Field Notes - Q, R, S, 1939-1940

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Material Information

Title:
Field Notes - Q, R, S, 1939-1940
Series Title:
Tapirape Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Wagley, Charles
Donor:
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 6
Folder: Field Notes - Q, R, S, 1939-1940

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs

Notes

General Note:
Folder 2

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00000196:00013

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RAINS AND HOUSING CONDITIONS VII-25

Last two weeks have been height of rainy season, small trickle of stream
has sprung up running thru house of Pancei and thru takana. Water line is
only matter of couple of inches below floors of houses, thus, inall but two
houses there are puddles. People say that they will (must) move as soon as
dry season comes. People of three houses have moved out of them, some crowding
into houses of others (ex, Kanioi moved into house of Kamairaho lis bro in law)
Others have gone to gardens to harvest peanuts, constructing open shelters
which will be used to hang dry corn there but living in them for time being.
They say that they will remain in gardens until water recedes or sun dries out
pudIles. Thus, with illness and soaked outside village ceremonial life is at
standstill once again. At this time should be dancing first upetawa and
second monikaiuya with initiation of Kancinapio and at night should have Kao,
but dead, dreary, sad village.





REAOTIOM to news of accidents VII-35

When Tap are told of disaster at distance of some one they know, they laugh
heartily. Do not laugh 'hen one is hurt but later, even at time they may laugh.
ie when told of that Xristao on Araguaya whom they all know had broken leg all
laughed heartily.

When S showed them scar of bad burn, laugh.

I recalled that oprunxui (in his presence) had driven thorn badly into his
foot and he could not for many days. All laughed with me but face of Op turned
sour. Looked for scar on kx ikorpetu and lau;hed- with others when he said that
he had cut himself with facoe. He laughed too but weakly.





RECORDING OF MUSIC


IX-62


Velocity of recording on machine counted on band which pulls discs
65 or 64 revolutions per minute. Two caraja recordings whistle or pitch pipe
was used.

Early recordings were at diff. velocity.

On velloity key, close by turning to right, then five complete turns to
left, exactly five, ie close to slowest until does not run and open five turns
to left ie increasing. On experimenting .vith one kao and one campiawa record,
tile seems rather fast at above speeds, one to one-half turn slower.





RELATION VI-76
MOTHER'S BROTHER

Relations with M's bro is ideally the most formal relation of Tapirape.
(Also formal anketawere, bro-in-law). "Man should not refuse to do anything Bor
itotura." M's bro can ask sister's son to do any errand, etc. Ideally (as with
Kamairaho) itotura should support and constantly favor sister's son.

Kamairaho explained that mothers (and Tap.) say "if young man farts loudly,
his m's bro will smell it (and be offended) where (ever) he is happens to be."
One farts silently and offends only those present but not much. All laugh and
try to point out offender or even do not say anything about it.,





RELATIONS OF AMPAOI VII-65

He is one of lazy, no garden, no wife, no status, even tho does bring
in mandioca but of other mens gardens. Never has gone on hunting (pork or fish)
expedition.
ampi (mo) Puranke
cirinura (yo sis) mariampawunga
cirikaiura, kamaira, wantikanta, pantcei
ciriwura, Kamuriwao, xawapareuma
Kamairaho is itotura (m's bro) and iwurani fa'ss bro) at same time
it.otura, champukwi, urukumu
ciranura, kamairai
maeumi, no relation





RELATIONS@ tR' c/l VII-78

Catapukwi brought in three cuati; mariampwunga (his ext sister) watched while
he cut them up and began to burn off hair. She obviously was anxious to eat
cuati. (Men., konomi, and women after they have been tatooed eat cuati). She
waited to- e offered. C was obviously busying himself so as not to notice.
Then, 1~ way of asking, she asked "Your sister's son will eat entrails?"
Campukwi answered yes! and mariampawunga took out entrails of one cuati which
she, husband, all ate.






RELATIONSHIP-


Ikupuutehe, female sp. older sister but of same parents, or with same mother
father. Thus, each bro or si term has d.si:nating term which indicates own bro
or si, ie suffix tehe.

Example: Tanopao and oprunxui are brothers of same father, different mother s.
Yet oprunxui (yo bro) tuwutehe (from tuwura) and tanaopao (old bro) is tukaiutehe
(from tukaiura).

tuketehe (female sp) younger sister
cirinutehe (male sp) sister
ciutehe (male or female) mother own

Note: tehe, meaning own is actually extended several generations instead
of one father or mother thus:
See Diagram

Ant P even said that "own" bro or sister term would extend another generation.
Function is probable as long as relationship is remembered.

