Celery Growing in the South.

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Material Information

Title:
Celery Growing in the South.
Series Title:
Writings and Speeches 1891-1920
Physical Description:
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Physical Location:
Box: 1
Divider: Articles, Speeches and Other Writings
Folder: Celery Growing in the South.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Florida.
Agriculture -- Florida -- Experimentation.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais.
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Florida.
Citrus fruit industry -- Brazil.
Leprosy -- Research -- Brazil.
Minas Gerais (Brazil) -- Rural conditions.
Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinaria do Estado de Minas Gerais.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station.
University of Florida. Herbarium.

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University of Florida
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Full Text





CELERY-GROWING IN THE SOUTH


I Celery V qQ, 0 vegetables in..the
A /A
southern home garden. It has been grown in Florida for upwards

of forty years, but t t's only b within the last twenty years

S"4 toEt the crop Las assumed really commercial proportions. The
-largeMtM green varieties are not ,oi as successful as are
dg. 7 A C?
the self-blanching vsa% Lttrs. r t t bar e seed g-
A
ten from France by direct importation throug- the seedsmen. A
few celery growers e e a .oonailci.blo ot of e to get-

good seed. Ordinarily, however, t reliance is & on

the honesty of the French seedsman and the inte7-rity of the Ameri-

can dealer. Celery--growing in the South differs ra y from

stftt in the llorth in a number of important particulars.

4 .y/ sp Seed-Bed. /4 m
The growing dt celery seedlings is adiley d-r'S 4 es-

,-ecially in Florida, from that of the ITorth, e owing u

during July, August, and September, at a time of the year when -5 tb

continued vwarn weather ,&-az, and 11 -..,m,- --

-a: beating raini,g _

A place ior the seed-bed is selected) near the celery fieldk--

usually a plot at the edge. The size of the field to be planted

will determine the extent -P the seed-bed. The width of the seed-

bed varies from 18* to 36" 'Rows ore sown across it ma]dng it

possible to weed rom both sides. Immediately after sowing heavy

burlap ='1-., usually old fertilizer sacks, are placed over the

beds to conserve the moisture, 46 cool the soil, and *t protect

the seeds against the ha-y beating rains. The seed-beds are








sprinkled as often as is necessary to keep the surface moist.

The abundant light winA3 at this 'season of the year, aidf S

evaporation from the sacking e keep the beds cool as

^t germination of the seeds is prompt and eKm i good,

permits.
4_4da- tfw_
After the seeds have germinated and the scce _.s have push-
A
ed their way through the ground, the sachint is removed and a

screening of cheese-cloth placed over the bed. as ,, p3

a e-3 Some beds se covered with cheese-cloth parallel to

the surface of tle -soil, c e In other cases a wire is rmn over

the middle of the bed f-r .it"s ti r lei,_t. 'the cheese-cloth

Mo placed over the wire and fastened at the sides 5ivng the

Th covering is -zftm:

about 8" or 12 above the bed, givX ample room for a. circulation
A
of air, beneath it. The beds are kept moist by repeated water-

-ing done directlyl y through the cheese-cloth. This 1s a= advantage /

-- i- ... the force of the drops and &ic.o -lietributoc the

water rather evenly over the bed.

As soon as the plants have attained the _i-e of T" -" and

ab-,nn. ,-. .s- ovolcpc. d in tho IOGVOs, they will be strong

enough to stand L1se direct -agsE re su.n and &ie shade the

ground sufficiently to ke ep it from drying out rapidly.

J/& .^_Variet

Formerly nearly all t' varieties whose seeds were -rg offered
by -tE- seecdesen were planted. In recent years nerfaty all have

been eliminated except the jold 'elf-Flanching. Ts seed is

very high price# and during years of scarcity is~ found to be fe-

"i-, TZ- o to t.ype. "Or riii-L; eed of low germrninatirg








quality is often found to contain many plants that will make

undesirable vegetable$ probably daue tettLe-fct -t the unde-

sirable green and red strains that may occur in the golden elf-

3lanching variety are more resistent to deterioration than the

true type.

Planting and Blanching

Blanching is carried on entirely by the boarding-up method.

For this purpose2 second or third-grade cypress boards are used,

These usually have defective portions or are filled with worm

holes, so as to Ma e-them rather cheap. The expense of the lum-

ber, ior.k er, is so great that it becomes necessary to plant the

celery in double rows. Two rows are planted 8 or 10" apart1

and the plants set'6" or 80 apart in the row. By alternating the

settings in the two row/s additional space is secured for the plants.

