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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
EZD- fxpekiment statioll.
Twenty-three years ago our Florida State Experiment Station was
estabrlisbed. Since that time we have published 105 bulletins, 165
press bulletins and 22 annual reports, The total distribution Of
these publications now amounts to more than a million copies. iaa.-
MefattuLOTel~co-Rnflrned gtheaLJ ~ Lneedful qu-beQZ n- -r mandtl e
hortznill. W--444,9r Last year, more
than eight thousand letters containing inquiries regarding agricul-
tir:al methods Were received at the Station. This shows beyond
' doUbt that the investigations carried on at the Experiment Station
are appreciated by the practical men of Florida.
The Experiment Station is an Institution founded, for the sole
purpose of making useful scientific discoveries on agricultural
subjects and reporting o-n the results, The ac.ttalI application of
such discoveries to practical agriculture does not.comexZx within
its proving.: This is the tasK of the demonstrate tion worker. As a
concrete illustration, we may' take the Velvet boarn. Eighteen
years ago this plant was little more than an ornamental arbor. vine; lu.t
today it has reached the seventh place in value among our farm.
crops. During-those 18 years the Florida Experiment Station has
been the only place where careful, methodical and systematic research
was a-pplied to this species. As a protein feed, our experiments
have shown that 267 pounds of alVet beans in the hull, with the
other feeds required ito form a properly balanced ration, produced
108 6/10 gallons of milkc, costing 13 3/10 cents per gallon. The
cost. of producing beef with a velvet-bean ration has been .ascertained.
The chemical analysis, the digestibility, and fertilizing value of
the velvet beans have b'en worked out. To sum up, the Florida
farmer is at present in possession, in bulletin form, of the most
accurate data on tem important forage crop that can be found anywhere..
It id quite beyond the province-of the Experiment Station to develop
a large dairy farm or a large stocK farm based on tie knowledge
thathas been gaines by research. The facts resulting from the
the Investigations are now the common property of the citizens of
our 3tate. (he task of the BXperiment Otation is to push its
researches our farthur'into the wide and promising realm of the doubtw.
ful or unknown.
The rsult-s of work done on pineapple Cert4.i1zefr anr. a.
a.., ?Al IZ Or 9and _uin M nwi i
culture, and already in a serlesof published bulletins, form the
most accurate kind of knowledge to be found anywhere as to the rew*
quirements of this fruits The discoveries of remedies for several
severe citrus diseases have probably saved every'year to our orange
growers more than the cost of the whole State university.
These results, which comprise a frac-tion of the wor okf the
Station, have required patient toll by trained investigators' The
'bd business application of newly discovered facts and processes /
m nmst be made by the farmer or fruit-grower himself, It would be
a waste of tire for one trained in research to leave the line of:
original investigations and as dO economical demonstrat-ion worIk
A well trained farmer or fruit-grower/put new principles in Iaxa
practice with but little special expense,
GROVE, 7ITS LOCATION
BY P. H. RoLps, M. S.
director iorida Agricultural Experiment Station, and
S tate superintendentt of Farmers' Institutes,
U. university of Florida, Gainesville.
:~.*. CHOOSING A LOCATION. .-
0* -' Tie character of Florida soils is variable to a consider-
ble extent Even in the same vicinity various kinds of "
s ma eIcuR.. These vary front a clay to loamy, sandy,
1'fi'i ly sbils. Some of them, aTso, are muck soils.
Olay Soil is one of the best for citrus-growing when it
is found in a warm region. Less fertilizer is required
and the trees are productive, bearing an unusually fine
10 Et'q 'of fruit if the soil is- properly handled.
*^pling Soil.-This is the character of the soil that is
re* ,*i .;)st largely employed for citrus-growing and with best
Ssuts, Elsewhere this soil might be referred to as sandy
'* /, loaI^ It contains a considerable admixture of clay and
Sgaic matter, with a large body of sand.
*. &d Eny Soil, or sandy land as it is often called, is usually
S ,e8'fromr a perceptible admixture of either vegetable
;. matte or clay. For the most part it tends to be lacking
S -in water and fertilizer-holding power. When it is almost
,sge.:sanid it appears white, and is usually considered an
:p. *^ ayr SQoi4 occur in some sections. .After a consider-
;',able amountt of humus has been worked into the stiff
^ i : : S 'm ; .
marl, they make good soils for citrus trees. In their
original state, the marly soils are apt to produce an in-
different groth in the young trees, usually causing then.
to suffer or less from dieback, scale insects, and
other such di orders. This condition, however, passes off
as the soil becomes more thoroughly tilled and has more
vegetable matter incorporated in it.
Muck Soils are not the ideal soils. upon which4to plant
citrus trees, since they are inclined to be sou r,'tb produce
an exuberant growth, and for a number of years to give '
rough and imperfect'fruit.- After muck lands have been
cultivated for a number of years and brought into a# -
thorough state of tilth, they produce excellent crops' of
citrus fruits, unless the mucks remain raw in form and
contain a considerable amount of humic acid.
THE NATURAL GROWTH As AN INDEX. "* t0
Hammock.-It is in our native hammocks that the wild
citrus groves occur. In some regions thousaAds of trees ."
have been transplanted from these old native groyes to
higher lands. In other places the hammocks were cleaned
up, leaving the orange seedlings standing, tp be budded'
over to the better varieties. These wild trees were aljwvays
found to be the sour orange. At the present time; ,the
hammock lands are regarded as the ideal ones foil'citrkuax
culture. The great cost necessary to clear these up thor-
oughly has in many cases deterred people from pAiig
use of them.
Rolling Pine.-The higher pine lands, more or les ro-
ing; upon which long-leaf pine trees are growing, gie usa
some of the best citrus lands we have in the State. Tkesb
lands are easily cleared, and quickly brought into service ,
for setting out to citrus trees. They are usually suffi-
ciently drained naturally to permit the citrus groves to
grow off promptly and produce a lot of fine fruit. Tbey ;
are less desirable than the hammocks, on aycpunt of rei:'
quiring a larger amount of fertilizer to bring th'trees q
'~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ""''*.
into bearing. After years of cropping, however, they will
require little or no more fertilizer than the adjacent
Cabbage Palmetto Hammock.-These hb Uocks differ
from the hammocks proper in that they aie usually more
or less covered with water for a part of the year. The
cabbage palmetto is the predominating tree. Wherever
the land is high enough above the adjacent water, these
lands may be drained and brought into service for citrus
culture. When properly handled, they make among our
best citrus groves.
