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7,-2 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

ered a good price for calves at weaning time. There have been
several thousand head of two- and three-year-old steers sold in
Florida in the past few years at from $10 to $14 per head. These
same animals, had they been given reasonable attention, could have
been sold at weaning time for the same price, and the net profit
per head would have been a great deal more.
The profits derived by selling calves at weaning time are much
greater than by keeping them until two or three years of age. The
calf up to this time eats but little grass, as it depends largely upon
the milk of its mother for nourishment. The cost of keeping the
cow is the same whether the calf is ;old at weaning time or kept
until three years of age. When sold at weaning time, the cost of
keeping the calf through the winter is eliminated. The winter
season is the critical period for the calf. It is also the season of
the year when the cost of keeping the animal is largest. Another
point that must be considered is that when the crop of calves is
sold at weaning time a much larger number of breeding cows can be
kept on the same range than it is possible to do when the beef herd
is not sold until two or three years of age. This is an important
consideration, since the overstocking of the range is a serious mis-
take in the production of live stock.








70o FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

In a slaughter test of twenty head of native cattle, the average
dressed weight was'found to be 286.6 pounds. These aimals were
three years old and over. They were about mature, as far as size
,s concerned. These cattle were slaughtered during the latter part
of September, and their light weight was' not due to lack of flesh,
as the animals were in good condition. The lack of size was due
to the animals not having been supplied with sufficient nutritious
feed to keep them in a healthy growing condition from the time
they were weaned until they were ready for the market.
As already mentioned, at the Experiment Station farm, during
the spring of 1908, a number of native cows were bred to a native
bull. The calves from these cows were dropped during the spring
of 1909. At weaning time (October 28, 1909) these calves av-
eraged 305 pounds per head. At one year of age they averaged
447.5 pounds. This is almost as heavy as many of our 'range
cattle are at three years of age. On October I, 1911, when
these calves were about two and a half years of age, they averaged
722.5 pounds per head. They were given no better care and feed
than the average farmer could readily supply. The summer pas-
Lure was similar to the ordinary pine-wood pasture. During the
winters they were given the run of a velvet-bean and Japanese-
cane field. This supply of winter forage kept the animals in a
growing condition, so that they did not become stunted..
This shows that the small size of our native cattle is not due to
heredity, but largely to the lack of feed. We do not mean that the
animals must be kept fat enough for market at all times, but we do
mean that they should be kept in a healthy growing condition.
When an animal becomes so emaciated that it can hardly get up
when it lies down, it is certainly not in a healthy condition. Neither
is it in a condition to grow and develop, but rather all development
-' will be stopped. When the development of a young animal is once
stopped or checked, the animal will never make the growth that it
would otherwise have done.
It is now the time of year when we should give some thought
to growing supplies of feed for our cattle during the coming winter.
An abundance of good forage can be had by planting such crops
as sorghum, German millet and, later in the season, cowpeas and
sweet potatoes.
YOUNG BEEF MOST PROFITABLE
Almost every stockman has to consider at what age he should
sell his cattle so as to obtain the largest profit from the investment.
This is a question that should receive due attention. The results








BULLETIN 110


ering. (The dressed weight is the weight of carcass with the head
and feet taen off and liver atnd heart taken out, but kidneys not
removed.)
Fig. 40 shows these six animals just before slaughtering.


Fig. 4e.-The six animals of Table XIII. Grade Shorthorns on right; grade
Herefords on left: and natives in center.

TABLE XVI
LIVE AND DRESSED WEIGHTS
Live Dressed Percentage
weight weight dressed
Pounds Pounds weight
Grade Hereford, No. 1 ---------- 800 398.5 49.81
Grade Hereford, (heifer) No. 2 780 408 52.30
Grade Shorthorn, No. 3 --------- 800 408.5 51.06
Grade Shorthorn, No. 4 ----- 830 440.5 53.00
Native, No. 5 -------------------- 850 458 53.88
Native, No. 6 -------830 436.5 52.59

SMALL SIZE LARGELY DUE TO INSUFFICIENT
FEEDING

It is the opinion of some that the small size of our native cattle
is due to our climatic conditions. This opinion, however, is not
well founded. Foi large breeds of cattle live in the tropics, as in
India.
Another opinion is that the small size is a character of our
native cattle. Breeding no doubt has its influence, but we find that
even when thorough-bred animals are reared under the same condi-
tions as our native cattle they, too, are small. We must therefore
look for some other reason than that of climate or lack of care in
breedirig for the small size of our native stock. Iri-breeding, and
breeding at a young age, both of which are sure to occur on the
open range, may have some influence in reducing size. But the
reduced size will be found to be due largely to the lack of nutritious
forage during the winter season.