Tap do not marry anyone the-. can call tehe, but preferred is a person yet
called cirinura, but cirinurauma, or distant sister. ..ncn connection is fo.-ctten
ie son and da of two people who only vaguely remember connecting kin, may marry,
become uma. In other relationships, denotes close, thus: kanc -apio is cirikai-
wiantehe to Kanairaho, and vice versa itotutehe: See diagram 121A(loose page)


VII-119





RELATIONSHIP TERMS 11-79







For accid nt (non-intentional) which injures seven slightly another, person
who causes or accidentally injures another may give gift to avoid ill feelings,
often injured person may ask for something as salve to feelings.

For example: campukwi on Araguaya was bitten by dog belonging to Xristao.
He asked me to ask Xristao to give him beads "because his dog has bitten me and
I cannot walk" Said that among Tap he would be given (might be) a facoe, beads,
palm oil, or a large lump of urucum. He would not directly ask person but might
suggest to others so news would reach person indirectly

For example, Kamaira stepped on foot of daughter of maeumi, gave small
girl one string of beads, thus avoiding ill feelings of father.

Several times parents have demanded presents because children have fallen,
been knocked over, or some slight accident in my house.

Wife of maeumi asked eampukwi for piece of red cloth. He did not give it.
Her reason: she had biven Tanui mandioca and Tanui had made Kaui for her and
family (she was sick and could-not work). That evenin;- she said c had had
intercourse with Tanui thus ruining kaui. C did not pay for he would thus have
to admit adultery which he denied but which was common knowledge.


VII-25


RETRIBUTION





ROCA


III-72


Burning Roca when pao de arco flowers (cikiankanuwa) flowers bright vivid
yellow, about med-Sept in Tapirape country and late August in Araguaya country.





ROCA OF KAMAIRAHO III-47

K said that he had two new roca in progress, one that of Campukwi (wiriwura
yo. bro. extended) who is cutting and learning away matto. c is leaving with me
and k (with help of yo. rel) will burn and plant their share in produce.

Second roca that of Kamuriw-n~antui (who is ciramunino, gd son). K will aid
in planting this also, but, as yet K has not spent one day clearing. Says that
capitao does not work at ankapit.









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SALT III-97

Sprouts of palm called tatauwa, from roots of water plant called awampe.
Also, from sprouts of cituwake (taquari). Also from bark of tantowawa, a large
tree.

Says that none are good, only awampe (water plant) is good.

These plants are boiled in water (peppers are added) until all juices are-
boiled out. Then, drank with meat, etc. Taste of salt.





SCARIFICATION OF YOUNG WOMEN IV-69

Urukumu does owrk, yo women must pay him foir work. Ovwancirawa wilp take
beads, another plans to take macaba fat (oil) and urucum, axe is paid, Urukumu's
wife may ask for special things which she knows that yo women have.





SEASONS VI-2


cane amuncewut thunder, etc, one moon, (now)

amunoko Great rains

cane kwana summer, dry season

cane amumufut two moons





SEX 11-4

Campukwi says that women in sex act often lie on their backs with legs up
in the air, really lie on the backs of their necks, the man approaches on his
knees from behind.

Body hair on chest is not ugly, pubis hair very ugly and men pluck it
regularly, eyebrows also, slight pubic hair with women is not distasteful.
Fat bellies are ugly.





SEX 11-14

(Campukwi) All Tap are adulterous. Told me of intercourse with wives of
Tanopao, ipawani, (everyone steals her), Kamamare, etc. Says that "husband
leaves for a visit to takana, man slips into house. Lies in hammock with wife,
hurries thru and leaves." If husband finds it out he is not necessarily very
angry. When a man is away on a trip then he expects other to have intercourse
with his wife.

Campukwi says that Tap women fewquently use "Jengua oral" on man. But he
says men do not know how to do this, only women.







Most sex takes place in matto. Also, after all are asleep in household,
in hammock. There is much public necking or play, but actual intercourse must
be private. In house, those who look seeing a couple in act of intercourse will
reap sore eyes and severe headaches.

Position for intercourse in hammock usually sideways, thus: woman lies
on back lengthwise in hammock. Man lies on side crossways is hammock. Woman
puts legs over hams of man, contact is with man on side. .Ooman scrutches womb
close to penis, woman-takes on motion.
See Drawing
Also, both persons on side, stomach to stomach, woman's leg around waist of
man.

