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Educational Advancement in Florida; Athenaeum Club.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000206/00035
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Peter Henry Rolfs Collection
 Material Information
Title: Educational Advancement in Florida; Athenaeum Club.
Series Title: Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description: Unknown
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Educational Advancement in Florida; Athenaeum Club.
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00000206:00035

Full Text







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ALA,


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r
r The Prosont. S;;tto of Griu..lZ' 1'ti-

Qpr proeri;t 0yc'.e E the result of grad-

u.l -.ou.th, and -ot cr -a. n.. As a better

of f:eret, all n '.,i.re, ain.1.; ]g 2a.-i ( clif, at- :.i

to tc -e~at status c. ,:1 rcl0 ;.t of~ inui.' Gr

changes. The c-.ill. .:-elops y ;-low cid 2 omer.'

irr;ce.ular cta.ses into thi d-ult. It took cr.n-

tur-es of l,..r.ing, to ...-. elop Socra.tes, .. Shak]-c -

.peare, a Bcoon, an Agassiz, a Pazteur, er 7a och.

The hill arcr eroe,'i,.d, and time level fmofn-

tains. Everything a bout is is undiiergoina cease-

l.es, but crltain C2ch1 -.U Tnhe o-: ,,rows lov.'lj- from

the tiny seedling, into the etur~Jy tree. A L:. cedl-

linm, it needs the protecting ba)oul.hs of a i 1-'ent to

:cep off the violent cler-'.,,t; ud. later it .cr-c

out it o2 rn! pr'otectingF -bran-ches. The och: rech.oos

it. ia'::iinum sizo, louec vigor, and decr sets in.

Man grow_, attains his .r.atect vi.:or >_t middle age,

.nd then locadence "ets in. One race of non suc-

coeds other; smor:ti:.io. I: Cho hi ier t "ie i domi-

nant, nd .Lt -ther tines the lower ttlre. The Ast:cc

vof. :A:.: i vre, succocdced by*t e lTucLiarin a less

cultured cnd fiercer ac. In ua"urope, silJAlr

cataclysms in oharnges of races ococ-urred. v qn

C '^




". .,- ay





civilization itself is by no i.eans stable, nor always

progressive. I quote from Andrew's Brief Insti-

tutes of General History: "Oivilization has its

centres; these shift nnccasingly; now oe-stard, now

westward; and crices occur, at which the adlv'n.e of

a thousand years is lo-st. Ruling ideas change, the

Sform Lf culture being successively Eptian, Asiatic
Greek, Roman, Teutonic. Cities, empiles, rise,

f.fll. Conquerors sweep ]thru,'i the ':2.crth, subL'ue

all, then lose all, .nd are pe-rhaps thenrevles for-

j-otten; meantime no chaos; causality is pervasive,

and ases to .other show progress, however nrl

and slow."


EDUCATION )ITTOESSA.Y TO 3TA,-LE DEMIOCEACY.

Our present sy~-tom of education had its

origin in a monarclhial-form of goverui-eno't. It,

there; fore, partook much of the form of governmTjent

under which it w v. fostered.. In t.n aristocratic

govemeit, it mattered not how many toiled incessant-

ly, "o long, as tilhe chosen few *:ere privileoed to

followed the bent of their ovwn inclinations to the
fullest e:t-ent. Under such c form of .ove-rmict,

a few extremely talented individuals arose, especi-

a.lly long the lines of study that did not displease





V. 3



the monarchial rulers. The -reat mass of humanity,

however, were not considered us worthy of attention.

It was really considered dangerous for theory to ob-

tain the rudiments of an education. In an ideal

democracy, howvevcr, everybody has Tn education.

.4. The very foundation of a democracy rests on the

assumption that everyone of the electorate body has

at east a reasonable unlderstandinr of those quEs-

tions of goveri ,ne.nt necLsary to the fullest devel-

oomuent of te.c individuals who nalc u.p the .c-aocra.cy.