Thirty to forty inches are allowed between the, -et& of two rows.

As soon as the celery has reached the stage of growth or the market

t4a arrived at a condition where it is thought wise to me&t the cele-

ry, the boards are placed alongside &f the plants and held in place

by stakes driven into the ground. To further exclude the air and

light a small amount of soil is plowed against the basejsof the

boardS as where the soil is sufficiently mellow this

is unnecessary. The tops of the boards are placed firmly together

so that only a portion of the leaves extends above them. With the

Golden Self Blanching variety it is only a few days until the celery

is sufficiently blanched and crin-p to make a good vegetable.





4:

Fertilizer

In the preparation of the field large quantities of fertil-

,- izer are used. Stable manure is not a favorite unless it can be

applied to the soil early enough to become thoroughly rotted be-

fore the plants are set out. The quantity obtainable is usually

so small and the price so high that commercial fertilizers have

largely replaced stable manure. The quantity of fertilizer ap-
plied may range up to %80 or even .T125 worth per acre(of the for-

mula given in a former colu. Frequently one-half of the fertil-

izer is held back by the grower until the celery has been growing

for several weeks; the second application is then made/ Att-bse =l

and a cultivato-r used to distribute and incorporate it with the

soil. If the growth of the crop indicates that it is necessary,

a considerable after-application of nitrate of soda is made. In

both of these after-applications care must be exercised and judg-

mrent used, since so large an application of commercial fertilizer

is likely to -orove injurious to the roots. This manifests it-

self by the appearance of many minute white areas at the ends of

the lobes of the celery leaflets. After the apryea'rance of these

white tips the damage has been done and nothing can remedy the

trouble. Deep plowing and severe muti lion of the rootlets

will cause a very similar appearance. This trouble must be care-
fully g'uarde.:-. against, since it weakens the leaves and allows .

the entr nce of bacteria'and .fungi much more readily than where
the leaves are uninjured.










Irrigation

In the most productive celery regions sub-irrigation (as

described under Irrigation) are established. The lateral are

laid 15b- to 25h apart, according to the contour of the land, and

the notion of the grower. Thfi irrigation system at the same

time serves as a drainage system. This makes it especially con-

venient since abundant artesian water is present in nearly all

dd the celery-growing sections. The system has been found so

convenient that a large amount of damage has been done by over-

irrigation, not only in carrying off a large amount of soluble

fertilizer but -also by water-logging the soil thus driving the

roots of the celery plants so near the surface as to be constant-

ly liable tn injury. In the hands of careful celery-growers the

system is the best that has been invented.

Enemies

A large amount of damage is done annually by different dis-

eases a.nd insect pests. The Flea beetle is the main insect pest

&nd this does its damage mainly'during the time the plants are in

the seed bed. Damping off is a serious seed-bed trouble and
should be Iprevented by abundant aeration of the surface soil.

VWhen damping off occurs fungicides such as potassium:sulphide or
ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate should be used freely.

More or less trouble is also caused by attacks froi. Sclerotinia

libertiansa in the field. The celery bacterial disease is. also

quite 4 severe in infected fields.





* a 6.



Size of Orates

A commission composed of transportation companies, commission

merchants and celery-growers met in 1912 and established 84 20 t 27

inches the standard size for Florida. Up to that time two stand-

ar& crates were recognized, one as the Manatee and the other as

the Sanford Crate. Por shipping purposes the celery is pulled,

the robts cut off, and then bunched. In some cases the bunches

are made in dozens and tied with fancy bands; in other cases the

celery is packed without bunching dire ctmy into the crater Thi-

c,'ate has slats on all sides.









CELIEY-GROWING IN THE SOUUI


Celery is ons of the vegetables h-c.oh have long been found
nt the southern home garden. It has been grown in Florida for
upwards of forty years, but only within the last twenty years
has the crop assumed really omonerical proportions. The T'harge
green varieties aro not as successful here as are the self-
blenching kinds. Most of the seed onmes from France by direct
importation through the seedamen. A few celery grower pay uach
attention to getting good seed. Orinarily, hriover, reliance
is placed on the honesty ofthe French seedomen and the into rity
of the American dealer. Colery-growing in the South differ frcn
celery-growing in the North in a number of important particulars,