For couple ideal time for intercourse is 1) when go to matto for natural
functions; 2) when go to bathe. Such couples are never followed, considered
disgraceful to follow such. Then, couples may leave for matto, everyone knows
why they go.

Position in bush is with woman on back legs apart. Man squate on haunches
knees apart. Pulls woman upon his thighs supporting her with hands. Often
woman wraps legs then around man's waist. '.7oren do not like man to come on
top. Women refuse to insert for man.


SEX


IV-89





SEX VI-112

Antancowi, victim of mass rape, sat on bench. Two days after rape, she
stood up leaving mark of fluid, probably excretion caused by irritation of so
many men having intercourse with her, possibly menstruation. 7.1itever it was,
it was semen to Tapirape. All were horrified; no smell but all said that they
smelled it and began to spit. None would sit on bench for whole day, no one
would wash bench. One woman threw dirt over very small spot. Talked of it
and showed sp t long after spot had disappeared. Semen to them seems very dirty
and horrifies them. One other time Antonio came from matto, he had spots on legs.
Kamairaho siad he smelled, walked away form him told him to bathe.





SEX VII-22

On day (or night after) woman has made kaui, she should not have intercourse.
If she has intercourse and it is known, man will not eat of it, only women and
children. Say that "semen wets kaui" and if man eats of it he will have large
stomach "filled with semen" or "with child" for thus have large stomach.

Oprunxui came to tell me that Panceparunga had lain with mariampawungo and
thus, I should throw several papayos he brought into brush. For they were
filled with "taura."

One says that Kara do not become cover (become wet, ano) but Antonio
"Kara taura ano." Swore to by Tap that knowingly they do not touch food thus
contaminated but seems (from observation) to be "fiction" of culture.







Acowa, wife of oan~pu, according to Julian, was given the mass rape. She
came from cicutawa with father. He died on arriving, leaving young girl of
12-13 orphan. Kancipa and several others (inrclul1in- Julian) caught her in
matto. Said that she cried and screamed, that there was much blood and that she
was ill, but yet he names some eight men who forced her. Since she had no near
relatives there was no hard feelings, at least no noise made over it. She is
girl yet without breasts but of mature bearing yet small not yet of mature stature.
The men had to hold her legs.

General rule lies in fact that woman must be protected. This is not phrased
formally yet it is made clear that a widow is open to numerous affairs and even
to forcing by many men in same manner as antancowi was forced, ie if woman does
not have father or mother or brother who will protect her.

If young girl reaching an age of adolescence or near adolescence, does not
take a husband, her brother or father may tell Tap that she may be open to
such intercourse. Nemenatani pece ceraha are ioo Husband does not take, come
let us we (ex) eat (aug), says her father or brother, giving Tap notice that he
will not be angry if they all force her. This happened to Mariampi (in other
notes said she was lazy, also) some four years ago. She had not wanted a husband,
she broke with several after short time, none were able to have relations with her
and she did not want to work for husband. Finally, Kamairaho told Tap to force
her. "All Tap ate her much" etc. They evidentally forced her singly and in
groups. Mariampi is strong, she struck several men. She is said to have walked
cont


SEX


VII-110





SEX VII-112

to and from the water stream carrying a man's hunting club in effort to protect
herself. Soon she settled for a time with one husband.

With muai, who refused three husband, who treated with her and older bro
(Kanciwanio) see notes. When Tap explained the above, they said that they did
not force muai "because Kanciwanio would be very angry." Yet "if he died,
Tap would all eat maai, and she would quickly take a husband."

Same treatment for epiliptics. yet those protected by close relatives
are less frequently "gang shagged" see case of Tanui, who is epileptic but who
is married. For lazy women, see case of antancowi. For women also run from
tatooing.





SEX VII-118

Juliao showed on fingers frequency of intercourse. 'Said "with woman have
intercourse two times or three times daily." Yo wife man walks in jungles, he
spreads banana brabo, there has intercourse. Night comes, before sleeping has
intercourse, wakes with moon here has intercourse, wakes in early morning and
has intercourse." Without doubt not completely true, but gives idea.

"Old (or middle age) wife, man has interc urse, sleep, sleep (passes two
days) again has intercourse. Sleep, sleep, sleep, again has intercourse. Old
wife does not want husband often. Yo husb is hungry (wants intercourse). Idea
is that wife governs frequency and refuses husb when spirit turns her.