Shell Hammock.-These differ from the other forms of
hammock in that the soil is composed, to a greater or less
degree, of shell. The trees usually grow off promptly
and make a good showing, but sooner or later are apt to
be affected severely with dieback; and :while in many
cases most excellent fruit is raised on shell hammocks
they require a special and careful treatment. This char-
acter of land may safely be used by those who ire expert
in handling citrus trees.
Drained Lands.-Lake beds and other lands, sometimes
called prairie, that are high enough to permit of thorough
drainage, have been used to a considerable extent for
planting to citrus. In these lands it is purely a question
as to whether they are sufficiently high to permit of thor-
ough drainage during the rainy portion of the year.
Pine Land, With Oak Undergrowth.-Some of the pine
land, frequently called second-grade pine land, especially
that which has a considerable undergrowth of scrub oaks,
must be looked upon with some suspicion. Where clay is
found within two or three feet from the surface, this char-
acter of soil can be safely employed for locating a citrus
grove, but where the sand is very deep it will be prefer-
able to choose a location elsewhere.
Flatwoods.-This character of land is usually level and
more or less covered with water during the rainy season.
As a rule, a hardpan occurs from a few inches to a few
feet below the surface. This prevents rapid and thorough
drainage. Saw palmettoes are usually absent or scattered
on this chara ter of land. The predominating under-
growth is gallOerry. By hardpan, we should understand
a more or less impervious stratum occurring in the soil
at a depth of a few inches or a few feet. It obstructs the
passage of water downward, and also.obstructs the down-
ward progress of the roots, causing the soil to become
water-logged during the rainy period, and probably very
dry during a period of drought. This hardpan may be
made up of various matters, either calcareous, siliceous
or ferruginous. The cementing material usually breaks
up and lets the sand fall apart when exposed to the air.
If the hardpan is of a ferruginous nature, it is more or
less poisonous to citrus trees. Various methods have been
adopted for bringing into cultivation land that has a
hardpan under it. Sometimes this hardpan has been
broken through by means of plowing. In such cases the
hardpan was near the surface and in a thin layer. In
other cases, the surface'soil has been mounded up so as to
put the trees on ridges. In a few cases the hardpan has
been broken by discharging dynamite under the trees.
Iron salts as they normally occur in the soil have a
yellowish or reddish color. Where these colors occur, the
darker colored iron hardpans are not likely to be present,
consequently it is sometimes concluded that a reddish or
yellow soil indicates one especially favorable for agricul-
tural purposes. These flatwoods lands, when thoroughly
and deeply drained and the hardpan broken, make a fair
place for producing citrus fruit.
Spruce-Pine Land.-The spruce-pine land, as well as
the scrub-oak land, should not be employed for citrus-
growing at the present time. Splendid citrus orchards
occur on lands of this kind, but they have been brought <
out by experts and at the cost of much more than would
have been necessary on lands better adapted for citrus-
growing. In addition to this, these lands produce trees
that are subject to many disorders.
SITE OF THE GROVE.
Immediately upon deciding that one wishes to plant a
grove, he should select the best site Iait can be procured.
A great many questions arise in determining where a
grove shall be located. A few of these are discussed
Distance From Transportation Line.-The ultimate
object being the selling of fruit at a remunerative figure,
it becomes necessary to locate a grove within a reasonable
distance of some line of railroad or water transportation.
The distance which it will be profitable to transport fruit
by wagon will depend largely upon the condition of the
Another determining factor in the matter is the cost
of the land. A grove of moderate-sized trees, heavily
loaded, should produce a thousand boxes of oranges to
the acre. Allowing fifty boxes to a load, this would re-
quire twenty trips to the transportation station. If a
grove were located three miles away from the station, it
would probably take one man with a two-horse team six-
days to haul this fruit. If located one-half that distance,
it would require only three or four days. Allowing. about.
$4 a day for this work; the hauling of the fruit from the
more distant grove would increase the cost about $8 per
acre, which amount must be charged as an annual tax.
From this the intending purchaser can readily calculate
how much more he can afford to pay proportionately for
land in close proximity to the railroad station.
Frost Protection.--There are no parts of Florida that
are entirely free from occasional frosts, and in some parts
of the State freezing weather may be expected to occur
during every winter. There are a few isolated places,
however, that are so favorably located that freezing
weather is of rare occurrence.
Under ordinary circumstances, a drop in temperature
to 28 degrees and a continuation of this for several hours
'will not freeze citrus fruit. If, however, the drop goes
lower, say to about 26 or 25 degrees, serious damage is
-apt to result, especially if it is long continued. A drop in
temperature of 24 degrees is not likely to prove seriously
damaging td trees unless it is of continued duration.
Trees in a thoroughly dormant condition will pass through
a temperature of 18 degrees without the loss of much-
wood, but, as a rule, a considerable amount of foilage is
lost at that temperature. This, however, varies with
-different varieties and with the conditions of the tree
and the duration of the cold. Even if it does go to freez-
ing, a sudden drop in the temperature and a continuation
of it for a number of days proves, rather disadvantageous
to the health of the citrusgrove. It is, therefore, very
-desirable to have some form of protection against cold.
Water Protection.-Water protection proves to be one
of the best shelters against occasional cold days in winter.
It has been found that regions located in large bodies of
-water, or with a northern, eastern and western protection
'-of water, are much less subject to drops in temperature
than those that are exposed. Quite a number of such
places may be found as far north as 29 degrees 45 minutes
of latitude. Even north of this region some fine groves
occur that have been protected by artificial means. Far-
ther south, at about the 28th parallel of latitude, a num-
ber of locations have been found where water has pro-
tected the trees, and in some cases even the fruit, against
the most severe cold that we have had.
Hammock Protciion.-Quite a number of citrus grow-
ers in the State have found that hammock protection is
quite as feasible as water protection. By locating in a
large hammock and securing the surrounding lands, citrus
growers have cut out small tracts in the hammock varying
from five to ten acres in extent and planted these in citrus
trees, leaving these small groves entirely surrounded by
hammock trees. To make such a plan practicable, it is
necessary to own the surrounding hammock; otherwise,
one would have no control over the hammock trees which
he wishes to use as protection against cold.