The eod-BeA
Tho method of raising celery seedlings is not the s=ao in
the South, and especially in Florida, as it is in the North.
Sowing is done during July, Angust, and September, at a time of
the year whln there is contiumie warm weather, and frequent beat-
ing rain.
A placo is selected for the seed-bed near the celery field---
usually a plot at the edge. The size of the field to be planted
will determine the extent of the seed-bed. The width of the seed-
bad varies from 18 to 36 inches. Rows are sown across it, making
it possible to weed and keep the soil worked from both sides.
Immediately after sewing,pieoes of heavy burlap, usually old fer-
tilizer sacks, are placed over the boedo to conserve tho moisture,

cool the soil, and protect the seeds against the beating of the


I







': bevy rains. he seeod-beds are sprinkled as often as is neces-

Say to l:eoep ot1 emrface moist. The broeesm usaal at this season
of the year aid tie fmrpoan&ian from the covering of moist sacldng
and Ikeep the beds cool. The germination of the seeds Is prompt
and-r.emarkably gooa, so fisa as their viability poemits.
After the seeds bare germinated and the seed-leaves hSve
pashed their way through the ground, the sacking i1 removed and a
screening of ce&se-,clothl placed over the bed. Some beds may be
covered with cheese-cloth parallel to the surface of the soil.
In other oases a wire is run lengthways over the middle of the bed,
and the ohesse-oloth placed over the wire and fastened at the sides
like a roof. The covering is about 8 to 12 inches above the bed,
which gives amply room for the circulation of air beneath it.
Tho boes are ~pt moist by repeated watering, done directly through

-the oheess-eloth. This has the advantage of broeaiing be force
of the drops and distributing the water rather more evotly over
the be.
As soon as the -plants are two or three inches high and are
well greeted, they mill be strong enough to stand direct sunlight
and will shade the ground sufficiently to keep it from drying out
rapidly.
Lhf Boot Variety
Formerly nearly all t*ripttes tihoso seeds were offered by
seedomen were planted. In recent years, however, all have been
nearly eliminated sooopt the Golden Self-Blanching. The seed of
this variety is very high 'm price, and dt.ring years of scarcity
sood supplied under this name is often founl to be more or lass
untrue to typel Seed of .low germinati-g quality is ofton found

to contain many plants that will make undesirable vegetables,









probably beemse th munaeirable green ant red strains that mqW
occur in the Golda Slf-B1sPAsg vaUrlety are more eestatent to
&eterioatia thnsM th true type.

-Plant"ft ea Balanti
Blanching is oa ie.4 on entirely by the boaratg-up method.

For this purpose, second or third-grade cypreoa boards are used:
these lr-grade boards usually hae detective portion or are filled
with worm holes, so as to be obtainable rather abosply. The cm-
penae of the lumber, notwithstanding, is so great that it becomes
necessary to plant the celery in double rwae. 9 rows are planted
8 or 10 inobes apeat, ana the plants set 6 er 8 inches apart in
the row. By alternating the settings in the two rows additional
space is soonred for the plants. Thiity to forty inches are al-
lowo" betwoon the sets of double rows. As soon as the colory lias
reached the proper ,tage of growth, or the market has arrived at a
condition where it is thought wise tG ship the celery, the boards
are placed alongside the plants and held in place by stakes driven
into the ground, To farther exclude the nir and light a small
amount of soil is plowed against the bases of the boards, though

where the soil is fpffiliently mollow this is UaWecessary. The
tops of the boards are V e od firmly together so that only a por-
tion of the leaves extends above them. With the Golden Self-
Blanching variety it is only a few days until tho celery is suf-
ficiently blanched and crisp to make a good vegetable.


In the preparation of the field large quantities of fertil-
isor are used. Stable manmre is. not a favorite, unless it can be

*pplled to the soil early enough to-beome thoroughly rotted be-





4.


foee thU plants are set out. The quantity obtainable, however, ,
is usually so mall and the price so high that oommeroial fortilisras
have largely replaca setable manure* The quantity of fertilizer
S appliS any range up to $80 or even $125 worth per acre (of the
formula given in a former column) Frequently one-half of the
fertilizer is held 1%aok by the grower until the celery has been
growing for several waoks; the second application is then made,
and a oaultvator used to distr bte,'en incorporate it twth the
soil. If the growth of th orop indicates that it is necessary,
a considerable after-application of nitrate of soda tois made. In
both of these after-appliuationa care must be exercised and jadg-
ment used, since so large an application of commercial fertilizer
i0 likely to prove injurious to the roots This manifests it-
self by the appearance of many minute Tlitoe areas at the ends of
the lobes of the celery leaflets. After the appearance of these
white tips the damage has been done, and nothing can remedy tlm
trouble. (Deep ploulig and severe mutilation of the rootlets
will cause a very similar appearance.) This trouble must be
carefully guarded against, since it weakens the leaves and allows
the entrance, of bacteria and fungi much moro readily then where
the leaves are uninjured.