SEX CHILDHOOD


Panceparunga, cam Lukwi, oprunxui, clarified sexual material. Lengua oral
is not known and idea-is laughed at. Women while yo do not like to see (from
embarrassment) head of penis nor do they play with penis. More experienced
women such as Tanui will play with penis. "Old men cannot easily get an erection.
Their wives play (motions of masturbate) with their penis to make it erect."
Positions as in notes are many and varied. Homo-sexuality is known in form of
intercourse in anus, but sworn that does not take form with youths nor older
men with youths. Did occur in case of men dead and occurs in stories. Men have
erections and ejeculation on legs and between legs of small girl wives but say
do not have intercourse in anus with them. Masturbation not known or at least
not practised. "Boys have lie intercourse with small girls. Small girls like it
and do not always run." But it is 1-e; they have no hole."

Childhood sex play is very common. Very little in public. Awancowa lay on
banana braba with his sister (m si d) for hours playing and attempting intercourse.
This is not considered great crime, although prohibited for marriage or sex
relations, if caught he would have been pun-shed and told that "it was his sister."
Iwai with older girl (sister of distant extension)- she ran and told other
children that he rammed finger in her womb. Two boys played behind my house
with one small girl. Children are sensual. Little masturbation by older boys
but smaller boys sit playin- with penis, lau-hinK if anyone notices when they
have erection. Mothers masturbate small children to stop crying, ie mutai
sitting in praca conversing masturbated small boy (campane) continually to stop
him from crying. When she stopped he began crying. Men or wumen (esp latter)
cont


VII-115





SEX CHILDHOOD VII-117

laughingly will pat small boy on stomach and frequently give a twitch or play
with penis (ie marica is very affectionate with toripuku. He may lean against
her and she puts arm about him. He is about 9 yrs and pays no special attention
when she plays with penis. Boys make little movement to guard aeti. t it or run
from such. Have never secn sexual parts of small girls (5-10) played with in
same manner. Yet of infants (0-3) have seen mothers rub sexual parts giving
friction. Yet treatment of girl less sensuous and at early age are treated more
as adults ie begin work while boys play, are married while boys play, etc.





SEX AND CHILDREN


Kamairaho says that All Tap boys do not know of or never heard of masturbation
When explained of it, news went about village with glee. Boys continually are
seen handling and fondling sex organs and with small boys, older women may caress
them fondling penis and pushing back foreskin, in manner of masturbation. This
done to show affection. K says boys pull small girls into bush and maually by
force try to have intercourse but, he laughs and says, without success. Often
small girl wants to expieiment. Says more frequently girls cry and run to tell
mother who is not very angry.

Example: Saw awacowa grab aeroi, small girl, in high grass. She laughed
as they rolled on ground but cried when he placed his finger in womb and tried
to have intercourse.

Youngsters after tying penis are expected to have premarital and adulterous
affairs. When asking about specific youngsters all said publicly that they had
such affairs. Thus, no thought or value placed on virginity, and expected child
sex play. By time girl is adolescent she has been had by youths and usually by
older men, no fear of sexual contact, no strangeness, thus explaining constant
warm fondling and constant sex play between couples.


IV-145





SEX AND MASS RAPE VI-105

K. said that he knew that Keagle would be angry so they never resorted to
this when he was present. "Mariampa Tapirape mutxino when Fredico had gone."

Wives of campukwi, Att Perrara, panceparunga, Kamuriwao, all knew of part
taken by husbands in mass rape. They were not angry, only laughingly said that
husbands smelled bad (inema) and ask them to bathe (Ant Perrera wife). Men
denied it in front of wives but all knew. Kamairaho explained that wives are
angry when husband goes alone for adulterous intercourse but "when many go to have
woman, wives are not angry. All Tapirape do this, wives are not angry. Our
gdfathers did this much."





SEX NOTE


IV-56


Kamuriwaoi explained that small girls do not cry at first
Are thoroughly accustomed to man first and he gradually enters
not make hole for many nights".


intercourse.
"some man can


Position of sex, woman on back, wraps legs about waist of man on top, this
in hammock. Above most general method. In matto women lie on backs, or
hurriedly sexual intercourse standing. Say Tap women like to climb on top (Tanui
likes) Men sit with feet out of hammock and women sit down on penis with back
to man. Sex play is long, drawn out, and often very public.