SHELTER FROM SEA WINDS.
Around the coast of Florida the bleak sea winds are
damaging to citrus trees and citrus fruits. The direct
influence of the sea breezes is to cause the atmosphere and
soil to become dry. This stunts the grove and in some
cases makes it absolutely impossible for the trees to
attain a size that will enable them to bear a profitable
crop. In some cases, where groves have been planted in
such exposed places, it has become necessary to erect an
artificial windbreak. This being built ten or twelve feet
high, affords the first row protection against the sea
breezes. Each row then successively forms a protection
for the succeeding row.
In addition to the direct influence of the sea winds, we
also have the indirect effect in causing the fruit to become
torn, scratched, bruised, or otherwise mutilated, and unfit
for market purposes. The foilage, and especially the
rapidly growing young shoots, are likely to be seriously
damaged by mechanical injury from the sea winds. Where
it becomes desirable to plant a grove within the influence
of the sea winds, it is very important that a strip of ham-
mock should be left as a wind protection. If this is not
available, a protecting row of trees should be planted.
The native bay tree resists the influence of the sea winds
well, but probably a much better tree for the purpose is
PREPARING THE LAND.
Clearing the Field.-In preparing for a citrus orchard,
it is important that all native trees, stumps and other
material should be removed from the soil. A few cab-
bage palmettoes may be left for nurse trees for some time,
but there should not be a large number, certainly not
more than one hundred to one hundred and fifty to the
acre, and, of course, all of those occurring in the rows
where trees should stand ought to be removed. Liveoaks
and especially pines are found to be very injurious to the
growth of citrus trees.
It is not impossible for a person to make a good grove
in a field that is full of stumps and debris. The chances,
however, are much against his making a success. He
would be the exception to the rule if he did so.
Breaking and Plowing.-After the field has been thor-
oughly grubbed and freed from all obstructions in sight,
the next important step is to plow the land thoroughly.
During this operation a large amount of roots and under-
ground trash will be turned up. This should be removed
and burned. Weeds, grass and stuff that will decay rap-
idly can be left on the ground and be plowed under to
good advantage. It is important to have a large plow
and sufficient horse power to do the work thoroughly. A
fourteen or sixteen-inch plow, or, better still, a thirty-
inch disc plow, will be found useful.
Previous Cropping.-Most people who are intending to
put out a citrus grove become impatient for a crop and,
consequently, are too much in a hurry to plant trees. The
severe change that has taken place on the land by the
removal of the forest and the burning of the stumps has
set up a disturbance in the soil. The land, therefore, is
in most cases unfit to receive anything but the most
vigorous plants. If the field is prepared in time to be
planted to a crop of vegetables, this is highly advisable.
These vegetables will be less affected by the adverse con-
ditions than are the citrus trees, and even if they should
be adversely affected it would mean only the loss of one
crop and would not be communicated to the succeeding
years. If the season is not a proper one for planting out
vegetables, the field may be planted to some farm crop,
especially a cover crop, such as velvet beans, cowpeas or
beggarweed. If a good crop of velvet beans has been
grown upon the soil, we are pretty certain to have it in
first-class condition for setting out to citrus trees. In addi-
tion to putting the soil in good condition, the velvet
beans will add a large amount of ammonia to the soil,
requiring less of this element in the fertilizer to be ap-
plied to the trees when set out.
Catch Crops.-During the succeeding year vegetables
and farm crops may be profitably planted between. the
rows of citrus trees. One should, however, not lose sight
of the fact that the citrus orchard is the main project
under consideration, and that these catch crops must be
removed or entirely destroyed if they in any way inter-
fere with the health and growth of the citrus trees. After
the vegetable crop has been removed from the citrus grove
the middles may be planted to velvet beans, cowpeas or
beggarweed. These plants will continue to add ammonia
to the soil, prevent leaching by heavy rains and finally
return to the soil a large amount of humus, which is very
much needed to produce growth and health in citrus trees.
It is, however, entirely possible to get so much organic
ammonia in the soil as to cause dieback in the small trees.
When this occurs, the planter loses from one to two years'
time in the growth of his trees.
Perfect Drainage Necessary.-One of our foremost
agriculturalists in the State has said that there is not an
acre of land in the State of Florida that does not need
draining; that even the steep clay hillsides would be im-
proved by being underlaid with tile drains. Our general
experience has been that when people speak of land as
being perfectly drained they mean that it is perfectly
drained during the dry part of the year, and forget alto-
gether about the rainy part of the year, which is the
critical season. A grove site should be so perfectly
drained, naturally and artificially, as to never allow the
soil water to stand above two feet from the surface at
any time. Several instances are known where groves
located on the top of a hill, seventy-five feet above a lake,
had standing water in the soil during the rainy season.
Such trees as are within the influence of this water neces-
sarily becomes weakened by the exclusion of -oxygen and
interference with the bacterial life in the soil. For the
orange grove as a whole, surface drainage appears to be
the cheapest and most profitable. Tile drains are likely
to become clogged by citrus roots, and much damage may
result before the grower recognizes the defect,
Irrigation.-While much good can be done by conserv-
ing the moisture in the soil, occasional years occur, how-
ever, when the drought becomes so severe that if one had
an irrigating plant the advantages derived from it would
be sufficient to pay for the whole outfit; and during
about three years out of five a sufficient number of
droughts occur to make a good irrigating plant very de-
sirable. The type of plant to use depends very much
upon one's own inclinations and the amount of money he
has to spend. Furrow irrigation, as practiced in Cali-
fornia, is entirely practicable and has been used to some
extent in Florida. This is the cheapest method, and the
one which will doubtless be generally adopted.
Object.-Too many grove owners look upon cultivation
in the light taken by a certain colored boy, who, when
asked what he was cultivating for, replied: "Seventy-five
cents a day." During a money stringency the first thing
the grove owner does in many cases is to cut down the
amount of cultivation. We cultivate an orange grove to
admit air into the soil, as a first requisite, to keep up the
bacterial life; and, secondly, to conserve the moisture
Germ Action.-Plants in general take up the ammonia
in the soil in the form of nitrates. These nitrates, to a
large extent, are formed from broken-down vegetable
matter. They are prepared by the organisms constantly
present in the soil. Nearly all of our fertilizers applied
to the trees must go through this breaking down process.