Our own govncu-.ient is only a limited democ-

racy; -Lnd in some of the "machine-ri..en" Listricts,

it is e::t-remely limited. We arc, in fact, to a llrge

extent, governed by an office-holding oligar:-hy, which

differs from a monarchy only in that the electorate
irr e gula x
may at/intervals remove th'3 reigning oligarch, and

replace him by another. Those -.ondlitions will

continue to exist as long as the electorate body

rer.iain incapable of knowing its needs, and ro:--ress-

ing them at the polls. Great hol]lin7.' of pro-perty

are not, to tiy mind, incompatible with a perfect
democracy. Nor are great variations in intellectual

attainnaents, antagonistic to af democracy. But it

is impossible for a pure democracy to e::ict unsul-








lied, unless the majority of the electorate is cap -

ble of understanding and voting intelligently on

both local and national questions. As long as we o

have an uneducated electorate, either one "boss"

or another will rule; but as the electorate becomes

more educated, the boss retreats, and finally quits

the field. Our ovwn government has given us a strit-

ing illustration of how an almost perfect organic-a-

i.ion may be perverted to selfish ends.. But by the

education of the nmassses, first one redoubt, and
then another, 'las been t-iken from the office-holding

ar-is tocracy. Y'orL, early, the electorate -as not allowed

the rig-ht to select the President of the United A

States, but now i ie- -r'c .ic;-.!t' c.icc.ldc al-C;.-- --I

though the Constitution of the United States re-

serves C rig-ht to an electoral college, nd vwe

still -go through the empty form of voting for the

member of this electoral co-llege. In i.rany of

our States, the U. 3. Senators are voted for in the

primaries, or at the general election, and the State

Legislatures go through the farce of electing the

senators.




FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE 4 "
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7 / /-
0^ Qu~i. ^i0^^ &^- '5-^ -^ -)





A


THE FUITDAM ITTAL DIFFICULTY "


Naturally, we should say that sin.-o the

rural population is unable to send its children to

school, then by increasing the earning capacity of

the rural adult, the difficulty will be removed,

amd all of our children put into the schools. Let

us c::amine the public schools statistics of States

in r-hich the earning capacity of the .eult is .uffi-

cient fbr comrpa'rative ease, anc horsee children are

not rcrr-iitted to labor iin factoric. T.Aa Sssohusetts

will furnich as a rood illustration.

In M.sassachusetts according to the ,9.th

ce-nsus, thM ., o were :

513,000 children of 2:chool aoe,

498,000 attending school,

404,000, or 78% in average attendance,

45,0C00, or 8Q- atten.iirug hci.h ccloool. t
Thec-e figures ehow us that the difficulty is a fun-

.amental one, rnd ,ot the practica-.l one--the ..nt

of wvelth.

I iahe the folloi.-ng ,quiottion from the

69th Report of the Board of Education for pr'zza-

chuzetts, (italics are ine) :
"-.-7 the .:in in high school membership, is nearly

double the "--in in popul:?ti-on. Thi' i, c chiefly








to the increased average earnings of the community,

partly to the iercrEsed demands for high school grad-

uates in many lines of business, and partly to the

broadening of the high school courses, especially

the introduction of commercial branohes, rnd a

wider use of electives."



Mass. Arm. Rep., Board Education, 69:81.


In the United 3ta:es,only 135% of our school

population have reached the last grade in the hiih

school, or a little more than a third of those that

should be there.

The absen::e of wealth is a rotont factor

for non-attonde nce on schools, but it is not the

fundamental difficulty. This difficulty lies in

the fact that our presentt school curriculum is

faulty. We are not educating for the efficiency

of the individual. The whole cormmron school cohrsQ,

beGinning in the primary graes, through the gr;aitar

school, and especially in the high school, educates

the individual for piofc.sional life, h.-.ich com-

prises only 01 of our population. To the other
977% of ourpopul& ion the studies are purely non-

vocational.








Think of it, (larlies .md gentlemen 97%

of our people, including 44% rural population, are

required to accept a purely non-vocctional course

or none, simply that a 35 may be fitted for their

vocation. It is really a compliment to our present

system, thet so lar1,e a percentage of our children

are taking the studies in the higher grades at all.