Opruixui says that youngster who "kucu emuna" wife steals much will not
grow large but remain small. Tall man, as youngster stole little.





SEX VI-104
POSITIONS

At mass rape of Antancowi two general positions were used: 1) man with
knees doubled back and lower legs under him sitting on calfs and heals. Thighs
under legs of woman. Woman's legs should ideally be wrapped around him most
popular position for matto. 2) man horizontal between legs of woman and over
her, but supporting himself with palms of hands and on toes so that weight does
not push her down.

EATING TIME

Kamairaho ask if Xristao were like Carata and Tapirape. Tapirape having
intercourse at night or late afternoon of one day, does not eat food until mi~iay
next day for man and for woman sun at about 10:50 AM angle. "If man has not had
intercourse, he eats when sun is little (very early) in morning, when he does not
eat but waits till midday, Tapirape know he had had intercourse. Men who have
had adulterous intercourse often eat and are sick. Others lie say to their wives
that they are not hungry."





SEX POSITIONS VII-18

Women frequently mount men, man lies on back and woman sits down on penis.
Woman goes thru all motions, man can lie inactive.

Men say that only more experienced women do this. In case given first
Tanui was given, enumerated marica, Tanui, wife of ikoriwantori, wife of
ipawawungi, and several others. All women know and can but above like it.
Also, these women make advances first, say several men.





SEX AND THUNDER CEREMONY IV-142

No one should have intercourse while Thunder is in aldea. Kamairaho says
that formerly none did have intercourse. Then, night after the "serpent dance"
after Thunder leaves, "all Tap have intercourse and many women become pregnant".
Much laughter and much talk of intercourse. It is customary and women are said
to be much freer with favors on next day. Yet now, people did have intercourse
during ceremony.





SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOR


Women:
carry water
sweep
grind farinha
cook
spinning cotton
arm and leg ornaments
pound mandioca into farinha with
pole and pilon
pottery work
plant and harvest cotton
help plant beans


Men:
basket work and mats
make spindles
carry fire wood
hunt
braid twine for bow string
make b and a
decorate and dry calabashes
plant mandioca
(prepare rocas)


II-15





SIBLINGS VII-50

C and Ant Perr say that they have seen small children hit new sibling when
first seen at breast of mother, older si--lin,. cries much, but say that rivalry
or anger does not last long. I have never seen this, Ampewi, c's da w.s weaned
well when son was born and no anger. All interest and care for yo bro. Wocitie
very endearing with yo bro age diff only 2 yrs.






SICK IDIFANT


11-47


Infant son of Ant Perr sick v;ith fever for some days. Last night family
decided thqt child would die. F bro set to dancing and singing, mo crying and
rolling, occasionally letting out scra-.-ms t extremely high pitch (bloc.d curdling).
Three f bro danced -Lni s.ng with background of m's mo and f's bro'; wi's formal-
ized-crying. All night, and en'l=d at damvfn. Yet campukwi who sang all nite and
was horse in the early hoars, arrived this morning looking tired but said he
vould go to look for signs of v.ild ;ork. See 11-96





SICKNESS Ii-1

Kamanare sick with fever. People tell me that eating salt, deer, fish, etc
is the cause. Oprunxui seems to think that other Tap (pantxe) is cause or it
is the fault of Christians. Pantxe was called two nights to cure. Tied cord
tight around chest and a second cord tight around forehead, significance of
cords yet unknown.

All are certain that he will die. Tanopantxoa cried in sing .:on, chant for
abubt one hour in evening. Oprunxui sad but did not cry. Quarrel between
brothers, seems that Oprunxui believes that pantxe sorcerized Kamanare, threatened
that if he died, many Xristians woold come and kill Tap, thus, several came here
afraid.

Pantxe curing Kamanare is Urukumu. He cannot leave house, either his
house or house of sick during cure. He has worked day and night, usual for
pantxe to work only after dark.





SICKNESS K ADA PTARE


Suddenly about 8 pm, his wife and bro wi and mo set up a howl. Shouted
and rolled on the floor of house. People in plaza and in nearby houses told me
that K had died. Kamairaho and curumpare, both of whom had much contact with
Keagle, said that K had gone to Jesus Christ and pointed to the sky.

Actually he was not dead but moaning. Urukumu had given him up but wantanamu
began work immediately. Mirror was hung at foot of hammock to frighten away
ancunga.