IrriPyat ion
32 the mtst productive celery regions sub-irrigation systems
(as described under Irrigation) are established. The laterals
are laid 15 to 25 feet apart, according to the contour of the land,
and the notion of the grocsr. The irrigation system at the same
time serves as a drainage system. This aakos it especially con-
venient, since abundant artesian water is present in nearly all







the nlery-growing seOtions. 'The system hsa been found so
.aconsreinate that a large amount of damage has been done by over-
frrigation, not only in carrying off a large amount of soluble
fertilizer, but also b y water-logging the soil and thus driving
the oots of. the celery plants so near the surface as to be con-
stantly liable to Inuary, In the hands of eareofl celery-growera,

however, the system is the 'est that has been invented.


A large amount 4 damage is done annually by different dis-

ases and insecat'pests. The Plea bootle in the main insect pest
and this does itM damage mainly Ouring the time the plants are in

the seed-bea. jaipng is a s serious seood-be trouble and
should be prevented by abundant aeration of the surface soil.
When Sine gff occurs, fungicides such as potassium sulphide or
ammoniaeal solution of copper carbonate should be used freely.
More or less trouble is also caused by attacks from Sclerotinia
libertieaa in the field. The celery bacterial disease is also
quite severe in infected fields.
Size of Crates
A semmission composed of transportation companies, commission

merchants and celery-growers met in 1912 and established 8 by 20
by 29 inches ae the standard siae crate for Plorida. Up to that
time two atanaard oratos were rocognizecd, one as the Manatoe and
the other as the Sanford Crate. For shipping purposes the celery
is pulled, the roots ct off, and then the plants buncheO. In some

aoaes the bunohes are made in dozens and tied with acy band; in
other eases the celery is packed 0-directly into thile crates without
bunching. The orate has elate on all sides.









CELERY GROWING IN THE SOUTH.


Celery was among the earlier of the vegetables grown for

. in the southern home garden. It has been grown in Florida

for upwards of forty years, but it has only been within the last

twenty years that the crop has assumed really commercial propor-

tions. The larger and green varieties are not grown as success-

fully as are the self-blanching varieties. For the most part the

seed is gotten frojfi France by direct importation through the seeds-

men. iD a few BefiE celery growers exercise a-.considerable

amount of care to get good seed. Ordinarily, however, the main

reliance uis had on the honesty of the French oc. m rd. hant and

the integrity of the American dealer. Celery growing in the

South differs radically from that in the North in a number of

important particulars.


The growing of celery seedlings is radically different, es-

p&cially in Florida, from that of the North, since sowing occurs

during July, August and September, at a time of year when alarage

aemnt f et mny be exported, and at the same time a large amount

of beating rains oe%9. Ja k

A place for the seed bed is selected near the celery field,

usually a plot at the edge. The size of the field to be planted

will determine the extent of the seed bed. The width of the

seed bed varies from 18" to 36". Rows are @own across the-*ed

making it possible to weed from both sides eof 4h "d., Immediately

after sowing heavy tburlap material, usually old fertilizer sacks,









are placed over the bed to conserve the moisture, Acool the soil,

and protect the seeds against the heavy beating rains. The seed
beds are sprinkled as often as is necessary to keep the surface
moist. The abundant light winds at this season of the year, aided

by evaporation from the sacking material, keep the beds cool so

that the germination of the seeds is prompt and exceedingly good

where the vitality 8a faverablea

After the seeds have germinated and the seedlings have push-

ed their way through the ground, the sacking is removed and a screen-

ing of cheese cloth placed over the bed. Various types are used,

some beds are covered with cheese cloth parallel to the surface of

the soil, while in other cass a wire is run Ir the middle of

the bed. -wtill the cheese cloth is and fastened at

the sides, giving the cheese cloth a roof-shaped appearance. This
cheese cloth covering is raised about 8" or 12" above the bed,

giving ample room for a circulation of air beneath .o oheooo olot^.

The beds are kept moist.by repeated watering done directly through
the cheese cloth. This is an advantage in that it breaks the force.

of the drops and also distributes the water rather evenly over the

bed.
As soon as the plants have attained thesize of 2" or 3" and
abundant chlorophyl has developed in the leaves, they will be strong

enough to stand the direct rays of the sun and also shaje the ground

sufficiently to keep it from drying out rapidly.