BULLETIN 110 71

of the experiment given in this bulletin would show that, in this
case, the greatest profit would be obtained by selling the calves at
weaning time.
The calves were born from January 6 to June 2, 1909. Three
of them were born in January, two in February, one in March,
five in April and one in June. This variation in age covered about
the entire breeding season as practised by Florida stockmen. Had
the calves all come in January or February, one might form the
erroneous opinion that only the calves that come in January or
February could be put on the market at a young age. The fact of
the matter is that the calves dropped in April made nearly as good
gains, and were nearly as heavy at weaning time, as were the Janu-
ary calves.
The birth-weights of these calves varied from 41.5 to 61 pounds,
with an average of 50.8 pounds per head. The birth-weight does
not seem to have much to do with the growth of the individual up
to weaning time. Some of those that weighed the least at birth
were among the heaviest at weaning time. The figures seem to
show that the birth-weights of the calves dropped in January are
less than those dropped in April. However, before we can make
any definite statement regarding this, it would be necessary to
gather like data on a large number of animals.
From birth until weaning time the cows and calves were all
given the same care; that is, they were all kept on the same range,
so that all calves had the same chance so far as range conditions
were concerned. The calves were all weaned on October 28, 1909.
At this time the oldest calf in the lot was not the heaviest. But,
as would be expected, the youngest calf in the lot was the smallest.
The heaviest calf at weaning time was born on January 31. Its
birth-weight was 51 pounds, and at weaning time it weighed 398
pounds. The youngest calf was five months old when weaned, its
birth-weight was 52 pounds, and at weaning time it weighed 265
pounds. The average weight of the twelve head at weaning time
was 338 pounds.
The average age at weaning time was about seven and one-half
months. The market value of these calves at weaning time was
$3.75 per hundred. At this time the heaviest calf weighed 398
pounds, which, at $3.75 per hundred, gives it a value of $14.92.
At weaning time the smallest calf weighed 265 pounds, and at $3.75
per hundred, was worth $9.94. Since they averaged 338 pounds
per head, a price of $3.75 per hundred gives them an average value
of $12.66 per head. From. $10 to $14 per head may well be consid-




Educational Work and the Livestock Industry in Florida. 1917
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000206/00037
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Peter Henry Rolfs Collection
 Material Information
Title: Educational Work and the Livestock Industry in Florida. 1917
Series Title: Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
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Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Educational Work and the Livestock Industry in Florida. 1917
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.
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Table of Contents
    Program - Fifth annual meeting of the State Live Stock Association and Live Stock Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, January 16-19, 1917
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Educational work and the live stock industry in Florida
        A-1
        A-2
        A-3
        A-4
        A-5
        A-6
        A-7
        A-8
        A-9
        A-10
        A-11
        A-12
        A-13
        A-14
        A-15
    Native and grade cattle-breeding
        Page B-59
        Page B-60
        Page B-61
        Page B-62
        Page B-63
        Page B-64
        Page B-65
        Page B-66
        Page B-67
        Page B-68
        Page B-69
        Page B-70
        Page B-71
        Page B-72
Full Text


Thursday, 2:00 P. M.
J. M. Scott, Chairman
2-'0 P.M.-How Can the Beef
Cattle Indu.iry be Prop
erly De'eloped in Florida \V. F. Ward
\\M .;hir gi.n. D. C.
2:45 P.M.-Beei Calttle in Flor.
ida .. ... ....... S. H G aiskill
McoIroh, F ib.
3.00i P.NM.-Herefords Henry 0. Moxle3
Shelbi. lie. K%.
3:15 P M.-Shorthorns ... ...... T. G. Chaiain
Ailln.. Gi
3:301 P.M.-Aberdeen Angus .. Thos. Cochran
Shcpher.1 ille, 1%..
3:45 P.M.-Visit Dairy Barn and Hog Lois.

Thursday, 7:30 P. M.
J. M. Scott. Chairman
.F.PI.-Profitable and Pro-
NR6 gressive Lihe Stock In.
dustry .. . ... ... ...... Dr. P. F. Bahnsen
.\ linil. Gi.
8:15 P.M.-Hog Cholera Dr. A. H. Logan
Illlu4lraid i Gainc ille. r a
Friday, 9:00 A. M.
President W. F. Blackman, Chairman
9:)UU A.M.-Address .... .. Geo. MN Rommel
W'hliingron D. C.
9:45 A NI.-Sheep in Florida J. E. Hile
Gillatin, Tenn.
10:15 A.M.-Diseases of Swine
Other Than Cholera.. Dr. C. F. Dawson
Jacksont ile. Fla.
11:0U A.1IM.-Advan ages of
Florida for LiveStock In.
dustry .. .. ................... F. N B urr
DeLeon Springs. Fli.
11:15 A.M.-Hogs in Florida... Prof. A. P. Spencer


Points of Interest on the

Campus

,-

Experiment Statian Laboratories.
Horticultural Grounds. a
Dairy Barn and Dairy Herd-3:00 to 5:00 p.m.
Hogs, five breeds. South of Dairy Barn. ...
Floridd State Museum. Science Hall .|
6:00 p.m.
University Library. Peabody Hall.
Engineering Laboratories. Engineering Building.
Court Room and Law Library. Law Building.


PROGRAM

Fifth Annual Meeting of

the State Live Stock

Association and Live

Stock Institute

University of Florida
Gainesville

January 16 to 19, 1917





'a t
. (, ,





OFFICERS:
DR. W. F. BLACKMAN, President, Winter Park
MRS. POTTER PALMER. Ist Vice Pres., Osprey
Z. C. CHAMBLISS, 2nd Vice Pres. - Ocata
J. C. HENR)Y, 3rd Vice Pres. - - Live Oak
J.N. WHITNER,4th Vice Pres. - Sanford
P. L. SUTHERLAND, Secretary, Jacksonville
C. L. W1LLOUGHBY, Treasurer, - Gainesville


_ 7 T.






Tuesday, 9:00 A. 1M.
Chapel Agricultural Building
President W. F. Blackman, Chairman
Addresses of Welcome-
For the University Pres. A. A. N
For the City. . ...... . Hon. C. Ma
Response . ... .. ..... ... Dr. \V. F. B


IU:(U A.M -Our Objects and
A im s .... .............

111:30 A M.-Educatnonal Work
and the Li\e Stock Indus-
iry in Florida... .


Tuesday, 7:30 P. M.
Reception by the Cilizens of Gainesville


1lurphree
theson
ilackman


Winner Park. Fla.

P. L. Sutherland
.I jck on ilk. Flli.


Dean P. H. Roll,
G ,iiae ill,-. Fl'i.


