.i_. j


JBL:lc.ing, Cg r. i a.oouu' Yiat i i u t. ., 4....., 4
:J..i3l o r n je :, too3 etc .............4 ........

".Lirj iture, o0ff'ice de8:. Gar.n,, noteC:, etc. .......
fi,'i1 17.:G:_; raoc.-in(-yn '-l. Irrigatii;.' pLa.nt ....... .....


3 600

21100
] '00


23


* ~ ,3(K) ;








U


.r:cnalo 30.., T) itj, tc. .....................,,...4**, .


Y3,2i*DO










given iiost excellent results.
The farming element of any country ee.n. .tie conservative

portion of the population. Tie city portion of t country seems to be

rno- e of a radical turn of mind Tils does not mean that some States
do not have r;ore radical agric3ultur-its than others, hut for the main

part if we have a community ..a.Je up largely of tillers of the soil

we find revolutions few .J Changes there are "roi;ght

ab out rather by evolution. -
ily world of organizing and carrying forward the Farmers' Institute

wor' il F] orida was therefore extrer.iely gratifying crd soiew.hat sur-

pri i]ng to .my.elf. 'I. .? .'1. held 4- inL ittL(te With atti a.r.o.


Tr J9095 & .-6 7



3In ] 909__2 3o_* 1-' '- -- -



19132-^^-^ -i" ^ "' --^^


,zag--^* t 0ar ort-'r 8 another

line of extension wor]: was int-e'duced into the State of Florida. This

Swas i* a fund placed, at the disposal of Dr. Seamrjaan A. IKapp, by the

Southern E6;ucation Board. It will be reriiiemered that this Eoard lia a

very considerab.:3 e fuwnd at its itsliosal for the betteirment of social con-
ditio.s in the South. Dr. Seaman A. Knlapp was coj;il issionrLd Lv this Board

to stud." the educational piro'blemis of the South and advise the Board as
o^t -L^-^td;L^-a^^-^^^- <-L
to the best methodsto be adopted for '" t tir i
Ste. After ia!i:,g his invc-estigations, Dr. Knaapp miiade his reco,;uLenda-.

tiolos. I carn put it best in the form in: which he has told it several








Amts. forward


(Agr. Dept. cont.)
Contents barn
aVy barnes .............. 900
barns ................... 400
14ul e barn ................. 400
eCod house ....... ....... a ..... 2050
Office equipment
2 CGes: .................... 25
I Table ...... ............ 32
I letter Mfe .............. 35
Books, Bulletins,
necor3s, etc. ..........U2 .. ... o 2Z1L.


7 1 leases ............ .... ........ ...... ..
Bu.m etin files ..............................
Afnua3 retort files .........................
1ail lng., ... .... .......... ......... ........

oogrMnol1 ap agA
Leitz Micro-photo apparatus ...............
4- Plhtogra ,Hic stands .......................
6 qaneraas ..................................
I.ihor apparatus ...........................
4000 negatives ...........................


200
320
5000
2 000



300
250.
300 -
200
3CQ '


3 4,77





6,820


4,.350


Total


Cost of permanent equipment ........7,500
(see Board of control Pecord )

Cost of abi3ding .................. ,
(ace ioard of Control Record)


Th $
blf
oVA-
-' \I


36149


58,793










times. They asked Dr. Ymapp v/lhat would be tle best way whether it

should be expended in thje betterment of colleges and universities.

He said no, the South had a number of institutions of t;-is character

and so far as could be seen from careful investigation it would appear

that they had a a jji..... amount of money for carrying on the work.

Tie main difficulty with these institutions was that they h d Q "y

sinaa1att@ndance. Some suggested that possibly it would be best

to expend this fund in the betterment of tIhe graded and high schools.

Here again was presented tle fact that there were many atr graded and

high schools in the S .uth but that the attendance on tier', was very sirall,.