Possibly the only exception to this is when we use nitrate
of soda and nitrate of potash. To secure the best results
the nitrifying bacterial must be present in the soil in suffi-
cient quantity. The temperature of the soil must range
somewhere between 40 and 130 degrees F., the most favor-
able soil temperature being about 98 to 99 degrees. A
reasonable amount of moisture is necessary, and there
must be a free circulation of air. The nitrates are most
rapidly formed in the soil near the surface, especially in
the first six inches. The depth at which the largest
amount of nitrates are formed varies with the condition
of the soil. From this it will be seen that nitrates are
forming rather rapidly in our soils during almost the
Conserving Moisture.-Another important reason for
cultivating is to conserve the moisture of the soil. To
make the fertilizer applied available to the plant, it be-.
comes necessary for these substances to be placed in solu-
tion. In the absence of moisture in the soil the fertilizer
applied to the grove will be as useless as if left in the
bag. On the other hand, if too large an amount of mois-
ture be present, the plants are unable to get a sufficient
amount of the chemical elements in the water that is
being absorbed. Conservation of moisture by cultivation
is best accomplished by using some light implement that
will work rapidly over the soil, breaking the crust or
stirring the already loose surface soil, forming what is
usually spoken of as the soil mulch. The appended table
shows the effect of cultivation and non-cultivation on
lands that would be considered fairly good citrus lands.
During the year when these tests were being made there.
was a very great deficiency in the rainfall; in fact during
the four months following the first of January, there was
only one rainfall that amounted to enough to wet the soil:
MOISTURE IN CULTIVATED AND UNCULTIVATED LAND.
April 18, 1908.
First foot .........
Second foot .......
Third foot .......
Fourth foot ......
First foot ........
Second Foot ......
Third foot .......
Fourth foot .......
age. per acre.
. 5.35 107.0
. 5.73 114.6
. 5.17 103.4
April 24, 1908.
age. per acre.
.. ... 239.6
*Cultivated land, average ............418.0 tons
Uncultivated land, average ........242.8 tons.
Diff. in favor of cultivated land 175.2 tons of water,
or 1/2 in. of rain.
The above table shows that an amount of moisture
equal to one and one-half inches of rainfall may be con-
served by plowing and cultivating.
Increasing Humus Content.-The humus is the dark-
colored material which occurs in practically all soils to a
greater or less extent. Sandy soils almost devoid of
humus are very white. When a large amount of humus
is added to such a'soil, it takes on a dark color. Our
pure muck or peat beds may be said to be pure beds of
humus, though the decaying vegetable matter at this
period of its transition is not usually spoken of as humus,
but rather as peat. In the, next stage of its decay it
takes on more of an earthy character, and is then spoken
of as humus. All forms of animal and vegetable matter
take this form before changing into distinctly inorganic
substance. Large roots, roots of crops, stalks of crops,
and similar growth, are useful in increasing the humus
of the soil. The most useful of our humus-supplying
plants are the legumes. Foremost among these is the
velvet bean. Cowpeas and beggarweed are also excellent
for citrus groves.
Humus in the soil improves its mechanical condition
by making a compact soil looser and more permeable to
the roots of the plants. It gives the leachy soil a water-
holding capacity and, therefore, a capacity for holding
plant-food, especially such as has been supplied in the
form of fertilizers. It furnishes a convenient location
and food for the useful micro-organism which prepare
the fertilizers for the citrus trees. In addition to the
above advantages an increase in the humus content of the
soil increases the soil warmth.
From what has been said in the foregoing paragraph,
it should not be considered that humus is an unmixed
blessing. Too large a supply of humus in a grove will
cause dieback, and in a fruiting grove it is likely to pro-
duce what the orange growers properly know as ammo-
niated fruits, as well as dieback. Consequently, the citrus
fruit grower must not attempt to push his trees too rap-
idly, and must also be careful to have his soil thoroughly
drained (drainage for the rainy season), in order that the
life processes in the soil may go on in a normal way.
KINDS OF CULTURE.
There is probably no other subject in citrus-growing
that formerly elicited so much heated discussion as did
the question of the time and kind of cultivation. Usually
the debaters ignored entirely the kind of soil, the char-
acter of their land, and the length of time during which
they had practiced their particular hobbies. We, there-
fore, find that the sects were divided into practically three
schools: The perfectly clean culture men, who considered
it a disgrace to have a sprig of grass visible in their
groves; the school who argued that since our wild trees
never were cultivated in the native state, therefore the
grove trees should not be cultivated; later, a third school
sprang up that considered it entirely proper to cultivate
during the drier part of the year, but ceased cultivation
altogether during the rainy part of the year. It speaks
well for the hardihood of the orange tree to be able to
endure and produce a paying crop under all of these con-
ditions of cultivation. Some of the school of clean cultur-
ists conserved the moisture of the soil by using a liberal
organic mulch. Some, in fact, went so far as to spend
much time and money in cutting shrubbery from the ham-
mock or piney woods and applying this under the trees
as a mulching, to add humus to the soil and to conserve
Later, and from necessity, a number of orange growers
have had to take care of orange groves that became com-
pletely sodded with Bermuda grass. We might call these
the Bermuda sod groves.
Spring Cultivation.-In sections of Florida where it
becomes necessary to bank trees to protect them against
the danger of winter freezing, cultivation should not be
begun until all danger of frost or freezing is past. Re-
move the heating apparatus- or piles of wood that may
have been placed in the grove to protect it against freez-
ing, then pull down the banks and begin to cultivate.
Groves that have been well tilled the year before will
be found in excellent shape for using small tools, such as
the Acme harrow, Planet Jr., etc. In groves where con-
siderable vegetable matter is left over from the previous
year, it may be necessary to use a cutaway harrow to
break this up. The first cultivation in the spring may be
somewhat deep, since it is not likely that new feeding
roots have been formed near the surface. If, however,
the cultivation is not started until feeding roots have
formed, it is best to avoid deep cultivation. Deep culti-
vation at this time of the year, as at any other time, is a
relative rather than an absolute term.