1.1U A.M. The Packing
Plan and the Live Stock
Farmer .. H. B. Minium
Jackson ille, i i
11:30 A. M.-How% the Farmer
* -'3Can Suppl. the Demands
of the Packing House Z. C. Chambliss
O,: al, I 'a.

Tuesday, 2:00 P. M.
President W. F. Blackman, Chairman
2.1111 P M -Tick Eradication Dr E. M. Nighbert
lJck-on fille. Fla.
2:45 P M. Elfective Count\
Co operation in Tick
Eradication .... Dr. Jean V. Knapp
likson-n ille. FIi.
3.15 P.M. Result., Oblained
From Dipping Caltle.. Pal Johnson & other
'Three minute addres..e4 l l;iimmrec. fi.
3.30 P.M -Needed Legislation
in Florida .. Dr W: F. Blackma


4 15 P.M.-Discussion


Wednesday, 9:00 A. M.
President W. F. Blackman, Chairman

9:01) 4 M.-Japanese Cane.. R. \V. Siorrs
De Funiak Spring.s, la
9:20 A.M.-Joint Grass... Hon. J. N. Whitner
Sanford. Fla.
9:41 A.M.-Para Grass ........ Dr. J. G. DuPuis
Lmon Ci5ly, F la
111:1t) A.RM.-Cassava ...... \V. B \Villett
Mainland, Fla.
.10:15 A.M.-Insecis That AI.
'" lack Our Forage Crops.... R. N. Wilson
Wesi Palm Beac,. Fla.
1.-The Silo and Si
e Crops . .. ........... Prof.C. L. W illougl.
by, Gaine,, ille. Ftl.
I1- .\A M.-Forage Crops for
Florida . ...... ...... S M. Tracy ,
\a3-hbin.-on. D. C.


Wednesday. 2:00 P. M.
President W. F. Blackman, Chairman


2-"i0 P.M -Corn ...

2 31 P.M.-Peanuts

2-51 P.M.-Sorghum

3-1', P.M.-Bermuda Gras


3:411 P M.-Veket Beans

3:55 P.M -Business Meet


s


O


Winter Pirk. Eti.
Led by W. A. Miller
AMarianna, Fla
F. C. Grooter
jlick-onville. Fla.


S. WV. Hiati
M.ariaona. Fii.
.. I M. Meffert
Oc, t FIi.
T. W\V. Shands
lGreen Co'e Sprina:. FI
s C. K. McQuarrie
1i ii, Acent: Gaine.% illt.

j. M. Scott
G a.in ,i ll..:-, Fli
ing Florida State Li\e
Stock Association


Wednesday, 7:30 P. M.
President W. F. Blackman, Chairman
7:30 P.M.-Grasses and For-
age Crops in Florida ....... C. V. Piper
Wabi;igton. D. C.
S:15 P.M.-The Place of Live
Stock on the Southern
Farm .. ...... Dr. Tail Butler
NMemphi.. Tenn.

Thursday, 9:00 A. M.
J. M. Scott, Chairman

9:0f A.M -Market Require-
mentsof Dairy Products Dr. IL. R. Lang
Jack .oni. r il, Fla.


9:20 A.M.-How the Cream.
ery Can Aid the Growth
of the Live Stock Indus
try in Florida ...

9:11) A.M. BesI Ho me
Grown Feeds for the
D air ...


Prof. J. M. E
Clemson, S C


I.. Majewski


Monlricello. Fla.
10:i.0 \.NI.-Holstein Carle J. C DeBevoise
Jacksoan ille. Fli


10.15 .\.M -The Live Stock
Institute .
Ill:l A M. Financing I he
Live Stock Indutry in
F lo rida ........... . .. .

11:01.1 A.M.-Bankers of Lake
County and Live Stock
Improvement ......

11:30 A.M.-Starting a Live
Stock Ranch in Florida.


Pres A. A. Murphree



A. P Anthony
Jacksonville, F la



G. G. \,'are
Leesbur4.. Fla


C. L. Gaines -
Jackons ille. Fla.





EXPERIMENT STATION



- .: .. L"



,2.1

















/






Educational work and the Live Stock Industry
in liorlda.

P. R. Holl.

Ladies ana (entlemen of nme Live Stock Association

of .1iorida, i am giaa to nave this opportunity or meeting

you and presenting to you a brief outline of the education-

al work that nas been done along the line of thne live stock

industry of the State. Any useful agricultural work in a

community toaay must oe anticipated by exact knowledge

"...na very frequently requires a large aiiount or data before

active operations can be commenced. Plorida has been a

producer of livestock since the earliest times. Even as

long as forty years ago the customhouse records appear to

show that over 20,000 head of battle were shipped from

Ylorida to Cuba. naturally under the old, semi-wild con-

ditions of the range, the atocx produced was or little

value. The cattle tick has been a great factor in the re-

duct ion or the size of the animals. it has also militated







-I--


against the transportation or eatt 18 to northern markets.

As long ae there were large areas or western prairie

rree from the tick it was a better business proposition

to range the cattle 04 these prairies. During the early

days about the only outleti-or our Florida cattle was in

the direction of other countries infested with this cattle


pest, consequently there eoula oe very little competition

bbtween the raising of cattle in Ploraa -- ana for that

-matter tnrougnout most of the Soutnern States and the

great western plains. As long as the united states pro-

uced. beer more cheaply than it coula oe grown in foreign

countries, large unipments were sent abroad irom the north-

era states. This gave no incentive ror improvement In

the southern battle. when the ranges were turned into

plowed rields and the population or thne united states in-


creased, the cost or meat production became higher.