Seae one else suggested that possibly the best way, to spend the money

wouc b e to uild rural schools. Here again tie investigation slowed

that w.li3e the South n,~eded inany rural schools it already h-rd riany of

them but these were attended. This seemed to load right to

the point tfat there was absolutely nothing that could be doiie for ttis

wr .. But Dr. Knlapp was equal -to the occasion and responded tniat there

was sol:etiing' that could be done w;,ich would be extrer,.ely: valuable,

aatd. that was to educate the farmers how to iralae rrore mooney from, their

farms.. Ti.e:' would then fill up the country school the country schools

would fill tie graded schools, aind tiis in turn woula lead to a great

increase in the attendance on colleges and universities. The Southern

Education Board immediately instructed Dr. Knapp to formulate and organ-

ize a plan of work that would be successful in teaching the farmers

bow to raise larger crops and imale eore money. Coincident with this

development was the advent of the cotton. boll weevil in the western

portion of Texas. It becaimie increasingly necessary f.-r tiis region to






Amt. forward


Furniture, deioSis, to. ........................
Books .. ...................... ...... ... .. .
pIreot.Qr s._PfJI_ g,
3 laboratory tables 32 ..................... 36
20 Globe VernicIk Cassc, tops & bottom ......... 5')
3 walnut desa : ................ ................. 300
Scientific books ................................ 500
Diagrams, not~., l.-is. etc. ..................... .. Q

1 laboratory table .............................. 32
2 cabinet for files ............................ 75
2 wall cases, bulletin fi3es ,................... 80
G3obe Wernicke files ........................ 350
2 Stenographers' desks ....................... 80
30 storage files ........................ 20
anuseoript, plates, drawings, etc. .............. 2000
% wa.ll casea .............. ... .. .............

ExtaensloL. e.nartnent
Office furniture, iooks & Pub3ications .......... 5QQ

"aciLinory, tools, etc. ........................ 600
Vacuum machinery s................................. 250
Gas machine .. ...... ..... .............. ........ 200
Polarlsoopes ............ ....................... 400
Platinur m ware ................... ........ ...... 2500
Library ................................................. .. 1200
Balances, scales, weights ...................... 600
Atwater calorimeter .............................. 50
G ass waJe ...... ... ............ .*...........3 001
Copper & iron are.,,Ovenus,etc .................... 00
Sti31 for uare water ............................ 350
Che'-cacls .................................... 300
ltil cell aeous Apparatus...... ............ ....300
,lcrosoop.e ..' ......... ....... ... 300
laboratory brnilture &S equipment ................3QQQ.
grl~tiqn1,iriL2 Depnartr'ent
Live stock (cows, bullo, 10ogs) ................. 8;
Tools, inp3 cents & smc!hiner ............... -3 33
Buildings
Vorel n' s house ........... 1 800
Hy barn ....................... 3200
Dairy barn & s13o .............. 900
v'ule barn ...................... S00
Seed louse ..................... 1000
Yerti3zer house ............. 300
w\gon scales c ashed .......... 3 0
Impl ement House ................. J9... .......6b'50
31649


?:-3 ,380


3 ,a86








2,4 77


500


12,450


56,793













A-fr





AL-* /1
F L. /







:C





EXPERIMENT STATION




c-- i"--^c~e-- ^- ^-/ *
-~W A't4 VL -~ n 4(*


*4I










be taught how to diversify their fanning operations since their mia nte-

nance crop.(cotton) had been destroyed by this pest. In 19c the HOn.

A. S. NcHarg of Miss-. was sent tr the State bf Florida to orF:a-iize
"'t
tiie Farmers' cooperativee Demonstration work. -t viMtl 1be ~- t Ihau the _

rcL-r-' Inr-'-i-titut & 1t -1i: 1 h r 3 byr c..... &rro yron r 'T1sL-c'

ae;.-s r..; cc:0 ativly for 4* betterment of farming conditions

in Florida. Tni.c Cooperative Demnonstration wol: is cArri ed on in aeerI

coiluties in tlie State. The County ler;ionstrators are practical farmers

inr tie counties, v.wito visit ger E dl-fferent farmers in the County,

givir: T1 tei, private instruction in the method s of better farming and

estab] ishling witi them demrionstration plotsto illustrate the :aJv3antages

-accruing from the new agriculture.







"A). Ui", (7 1 0 FT 'Ulr!L7



* t : ltl t.ur ........., .. ... .. .. .. ......
*T .0 `rl Io IT2 ,...,,,,,)....,2 ... ... ..... ',. . 600
*?tner cmiirz';iit,.In-ect coll *ction, i :5. etc. .. .... 00
.otT, et .. .......... ,0



6 ::icrosco.-3 acces[c-riJ ...... ..,....... ..0o
3.fs .ertS .............. ..: .. .. ... 700 -
Ot. er equipl-. ent, slides, o so. fetc. ..,. .r. ... 3000 '
* ..r.i'':-. . < .... .. .... ........ .,*,. ,,, , 3

.r .. t,.-- .....: o .... .. ...... ... ......... .... .... .... 0'.,
. icrotoLi. .. ..... .. .. . ... *.., *. ... . .. ...

