C''U1ITEY LIFE SURVEY.
For many thousands of years associated of peoples into a
government have been based upon a umonnarchia form. This has
brought about an extremely individualistic trend cf mind and in
its effect worked to the disadvantage of the assemIlla-e of individ-
uals in the Zovrernment, in that the individuals looked for their
direction of action to someone else. The foiundinF, of the United
States was unon a commumnistic basis and while experiments of a
similar nature had been conducted from time to ti'e these ex eri-
ments sooner or later developed into a mornnarchial 'overnrjent in
fact if it did not develop into that in form. Ilearly all the
population of the United States has be.-n derived directly or
indirectly/ from Europe and consequently the individualistic idea,
rather than the coarmiunal idea has been uppermost. Similarly we
have attempted from the be-inring to formulate our plans of wor-: in
accordance with the tactics or principles laid c down by European
ex,.erienco, fore-tting that the idea of the rverriment in its
incipienc;- ras entirely ant aonistic to that principle.
All of our activities have been iodelled -nd formulated after
the pnrinciplerz laid down by European ex-erience. The Ie Enle'. nd
States have been m-more directly associated with Eurorean Insti tutes
and h as p rtaen mor e nea'rl' of the Eur ;pean ideals, though to so!.,e
de.%'re,- these communities have developed different and ne-: ideals.
The Southern part of the UniteCd Statee, beinr less closely joined
to the mother countries,formulated ideals quite distinctlJ their
own7l, thou'rh not always on a co rnuni':tic 1:"-; The interior and
western portions of the United States have been g sr-ely develoc.ed
S from irmiunil-rants from the east. Pcr various reasons these western
people have had to develop s cormmunistic ide.l: in protection against
the svase Inaians,; protection Eagainst drought as in the irrigation
centers; developin- means of transiv.ortation, etc. Undcr the cir-
curnstances it is not surfprisin that e f the .ne.. ideals of
overnrent arid on scientific wor-: should. pa ta'_e of a. difeen-. t
ideal froi-.i that occurring in the east. About fi ft ~e:-rs, ago
this ideal g.ave e:q-pression in the foun.idi:',g of ihe a-ricultural
and mechanical collae-es, and more lecentl to other institutions_.
directly: or indirectly connected with them. The most recent
e:-.rressionL of this ilepl is the Farrm Extension wori:. This has
been carried on largel_, in the west and central west and south,
but only in a ver lii ted .';w in the -ast in the le-w England
States. -Ie have now had about a ten );ear :period during vhich
these activities have been carried, for-,ard and it is well, there-
fore, to :-ial:e a somewhat careful country life survey to see what
the effects of these different. a.:encies are.
Southern States Survey
A countrt7 life surve;- was undertow ken in four different sections
of the United States. The one in which we are directly interested
is the route that rani throu1 h central T ississippi, be-i..nin.-_ n
at -acon and extending' thriouih- nor th central Alabam&a, through
Georgia in a southeasterly direction, and westward in South Georgia,
This road covered between six and seven hundred miles and on the
road chosen, 1,001 farmers -..rere interviewed. These farmers were
tai:en at random and not by any- special selection. As the road was
one of the mo'st- accessible ones and where agriculture had taken place
only a fe-., ne-'ro f.-rmers were found.
Of the 1001 farmers visited 417 or 41.7' received bulletins.
Of those receiving: bulletins 331, or 79.4'. read them. Of the
number who readi the bulletins 148 or 35.5', made Iprac.tical application
of the information received from the bulletins.
Of the 1001 farmers visited 24 or 2.41 attended Fari'mers' Institutes
and of the nurmb.-r attending PFarz..ers' InstituterE 25"' of them put into
proc tice sometL-hin.c learned at the Institutes.
SA.'ri ul tur:?l Papers
Of the 1001 .feriers visited 454 or 45.40 tooL: farm rpaper's.
Demonstration Agents .
Of th 1001 farmers visited 152 or 15,: of the persons had re-
ceived instruction from farm demonstration agents.. 142 or 94'-.
of these practiced some of the information gotten from the -
demionstrati on ae nts.
Ta:hinac the statistics Fs they occur above, we .,.'ould have 454
as taking farm papers and presumably reading them and being bene-
fitted by *;hem. 148 received. direct benefit from bulletins,
142 received direct benefit from demonstration agents, anrd only
six froe Far"n'ers' Institutes.