About 9 pm oprunxui and other bro (?) began to dance alongside of hammock
of K. Song, they sang, was same sung during morning hours of ceremony going on
the day I arrived. Possibly song is to send away ancunga. Men dance, stomping
with right foot, vibration of pounding felt over all aldea. Women sing almost
counterpuntal to mens song, choral. This was continued until almost dawn, with
occasional screams from females, wife, mo, and bro wi, and crying in sing song
formalized moan. K did not die during night but all were certain that he would
die. One said "tomorrow, tomorrow, then he will die." Others just as certain.

Song and dance of that night (caingha, to dance)--sing this and ancunga and
apurani come and dance, when dance and song are finished ancunga and apurani
go away.

When Tap dies, soul or ancunga goes into Ba.iurao (uwucangio). ?.Ien make sound
cirankokuco (cut off penis) women kuci.u-iwu (woman's face tatoo) child, oiawo.
men mourning song, apurani; female crying, acaingzha. ankomeo ankomeo acaingha


11-27





SICKNESS IV-22

Kamairaho, village chief, returned from campo village with pains in shoulder
and across back. Told me there, at one time that he had worked on house above
his head, and again that he had carried a heavy load. Here, pantxe said he
had ewai (worms) in back. Two evenings ago, it became worse and Urukumu and
Pancei came at once to treat. First time I have seen two pantxes treating at
once. One sat swallowing smoke while the other was sucking, massaging and blowing
smoke over patient and then, changed places. No competition could be seen.
Again in early morning hours both were called again.

First evening, wife cried while K was being treated and both told me that
he would die (both patient and wife). K cried and moaned that night and cried
and moaned again this early morning. At intervals, his wife would shout out
shrilly and hysterically sympathizing, and K could be heard saying "I will die"
"amanone" This morning all is quiet and K lies conversing in his hammock, but
still afraid.





SICKNESS AND TRISTEZA IV-65

Kacinapio, sis son and adopted protege of Kamairaho and bro (ext) of
kantuowa, tremendous boils and one especially behind ear. ipiramkonya (fish..)
as they are called. Pantxe's called, both Urukumu and Panxtei, both set to work
at once. Urucumu finally womitted amsll particle which he extracted by sucking.
Description unable to describe, pantxes treatment, Urukumu's quick violent
forced vomitting, even turns my stomach and makes one tense. Lets partially
vomitted saliva drool from mouth, sucking it back with each gasp.

Boils are caused by small fish.

Kantuowa lay in hammock sad because of K illness. Would not speak, arose
threw a pot aside, breaking it and burned a gourd, kicked a nearby dog. By
aft K was better and she was smiling.





SOCIAL VENEER


In general social relations within Tap, a ceremonious social veneer is
always present. In spite of easy, free, l.ghing manner, this social veneer
smooths out any complicts which always Aay below surface. To me it seems as
if one could trust no one, that people seldom have any friend to whom they may
blow off steam. Exceptions Kamairaho obviously talks freely about people with
Kautuowa, and Kamaira with kucinanta. Alfredo and Domin.o talk, for they are
inseparable. But few people have any strong companion, even between man and wife
lack of whole trust to talk of whom one cares. In spite of knowing about
violent dislikes and likes, few times (ie c and Kamaira) have peoples criticized
other people to me. Confidence is easy to secure among these people but to
break thru this veneer is next to impossible for it i- certain to me that
never breaks thru one to the other.

Good examples of manner of this valued calm contains. social manner prevent-
ing overt feeling to show, is in example of campukwi and xawaparauma quietly
(see VII-55) over beating of wife whom c had stolen. Both were angry and emotional
and highly upset, yet whole conversation on quiet undertone, not allowing
emotions to show.

Not once has physical fight (unknown to c in lifetime) come about in 11
mos nor has quarrel in high voice, emotionally happened in vellage between men
and women, except wife beating. Campukwi only remembers men killing pets of
others. Campukwi cutting down takana, man breaking pots, are only overt anger
shown and not in presence or against person.


VII-79







Kamairaho explains that Tapirape ancunga (or iunwera) sing kao much. That
songs known by Tapirape were learned by Pantxe's in dreams. He has brought but
one song to Tapirape through his dreams. "It was time before Kao. I was smoking
much tobacco. Islept. I saw an ancunga come to dance ground here (tLiere). There
were about ten (two hands). They danced in circle facing each other one by one.
(That is, not in pairs as Tapirape dance.) They sang many songs. I remembered
one. It was this:

"ikaem ikaemie wuran e e e kawana comimo wuran he he he"
morning bird feathers yellow bird

(No sense to words)

I sang it to Kantuowa. She had seen ancunga, too. When Kao came, I sang
it. Now all Tapirape' klow it."