The southeastern part of United states has the







-3-


only large area that can be successfully reclaimed and

utilized for stock production. we have, however, two

serious problems to solve in order to make the south a

great stock producing section in the United States. The

first is TIUK BRADiJCATION, and following it closely as a

second problem is that of 'ORAWB PROJDUCTION.-

Stoek In Florida

According to the report of the commissioner of


Agriculture for 1909-10 there were 630,000 head -o stock

produced and sold in Florida. According to the report

for 1911-12, by commissioner Mciiae, we have 772,000; and

according to the latest report at Wy hands that 'or

1913-14, there are 855,000- This Shows a rather steady

out not very rapid increase in the number of stock cattle

in the State.

Texas Fever 6iudies in Florida. The experimentt











Station employed a verterinarian who made some extended

investigations into the diseases arrecting horses and

cattle, particular attention oeing given to the study

of a disease among horses known as Leaghes, and to sev-

eral diseases among cattle, including Texas ever, The

work, however, was discontinued before much or a permanent

nature could be established by experimental data. No

attention seems to have been given the matter of investi-

gation of diseases of stock until 1901, when Dr. C. F,

Dawson was made veterinarian to the experiment Station.

Dr. Dawson made a careful study of diseases arfecting

stock, especially with the view of overcoming the difti-

culties arising from introducing better breeds of cattle

rrom the north. in 1902 Dr. Dawson published Bulletin

64 of the Florida Experiment Station Dr. uawson's

last statement in the recapitulation or this bulletin is







**-5- . *


as follows:-- "The writer believes that the so-called

'sa]t-sick' is mainly due to ticks, and that it could be

more appropriately cal) ed "tick-poverty"; that the disease


is primarily chronic Texas fever, and that poor pastures

are a contributing cause."

From this it will be seen that Dr. Dawson diag-

nosed the case quite correctly and I be ieve he has had

no occasion for changing his mind in this direction.

During the following years Dr. Dawson gave special at-

tention to the work of bringing better cattle into the

State, and especially to the matter of immunizing those

that were brought in from above the quarantine line.

In this connection he cooperated with Messrs Gaitskill,

Chai.bliss, .Miller and others. He found that it was pos-

sible to give a certain degree of immunity to cattle so

treated, but while so far as the experiment was concern-


ed it was a success, the only real success lay in








-6-


the direction or getting rid of the tick.

It is desirable, however, in connection with


my address this morning to call special attention to

this work that was begun a decade and a half ago and


that this work has been given a reasonable test, and


as you all know it has been proven to be a surriclent

solution or our problem.

I do not wish to enter upon the tick discussion

primarily this morning. That subject will have atten-


tion from people who have given the matter 'ull and eare-

rul study, and have in fact spent many years on the


question. this morning I wish to make a somewhat ex-

ttended mention of the forage proposition, we find

rrom the earliest times that the stocklmen of Florida


have given greater or less attention to the production


or rorage. generally it has been assumed that on







-7-


account or the mild winters it became unnecessary to

produce rorage ror stock. And so long as we were sat-

isfied with very interior animals, this may be said to

be true. But the younger generation are not satisfied

with the product that was surriclent ror the stock grow-

ers of rorty years ago. bince the earliest reports

and bulletins or the Experiment station, which date back

nearly thirty years now, more or less attention has been

given to the cultivation and introduction of forage crops.

As early as in 1888 we rind that A. fA. Ourtis had made

a very careful survey or the grasses and legumes that

might be adapted to Florida soils and climate. As early

as 189z we rind mention or Natal urass; at that time it

appeared to have no common name. The seed was received,

the previous winter through the Department of Agricul-

ture from the South African regions. .o far as I am






-8-


aware this is the first printed mention of this grass for

Florida. Since that time systematic and careful efforts

have been made in the direction or introducing new and

untried varieties of grasses and legumes. In the early

nineties special attention was directed to the velvet

bean. Any one not familiar with the conditions 1as%

would be appalled at the large amount or work necessary

to establish the value of one or these forage crops.

But there is only one Florida, so the technical data

on the velvet bean has been worked out almost entirely

by the Florida Experiment Station. This has taken a

long time. The information available at the present

time, however, is as accurate and complete as ror many

crops that are grown over much wider area. In 1907

only one variety of velvet bean was known to the united

States. At that time a systematic e'rort was made to




*.3


-9-


secure seed or as many dirrerent kinas or velvet beans


as could be obtained in all tropical countries. Pror.

Piper's assistance in this direction was solicited and


the largest number o01' these seeds were secured through

his efforts. A number of other varieties came to the


Florida Experiment station directly from foreign corres-

pondents, some or these from the Philippines and several


samples rrom inaia and the west Indies. up to last year

we had tried over sixty different introductions of


velvet beans. In addition to this, the Florida Exper-

iment Station, with Mr, Belling as Assistant botanist,

began the hybriaization or the velvet bean and origin-

ated a consideraole number or promising varieties.









DAIRY CATTLE
(Taken from 19 reports, 8 of which had nothing on
this particular subject)

Purebred bulls brought into county during year thru agents'
influence - - - - - - - - - - - - 65.
cows or heifers - - - - - - - - - 107

Grade dairy cows --- - - - - - - - - - 35

Cows tested at instance of agents to determine profitable
milk producers - - - - - - --- - 50

Farmers induced to feed better rations - - - - - 61

Head of stock so fed - - - - - - - - - - 947

Demonstrations in dairy work supervised by agents - - -- 3

Number of cows in these demonstrations - - - - - 90

Number of pure bred dairy bulls when work started - - 16
now - - - - - -- 104

Number of pure bred dairy cows when work started - - - 130

now - - - - - - 328














i









*.-..... .. ...... . ....