*03d9. EZivaYJlQ l .
..... tur.,,, ."i o e.....e... ..,, ......,, ....... .' . 500
-lcroscor ': accessories ... ......,...... 00
-Ot.:'r eequ ilent, s .id es, pl- .flii in. :LL ratu 3
inicu'oitor,3 te. ..... ... ... ..... .. .
2lu.:.inc3s ;.i roton.e, 't .... .... ..., . *00
.' .......









.. In was held tie first Woman's Institute in Florida.

This work lllie some of the Drevious work, had to be entered into wil h

a great deal of caution and not witi'out miisgivinss. The credit for

launching and carrying out this wo:l: successful] ] is due to ]lrs. Judge

Shac:] eford, of Tall aassee, who with :the .proper .spirit of zeal endured

the discomforts and embarrassment incident ;to such work:. aid helped to

start it off properly.; -Since that .time .th'- worl: has growvii apace and

now.Y has become .an important feature of the Extension work anon? tlie

rura3 people. ... .- ... "

In addition t :he rrural'.worl .mentioned above we .nust not for-

get to mdl:e mention of thie boys' corn clubs which are organized in sev-

eral counties of the State .-ad -inspire the boys witii_-a love for :the

farm -ind avwa]:en in tji:lem .interest -in .the .production. o. .better crops.

Adong with tl, is. wo-rk- of. the Eoy s'. Corn. Club s .was inaugurated the xworl

of Girls' Tomato Cl.ubs, which QA.loi ti a ni P. je~ i11 rr.in.9;








Amts, forward


(Agr. Dept. cont.)
Contents barn
Hay barns ................. 900
Dairy barns ............... 400
I'lule barn ................. 400
Seed house ................ ... 2050
Office equipment
1 desl: .................. 25
1 Table.......... ..... 12
I letter file ............. 35
Books, Bulletins,
Records, etc.........1000 ...... 102


Bulletin Mail ing Room
'ultigraph machine .........................
Wal cases ............ ... ......
Bulletin files ................. ........ .
Annual report files ....................
Mailing ............... .... .. ...
Photogti.'ahic Room
Leitz Micro-photo apparatus ................
4 Photographic stands .......................
6 Cameras ....... ....... ...... .. . ..'
Minor apparatus ..........................
4000 negatives '.... .. .... ........

Total




Cost of perlIuinent equipment ......... 7,500
(see Board of Control Record )


200
120
5000
1000
5009


300
250
300
200
SI L


6,820


4,050


484s, 434


Cost of building ...............
(see Board of Control Record)


1 649


5e,793


1 4,771










The aes orgalizingFthe Farmers' Institute paB- was

embarrassed by man" difficul.tues. The amount allotedfor this

problem was '^2500 for the first year, or an average of f50 for each

County. te $50 expended in a County would be likely to .l.. e ntI v
mijt nf' p','.i mtni r 1 .nrr rna impression uponl the agricultui' e -itht

s-..;r^ie. However, b arranging matters in suct, a was as to husb-and

the fDinds as carefully as possible anrd directing attention to one vital

point, a very decided impression was maJe. The enerrg..irs of the Farmers'

Institute squad, also thl-e energies of tie Farin Demonstration world were

directed largely if not entirely, to the. production of -wre and better

corm. Let us see to what extent tie agriculture of Florida acted upo,

the reco!i:,iendat.ions and this agitation. The crop of corn in 1907

i ri .-.rt 4,351,000 bushels, the av.eage production per acre being

9.6 bu. After going through the agitation incident .to the Farr.ers'
average
Tnistitutes of -the winter of 1907-08 teAproduction of corn w.vas increased

to 30. 5 bb. per acre, and thus. by gradual steps it has gone up until it

kas now reached 151- bu. per acre, or a total corn production of

10,125,000 bushels, and a total valuation of at least 010,000,000,

or in other words corn has progressed from a, very low position as an

agricultural crop in Florida until it is second oi ly to t.e citrus crop.