According to K, Pancei has learned several songs from ancLinga, thus. He
has gone to ancunga village and has seen them singing and dancing there. Urukuwu
while a great pantxe, has not supplied songs.


VI-133


SONGS





SONG A IRACA 11-16

Two kayapo from the north come into Tap territory carrying clubs. They
meet up with two Tap with whom they fight and first, who see them, and Kayapo
kill Tap and wouid of kill Kayapo in fight. Next day Tap see blood in the matto,
and become angry. All take clubs and spears and bow and arrow to pursue Kayapo
but Kayapo escape north.





SO!TGS IRACA CYCLE 11-9




S:T!!GS OF KAOC VII-123





SORCERY VI-19

Sorcery is probably not real but suspected. Method of sorcery by dreams
seems to put it down as only mental and suspected. No mechanical or incantations
method of sorcery known.

Situation with pantxe's- all Tapirape would die if they did not have
Pantxe's to treat them. Thus pantxe's are absolute necessity. Yet, Tapirape
are dying in such great numbers because of the dangerous dreams and ill intentions
of pantxe's. Tapirape would thus like to kill all Pantxe's, but must produce
more pantxe's and pantxe's are given high prestige.





SORCERY ANCUNGA 111-67

When Pantxe kills ordinary man, he comes in dreams after eating much smoke
irritantt) carries away iunga (shadow or spirit) of victim or dreams throwing
ipiramkunya (fishbone) into body of victimor awai (described as noise stomach
makes, but is probably a lorge imaginary? insect) (lombigo removes ewai=worms)
in body, or uaka in body (iiaka eat Tapirape in the night)

These are foreign bodies which curing pantxes extract by s-ickin- called
apiiten.

Campukwi after paddling hard for days, has catch in his side. This is
awai, placed there by pantxe, he has no other Tapirape to help extract it.





SPIRITS ILLNESS VII-108

""hen Tap are sick pantxe has taken away their "iunga" (reflection or shadow
or soul). Then, pantxe may come :r --.llin the soul Jan Tap is well again.
This has been cause of all recent illness, and pantxes have now recalled all
iunga.

Note: iunga, soul, spirit which leaves in dreams, reflection, shadow.
Thus: iunwera, (wera, finished (suffix), soul after death.





STARS


VII-17


Eecu, stars which Tap watch marking ceremonial season of rains, they rise
in about Oct and fall (ie do not appear again) after late April or early 7ay.
Mark beginning and end of rains, Seem to be plieades, small, Tap say six or
seven. According to Star keep orbit or pliedes, correspons more or less, yet
map -is for 350 lat.





STARS ANCINGAHO 11-8

iwakunya, stars to SW horizon
awa, stars overhead

ancingaho (corazao, small bird) Pantxe dreams much when these come about.
Tap always say Tori si coming or pantxe will dream a great deal.





STARS AND WINDS PANTXE corn II-66

ancopeteri, there are two bros, muturi (pato) other is tantuowa (tamuya
ana wera)

Tapirape dance out this history called kanowana when maize is high and ears
are big enough to eat.

uwuto, whirlwind which comes thru matto. pantxe brabo kills Tap. maowani,
bird, pantxe brabo, kills Tap.
amuna (rain) wind at time of ra.n, if pantxe dies, this wind will be strong.
If pantxe has not died, it will be weak.

When pantxe dreams, he catches maowani (bird) on his way in spirit and thus,
travels in the form of bird. Thus, when Tap see this bird they know a pantxe is
dreaming.





STORIES III-17
CIRANKONYAi KUCAO

In mythical times, there were two brothers. One went to campo to hunt,
returned in might, felt around in house and foun. other bro. in ham-:ock with
wife. He cut off bro's penis, left and returned next day. Wife was crying
say your bro has died, but man was angry an, aid not cry for brother. He had
killed pork, so he cut out stomach, stuck brothers penis inside in place of pigs
penis, and roasted whole. Wife ate bro's penis remarking, hum, there is much
fat (gaurdura muito) and wife cried a great deal. Bro. wno died became in time
uwucangho, now in the night cries cirankonya kucao'l enis cut off) Pantxe
saw uwucangho i night and says that he nas very small penis.