In reviewing the survey as it occurred in other parts of the
United States the summary would- not be very different from
that occurring in the South. The proportion of the people
benefitted by the agencies employed is somewhat lage ,?I t In
e t- In
Mking up I*he question a, to what was the preference of the farmers
interviewed, it was found that 242 preferred far. papers, 56 preferred
the bulletins, 22 preferred the demonstration agents, 7 considered
that all the agencies were equally useful, and only t-7o preferred
the Farmers' Institutes, and 670 considered that the farm experience
was th-e only .aid. This large number of people .who disregarded the
agencies emplo-ye'. for rural life improvement is accountable by the
fact that a large percentage of them, if not more than fifty per
cent of them, ,ev.ew little or nothin,- about tLe various agencies
employed for educational extension.
In ,ur a-gricultural! e-xtension work it's necessary for us to
ta.'e the fc.rrers as we fi:d them and do whatever is. best under the
circumstances. For this reason an aricultural survey such as
the one refer ed to above is of the most importance for us as a guide.
To us it teaches a lesson that we have been :ne-lectinP. one of our
Lest opportunities. While much stress has been laid upon the
matter of :prep arin nur,-merous short articles for the agricultural
and other *.ress of the State the survey indicates very clearly that
for the northern part of Florida. we shall be able to accomplish
ver'- much more by malkin, freer use of the papers, especially the
agricultural apers, v.'hether published within the State or outside,
than we haMve heretofore .' Just how this can be accomplished
I am not pre,,ared to state in detail. Ho-wever, much more difficult
tasks have been successfully accomplished than this one appears to be.
In workingn for this agricultural. advancement we mast keep
in mind that the .greater success is made. when the community is brought
into sympath, as a co,,nmunity and we should probably lay less stress
on benefitti-_,:. the individual as an individual.
- Our second most important worth from this agricultural survey
would seem to be that of very largely extending the usefulness of
our printed material in the form of bulls tins.
S:. sands of years as.jK .,. of -pe oples i nto a
O' V:VO 00 !'1 DO, GC IQ: 011 a YaORmcaup aa:LOaOhii roni'i. Th iS iacs
-' !."' i-.':. It on .:' "*-..' i CntiJ.vicualT' :. 1 ronci or x lm= OnlncI in
1i eoiect wor:oc, "co the clsactvauntae or t-i0e asseoae or inclivil-
...,. in -U.e G-Oerient, In 1tiat the i iv au looked i:r their
"'C -.ion 01 action oto someone else. ...C'.-.- ... o01 e UTjijocl.
.toS \, 2w nlon O COns _in ti c 1'asiS act -l Je e :orm ents 00-J
. 1i.o:a no '" na o neen concLtnotecl fronm t1i:e to timne -t0ece ex qeri -
nOencs sooner or la-Ter .cleeeiopeC into c. ronnoarci,1 'overnorenit; I,
.Ot 1 it c1lc no1t cLeva omo -O n.;o LCtOhat im lo~'1. '..'A a11 1 t*
.,.'Ulation ot" the Utnitod States a beon drlovoc d1ieCe.'.-" or
:-_ cto L r ur ope and conro on008O t the l .' 1aiinc ico,
Crater bn the cornm1n3i idea is 1!een iapT r tot. 0 S02i? arly e1
ilnaVO O* O *th D(ginilnp' to0 oOrmricite our plan;3 Of TIOr l: in
a0co0r:ince 1ilth the .tactics o0 princlpLo 11a .. o0n Dy -- Opa
J.lonce, rargeDT that :: 1 l0e11 o" the ;overnaient 1in 1 it
inlciplency 'as 'ento0ly O a "., onisuic To 1tha32t prince J-.
All o0 our COtivities o Ye. DOGe:, lmoi.liec andi Orllatl c atorC ... ,
Othe principlol0 1c CoWn E -, E1.rpO n ep 2eren ce. 'e o 0e( E,,Pnc
'.:- Ge 0 have Deeon rLore direct". associa'ed with 7 'oear I2nstitu es
anct n. paa : en 0 .more nearly_ o0 the Europoan ildea.ls, thooTn,'Lh to somei
(o.07Lree1 -these co n un-iiec 10 ave developed cJi:TOerent and (o idelc .
Sount.- rn pr-rt of the nIllteo S1tatoe', Dom)01 los, close1nl; a o01c
to the mother coa0r10:0 1. o rT.l-a0ed o 1~a8 aite Glauinccly h0e0r
O 1.t, 3"G3il1l c' not 2128 on. a n 0 u1s3.10c DaSILS. The ,1niO..0) 0lUe
W x' 26l o1o o1 0 tl0e UJniteGe '.j 0es have been large, deveopeo.-
9 -E;., ,-: _.-:"'"..s :: -u'., the .east,. -'. various renons These western
S.o '.c ':- e nad t'o ctevelo-; a co: b :' _cioc ideal: iln pl)rotection against'
e savae protection agans drogh a in he rriation
; developngen o npo on, e. .T L'. r ,the 0r-
S ,: :.,-es t 1 7is 11 0o S, T-ISi 1 '.:,' soFie of the -new -0 or,.0
--- nt anCL on scientil or .1 'old. parta.::e 0 o. dl l e -;
ile.al trom. tl.at occnrrinfc" !1in t -ne L.:.. A "ott 1rty ears .o..