BEEF CATTLE-
( from 20 reports 6 of which did not report of
this subject)

Purebred beef cattle brought in thru agents' influence
Bulls - - - 89

Cows or heifers 84

Grade cows brought in for breeding purposes - - - 159

Beef breeding herds started due to agents' influence - 10

Head of feeding cattle brought in thru agents' influence 600

. Beef feeding demonstrations supervised by agents - - Z

Number of head in these - - - - - - - - 43

-- mber -of damo,,n.iations on which records were kept - 1

Number of cattle where feeding methods were wholly followed 118

S" partially 2090

Beef cattle breeders' associations forms - - - - 3

Membership - - -- - - - - - - - - 100

Pure blood beef bulls when work started - - - - - 14

now - - - - - - - -- 100

Pure blood cows when work started - - - - - - 56

now - - - - - - - - - - 207







HOGS
(19 counties)


Purebred hogs brought in during year thru agents' influence 624
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred - 643
Herds started - - - - - - - - - - - - 311
Hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents - - - 68
Head of hogs in these demonstrations - - - - - - 183
Records kept of about - - - - - - - - - - 42
Hog pastures farmers have been induced to start - - - 158
Farmers induced to start growing of graing crops for hogs -555
Number of hogs fed or cared for according to methods advocated 2640-
Number pure blood boars when work started - - - - 66
now - - - - - - - - 497
hogs when work started- - - - - - 27066
now - - - - - - - - 54844

















*1













SHEEP & GOATS

(Only two counties)

Purebred rams brought in thru agents' influence 2

ewes I 4

Grade ewes brought in for breeding purposes - - - 75

Flocks started - - - - - - - - - - 2

Pure blood sheep when work- started - - - - - 450
now - - - - - - - - - 500











POULTRY
(5 counties)





Poultry demonstrate ions - - - - - - - 0

Chickens cared for according to methods advocated ty agts. 477

Turkeys 47

Number of farms on which poultry mnanageient has been improved
as results of agents work.- - - - - - - 39

llumber of birds on these farms - - - - - -- 2582

IHumber of farmers induced to produce non-fertile egus - 11


W.




3~'fl

S.'


IIVE STOCK DISEASES & PESTS
(20 counties)


Head


Ii

lurnb e


of cattle treated for diseases or pests - - - -

hogs - - - -

horses - - - -

r actually treated by county agents - - - --


16868

44168

111

19124


HORSES


SIlum"ber purebred stallions brought in during -rear - - -
S jacks - - -

S'. brood meres - - -

Demonstrations in feeding horses or mules --- - - -

Ilumber hea, in these- - - - - - - - - - -

Huimber cared for according to methods advocated by' aozents --

Number pure blood stallions il, county vhlen uor- started - -
now - - - - -






BULLETIN 110


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station




NATIVE AND GRADE CATTLE-BREEDING
BY

JOHN M. SCOTT


Fig. 32--Herl' of native cow. and native bull.


TLe Station bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment
Station, Gain>sville, Florida.


E. 0. Painter Printinrg Co., DeLand, Fal,


JUNE, 1912







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SUMMARY

i. Native cows were bred to Hereford, Shorthorn, and native bulls.
2. At birth and at weaning the weight of the three lots of calves did not
differ much.
3. In dressed weight the two natives, at two and a half years old, made an
equally good showing with the grades.
4. The native cattle can be much increased in weight by, good winter
feeding.
5. It would have paid better to have sold these calves at weaning, than to
have kept and fed them.



CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction .............................. .......... ........... ......... 63
Beef Breeds of Cattle ......... .. ....... .......... .................... 64
Comparative Experiment with Grade Steers ......................... 64
Small Size Largely Due to Insufficient Feeding ............:............ 69
Young Beef M ost Profitable ................................ ........... 70













































































































































*0










NATIVE AND GRADE CATTLE-BREEDING


JOHN M. SCOTT


INTRODUCTION
At the present time there are about eight hundred thousand
head of cattle in Florida. Perhaps 95 per cent. of these are the
native Florida cattle, which no doubt are mostly descended from
the old Spanish stock, with little or no improvement. It is stated.
however, that many cattle were shipped into Florida from North
Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama and Georgia. This influx of
cattle from states farther north took place from 1840 to 1850, and
perhaps before then. At that time the cattle must have been similar
to our native cattle, as four- to six-year-old steers weighed from
350 to 500 pounds.
What were probably the first efforts toward improvement of
the native cattle took place about 1845. About this time Mr. Mc-
Kinnon of Walton County imported direct from Scotland a large
Shorthorn bull. This bull did good-service for a number of years.
The improvement over the native cattle was noticeable. The size
of the grade cattle was larger, the four-year-old steers weighing
from 450 to 750 pounds. But little was done toward improvement
after this time, except to use grade bulls resulting from the use
of the pure-bred Shurthlrn bull. The improvement brought about
by the use of this one bull made an impression on the cattle in that
part of the state which was evident for a number of years after
the old bull was dead. Had the good work started by Mr. McKin-
non been continued, Florida would to-day have as good a grade
of beef cattle as any other state in the Union.
At the present time, Florida is more of a live-stock state
than many suppose. The following figures taken from the Elev-
enth Biennial Report of thie Commissioner of Agriculture show
how the cattle industry of the state compares with other industries.
Value
Cattle (exclusive of cows kept for milk) ...--. ------------------ $ 6,511,981
Dairy cows and Dairy products-------------------------.. $ 3,917,787
Poultry and Poultry products -------------------...----------$ 2,413,940
Field crops .................-------------------.-------.-------......------....---- $14,612,840
Vegetable and Garden products---------------------------.............. $ 6.825,912
Fruit products -----------------------------..............------..------. $ 5,905,727
(No value Is given for the fruit trees.)