OLr present graded and high schools h..ve :haeod

their courses in ,-uch a way as to er',Lle their

gr&.auates to c-rnter a college or university, -.itLout

examination." They are gi'.ein r direct through ticket,

on -: limited. e-ress train, w.-.'hich ,iak:es no stops at

flag- or m'y cututions; %,-hile the through Ussen-e-s

nuhiier only one-tentL of one -or cent. of our school

population. he have built Zrlendid terininal facil-

ities, but those who i'sh. o stop ,t way stations

have to roll off like chunks of coal from flat

car. In other words, our prc.:ont curriculum bends

all its e-nergies towaLrd making college or univers-ty

c.nlidetes; while its efforts tow'r.',,.d mal:ing coi-mmon

.ion c-n. women, tha ['t m:"re.-t ass of .:ur popul, tion,

is purely vcidental. Our fri-,oent grammir anid which

schools are fashioned after the old acadoery, whose
lesitiimate cuccoccor they can in no :vise claim to
be. In pacin;;in, 1 i-.y be p-,ermittcd o say that

our University has broadened its courses durin- the









last 4 years, so as to iun,'-.lud instruction in vo0-

oatiotl lines, that include ,bout three-fourths

of, our population. it v:ill vte ti"-o, ho'..cv~r, for

the grza,.ed schools to fit bos for mtrYin the I-

ive-r.- it,;y.


t
PUBLIC SCHOOLS JTOULD) BE VOCA..TIOTA-L Qwt

,^-
VOOATTIOTAL ,OUNSKO S IW-TEIBLIC SCFO'LS.

.. The p'ublic school 4elo)ns to the ,.s'es,

and not to the elected few. Our ,omr.on h Lohool

:-ou. e.hov1c f.ir-t of ,1l teach &I r -e-'e ho, to
-!:e : living; that is, haove voc.tion:1 stu.ica;

thu1n group aroun: this the hu.mm.:r it7 tdies, .' iCh

fit pupils for citiz-enship. Ror.ic fell.,by -ving

Ea citizenship that was unable to mhle a living, but

haLd tc. d'-epond upon an olinarc1ly for brCod. Of rhat

uze o-.ae the humnuity stu ios to .c:i.ch a c iti: crn-hip-"

vie aZ C. n tio, -, l.ve t :c'n the -, .-'1 ccap in-

uo .ic c.-. of .emoc.racy. we1 c r -lowly t .eali- our

\i&, Lo 1O, and order. We. are izaup ercac by thou.ci.nds

of years t addition. N Our race hs lived un' Io-

mon.rchly .:.ndc aristocracy so long., th.t it ha.s become

.;ith ti- a herel.ita.ry quality" ie re .ie.ble to cbhaS:e









off suddenly the superstitions .nd foibles of our

,fore others. Our step toward democracy are fre-

quently accompanied by reactions that carry us 1bc-:

nearly or quite to the starting point. People

seen to forgot or overlook the fact bhut in & democracy

we must lead; while in a monarchy, or in an aristoc-

racy, we drire (or are driven).

The miceon2.euption of the funnotions of n.

education is a relio of academic ancient history,

w.. hen c..lucation wa.' a lift only to theo professional

ci: s mainlyy mini2tnyr )). Thi ooncCpt c:an.cs:s

studies to run in grooves, called course. It

matters little hor .:liv-rse he conoC i i.ons of :ur people,

or houw Uriat their ncods for certain lines of instruction.

Everyone who enters the school or college has his

brain molaled ond modeled in a certain fashion, 'nd if

he does not completee the four yearE' corse and

Jgra'u.te, romchouL '-e feel that he has f.oiled. Our.