Must what would have been the condition at"tie present time

had these two agencies i.n tie State, -. the Far,,ers' Institutes ,and the

Farm; Deionstratlion wor divided. their attention aEong a great many

di f'erent agricultural plrobleims, is difficult to say, but it is pretty

certaiin that the efforts would have been larCt..l lut. Tle Farrit Demon-

stratrlon, ',orl: at present covers only 24 counties. The Farmers' Institute






d-ESTIiATED EAERi TG-f- VALUATIONI, OF THE,_-gGRAGICULTTURAL
EXPERIMENTT STATIOIrNaBd TOQUIPTET"


Furniture .................... ................... . $, 00
Two microscopes ................................... 300
Two ................. .................... .50
Oftier equipment,.insect collection, Mss. etc. ..... 600
Book:s, etc. ........................................ 500
Camera & accessories ....................... ..... .50 $2,000
Plant Pathologv /./..
6 IMicroscopes & accessories .............'............ .1000
Balances & apparatus ............................... 700
Other equipment, slides, Mss. etc. .... .......000
Furniture, office ............................. 500
Bo o s ............................... ....... ... 500
Herba'.iuji1 ............ .. ... .. . ... 500
,Hicrotomae .... .................. .........5 250
2 rPli at PJsiol_.fy t '
Furniture, office ....................... ..... .....* 500
Ijicroscopes & accessories ................. 300
Other equipment, slides, paraffin apparatus,
'I incubators, etc. ............, .... .. 1200
Balances, microtone, etc.............. ........... 200
Books, matnuscripts, notes .. ...... .. .....1500
Greenhouse, plants, etc. .......... ......... .....5 5200
Horticul tural-Bota i cal v
....------
Library .. ...............................1200
Cabinets cases ................................... 150
manuscriptss seed & drawings ......................2500
Sicro scope slides ................. .........*...* 500
Instri.uments& apparatue ....... ...................50 h4-, 50
LibrarL -
SDesk .. .. . ...... ... ,.... ................ 20
Card Index files .... .............................. 10
60,000 index cards .... ........................... 600
S Complete files of Exp. Station publications ..,.....7000
Complete files of official Agric. documents .......000
Files of State publications .............. 1500
Dic'ionaries, Encyclopedias, Atlas, etc ........... ..._ $5_Q_,
Liirar~y_ S t o 1,
Duplicate bulletins ................. ......... .. 0 1,500

""L*" i t i R o o m
SCabinets, furniture and exhibit material ........2200 o2,200
H orut L L-.S.3
Building, Greenhouse & heating plant ..........,... 000
..ile barn, seed, tools, etc. ......... ...... 1600
/ Gardner's iouse ........... ............... .... .... 200
IV Furniture, office desk, Garden notes, etc. ....... l100
Spraying miacninery & irrigating plant .... ..... 13. 49,000











"worr. i -1 rl-. G l 4-0 counties t'is .year. At a Q 3 of .these meetings

either directly or indirectly tle 'gosjel of better corn production is

preached *e UUrc tle farnl-/ wio c.an p-roduce a goo, cornl crop

can a so 'proU *:e a ,Iach .better ,erop .of .anyi iing e se. ,

-r lis eve o corn* e never gets it awa' frm a high marl:.
A A







Amt. forward


aflo* Uursery Insp sector
Furniture, deska,; etc. ........................... 610
( Book s ........................................... 200

I) Director's Office
3 laboraor ry tables @ i.l 2 ....................... 36
20 Globe Wernicke Cases, tops & bottoms ......... 50
3 ivalnut des: ................................... 100
S Scientific blookis ................................ 500
Diagrams, notes, 11ss. etc. ....................... 530


Secret 's Of ice
I laJboratory, tabj e ...._ I


2i- ,380
'800





1,156








eQnsca of teUl


versity of Florida. Arrangements have been p-trfected whereby. all of

the energies in the direction of agricultural extension vorl: wil] be cen-

tered at Gainesville. The Department of Agriculture. cooperating with

us, h-is appointed as State Agent, Professor C. K. IlcQuarrie, wrio will

give ail of -.his ti-ie to .the direction of this work. He has with

him, two aLle assistants who each h-,ave a district of tile State to su-

perintiend. Le Boys Corn Club vworl wil] be carried, on tlnrougl the

work: of tlie County Agents, while the Girls' Ca'iLing clubss will Ie

under thi- direct supervision of Miss Harris of the Womfan''s ColIleie,

who in turn becomes directly responsible to Professor IMcQuarrie for

the c:irryling out of the, work.


r




. j


ESTIi.iATED Ai..OTJIT OF TI.: VALUATION OF THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL

E2PERI .iEIT S.TATII011 and EQ1JIPI.,'DIT


Furn tTre ............ .... ...........
-,
Other Equip-ment, insect collection,
miidalLuscripts, etc.
Boo:s, etc
Camera aid accessories .