64 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

BEEF BREEDS OF CATTLE
From experimental work and observations, there seems to be
but little to choose between the standard beef breeds (including
Shorthorn, Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus and Galloway). The
choice would be very largely a matter of personal fancy. We
would, however, discourage as much as possible the use of dairy
breeds, such as Jerseys and Guernseys, in a beef herd. \Ve find
that a certain number of stockmen in the state are using grade
Jerseys and grade Guernsey bulls in their beef herds. The use of
such bulls in a beef herd will not make the desired improvement.
The Jersey and Guernsey as breeds lack both the size and conforma-
tion desirable in the beef animal.
Good size in the beef animal is desired for the following reason.
One animal weighing 1200 pounds on foot will not require as much
feed for growth and maintenance as will two animals weighing 6oo
pounds each. Therefore, more pounds of beef will be produced
from the same amount of feed when fed to a large animal, making
the larger breeds of cattle more economical for beef production.

COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENT WITH GRADE STEERS
At the Experiment Station farm, during the spring of 1908.
fifteen native cows were selLcted. These fifteen cows were
separated into three lots of five cows. The lots were arranged to
be as nearly equal in size and quality of the animals as possible.











Fig. 33.-Bulls u-'ed in the experiment. Shorthorn on right, native in center,
and Hereford on left.

The cLws in Lot I were bred t.,, a Hereford bull; those in Lot II
were bred to a Shorthorn bull; and the cows in Lot III were bred
to a native Florida bull. Fig. 33 shows these three bulls. From
these fifteen cows. twelve calves were produced. (One cow failed
to breed: a second cow was found to be in calf when the experiment







BULLETIN 110


started and was discarded; while a third cow met with an accident
and aborted.) Each lot of cows and bull was kept in a separate
pen until every cow was known to be in calf.


Fig. 34-Native cow bred Fig. 35.-Native cow bred
to Hereford bull. to Shorthorn bull.


Fig. 36.-Native cow
bred to native bull.


The following table gives the date of breeding each cow, and
the date when each calf was dropped.

TABLE XII

Cow No. Date when cows were bred Date when calves were dropped

Cows Bred to Hereford Bull
1 April 18, 190S----------- January 6. 1909
2 April 24, 10---------.......... January 10, 1909
3 April 2S, 19093--.--------- January 31, 1909
4 June 10, 190S------------- March 20, 1909
5 August 23. 190S .....--------.. June 2, 1909
Cows Bred to Shorthorn Bull
6 1 May 5, 190 -------------- February 16, 1909
7 July 10, 190 ------------- April 26, 1909
S July 2. 190. -------------- April 12, 1909
9 July 1S, 190 .. .....-------------.. April 7. 1909
Cows Bred to Natihe Bull
10 May 13, 10S........OS------------ February 24, 1909
11 June 2-1, 190------------ Aborted January 1S, 1909
12 July 14, 1908...-----------.. ... April 18, 1'09>
13 July 20, 190.........------------.... April 28. 1909
The cows .were all kept on the same range until the calves were
weaned. Under these conditions all calves had the same chance
so far as range conditions were concerned. After the calves were
weaned, observations were continued on only two calves from
each lot of cows. After weaning time the calves were all kept on the
same pasture in summer, while during the winter season they were
given the range of a velvet-bean and Japanese-cane field. So that
each calf was given as nearly equal a chance as was possible. Figs.
34. 35 and 36 show three of the native cows (Nos. I, 4 and 5 of
Table XII). Figs. 37, 38 and 39 are the calves of these three cows
respectively (Nos. 5, 7 and 12 of Table XIII).







6o FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


TABLE XII!
W\\EIGHTS OF CALVES
GRA E HEREFOiDS GRADE S-ioiRIHON, NATIVE
Time of t U.. E.
Weighing -r e '
o; C t.

At Birth -------- 52 52 *17.9 52 61 t56 4S 47 148.6
At Weaning Time- 265 340 *352 390 330 t312 310 325 $305
Oct. 28, 1909
At One Year Old-- 442 36S 405 425 470 447 485 410 447
May 1, 1910-----..... 410 442 426 5U2 472 4S7 4Ai 467 4i7
June 1, 1910----...... 442 475 45S 52S 507 517 515 49u 502
July 1, 1910 -----..... 46 510) 49S 566 532 549 552 522 537
Aug. 1, 1910...-------. 505 53 517 590 545 567 50 53J0 545
Sept. 1, 1910....------ 500 5:5 512 592 545 5;S 572 340 356
Oct. 1, 1910 ------... 505 545 525 5ti 550 57 565 550 557
.Nov. 1, 1910....----.. 495 535 515 559 547 553 56S 547 557
Dec. 1, 1910.....------ 490 535 512 540 530 535 560 550 555
Jan. 1, 1911 ------ 460 515 4S7 525 525 525 530 535 532
Feb. 1, 1911----..... 462 542 502 537 555 546 557 542 549
Mar. 1, 1911.....------ 482 560 521 552 577 564 5S2 576 579
April 1, 1911----..... 507 5S0 543 567 600 583 610 610 610
May 1, 1911------..... 535 625 580 002 610 606 650 632 641
June 1, 1911------..... 540 630 53S5 j00) 600 600 040 630 635
July 1, 1911------ 595 635 615 635 610 622 675 665 670
Aug. 1, 1911 ..-----.. 40 695 667 670 655 662 700 690 |695
Sept. 1, 1911 -----.... 715 730 722 737 775 756 785 767 776
Oct. 1, 1911-----..... 60 710 605 6S0 7T0 0',l 735 710 1 722
Nov. 1. 1911..------ 697 727 712 62 720 701 750 745 747
Dec. 1. 1911------..... 672 666 667 710 1 6SS 713 71!0 716
*Average of five calve,.
tAver.age or rour calves.
tAverage of three calves.