After the first cultivation, nothing more than a mere
stirring of the first inch or two of soil should be given.
This conserves the moisture so much needed at this time
of the year. Our driest portion of the year is likely to
occur during March, April and May. The more fre-
quently we cultivate, the more of the soil moisture is
.conserved. Ordinarily, it is not profitable to cultivate
more frequently than once a week. If our soil is in the
best possible condition, a weeder may be used. It may be
necessary to load the weeder with a small piece of cord-
wood. With such an implement, a man and a horse can
cultivate a ten-acre grove in a day.
Catch Crops.-Where some form of crop is being grown
between the rows of trees, it is necessary to give this crop
the best of attention and an abundance of fertilizer to
keep it from drawing heavily on the young grove. It is a
good practice to keep at least six feet away from the reach
of the branches. Trees that are over five years old are
likely to have roots extending as far as midway between
the rows; consequently, cultivation of the catch crop
should be gauged according to the needs of the citrus
Summer Cultivation.-Some fine groves and much ex-
cellent fruit have been produced by a continuous summer
cultivation; other groves have been seriously injured and
the crops of fruit have been ruined by such work. The
question depends -more upon what the character of the
land is than upon any dogmatic method of procedure.
Ordinarily, it is safe to discontinue cultivation as soon
as abundant rains-occur, and to allow grass and weeds to
grow at their will. If the grass and weeds become too
tall and appear to be a detriment to the grove, a mower
may be used to cut them down. During the summer
season these will rot and return to the soil as humus. If
the grove does not need mowing, the grass and weeds may
be allowed to grow, and at the close of the rainy seasofi
the grass may be made into hay and removed from the
field. Where the soil is deficient in humus, it will prob-
ably pay better to mow the grass and weeds and allow
them to rot to humus in the grove.
Velvet beans, cowpeas and beggarweed may also be
planted in groves if the soil is not too rich in organic
ammonia. These legumes abstract nitrogen from the
atmosphere and return it to the soil in the organic form.
There are instances where this has been carried on to the
extent of producing dieback in the grove. Where there
is the probability of getting too much organic nitrogen in
the soil, the legume may be made into hay. If these
legumes are used in the grove, they should be mown in
the beginning of the dry season so as to reduce the number
of plant bugs to a minimum, since frequently these suck-
ing insects cause a loss of fruit when the legumes are per-
mitted to remain late in the fall.
Fall Cultivation.-Whether we should cultivate in the
fall or not will depend largely on local conditions. If we
are having a severe drought it may be advisable to use a
cutaway harrow, or an implement' of this kind, to break
up the surface soil so as to conserve the moisture. If the
moisture is not needed,.it is usually preferable to allow
the soil to remain undisturbed.
Winter Cultivation.-In the early winter, before there
is any danger from frost, it is frequently necessary for us
to cultivate to prevent rapid evaporation of the moisture.
We can also at that time incorporate more or less of the
cover crop that grew during the summer season. Care
must, however, be taken not to carry this cultivation to
the extent of stimulating the trees into late growth;
otherwise, we are apt to get our trees severely injured by
an early freeze. If however, the work is carried on in
such a way as to conserve the moisture and yet not stim-
ulate the grove into growth, much good can be done by
early winter cultivation.
Cultivation and Dieback.--Dieback is a disease to which
practically all of our citrus trees are subject, and one
that causes much annoyance and frequently considerable
loss. The observant grove owner, however, will recognize
the preliminary symptoms of the disease and guard
against it. The disease seems to be due to unfavorable
soil conditions, brought on by too rapid a development
of ammonia in the soil. It may also occur as a result of
a number of other conditions.
Depth to Cultivate.-The depth to which a grove may
be cultivated safely depends more on the character of the
soil than on any other condition. In sections where there.
is a deep clay soil, the roots of the trees penetrate well
into the ground. In thin, sandy soil, the roots'are apt to
keep close to the surface. This is also the case in our low
The depth to which we should cultivate, then, will de-
pend largely on the character of the soil on which the
grove has been planted. In general, we should never plow
or cultivate so deeply as to disturb any considerable
number of the fibrous roots, and certainly not to the ex-
tent of breaking large roots.
By observing the depth of the roots in the soil, we will
be able to gauge, in a measure, the depth to which we can
cultivate. This, we will find, varies, however, in the same
grove in different years. Consequently, very much de-
pends on the judgment of the man who is doing the culti-
vation, or having it done.
Implements.-Under ordinary circumstances, the heavy
two-horse plow has no place in a grove in good health. A
light one-horse plow may be used to some extent. This
tool, however, is a poor implement, since it wastes so
much time for the grove owner. One of the best imple-
ments for deep cultivating is the cutaway harrow or disc
harrow. For a small grove, the one-horse harrow will be
found preferable. For an extensive grove this is too slow,
and we need a two or three-horse cutaway or disc harrow.
The spading harrow will also be found useful under. cer-
tain circumstances. The Acme harrow is also an excellent
implement to use when the vegetable matter has been
worked into the soil. It does poor work, however, when
a considerable amount of vegetable matter is present on
the surface. The Planet, Jr., cultivator or Sweep culti-
vator is also excellent for shallow cultivation. When the
orchard has been put into a good state of tilth, and our
only object is to conserve the moisture, the weeder is one
of the best and most serviceable implements. The ordi-
nary spring-toothed cultivators are not good implements,
since they pull up too many of the roots they happen to
come in contact with.
BUILDING UP A NEGLECTED GROV!3.
The best way to build up a neglected grove is to let the
other fellow do it. Buying a neglected grove is like buy-
ing an old, neglected horse. Under certain circumstances
it may be done with profit, but under ordinary circum-
stances it is cheaper and much more satisfactory to start
a new grove.
It happens frequently, however, that one has an old
grove, or that part of his property happens to be an old,
neglected grove. In such cases, we wish to know what is
best to do.
Pruning.-The first step in such conditions is to go
into the grove with a good sharp saw, pruning shears and
other implements for butchering trees. The pruning
should be done thoroughly and severely. Take out first
all dead wood; then take out all of the weakened wood;
finally, shape the tree up so as to make it more or less
symmetrical. Do not leave any long, spreading branches,
even if they appear to be perfectly healthy. tfead them
back, so as to make a good, compact tree. When an old,
neglected orchard has been properly treated, it is usually
a sad-looking sight.