people needmfi "subjects," and not n'.rra "courucs"

taught. EPver;-:'h-e ie e hear the e::,reuL'on that tho

cor;e is O-lWrey full, th.t no more studies can be

ad ed, juSt Mx though our intollcctse and needs ran

in four-year ;ycles. Let toS throw away thick old

fetish that wve ]have inherited, :ndL teach our toys .nd





10

girls "studios" and not "courses". Of how ruch

vocational service to the -average Ianai---yes, even

to the average professional ma.n---is a course of Latin,

of G reek, of trigonometry'? To the :ac.D of, our peo-

ple, who have to earn their li-ing by their daily

toil, it is an absolute waste of time. As cultural

studies, these subjects are excellent, and as u.ch

I hlve no fault to find '.'ith them; but 977 of *:r

population need to 1:no, how to maiz:e a living-. It

is v, atly more important for a f'niIer bo- or girl to

S loc.n the laws inderl:ini heredity in r.-]-nit and .jni-

Lials, or a Trecohnic's boy to learn ,'.bout the l: vs

of electricity, than that he sho"Il ].' le-:..rn e a

Latin decliens ion, or even the .holo Latin -rmnr..

Do not imaSinO for one moment .thait 7 am criticizing

the lead. fnd forei'-n l-nsnu'.os, as non-vocational

studies; but to mor.. thia- 90% of our population it

is a fraud and a delusion to maihe them believe

that thEse studies have any vocational v.alue.

And by --cfcrring to the statistics of Passachucetts,
they
or ar-,y other wealthy State, we find that v-Wprefer to

do wit iout education, rather than take the old
academic course.




FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE


(w -d< ^^ L^ U


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4f,^^Olif Ct(~^.t
f t4


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Let me *mah:e myself '*hor:u.hly unir.tood.

I J.o not contend -that the vocctional studies holdd

be cramr.-ed in above or beside the .roesnt studies,

nor that the *resent non-vocational vtudieos (cultur-

al, if :iou please should be cast out, but tti ,t

the curriculum ah.ould be broade,--od .t oi.ce, to

iJnclud.o the ioo-t important voc-tior,'l s studies, so

that iour boys -and girls .*]o10 need them will not '-ve

to '.wcste their time -"d energy on studies tiat cannot

help them to i'.-:.te a living, or build a hoie. .1___1-



TEACHEIITr AGF:I'TILTPTUE IIICOREASES V/EALTT.


-4adi-es anl -entlemncnj I 'have tI,:,on the

time to sho.w you thlt there is im mp:ti:ility

between our pirezcnt school system nnd the nec-ds of the

mao"s of -.our .ceople. All of us have reGlized this in

a g-eneral way, but we did not know th.t hce condition

,\7a 'o .lar],in' until the figures vwer studied.

The nr.ctical di-fi.: i-it; with the rurzl popuirt:ion

is that they are fin.cially,- unable o make use of

the facilities offered. The waiy to remove this fina.n-

cial difficult. is to introduce agricultural Etudes

into the rural schools. This 0 .. so a long say

tov.ard .olvin; the difficulty is shona by the f.:,.ct tli.t




I-


in ,:uo& States as Iov,'a and wisconcin, the avor:.Le

earning capacity of c..ch r,,ct11lt male on the farm it

over eleven hundred dollars; which is twice the

average for lawyers, and nearly ; fiFLy per cent. more

than the ahverae for doctors. In these -tatcs, active

agricultural educational .'ork has een carried on

for over thirty ;ears. France, too, has tan Lht

agriculture in her 'econI,.ry schools for over a hundred

ycar.-. Geran;n, v..ith r-n .area ab:,out the size of

Te.7as, suppo-,ts a population of more thai half of

that of the United Stateos,ud mihas tau:;-]t vgricultui_

in hec- secondary schools for fort-; ye--,rs; ('come prin-

cipalities in the GrcJan Empire have officially advised

th-oir oug Lien :- aiinst taking up lTar or melicine as

a profe-2i, ou).* Even technical .studies in.'.y become so e

cvcr-cro.'dcd as to be non-vocational. I cen now

hire a German jho.ist, ,,ith a doctorate le. rce, at

a s.lmaller salary thn r.my cousin in Iowa L:as to p.

for ., farm -,lan T-a i2- ,-.- -o-




- -








OUE' ALTir;auD uOll0uITiuIJS


shen the United states was established it

was essentially a pioneer country. As soon as the

eastern soils had been robbed of their principal

fertility, the sons moved west into the Ohio valley

to continue the plundering of the soil. The sons

of the eastern farmers and their cousins in the Ohio

Valley moved westward to continue this robbing process.