Formerly the varieties whose seeds were being offered by the

seedsmen were a3a planted, In recent years nearly all have been







g~d~


L4L. t









eliminated excepting the golden self blanching. This seed is
very high priced and during years of scarcity is found to be lack-

ing in trueness.to type. Poor germinating seeds 1 t yy-
contain many plants that will make undesirable vegetable, prob-
ably due to the fact that the undesirable green and red strains
that may occur in the golden self. blanching variety are more re-

sistent to deterioration than the true type.


Blanching is carried on entirely by the boarding up

method. For this purpose second or third grade cypress boards
are used; these usually have defective portions or are filled with
worm holes, so as to make them rather cheap. The expense of the
lumber, however, is so great that it becomes necessary to plant

the celery in double rows. s rows are F 8" or 10" apart and

the plants set 6" or 8. apart in the row. By alternating the
O > settings in the two rows additional space is secured for the plants.
As soon as the celery has reached the stage of growth or the market

arrives at a condition where it is thought wise to market the cel-

ery, the boards are placed alongside of the plants and held in place
by ekle'i stakes driven into the ground. To further exclude the

air and light a small amount of soil is plowed against the base
of the board. In cases where the soil is sufficiently mellow this

ZmaS= unnecessary. The tops of the boards<. are placed
firmly together so that only a portion of the leaves extend above

the With the Golden Self Blanching variety it is only a

few days until the celery is sufficiently blanched and crisp
to make a good vegetable.










Fertilizer.

In the preparation of the field large quantities. of fertil-
izer are used. Stable manure is not a favorite unless it can be
applied to the soil early enough to become prtty thoroughly rotted

before the plants are set out. TMewa*nTthe quantity obtainable

is usually so small and the price so high that commercial fertil-
izers have largely.replaced stable manure. The quantity of fer-
tilizer applied may range up to $80 or even $19- wortn per acre

of the formula given in a former column. Frequently one-half

of the fertilizer is held back by the grower until the celery has

been growing for several .weeks; the second application is then made
to the soil and a cultivator used to distribute and incorporate

it witli the soil. If the growth of the crop indicates.A, a v
considerable after application of nitrate of soda is made. In

both of these after applications care must be exercised and judg-
ment used, since L so large an t of commercial fer-

tilizer is likely to prove injurious to the roots. This manifests

itself ultbo dir4e4ly by the appearance of many minute white areas
at the ends of the lobes of the celery After the appear-
ance of these white tips the damage has been done and nothing can
remedy the trouble. Deep plowing and severe mutilation of the

rootlets will cause a very similar appearance. This trouble

must be carefully guarded against since it weakens the leaves 'm&.

fiiontly tbe allowy/he entrance of bacteria and fungi much more
read ily than where the leaves are l uninjured.







... 5

Irrigation.
In the most productive celery regions lm sub-irrigation
a~v
described under Irrigation, are established. The laterals
are laid 15' to 25' apart according to the contour of the land and

the notion of the c rei@y grower. This irrigation system at the

same time serves as a drainage system wsah makes it especially

convenient a .le abundant artesian water resent in nearly all
of the celery growing sections. The system has been found so
convenient that a large amount of damage has been done by over-

irrigation, not only in carrying off a large amount of soluble
fertilizer but also by water-logging the soil thus driving the ,

roots of the celery plants so near the surface as to be constantly

liable to injury. In the hands of careful celery growers the
system is the best that has been invented.

Enemies.

A large amount of damage is done annually by different dis-
eases and insect pests. The -flea beetle is the main insect pest

and this does its damage .mainly during the time the plants are in

the seed bed. Damping off is a=as a serious seed bed trouble and

waLt be prevented by abundant aeration surface soil,

amy, erit occurS y- h..... fungicides such as
potassium sulphide, ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate -

parat tat ry the fungicide In solution. More or

less trouble is also caused by attacks from Sclerotinia libertiana

Celery bacterial disease is also quite severe in infested fields.










Size g Crates.
A commission composed of transportation companies, commission
merchants and celery growers met in 1912 and established the
&1llowingLt e o as the standard t ,a-S x 20 x 27 inches

Up to that time two standard crates were recognized, one. as the

Manatee and the other as the Sanford Crate. For shipping pur-
poses the celery is pulled, the roots cut off and then bunched.
In some cases the bunches are made in dozens and tied with fancy
band s, in other cases the celery is packed without bunching di-

rectly into the crates. T2is crate has -eia=pan sidesyaaoccur&




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