BROTrIiR WHO -ECA[E A HAWK

One bro learned that other bro was stealing his wife. One day they went
hunting ans saw hawks nest, decided to climb up to see young hawks. While bro
was still up in next, jealous bro and husb climbed cown cutting the uwira (vines
cut to climb tree) leaving bro stranded in nest. Soon, mother (?) hawk came
back, decided to try out Tamp as husb, they had intercourse and he sprouted
wings and feat ers, became a hawk. Became campakanito, which hawk does not
exist here, but pantxe saw them far away where they eat Kayapo, Chaoante, etc,
and Xustan, extremely large hawk and are Tapirape.

Then, one day Tap saw small hawk circle around high above. It came closer
and they shot arrows at it without success, also, among them was bro (jealous
cont





STONE LIP PLUGS


111-57


Stone lip plugs made of quartz crystal and worked smooth, used today by
young man at ceremony when hair is tied. At present in village only one exists
to my knowledge, and that one is broken. Use by tying string to make it fit
into mouth. See drawing.

Campukwi and Kamairaho both say that formerly Tapirape had many. c in time
of his gdfather and gdfather's fa, he was told that all men wore stone lip
plugs, young men long ones 5" long and older men short ones about 1i" long.
Now he says Tapirape do not know where to find quartz crystal, although one said
that he could find it in hills (serras) beyond cicutawa. Eager to secure at
least one plug from Lipkind, talk constantly about it. c says when quartz could
not be found changed only temporarily to wood plugs which are worn today.





STORIES III-118
BROr iR .Ho P:7CAME A HAWK

husb). Small hawk descended caught bro by hair (for hawk was transformed bro)
and carried him off. Tap shot many arrows but hawk carried bro htgh above
and out of sight, then far away hawk ate brother.

TITITICA? Woman who died of tatoo

One time lang ago, yo. woman died of tatoo (kociunya) Her ancunga in time
became uwucangho and now she cried in night kiciuny wuwu (face tatoo, blood,
blood)

FARINHA, Man who died of hunger

Man died long ago because wife did not cook for him. He had no farinha,
became uwuvangho and now cries oi awo farinaa ....)
Note, man did not die from lack of food but from laziness on part of wife.





SUN AND HEAVENS III-15

Op. father (pantxe) told him that sun was small, very, very old man who had
no hair. Sun travels through heavens with a multitude of arara pena on his
head, arara p na are very hot therefore sun gives off heat. Sun returns in
night from west to east underground, in east is house of sun and there h: eats
a very little bit before setting out again.

The lighted sky is encircled said Op by black sky and there the earth ends,
at each direction far in distance.





STRENGTH MEDICINE III-81
or cure

Campukwi said that Urukumu, Kamaira, also several others (?) had eaten teeth
of pork which Tapirape had killed. Urukumu was sick and ate teeth of caititu
--????





STRING FISrU,.ES IV-11

During months May to Sept string figures were not seen. In Dec men, women,
and children were making them and anxious to show them. Either seasonal or
fad, latter is more creditable. Figures represent upewope pura (geese tracks
with lake shown); estrella (stars, cangli tatacinga); cobweb, etc.





SUI AND MOON Stars corn


Moon is a woman. Sun -s m'Ln :i.nd moon and sun are bro and sister. Sun had
intercourse with moon wiich .as incest (acicoi). Moon spike aciencope
Moon refused to let sun sleep in house or have intercourse more. Thus, sun
became angry and hit moon in LT:- face with his hand which had jenipapo on it.
One can see imprint of hand on face of full moon. Following this both moon and
sun left.

Imanawuho-)star, cangutantaho). This star came to Tap when they only ate
banana braba, called kanajano tuwera. He came bringing maize and worked hard
with large roca. He took wife and stayed with Tap until son by wife was several
years old (konomi) then he left. "Now, we see the star."

ancopeteri--kanowana, kwana tracuwena
ancerika, father of the sun
ancopeteri, (ankehawera) is husb of sun's wife, kwana tancuwena (son in law,
da's husb)
ancainika, kwana, pantxe dreamed that sun has sore foot from thorn which
the sky has (road in sky) many of. Thus, ancainika limps on path thru sky.
'Aears large arara feather bonnet, has no hair because he wears feather bonnet.
tamparawa, c'ngu
ampowenonu, fa of imanawuho


II-65