At the present time we may see large placards along

the coastal Railway on the pacific with this in-

scription: "This is the last nest." And, ales, for

us it is the last uest. The trend of population will

now have to be southward, where we have the only large

region of unoccupied lands.

It took the region now )rnown as the united

states three hundred years to develop a population of

three million white people. whilee the ratio of popu-

lation at that time was j3st as great as it has beec

in later years, it took the handful of pioneers who

landed there, together with the later immigrants,

a longfo time to make up this population that was
contained in the united otates about the begin--,ing of

the nineteenth century. The same Iratio continued

to be maintained, mnd it took us until 1860 to reach a











population of thirty millions. ne have now reached

the h .d.a- million point. If we continue to increase

nre population as we have in the last hundred years,

that is,to double our population approximately every
shall
twenty-five years, we w4ill easily reach the 150

millions point in 1925, and by 1950 our population

will approximate 300 millions, or anrroachinr that of

China at the present day. In 1975 we shall have

reached the 600 millions point, while by the year
a billion,
2000 the population would be ebe~t two hundred millions.

Florida at that time should naturally have a larger

population than was included in the whole United

States at the time of the Uivil ar, that is,

30,000,000. Astounding as these figures are, we

see practically no reason why our ratio of increas@~in

population in the next hundred years should be differ-

ent from that during the last hundred years. during

this time we had four wars, or an av.-irage of one for

every twenty-five years.

ave have often heard on the lecture platform
l l'-. soil is an inexhaustible element in the
nation's wealth, c.nd we are pointed to uhina, with a

population of 400,souls to the square mile. These

general ideas regarding china were based on various






-1-


superficial observations. Our Agricultural Explorer,

Mr. i'rank 1Heyer, and other equally as good observers,

have penetrated into the interior of uhina, passing ov-er

the da4Le.av, and studying the conditions and country t

there with the cold, keen eye of scientists. All the

glamous and blinding effusions have not been sufficient :

to blind their eyes to the real facts. In the back

country and on the tablelands of uhina, where a thous-

and years ago there was a teeming population, as shown

by the ancient monuments and records, they declare that

now a person will go for a stretch of ten miles without

seeing a habitation or meeting a living person. The

uncanny secret vhich the uhinese are supposed to possess

in keeping their lands fertile is nothing more than theer

congregation in the valleys, which have received the ero-

sion from the denuded farms and hills, from the table-

lands and former forests.

In this same connection, I wrant to quote Mr.

Jas. J. Fill, the great railroad magnate, and who

has sometimes been called the "Empire Builder," to

give his view. 1Mr. Hill, so far as I know, h-.c

never been accused of being a sentimentalist, but
being a purely calculating business financier, and so f

far as I know from the speeches that he has delivered,






1- I


I have never seen him indulge in what we ordinarily call
sentimentalism. He gave away thoroughbred stock,

improved machinery, fine work animals, and much other

property representing many dollars. In one speech he

says that tt him that was purely a business proposition.

He was investing some of the present money with a view

of recovering it with handsome interest. And those

of us who have in a measure followed his work $now

that he had the prevision of a prophet. The quotation

is as follows:


"The value of our annual farm product is now
about eight billion dollars. It might easily be doubled.

When the forests are all cut down and the mines vre noth-

ing but empty holes in the ground, the farm lands Bwl

: i of the country will remain capable of renewing

their bounty forever. But they must have proper

treatment. To provide this, as a matter of self-inter-

est :nd of national safety, it is the most imperative

present duty of our people. ***: : The armed

fleets of an enemy approaching our harbors would be no

more alarming than the relentless advance of a day when

Weiha na havaelihe oryqt food nor the means to

purchase it-for our population. The farmers of the

nation must save it in the future, just as they built










its greatness in the past.