Table XIII shows that at birth the grade Herefords averaged
47.9 pounds; the grade Shorthnrns, ,1j p-.11und- : an'.d tle natie-
48.6 pounds. At weaning time, October 28, 1909, when the calves
were about seven and a half months old, the grade Herefords av-
eraged 351.6 pounds; the grade Shorthorns, 342.5 pounds; and the
natives, 305 pounds. Thus there is only a slight difference in
weight at birth and weaning time. This difference in weight is
not more than one would expect to find in weighing up three differ-
ent selections of young cattle, taken from the same range.
The weights when the animals were one year old were quite
uniform. The grade Herefords averaged 405 pounds; and the
grade Shorthorns and natives averaged exactly the same. 447.5 1
pounds. For the first year the Herefords made an average daily
gain of 0.97 pounds; the Shorthorns, an average daily gain of
1.07 pounds; and the natives an average daily gain of 1.09 pounds.
Thus there is only a slight difference in the average daily gain of
the three lots.







BULLETIN 110


The weights at one year of age were not great for good yearling
steers. But when we compare these weights with that of the aver-
age native cattle, we find that at one year these animals were about
twice as heavy as the av-
erage native steers of the
same age. In a slaughter
test, conducted four years
ago, ten native three-
y'ear-old steers averaged
only 516 pounds per head.
If the calves in the -
foregoing experiment had i
been turned out on the
open range to hustle for
themselves. they would Fig. :37. -Grade Steer: native by Hereford.
themselves, they would
S dbtless on M,arch i,
9ito, have been froni 25
to 50 per cent. lighter
than when weaned on Oc-
tober 28, 1909. This
heavy loss in weight
would be due to the fact
that dui ing the winter
season the pastures are
very pocor, and if forage
of some kind is not sup-
plied (which is not done
b thLe majority cf strck-
Fig. 38.-Grale Steer: nati, e 'y Shcorthrn raisers) the anima are

almost staF-%ed. Under
these adverse conditions
our native cattle never
grow and develop as they,
should, or as they would
if supplied liberally with
forage during the season
when the pastures do not,
afford sufficient grazing.
Although this experi-
ment shows that the na-
tive cattle made as good Fig. 39-Native Steer: calf No. 5 of Table
gains from birth until XII.







68 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

two and a half years of age as did the grade Hereford and grade
Shorthorn, it does not indicate that the native cattle are more
profitable than grades. There is no doubt, however, that by the
proper selection, and the supplying of an abundance of good for-
age during the winter season, w\e can increase the size of our na-
tive stock as much as 30 or 40 per cent.
On December 2, 1911. the six animals were put in a small
yard and fed for ninety days on a ration of shelled corn, cottonseed
meal and Japanese cane. Table XIV gives the daily ration fed,
also the total feed consumed by the six animals during the ninety
days while on feed. At the beginning of the feeding test they were
started on a light ration, and the feed was gradually increased.
until at the end of the fifth week they were eating the full ration.
Table XV gives the weights at the beginning of the feeding test,
the weights at thirty-day intervals, the total gain and the average
daily gain per head.

TABLE XIV
DAILY RArroN"
rn ...-------... ..------------------------------------------------ pound-i
Cottonseed meal .....--------........-----------------------------------. pounds
Japanne-e-cane fciage -..-------------- -------------------------- pounds
TOIAL FEED CONSUMED
Corn .................------------....----------------------------------------3935 pounds
Cottonseed jal ........---------------------......... -----------------------........ 2253 pounds
.Japanee.- cane forae .....----------------- --------------------- --115012 pounds
TABLE XV
WEICET AND GAINS




.C 6)

a__z_ zt2 zg. zz zz
DLJ.rember -. 1911. BegJinnui of
feing tet ........----- ------- 660 6172 667 710 713 719
Jan. 1. I'?12. Enid of 31. da~y... 710 723 717 760 772 7.S:
-Tan. 31. 10-12. End of 'O days.... 722 757 766 327 S46 813
M-r Total gamu in O day ---------- 113 112 164 176 147 174
Average daily gain...........------------- 1.2 1.24 1.2 1.96 1.63 1.93

Table XVI shows the live weight at the time of slaughtering.
the dressed weight and the percentage -f ..lressed weight.
The live weights were taken just a few minutes before slaught-
ering. The dressed weights were taken immediately after.slaught-







BULLETIN 110


ering. (The dressed weight is the weight of carcass with the head
and feet tqen off and liver and heart taken out, but kidneys not
removed.)
Fig. 40 shows these six animals just before slaughtering.











Fig. 4o.--The six animals of Table XIII Grade Shorthorns on right; grade
Heref:rds on left: and natives in center.

TABLE XVI
Li LE AND DRESSED WEIGHTS
Live Dres sid i'erceutage
weight na eight dressed
Pounds Pouin-l1 weight
Grade Hereford, No,. 1.------------ 500 3S' 5 4".1
Grade Hereford, i heifer i No. 2--- .- 70 4S 52 30
Grade Shorthorn. No. 3 ------------ SA-O 41.1S.A 51 16
Grade Shorthoru, No. 4 -----------.. 30 440.5 53.00
Native, No. 5 ------------------- 50 4s .53 5q
Native. No. -..------------------ 830 430... 52 59

SMALL SIZE LARGELY DUE TO INSUFFICIENT
FEEDING

It is the opinion of some that the small size of our native cattle
is due to our climatic conditions. This opinion, however, is not
well founded. For large breeds of cattle live in the tropics, as in
India.
Another opinion is that the small size is a character of our
native cattle. Breeding noi, doubt has its influence, but \ve find that
even when thorough-bred animals are reared under the same condi-
tions as our native cattle they, too, are small. We must therefore
look for some other reason than that of climate or lack of care in
breeding for the small size of our native stock. In-breeding, and
breeding at a young age, both of which are sure to occur on the
open range, may have some influence in reducing size. But the
reduced size v. ill be found to be due largely to the lack of nutritious
forage during the w inter season.