*.hl. Icleal 1a0 0 e0XpO310Coi2 In the loun00iif: 01 thio al-TO T110 5i
and mechan c. i coaJ-ee o _es, and more r recently to other ines i:unebions
dreec3ly or i7nzdrec....l. co01nnected0' with t"her. The mo1'0 recent
e re1oion o0 tais ideal is 0ie o-i::.o S onion '.or: 0. Thi- 0 naso
been carried on largo7. zIn tne wes'q .. con.t'ral est -. ,onith,
buLt only .in a ver- limia.Lted v0ay i.n -t1e ea-st in tlhe 1Howv EnglandNy"l'c
States. .., 0avre now nad aDot a ten year period during l hIch
.thee 0actOviies have 0eon carried. o"0r7,card and it .20 well, hero-
lore, "'o ae a s(_. .:- '_ coareCui oor:.11' 111e ,.1--:ey to see what the
e0leo1s0 or Tl1hese dirLer:-. a1'-.:eenLces are.
Sonutwern Sta2ce0 Survey
A C011 o .7: Ao'u 1e s0 muveyo V/1S P[o: -"-2 _.2 :in- .l1r Odi:Le0on2 00eCOi0ns
0"or t1he "nitd1 '"h'o. iTh'e 0on0e in 11011 e are dlireoly intore',ced
s10 the roach uh]'b '- through the cenu'rai. r.;-.,si2sspl., 1 beginning:
aG _:.- .aln axnd etconc0n1.-u t;5rou.gh no!."rth cen111cra Alabja., through
Georg'la in a o ounensterly cirecuion, and cotvard" c In S-outh Georgia...
1his roa cL overod1 D0o tween s0 x and Geoven .u0md1.ed ie( and on t he
roa0 c oo00oen, i,UUJ larmerosA were i;.: eed., 0 oes 0a1r7err0 1ore
11GCaoln 11- 1and.o and not (0 12any 71eo2ai 1eoloction. As the road 71ac
o-C 00 1 t'1e Taos0T ices[10Die O a 0 110ad 'i o i!0 ,o r'l0il."17 11"u 04OLd 7ce00l
on;" a- e1.' nerOCTO 1rmoQ Were lo0and-.
o -1(9 uuiLroro v:oI '11 or I? '/ recoeve. bLl.u. eu2.ns.
-. L' .._. .oceiving Cic.L0ns 0b, 02or y. 1- road hi.em]. Of N1e
:'. 0or .no reac the iutlie uins 1:6 or 235. made practical apmllcation
of io in 'ora UIon receivaC. iroa th'e al 0e". ...'
Ins' liut0 es
Of thie LUUi ma3mers visiedcL 24- or .1 8- atendeid Farmors' insiti'uwes
a.llnCL o t1eG .h... .*.0' 8ar elI g 1111 F Iarrae s' iS'1l is it es "'. o1 01 t-hom pnut Into
practice C'o-ineti ir Learnied at "Ui.e Insx-nuimtes.
."-D:i.2ul )Gura! IT o .
O:f the luUi l9r9ors v ise-Od or .49's tooT arm ] 'ors. '
Demonstration Ar- ,;-.
Of 0 ie 1((1 Lrmers vioS'od ID. or T. or the "pers ons nad re-
c01iv70 i1nl-TCI 01i-8 IuOO o 1 -rin -ca 1ULYr011 oero. o entOS. 142 or z4:'
or ,Tues e plm2ac ce 800 co the rormnation gotten rron tiie domonsOsra-
*10 ti-n a et.
.' '....ng the 'tiaO3u c Co:10 .cO
as tar:m;.'5- i'armn pupors 'ucji.o C
irted by them. 148 recoiv ]
142 receiiv elirect .benefit .. D
.. 1- from warmer Iznstitute
In rev:-.,wi*i: i the su;..3 ags
t'o Unitede Stato tho ... '.: .' ,
that occurring in thoVl-2 .
1)Qenf3iit-ed '- the an'enc'._ es om11
-:/'. 0B 0 O e wozld, nave .564
-'-.ri.rj, : tl.,.u, and being bene-
benefit from billltins.
S'ta' ion '.s, ,".7
''.recL i oYusio2 p atKI- UoL
. .; ',1 vnTr:'7' different frora
optionon o-f the people
\orie .'at "; ?. In