"The man who assumes to be the farmer's

friend or hold. his interests dear will constitute

himself a missionary of the new dispensation. It

is an act of patriotic service to the country. It is

a contribution to the welfare of all humanity. It

will strengthen the pillars of the government that

must otherwise be endangered by some popular upheaval

when the land can no longer sustain the population

that its bosom bears. Here lies the true secret of,

our anxious interest in agricultural methods; because,

in the long run, they mean life or death to future

millions who are no strangers or, invaders, but our

own children's children, and who will pass judgment

upon us according to what we have made of the world

in which their lot is to be cast."








My hearers by this time will wonder what

all this has to do with educational awakening in I'lorida.

Just here I am reminded of the anecdote of the two

flies sitting on the bu y wheel which is being driven

along a dusty country road. Mr. F'ly remarks to his

wife, "Oh, see what a dust we raise This anecdote

frequently comes to mind when I see a county 3uperinten-

dent of other official of the school, swell out his chest

with pride and boastfully say, "See what a fine high

school we (meaning, of course, I) have built." Also,

when I come in from a farmers' institute campaign

and show up the splendid attendance. But do not under-

stand from this that I regard lightly the personal ques-

tion in all of this work. It requires the right man,

at the right time, and in the right place. Let me

take a personal illustration. Professor Hume re-

marked last week, nearing the close of the uitrus Growers'

Seminar, "This is fine work! Keep it up. It would

have been absolutely impossible five years ag-oJ"

As I see the situation in Florida, it is

not so much the fact that I am connected with the

University, or that you are connected with the Univer-
sity, or that the University was moved from Lake City,

nor by reason of the fact that Halley's comet has

come into sight, that we have this general awakening






I



and livening up of the people of the State of Florida;

but rather to the external conditions and the pressure

from outside, e=-ssStrssk. vie are in a position now

where the conditions out of the itate are right for

a general and rapid development. ae can no longer hold

down the conditions. They have been held down for two

decades, but we have arrived at a period when, if we

do not rise and take advantages of our opportunities

as they occur today and now, and make a forward move,

we shall be swept out of the way, and others who are

more capable and better able to do the work, will take

our place.

Over and over again conditions have arisen

in the state where the people have become very impa-

tient,and discharged not only the President of the

college, but discharged the trustees and made an en-

tirely new Board of Trustees. Other cataclysms

hove occurred. Lotions have been applied. These

have eased the matter for a time, only to find that

the remedy was not fundamental; it was merely a super-

ficial washing, hiding the congestion, h

hJani~goy g a n nd saying7 that there was fever there,

In 1906 I read an essay beforethe Athenaeum


Club on Agricultural Education in i'lorida.


In that








paper I pointed out clearly that agricultural education

was in topsy-turvy condition at the beginning of the

agricultural college. The people were told that the

agricultural college was all right; it is bound it

uplift agriculture, and splendid work will resalt.

It does not make any difference, ary the Governing

Board to themselves, who occupies these positions.

Consequently, the Professor of GreeMX who was a civil

negineer by te* was to teach aruicultue.,

Another dAlustration of bold financiering was thttt -4J'4,'
of buying an engine boiler and building a shed for

experiments in sugar-making. The fact that there

was absolutely not a single stalk of sugar cane in

sight seemed to make little difference. lthen, t '

after the thing was completed, it was found that no

sugar cane could be bought, the outfit was permanently

loaned to the department of mechanical arts. Such

bold raids are not the fashion in these later days; 4

but I am not at all certain that our institution is

entirely immune to it. The patient once having 1-,

been sick, he is apt to have a relapse of the fever. INS

In an essay about a year are before thb '- --
Athenaeum Club, the subject of extension work was ,.
taken up and discussed to some extent. It was dis- K

cussed rather under the head of farmers' institutes,








because this term was not quite so technical. At

the time only one person present agreed with the

speaker in that it would be possible to make farmers'

institute work a success in Florida. oinee that

time the extension work has gone through a considerable

metamorphose. It was then in the epg- state. it

has hatched and now^reached^ aiat the first larval

stage. it has done some crawling around and some

feeding, and is now going through the first moult.

tvhile 1 read the follow ng rdsumd, which,

in fact, is the most important part of the paper, I

wish my hearers would keep in mind the anecdote of the

flies on the buggy wheel.


wIHAT t 'JE UIIIv.hJIWTY 1s OIll; III

EXT1'E1i1ii nORK.