70 FLORIDA .4GRiCL'LTL'R.L EXPERIMENT STATION


In a slaughter test of twenty head of native cattle, the average
dressed weight was found to be 280.0 pounds. These qaimals %were
three years old and over. They were about mature, as far as size
,s concerned. These cattle were slaughtered during the latter part
of September, and their light weight was not due to lack of flesh,
as the animals were in -good condition. The lack of size was due
to the animals not having been supplied with sufficient nutritious
feed to keep them in a healthy growing condition from the time
they were weaned until they were ready for the market.
As already mentioned, at the Experiment Station farm, during
the spring of 1908, a number of native cows were bred to a native
bull. The calves from, these cows were dropped during the spring
of 1909. At weaning time (October 28, 1909) these calves av-
eraged 305 pounds per head. At one year of age they averaged
.447.5 pounds. This is almost as heavy as many of our range
cattle are at three years of age. On October i, 1911, when
these calves were about two and a half years of age, they averaged
72-2.5 pounds per head. They were given no better care and feed
than the average farmer could readily supply. The summer pas-
iure was similar to the ordinary pine-wood pasture. During the
winters they were given the run of a velvet-bean and Japanese-
cane field. This supply of winter forage kept the animals in a
growing condition, so that they did not become stunted..
This shows that the small size of our native cattle is not due to
heredity, but largely to the lack of feed. We do not mean that the
animals must be kept fat enough for market at all times, but we do
mean that they should be kept in a healthy growing condition.
\\hen an animal becomes so emaciated that it can hardly get up
when it lies down, it is certainly not in a healthy condition. Neither
is it in a condition to grow and develop, but rather all development
Swill be stopped. When the development of a young animal is once
stopped or checked, the animal will never make the growth that it
would otherwise have done.
It is now the time of Near when we should give some thought
to growing supplies of feed for our cattle during the coming winter.
An abundance of good forage can be had by planting such crops
as sorghum, German millet and, later in the season, cowpeas and
sweet potatoes.
YOUNG BEEF MOST PROFITABLE
Almost every stockman has to consider at what age he should
sell his cattle so as to obtain the largest profit from the investment.
This is a question that should receive due attention. The results





BULLETIN 110


of the experiment given in this bulletin would show that, in this
case. the greatest profit would be obtained by selling the calves at
weaning time.
The calves were born from January 6 to June 2, 1909. Three
of them were born in January, two in February, one in March,
five in April and one in June. This variation in age covered about
the entire breeding season as practised by Florida stockmen. Had
the calves all come in January or February, one might form the
erroneous opinion that only the calves that come in January or
February could be put on the market at a young age. The fact of
the matter is that the calves dropped in April made nearly as good
gains, and were nearly as heavy at weaning time, as were the Janu-
ary calves.
The birth-weights of these calves varied from 41.5 to 61 pounds,
with an average of 50.8 pounds per head. The birth-weight does .
not seem to have much to do with the growth of the individual up
to weaning time. Some of those that weighed the least at birth
were among the heaviest at weaning time. The figures seem to
show that the birth-weights of the calves dropped in January are
less than those dropped in April. However, before we can make
Any definite statement regarding this, it would be necessary to
gather like data on a large number of animals.
From birth until weaning time the cows and calves were all
given the same care; that is, they were all kept on the same range,
so that all calves had the same chance so far as range conditions
were concerned. The calves were all weaned on October 28, 190o9.
At this time the oldest calf in the lot was not the heaviest. But,
as would be expected, the youngest calf in the lot was the smallest.
The heaviest calf at weaning time was born on January 31. Its
birth-weight was 51 pounds, and at weaning time it weighed 398
pounds. The youngest calf was five months old when weaned, its
birth-weight was 52 pounds. and at weaning time it weighed 265
pounds. The average weight of the twelve head at weaning time
was 338 pounds.
The average age at weaning time wa's about seven and one-half
,montl-s. The market value of these calves at \weaning time was
$3.75 per hundred. At this time the heaviest calf weighed 398
p'.unds, which, at $3.75 per hundred, gives it a value of $14.92.
.-\t weaning time the smallest calf weighed 265 pounds, and at $3.75
per hundred, was worth $9.94.. Since they averaged 338 pounds,
per head. a price of $3-75 per hundred gives them an average value
of $12.66 per head. From $ro to $14 per head may well be consid-






FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

ered a good price for calves at weaning time. There have been
several thousand head of two- and three-year-old steers sold in
Florida in the past few years at from $o10 to $14 per hiad. These
same animals, had they been given reasonable attention, could have
been sold at weaning time for the same price, and the net profit
per head would have been a great deal more.
The profits derived by selling calves at weaning time are much
greater than by keeping them until two or three years of age. The
calf up to this time eats but little grass, as it depends largely upon
the milk of its mother for nourishment. The cost of keeping the
cow is the same whether the calf is ;old at weaning time or kept
until three years of age. \Vhen sold at weaning time, the cost of
keeping the calf through the winter is eliminated. The winter
season is the critical period for the calf. It is also the season of
the year when the cost of keeping the animal is largest. Another
point that must be considered is that when the crop of calves is
sold at weaning time a much larger number of breeding cowvs can be
kept on the same range than it is possible to do when the beef herd
is not sold until two or three years of age. This is an important
consideration, since the overstocking of the range is a serious mis-
take in the production of live stock.