Fert'ilizers.-Give the entire grove a liberal allowance
of a fertilizer such as is used ordinarily for producing
growth. A good formula for this purpose will contain,
*about 4 per cent. ammonia, 6 per cent. phosphoric acid,
and 8 per cent. potash. As a source of ammonia, nitrate
of soda may be employed; as a source of potash, use a
high-grade sulphate of potash, or low-grade sulphate of
potash; and as a source of phosphoric acid, the acid
phosphate. The amount to be applied per tree should be
very liberal. More people err in applying too little than
in applying too much. Spread the fertilizer evenly broad-
cast over the entire grove, at least over the portion of the
grove where trees occur.
Plowing.-Ordinarily, such a grove should be plowed
very deep, even to the point of breaking and cutting large
roots. Care must, of course, be taken not to plow so
deeply as to destroy a large percentage of the roots of the
trees. This will vary according to the character of the
soil on which the grove happens to be located. Ordi-
narily, the plow may be made to go five or six inches deep,
plowing much deeper in the middles and shallower near
the trunks of the trees. After the grove has been plowed
in one direction, then cross-plow it. In this way the fer-
tilizer is pretty thoroughly incorporated with the .soil
and brought where the roots can get it almost imme-
diately. After this thorough and deep plowing has been
completed, cultivation with an ordinary implement should
By such drastic treatment, the weaker trees are likely
to be killed out entirely. The sooner these are killed out
the more profitable it will be for the owner. He can then
replace them with vigorous young trees. The old trees
that have vitality enough to stand such vigorous .treat-
ment are pretty sure to respond promptly.
PECA CULTURE IN FLORI A.
Much the great part of this article is ta en from the
Florida Experimen Station Bulletin No. 8 by Prof. H.
Harold Hume, and also from the writt opinions of
other well-informed d expert growers the Pecan.
BOTA Y OF THE PECAN.
The pecan tree is in 'genous in th United States in
the rich, alluvial botto s of the M ssissippi,. and also
thought to be in some of e rich bo tom lands of north-
east Texas. Its northern limit is opposed to be about
Davenport, Iowa. In the ississi pi valley proper it ex-
tends within a few miles of e If Coast, further west
it extends into Mexico.
The area in which it may be rown is said to embrace
within its four extremities the ties of Davenport, Iowa,
Chattanooga, Tenn., Laredo, x. the region of the head-
waters of the Colorado Rive in exas, and even at the
present day as far west as rizona. It extends furthest
from the center of the are along th streams and rivers.
It is at present grown in all of the southern States in.
greater or less degree. Fr m the foreg 'ng it will be seen
that the pecan tree is native in par of the following
states, viz.: Illinois, I diana, Iowa, Mi ouri, Tennessee,
Kentucky, Alabama, ouisiana, Arkansa New Mexico,
and Oklahoma. Out ide of this area it ha, been planted
in a large number States. Its cultivate area corre-
sponds rather closely with that of the cotton ant, though
its extension beyo this area is constantly in easing.
The pecan belo s to the family Juglandace (Walnut
family), its near relatives being the other specie of hick-
ory, the walnut nd butternut. For many years the sci-
entific name c only applied to it was Carya Olivae
formis Nutt, ut in deference to the rules of p ority
&~ ~ ** -/* vmi .
- ____ -- -. r.. .
rTt Florida experiment Stationhi .
During the present year the l1drida Experiiment Station has
enjoyed a steady growth interrutsted only by the retiring of three
of its best Taen. Dr. Berger, who has been its' entomologist for the
past five years, resigned to take up tht work of State Inspectbr of
Nursery Stock. Hio high degree of, training as scientist and his
years of service at the 1Experiment Station qualified him most fully
for this work. While this was a serious loss to the 2Exeriment Sta-.
tion it gave the state a most efficient officer.
S 'P'rof. A, .7. Mair, .who had been with the station for over five,
years, did his work so well that tie rmore thoughtful state of New
SJerspy offered him a fifty percentt advance in salary and received his
Prof. Fawcett resigned in January after six-,years of most ef-
ficient service. California received his good worjc in Florida and
concluded that he w^ not sufficiently appreciated so offered him a
fifty per cent raise in salary and a long term contract.
In. spite of all of these difficulties I find Dfsoctor 1Bolfs op-
timistic and hopeful. He has an abiding confidence in Florida and
her people. He feels certain that sonner or later the value of able
saciehtists will be appreciated to the extent -pf paying them salaries
and opportunities equal to the best states.
The Experiment Station building is taking on a look of solidity
and permanance. The Experimental grounds are the most delightful
and inspiring. everything is kept in a painstaking and orderly -way.
To the casual visitor this is decidedly leasing but it requires a
thorough study of the entire workings of the institute, as has been
my priviLegge, to understand that the people of Florida have an Experi-
ment Station that is worthy of their complete coiafidence. Nothing
is -oermitted to be done in any way but the very best possible and what
cannot be done well is left undone.
An Examnle of the Good '7ork.
Tl.e quickness and thoroughness .with which the farmers work is
-being looked after may be illustrated by an incident now at hand. Last
week the entomologist discovered the cotton -vorm in Su-wannee County.
This worm destroyedth ndreds cf acres of cotton last year and is such
a strong flyer that it has been known to fly from Tennessee to Canada.
It is such an enormous reproducer that from a single b*F moth in July
there could be thirty million descendants inOctober, if none are des-
troyed. Immediately on receiving the information regarding the pree-
'* .t*\_ *
ence of the cotton moth in the state Director Holfs had Press Bulle-
tin 194 prepared and sent to every newspaper in the. sjate. This
bulletin was mailed out Saturday so that every weekly in the state
might copy it this week.. This will .enableeeticotton growers AggsSk
reads his home paper to identify the worm. He will also know a sim-
ple and effective remedy.
This incident shows how the Farmers' Institutes co-operating with
the Experiment Station frequently saves to the farmers of the state
many thousands of dollars. In the course of a year the saving alone
amounts to more than the cost of the whole University. If it had not
been for the wise foresight of the legislature in appropriating the
money-for the iarmers Institutfit would have been impossible to car--
ry out this work. It is illegal to use the Federal IExperiment Station
funds for this pauppee.