Plant Pathlo] o/;
6 'Iicros3jores- & accessories ............
Bal] ,Lces ar'p:cara.t is
Other equipment, sl3ies, xmss. etc.
Furniture, office
Bool:s
Herbariu .*


Sr aInt Ply lo] oMr
Furniture, office ... ........ ............ .
nicroscores and accessories .
Other eqyurpment, sliJes, paraffi'n appa-
ratus, incubators, etc.
BRa:-lces, aiicrotone, etc.
EBool:s, :I-nuscripts, notes
Gronihiouse, plants, etc.


300o
50

600
500



1000
700
1000
500
1500
500
50


,2.000


. ;5,250


500
300

1 200
200
1 500





Some one mrayl as: wliat ,nas.a3 tl is t- do witi the matter

of prevent ing poverty. T wi Il show you .clear]. in a r --" mj.iinute\
tla th-i is an extreflely to in te matter. Yo will
s~ tiat ift in t.he time) etmween 1908 and 19)14, or a period of six years,
the value of ti.e corn crop has risln f' r or, -3,409,000 to 3l0,120,000,
t!lat is it hlas increased ni+.a-y ,,o;. in value. It means that 86,731,000
-*f-eney is being distribute, a-ijong, farri homes. This mTia.is more for
the retention of active young Jmien anlii youiii worenr on t te i'arr.s titan

-.could. have Leen accojrp] is-ihed by any other rieans ,It.lr mes betts-r roads,
better schools, better cliurch'es, better l'omer, -- the last tie rost ,in-

portant of a33 factors In Ikeepring .pec.p e fror crowd i;.g iinto ti'e cities.
This .;6,713 ,000 of .i.one. pro uu.ced on th.e .fair., is r~-al*ly wviorlt iore
t.i,.._ te.e ai.,ount signlflef .i y .the..selling ricee, since. it mear.s more
and Lettter food, as corn enters very largely into obur iet. It means
ror e hogs. imo:; e poultry, miiiore eggs, tr1e -.r):, aLid rrore mill:, Ai Wnr

ljo 'l of cOcrn .11i3 si s .ed t+ 3 on tite .,'arI t

Zoes to tie betterment of the farm aild .o.i arcL 3ivin.' So small a
percentage of tnis enters &he co, uierclal chaLnels tait .- iy Ga it is
a4. neglilt] A94 A-eio t A A-

1.3i^ dt i Y e v^- Z^c 0^L-e^ '^ a' I ^. Z .)-e


_ _L o t -U L L a a- fw -t.-fl -/ ^ ^ ^ t--4
eJU =Ldt t





Machinery, tools, etc.


.................... ...... 600


Vacuum machinery ..... ................ ..... ....2.
Gas machine .................... .......1200
Polariscopes ................... .. ... .... ...... 40
Platinul ware .............. ......... .. ...... 2500
Library .. ....... ......................... .....,21200
Balances, scales, weights ....................... 600
Atwater calorimeter .. ..... .... ...... .. 50
Glass ware e ............ .... ............. .... ... 00
Copper & iron ware,.Ovens,etc. .................. 400
Still for pure water .......... ............... 150
Chem!:ical ... .. ........... ..... *.. ...... --... ....... 300
Miscellaneous Aparatus........... ........... 00
Eicros oone .................................. 100
Laboratory Furniture & equipment ....... ...... .3000
Agricultural. Department i
Live stock (cows, bul3s, hogs) ..................3888
Tools, implements & machinery ....... ....... 1331
il.d '. in~ S
Foreman's house ................ 1 00
Haty barn. 1......... ...... 200
Dairy barn & Silo .............. 900
Mule barn ........ ............. 800
SeeO tiouse .. . ......... ...... 1000
Fertilizer house ............... 300
Wagon scales & shed ............ 150
Imp element House ................ oo ... 4, 50
S I .3169 "


a2^ cab net for Tl2:- ... .. ...: ..... 75
2 wall cases, bulletin files .... ........ 80
ic3o'Le Werniche files ....... ...... ... ... ... 150
2 Stenographers' desks ............. 80
10 storage files ............................. 20
;.Ia2iuscript, plates, drawings, etc ........ ...... 2000
S wal] cases ....... .. ..... ........ ..60
SExtension De:Lart ient
'Office furniture, Books & Publications ..... ..... 500


500


12,4 50


S58,793


Innaar I I


2,477,


SC eiiilstr '