1. The manperiment stationn, which does not properly

belong to the extension work from a financial point

of view, nor does it belong there from the general

acceptation of the term. It, however, is the

most potent factor that we have in developing a demand

for extension work. I therefore call your attention

to the activities of this department. During the

fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, over 70,000 pieces

of publications were distributed. The number of let-





ev 'IV
'1


ters has never been counted or estimated, but they

run up into the thousands.

8. 2. The farmers' institutes for the biennium

closing the dame date numbered 104 sessions, with

a total attendance of 10,000 and some odd. This num-

ber was determined by actual count, not by estimate.

I find, as a whole, when people estimate an audience,

they either over-estimate it, or unlor-estimate it,

all the way from fifty to a hundred per cent., de-

pending on whether they are in an optimistic mood or

a pessimistic mood. But when the actual count is

made, t}ljpersonal element is eliminated. ror the

present fiscal year we have hold 112 sessions of faru-

ers' institutes, having over seven thousand in total

attendance.

S. The correspondence course, which was is

carried on by Prof. J. J. Vernon, now numbers ap-

proximately 600 registrations. Last year this regis-

tration was over 400.

4. The .ort course in agriculture should

probably not come under the list of extension work.

It, however, is an important feeder for the extension

work. bo far, we have carried only one class through

this course.







$1,


5. The Citrus Growers' Seminar, which has

been so recently held, belongs properly among the

extension work, since it is a specialized and somewhat

extended farmers' institute.

6. The Lecture Bureau. This Bureau has

been one of the functions of the University for a num-

ber of years. It has done some good, but the lecturers

are hot as frequently called for as the organizers of

the movement had hoped they would be. There are two

reasons for this: (1) Those people who would wish to

make use of these lectures, to a large extent do not

know that such lectures may be obtained; i- *the- ooseond

-pla(2 the lecturers are not called upon frequently

enough to deliver these discourses to gtnv get the vital-

izing effect the audience. P make lecturing suc-

cessful, it is necessary to meet the audience fre-

quently and get the reactionary effect from the audience.

7. Our work with the secondary schools, as

conducted by Prof, Lynch, a portion of these funds

being derived from the general educational board.

This canvass has been carried on vigorously. The

degree of success again reminds me of the flies.




w




In conclusion I wish to say that we are all
soldiers of the common good. 'e need to keep march-
ing forward day by day. d'e need to study the condi-
tions of the State; we need to get in active sympathy
with the population of the state. we must know the
needs before we\supply them. We cannot set ourselves
up as the perfect models, crystallized and permanent-
ly molded with the idea that the. great mass of people

in the state will idolize and worship us, and consider
us the true examples to aspire to emulate. ie must,
by our own activities and our own work, show that
what we are doing is for the common good.







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To recapitulate:

1, We have developed from a monarchial

form of gorvennent and must not expect to find a

"ready to wear" democracy, but will have to fight to

get it. The University of Florida is the logical
leader, an4 we as the active exponents, fail in

our trust if we assume the attitude of camp followers,

2. The old Agriculturol OCllege had her
opportunity. She passed it up and thereby was dis-

credited. She failed to grasp her opportunity, though

she was given twenty years to make good. The time

for success was ripe; the place was also thore, but

the mam was the one element wanting. (In this

connection I will remark parenthetically that we

missed by a very narrow martin getting Dr. Curtis

and later Dr. Bailey.)

3. The pressure is now upon uS. Two

million mouths to be fed have been added annually

since 1900. This rate of increase will be acceler-

ated in an arithmetical progression. The time and

the opportunity are here. Are we the right men

for the work?
4. What are we doing individually to relieve
this pressure? Or are we calmly sitting like the

fly on the buggy wheel? Everything about us is




1#
4


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changing. Even the idea of what constitutes an
education has greatly changed in the last fifty
years.


9~