Profs.McQuarrie and Watson have been away with the farmers of
northern and water this week and last week holding Farmers' Instiz
tutes and also by private, visits have been giving them advice on how
to control the army worul and the cotton worm, two very serious insect
The popularity of the JExperiment Station is attested by the fact
that more.than ten thousand letter of inquiry have been received dur-
ing the year. During 44a year more than a million pages of printed
matter of information on agricultural i & were sent out. It
is distressing, however, to note thAt the demand for bulletins is far
in excess of the funds available for printing them, and so that most.
of the best literature is out of print. The next legislature will
undoubtedly make provision for supplinr this deficit.
The University Extension Division.
The Extension Division of the University -which includes the
Farmers' Institute has been greatly broadened in the last tPo years.
It now includes the holding of Wormn- F-- InstttutuirQ and Farm In-
structors. All of this work is carried on with an efficiency and di-
rectness that is surprising. The good done in the building up famm
homes and the farris extens far beyond a mere money advantage. The
members of the Station Staff and Extension Staff have traveled thou-
sands of miles and given kindly advice to hundreds of farm homes.
Director Rolfa and his co-workers never consider their individual
comforts nor personal advantage when there is an opportunity to build
WORK AT THE EXPERIMENT STATION
Thoe operations at the Ecperiment Station'are carried forward
by the individual members of the Staff in the form of projects. That
is, each member has certain crops or subjects to look after, These
subjects are chosen by the members of the Staff because they are
particularly fitted for-carrying out this lineof investigation. The
following are some of the projects that are now in progress:
I. COTTON BREEDING,--The onject of this work is to
produce a variety of cotton that is resistant to the diseases Ahich
commonly attack this crop. 1Ve have now growing on the Experimrent
Station about ten acres of.cotton, which is very strongly resistant
against a disease commonly known as wilts, or black root, In addition
to keeping this factor in mind, the- cotton breeder also selects these
vatieties of cotton with a view of securing a larger production, and
a finer staple. The cotton we are now using has been bred for four
years, and has shown a-very marked resistance to the wilts. It has
also shown a very great improvement in the staple over the original
seed trom ffinich it was selected.
II. COTTON FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS. -The object of
these experiments is to ascertain-, what particular form of ammonia,
of potash, and of phosphoric acid that is best adapted to producing a
large crop of cotton. In addition to this work, we are ascertaining
just how much ammonia, how much potash, and how much phosphoric acid
is needed to produce ths largest crop of cotton. From this it will be
an easy matter to determine just what amount of fertilizer can be most
profitably employed in the production of cotton.
III. CITRUS FERTILIZER TESTS,--Our work in the citrus
fertilizer tests was begun in a ten-acre grove. The object os the tests
is to ascertain just what effect different kinds of ammonia, different
kinds of potash, and different kinds of phosphoric acid will have on the
health of the tree, and on the quality of the fruit produced. The re-
sults will be ascertained both by. field observations and by chemical
analyses of the leaves, fruit, branches, and roots of the trees.
IV. S SOIL I1NVSTIqATIONS.--In this work a careful study
.is being made. of the physical condition of the soil, and the -ffeets
that are produced by the addition of different chemical elements,
such as are ordinarily used in the .fertilization of orops, In addition
to the ordinary chemical elements., other elements will.also be added
- with a view :of correcting certain dele.terious conditions of -the soil,
such as acid soils, etc. The object of this line of invest cation
is to learn. the reason for crop failures, and for crop successes, and
in the case of failures, to learn.how this may be prevented,
V. STEER FEEDING,.--In our steer f eding experiments
we are ascertaining what crops are best for feeding animals in Florida.
Eighteen head of steers are now being prepared for this work. The main,
crop under experimentation will be velvet beans, cowpeas, and sweet
potatoes. The amount of these fed to the steers will be carefully
weighed, the amount consumed and the daily loss oi gain of each
steer noted. At the end of the time we will have the total gawin or.
or los8a the amount of feed given to the steers, and so will be able to
ascertain exactly the value of certain crops for producing beef., This
will enable us to tell exactly how much a bushel of sweet potatoes, a
bushel of velvet beans, or a bushel of cowpeas will be worth for
feeding steers in Florida.
VI. EEDITC OD DAIRY COWS.--Dairying in Florida may be
said to be in its beginning. From an accurate scientific .
point of view, we might aay that we know nothi.r as to the- exact value
of our different crops for feeding dairy cattle. In these experiments
it is expected tob ascertain just -how much of each pound of the particular
material we are feeding will be worth in dollars and cents, when the
price of butter and milk is known. At the present time, the cattle
are being fed on cocoanut meal, cotton-seed meal, corn, and other oon-
binations of this kind.
VII. IRISH POTATO ,EERIMENT.--In this experiment we are
testing some eighty varieties of European and South Amerioan
potatoes to ascertain what variety, if aay, there may be among these
that is.better-than the A merican varieties we are now using. An xW
periment is also in progress on Irish potatoes to ascertain wiat formal
of fertilizers are most economically used for producing large crops of
VIII, PINEAPPLE FERTILIZERS.--The experiments on pineapple
lfrtilizers were- begun in 1898 and have been continued sinee
then with some interruption. Our, present field has been under obser-
vation for nearly six years. The plots are made of-exact else, awd
the same kind of fertilizers have been added to the plots L ry year,
As we have made accurate chemical analyses of the.fertilisers that
have gone on these. plots, we know exactly what each plot has received.
Six bulletins have already been published on pineapple fertilizers and
pineapple work, and although the work carried out so far has been
the most profitable of any line of investigation we have carried out,
we believe that the most interesting is yet.to come.
IX. CELERY EXPERIMENTS.--These experiments are designed
to ascertain what effect different kinds of ammonia, differ-
ent kinds of potash, and different kinds of phosphoric acid will have
on preventing the black heart, a very serious bacterial disease of
the celery plant. Incidentally, this experiment will enable us to
tell just What combinations of the different elements will give us the
largest any most profitable crop.,.
-X. ALFALFA EXPERIENTS.-- The most serious obstacle
in the way of maintaining large herds of cattle in Florida
has been the difficulty of securing a winter crop. Thousands of tests
have been made, using hundreds of species of plants, which it were
hoped would prodftoe a winter forage, but so far, we have secured no
important success. The alfalfa fields come so near being a success,
that they miss it.only by a nery narrow margin. We are learning more
and more about thedcauses of failure, which enables us to avoid these.
We, however, ,nave not arrived at -a commercial success in growing
alfala. It is hoped, however, thatAthe nearness to success we are
approaching, that it will not.be long before we shall make a perfect
success of it. At the present time a few fields in Florida have been
a commercial success, but these are distinctly the exceptions, and Aot
FLORIDA ISXPEB.IMSNT STATION BULLETINS
by P. H. Rolfs.
No. Title Date
21 The tomato and Some of Its Diseases 1893
23 Insecticides and Fungicides 1893
29 The San Jose Scale 1895
31 Some Market Vegetables for Florida 1895
41 The San Jose Ocale 1897
47 Diseases of the Tomato 1898
50 Pineapple Fertilizers 1899
91 Tomato Diseases 1907
94 Fungus Diseases of Scale Insects and
Whitefly (with Fawcett) 1908
100 Corn 1909
108 Diseases of Citrus Fruits
(with Fawcett & Floyd) 1911
117 Tomato Diseases 1913
119 fungus Diseases of 6cale Insects and
Whitefly (with Fawoett) 1913
127 Mangoes in rlorida 1915
FLORIDA EXPBi.EIMET STATION PRESS BULLETINS
by P. H. Rolfa.
iNo. Title Date
60 Fall Dropping of Citrus Fruits 1906
66 Alfalfa 1907
84 Citrus Bloom Dropping 1908
96 Citrus Foot Rot 1908
117 Iusseting of Citrub Fruits 1909
136 Seed Corn 1909
153 Hay 1910
155 Plant Bugs in Orange Groves 1910
167 Japanese Cane- Fertilizer Experiments 1911
227 Materials for GCorecting Soil Acidity 1914
228 Using Ground Limestone 1914
STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Discussion Pears and Apples
Insects and Insecticides
Discussion Insect isnemies of Tender
Injur oas Inseots of the Year
The Brief Study in Inseet Disseamination
Advancement made in Insecticides
The Visit to the Gypsy Roth LCommission
Diseassion Legislation a&kinst Pr14
Dinoussion Diseases of Tomatoes
Injurious Insects of the Year
Insect Diseases .
An Act for the control and Extirpatiom
of diseases and insects of the agri-
cultural products of the state of Fla.
Discussion Some problems in Breeding
Oranges Diseases and Inseots
Discussion Peaches and ?lums
Injurious Insects and Diseases of the xear
Strawberries and Miscellaneous Fruits
Discussion Diseases and Insects of the
The Tropical Laboratory
Probable Results of Draining the Jsverglades
57-66 elation of Science to Horticulture
89 Uitrus Diseases
29-32 Diseases of Citrus
87-59 Discussion- Jiseases, Insects and Method
41-45 The Experiment Station cooperative Work
21-26 President's Annual Address
30-34 President's Annual Address
37 Discussion.- Climate
27-30 what the Experiment Station is doing
for the Fxuit and Vegetable Grower
26-35 Hortioulture and Agricultural Education
19-20 Response to actress of weloiame.
229 Discussion Origin of the Hardpan of
the flatwoods and the conditions under
which it forms.
185-191 Discussioh Tropical Fruits.
2i4-281 BO.Painter & Florida Horticulture-
A Quarter Century of Progress in
U. S. DBP2AITMET OF AGRICULTURE BULLETINS
P. H. Rolfets.
140 Pineapple Growing
238 Citrus Growing in the Gulf states
538 Sites, Soils and Varieties of citrus Groves in the
539 Propagation of Citrus Trees in the Gulf states
542 Uulture, Fertilization and Frost protectionn of Citrus
Groves in the Gulf states
BUPRAU UP PLANT INDUSTRY BULLETINS
52 Withertip and Other Diseases of Citrus Trees and Fruits.
61 The Avocado in florida.
U.S.D.A. YEARBOOK,. 1905.
New Opportunities in Sub-Tropical Fruit Growing.
THE EXPERIMENT STATION.
There are at present sixteen work-ers on the Experiment
Station Staff. Each one se an expert in his line. The services
of each on,lQ or all of these are free to the farmers of Florida.
Some of the lines of work that are no-w being conducted at
the Experiment Station, are studies in vegetable growing_, fruit
growing, farm crops, soil analyses, and milk and beef product on.
In the twenty years of its existence, the Experiment Station
has published 96 bulletins, 107 press bulletins, and 20 annual reports.
These publications are free to every farmer in the State who may
apply for them, 'as long as the edition lasts..
There are now 11,000 names in Florida, on the mailing list.
As there are only 40,000 farm'homes in the State, these reach a very
large percentage of our farmers; though the others who are not on
the list should .take advantage of the information. The material
in these bulletins are based on experiments made in the State of
Florida. !Zaturall the experiments must be made in the region
where the orops are grown. Usually, the reader of the bulletin is
expected to draw his own conclusions.
Of the bulletins published, 30 are on general farming,
26 o0 tree fruits and strawberries, 12 on livestock, 11 on vegetables,
10 on soils and fertilizers, and 8 on pineapples.
WORK in PROGRESS.
Among the many experiments that are being made at (Gaines-
ville, the following will illustrate the line of work;--- 32 varieties
of cassava; 35 varieties of alfalfa, representing nearly all regions
of the Earth; 2288 varieties of sorghum, over 50 varieties of new
and untried plants; a herd of Shorthorn cattle, for beef production
with Florida crops; a herd of Jersey cattle, for milk production
from Fle6ilda crops; cotton breeding, lettuce breeding, and ccr n
breeding are among the breeding experiments.
?ew lines of special investigations, citrus diseases,
and insects, especially the whitefly, are receiving careful attention.
tVegtable diseases and. insects are also being invertd ated.
INCREASE IN FAUBMn VALUES.
During the last ten years, the
crops p-er acre has been at least 100lo.
work completed at the Experiment Station,
part in this development.
increase in value of farm
The investigations and
have played a very important
The advice to the agricultural people has frequently saved
them thousands of dollars; both by advising than what to do, and what
not to do, extcepting on a very small scale.
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